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The explosive growth of both the wireless industry and the Internet is creating a huge market opportunity for wireless data access. Limited internet access, at very low speeds, is already available as an enhancement to some existing cellular systems. However those systems were designed with purpose of providing voice services and at most short messaging, but not fast data transfer. Traditional wireless technologies are not very well suited to meet the demanding requirements of providing very high data rates with the ubiquity, mobility and portability characteristics of cellular systems. Increased use of antenna arrays appears to be the only means of enabling the type of data rates and capacities needed for wireless internet and multimedia services. While the deployment of base station arrays is becoming universal it is really the simultaneous deployment of base station and terminal arrays that can unleash unprecedented levels of performance by opening up multiple spatial signaling dimensions .Theoretically, user data rates as high as 2 Mb/sec will be supported in certain environments, although recent studies have shown that approaching those might only be feasible under extremely favorable conditions-in the vicinity of the base station and with no other users competing for band width. Some fundamental barriers related to the nature of radio channel as well as to the limited band width availability at the frequencies of interest stand in the way of high data rates and low cost associated with wide access..
MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAMMANITTA
FUNDAMENTAL LIMITATIONS IN WIRELESS DATA ACESS
Ever since the dawn of information age, capacity has been the p rincipal metric used to asses the value of a communication system. Since the existing cellular system were devised almost exclusively for telephony, user data rates low .Infact the user data were reduced to the minimum level and traded for additional users. The value of a system is no longer defined only by how many users it can support, but also by its ability to provide high peak rates to individual users. Thus in the age of wireless data, user data rates surges as an important metric.
Trying to increase the data rates by simply transmitting more; Power is extremely costly. Furthermore it is futile in the contest of wherein an increase in everybody¶s transmit power scales up both the desired signals as well as their mutual interference yielding no net benefit. Increasing signal bandwidth along with the power is a more effective way of augmenting the data rate. However radio spectrum is a scarce and very expensive resource. Moreover increasing the signal bandwidth beyond the coherent bandwidth of the wireless channel results in frequency selectively. Although wellestablished technique such as equalization and OFDM can address this issue, their complexity grows with the signal bandwidth. Spectral efficiency defined as the capacity per unit bandwidth has become another key metric by which wireless systems are measured. In the contest of FDMA and TDMA, the evolutionary path has led to advanced forms of dynamic channel assessment that enable adaptive and more aggressive frequency reuse.In the context of multi-user detection and interference cancellation techniques.
MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAMMANITTA
Cell sectorisation. Here. the area capacity on a per base station basis. KADAMMANITTA . The entire concept of frequency reuse on which cellular systems are based constitutes a simple way to exploit the spatial dimension. Moreover.BLAST 3 SPACE: THE LAST FRONTIER As a key ingredient in the design of more spectrally efficient systems. base station antenna array are the enabling tools for wide range of spatial processing techniques devised to enhance desired to enhance desired signals and mitigate interference. which enables the reuse of the same bandwidth by multiple users within a given sector as long as they can be spatially discriminated. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. a widespread procedure that reduces interference can also be regarded as a form of spatial processing. Coverage can be extended and tighter user packaging becomes possible. even though the system capacity is ultimately bounded. In recent years space has become the last frontier. enabling in turn larger cell sizes and higher capacity can be extended even beyond the point at which every unit of bandwidth is effectively used in every sector through space division multiple access (SDMA).
KADAMMANITTA . Using BLAST the scattering characteristics of the propagation environment is used to enhance the transmission accuracy by treating the multiplicity of the propagation environment is used to enhance MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Multipath has always been regarded as impairment. but actually exploited to establish multiple parallel channels that operate simultaneously and in the same frequency band.BLAST 4 LIFTING THE LIMITS WITH TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE ARRAYS Until recently. the deployment of antenna arrays in mobile systems was contemplated-because of size and cost considerations-exclusively at base station sites. However recent advances in information theory have shown that. This scattering is known as multipath as it result in multiple copies of the transmitted signals arriving at the receiver via different scattered paths. multipath interference can be not only mitigated. canceling each other out. Based on this fundamental idea. with simulations use of antenna arrays at both base station and terminal. long before interference suppression and other signal processing advances were conceived. was to provide spatial diversity against fading. because the images arrive at the receiver at slightly different times and thus can interfere destructively. radio waves do not propagate simply from transmit antenna to receive antenna. but bounce and scatter randomly off objects in environment. The principle role of those arrays. a class of layered space-time architecture was proposed and labeled BLAST. In wireless systems.
and an be extended to scattering from particles up to about a tenth of the wavelength of light. The coding sequence was to be dispersed across diagonals in space-time. theorized it is possible to have several transmissions occupying the same frequency band. this processing structure leads to theoretical rates that grow linearly with the number of antennas these rates approaching 90% of Shannon capacity. so they simplified it to its most current iteration vertical BLAST. KADAMMANITTA . The BLAST researchers. Each transmission uses its MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. The BLAST technology essentially exploits a concept that other researchers believed was impossible. The coding sequence was to be dispersed across diagonals in space-tome. as well as diagonally layered coding sequence. Rayleigh scattering refers to the scattering of light off the molecules of air. The prevailing view was that each wireless transmission needed to occupy a separate frequency. In an independent Rayleigh scattering environment. In an independent Rayleigh scattering environment.BLAST 5 the transmission accuracy by treating the multiplicity of scattering paths as separate parallel sub channels. as well as diagonally layered coding sequence. Rayleigh scattering of light off the molecules of air. Rayleigh scattering can be considered to be elastic scattering because the energies of scattered photons do not change. The original scheme D-BLAST was a wireless set up that used a multi element antenna array at both the transmitter and receiver. The researchers foun d that the original D-BLAST concept was tough to implement. Otherwise. and can be extended to. The original scheme D-BLAST was a wireless set up that used a multi element antenna array a both the transmitter and receiver. the interferences are too overwhelming for quality communications. however. this processing structure leads to theoretical rates that grow linearly with the number of antennas with these rates approaching 90% of Shannon capacity. similar to the way in which FM radio within a geographical area are allocated separate frequencies.
dimension. besides frequency and time. uses an array of eight transmit and 12 receive antennas. it achieved unprecedented wireless capacities of at least 10 times the capacity of today¶s fixed wireless loop systems. ³This new technology represents an opportunity for future wireless systems of extraordinary communications efficiency. ³This experiment. while Shannon¶s theory dealt with point-to-point communications. During its first weeks of operation. This added dimension. which are used to provide phone service in rural and remote areas. is important because ³when and where noise and interference turn out to be severe. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. which effectively gives Information Theory a third. first published in 1948. built to test this theory. The BLAST prototype. Thus the capacity of a given frequency band increases proportionally to the number of antennas. or spatial. each bit (of data) is well prepared to weather such impairments. represents only a first step of using the new technology to achieve higher capacities. the theory used in BLAST relies on ³volume-to-volume´ communications. KADAMMANITTA . who headed the BLAST research team. on the receiving end.´ The advanced signal-processing techniques used in BLAST were first developed by researcher Gerard Foschini from a novel interpretation of the fundamental capacity formulas of Claude Shannon¶s Information Theory. to separate the mutually interfering transmissions from each other. Then.´ said Bell Labs researcher Reinaldo Valenzuela. said Foshini. along with innovative signal processing.´ The technology is eventually expected to be deployed in base station equipment and mobile devices such as note book PCs and PDAs so that mobile operators can deliver higher data services too substantially greater number of subscribers than is possible today using the best 3G network technology available. which was designed to illustrate the basic principle. multiple antennas again are used.BLAST 6 own transmitting antenna.
KADAMMANITTA . QAM is an efficient method for transmitting data over limited bandwidth channel. Each substream is encoded into symbols and feed into separate transmitter. each receiving signals emanating from all M of the transmitting antennas. Transmitter 1 through M operate co channel at a symbol rate of 1/T symbols per second. It is assumed that the same constellation is used for each sub streams and the transmission is organized in to burst of L symbols. spectrum is used very efficiently Since the user¶s data is being sent in parallel over multiple antennas used. QAM combines phase modulation with AM. The power of each transmitter is proportional to 1/M and total radiated power is constant irrespective of the number of transmitting antennas. Since all the sub streams are transmitted in the same frequency band. It is assumed that the channel-time variation is negligible over the symbol periods in a burst. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Each transmitter utilizes QAM.BLAST 7 OVERVIEW OF BLAST SYSTEM V-BLAST takes single data stream and demultiplexes it in to m substreams. BLAST¶s receivers operate co channel.
One nulls out this interference by weighting the interfering signals they go to zero (known as zero forcing). sometimes called linear combinational nulling. a2. antenna array techniques. Signal detection can be done using adaptive. Using interference from already detected components of interfering signals are subtracted to form the received signal vector. Again the ability to separate the sub streams depends on the slight differences in the way the different sub streams propagate through the environment. the better. Symbol cancellation is one such technique.«. If a= (a1. first extracting the strongest signal have been removed as a source of interference. Each receiver antenna sees the entire transmitted sub streams super imposed. am) T is the vector transmitted symbols. The blast signal processing algorithms used at the receiver are the heart of the technique. first (thus removing it as and interference) give the best overall SNR. if the multipath scattering is sufficient is sufficient. The result showed that adding the nonlinear to the linear yielded the best performance and dealing with the strongest channel. not separately. then the multiple sub streams are located at different points in space . high speed signal processors look at the signals from all the receiver antennas simultaneously. Bell labs actually tried both approaches. an array of antennas is again used to pick up the multiple transmitted sub streams and their scattered images. However. The end result is a modified receiver vector with few interferes present in the matrix. then the receiver N vector is r1=Ha+v. This implies that the other substream will be understood as interference. these slight difference in scattering allow the sub streams to be identified and recovered. where H is the matrix channel transfer function and V is a noise vector. At the bank of receiving antennas. on linear approaches can be used in conjunction with them for overall result. KADAMMANITTA . Thus when using the BLAST technique.BLAST 8 BLAST¶S SIGNAL DETECTION At the receiver. If all components of µa¶ are assumed to be the MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Each sub stream is sequentially understood as the desired signal. While these linear nullings work. the more multipath. a3.Using sophisticated signal processing. In effect the unavoidable multipath is exploited to provide a useful spatial parallelism that is used to greatly improve data transmission rates. just the opposite of the conventional systems. Let us assume a signal transmitted vector symbol with symbol-synchronous receiver sampling and ideal timing.
however. In D-BLAST. KADAMMANITTA . In D-BLAST code blocks are organized along diagonals in space-time. though conventional coding of the individual sub streams may certainly be applied. is required. or coding of any kind. it can inject more noise in to the system and degrade detection. But what the Bell labs guys found is that if you evaluate the SNR function at each stage of the detection process. redundancy between the sub streams is introduced through the use of specialized inter-sub stream block coding. This technique has been called the ³best-first´ approach and has become the de-facto way to do signal detection from an RF stream. The algorithm works by detecting the strongest data stream from the received signal and repeating the process for the remaining data streams.BLAST 9 part of the same constellation. In VBLAST. you come up with a different ordering that is also (minmax) optimal. No inter-sub stream coding. The strongest channel then becomes the place to start symbol cancellation. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. The essential difference between D-BLAST and V-BLAST lies in the vector encoding process. As its core V-BLAST is an iterative cancellation method that depends on computing a matrix inverse to solve the zero forcing function. If cancellation is not perfect. rather than just at the beginning. the vector encoding process is simply a demultiplex operation followed by independent bit-to-symbol mapping of each sub stream. While the algorithm complexity is linear with the number of transmitting antennas. It is this coding that leads to D-BLAST¶s higher spectral efficiencies for a given number of transmitters and receivers. it suffers performance degradation through the cancellation process. it would be expected that the component with the smallest SNR would dominate the overall error performance.
This means the vector is the approach is the only one that one can ever hope to fulfill such a bit-persecond rate. The cell tower will have to go from a switched-beam (phase-swept and the like) to a steered-beam configuration. On the technology side.32)=32bits/symbol. of deploying new systems. as Verizon¶s recent 2. and then at the receiver. Ever.A carrier could go from one to two four transmit path per sector. Since CDMA systems will upgrade faster than GSM systems. Large spectral efficiencies (that is. Proceeding with a hardware-based migration will yield balanced gains in the forward and reverse links. Carriers are very sensitive to the costs. BLAST calls for an infrastructure that will take considerable resource to develop. Cell antennas will have to be redesigned to evolve with the increase in data rates. you need to have (26*1.5G 1 RTT rollout has shown. KADAMMANITTA . They can encode B bits per symbols using a single constellation of 2B points. so new antennas can be added gradually . much of the development can be gradual. If you want 26bps/Hz with a 23%roll off. Verizon¶s reps indicated that the discussion was premature. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. On the plus side. The first change will have to occur at the cell towers. This means that CDMA carriers will be first to market with higher bandwidth systems. however incremental. upping the cost of service with each incremental performance gain. On the economic side. That seems enough of a nom-denial to indicate that BLAST is part of the company¶s long range planning.BLAST 10 BLAST IN THE REAL WORLD Two familiar factors are essential to the success of a BLAST: technology and economics. scalar systems (those currently in use) are far less spectrally efficient than BLAST ones. Older ³diversity´ antennas will most likely retained as a fallback for the worst-case channel environment (which means single path flat-fading at low mobile speeds). No wireless system will put up 4 billon transmitters. which is around 4billion. but that they might have more to say about it in the first quarter of 2003. Let¶s take an example.a scalar system would require 232 points. Asked about its plans for BLAST. a large B) are more practical. Vector systems can realize the same rate using M constellation of 2B/M points each.
we can always drive all the transmitters using a single user¶s data. and rather elegant. the entire system bandwidth is used simultaneously by all of the transmitters all of the time . MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.BLAST can be best used in CDMA such as Verizon or Sprint. obvious. The reason for this is simple. even if it is sub streams. Rather than fight against these latencies. rather than a gem system such as AT&T.BLAST 11 BLAST vs. each transmitted signals occupies the entire signal bandwidth. Well. The Blast propagation environment of the real world provides significant multipath latencies one receiver. The BLAST system does not impose orthonalization ot transmitted signals. unlike Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). And finally. Unlike a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) approach. BLAST exploits them to provide the signal decor relation necessary to separate the co-channel signals blast uses the same effect that cause ghosting in TV pictures as a sort of clock to allow the various signals to be extracted. EXISTING SYSTEMS What makes BLAST different from any other single-user that uses multiple transmitters? After all. KADAMMANITTA . the total bandwidth those QAM systems require. unlike code-division or a speedspectrum approach.
The vertical axis is the block error rate. and the performance characterized. corresponding to a payload data rate of 621 Kbps in 30 KHz bandwidth. so that the payload block size is 8*4*80=2560 bits. The prototype operates at a carrier frequency of 1. the system performance was found to be nearly independent of small details of the array geometry. the burst length L is 100 symbol duration of which is used for training. The antenna arrays consisted of /2 wire dipoles mounted in various arrangements. and no attempt was to ³tune´ the system to the environment. the transmit and receive arrays were each placed at a single representative position within the environment. In this case. or 20.9 GHz and a symbol/sec. and transmit dipoles were mounted on a flat sheet. For the results shown below. with transmitter and receiver separations up to about 12 meters. using M=8 transmitters and N=12 receivers. 6 shows performance obtained when conventional nulling is used. or to modify the environment in anyway. the fading rates are low and there is significant near-field scattering from near by equipment and office furniture. Nevertheless. 4bits/symbol/transmitter. The lower curve shows performance using nulling and optimally-ordered MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. In this experiment. The upper curve in fig. In general. i. The horizontal axis is spatially averaged receiver SNR. The system was operated and characterized in the actual laboratory/office environment not a test range. Figure 6 shows the results obtained with the prototype system. it is a representative indoor lab/office situation. in a bandwidth of 30 KHz.e.9bps/Hz and the payload efficiency is 80% of the above. This environment is relatively benign in that the delay spread is negligible. KADAMMANITTA . each of the eight sub streams utilized uncoded 16-QAM. in a roughly rectangular array with about /2 inter-element spacing. The spectral efficiency of this configuration is 25. the receive dipoles were mounted on the surface of a metallic hemisphere approximately 20cm in diameter.7bps/Hz. In this experiment. where a ³block´ is defined as a single transmission burst.BLAST 12 LABORATARY RESULS A laboratory prototype of a V-BLAST system has-been constructed for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the BLAST approach.
the system had at least 2 orders of magnitude margin relative to 10^-2 BER. KADAMMANITTA . the transmit power was adjusted so that large received SNR was 24+/-0.5db. It can be seen that operation at this spectra efficiency is reasonably robust with respect to antenna position. For a completely uncoded system. and application of ordinary error correcting codes would significantly reduce this. Figure 7 shows performance results obtained using the same BLAST system configuration (M=8. The average difference is about 4 db. these are entirely reasonable error rates.BLAST 13 cancellation. 16-QAM) when the receive array was left fixed and the transmit array was located at different positions throughout the environment. In all positions. In each case. At 34 db SNR. Nulling with optimized cancellation was used. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. N=12. which corresponds to a raw spectral efficiency differential (for this configuration) of around 10 bps/Hz. though with less robust performance. spectral efficiencies as high as 40bps/hz have been demonstrated at similar error rates.
on the other hand . Notice that. Hence there is no increase in the amount interference caused to users. the peak data rate that can be supported in 90 per-cent of the systems locations-with a single user per sector ±is only on the order of 500kb/s with no transmit diversity and just over 1Mb/s there-with. spectrum is used efficiently.BLAST 14 ADVANTAGES Since the entire sub streams are transmitted in the same frequency band. KADAMMANITTA . These curves can also be interpreted as user peaks rates. dramatically shifts the curves offering multifold improvements in data rate at all levels. The combined use of transmit and receive arrays. Furthermore a constellation with such density of points would require in excess of 100db operating at any reasonable error rate. the benefit appears significant only in the lower tail of the distribution. Moreover. that is user data rates (in megabits per second) when the entire capacity of every sector is allocated to an individual user. without receive arrays. Spectrally efficiency of 30-40 bps/Hz is achieved at SNR of 24 db. The improvements in average and peak systems capacities are negligible. corresponding to users in the most detrimental location. the gains saturate rapidly as additional transmit antennas are added. With transmit arrays only. This is possible due to use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver at SNR of 24 db. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. A critical feature of BLAST is that the total radiated power is held constant irrespective of the number of transmitting antennas. those gains would be reduced even further. To achieve 40bps/Hz a conventional single antenna system would require a constellation with 10^12 points. With frequency diversity taken into account. Figure 5 displays cumulative distributions of system capacity (in megabits per second per sector) over all locations with transmit arrays only as well as with transmit and receive arrays.
Figure 5depicts single-user data rate supported in 90% location Vs range with transmit and receive arrays. transmit power PT=10w. not 30 via cable or DSL. known as BLAST. bandwidth B=5MHZ.20 novels can be downloaded in a second and HDTV can be watched on a telephone. KADAMMANITTA . This innovation. may allow so-called ³fixed´ wireless technology to rival the capabilities of today¶s wired networks would connect homes and businesses to copper-wired public telephone service providers MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BLAST technology has reportedly delivered a data reception at 19. With BLAST downloading a song would take 3s. M is the terminal. the single user data can be increased by an order of magnitude. With only M=N=8 antennas. Furthermore.BLAST 15 There is an extraordinary growth in attainable data unleashed by the additional signaling dimensions provided by the combined use of transmit and receive arrays. the growth does not saturate as long as additional uncorrelated antennas can be incorporated into the arrays.2Mbps on a 3G network.
BLAST 16 DISADVANTAGES The BLAST technology is not is not well suited for mobile wireless applications. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. tracking signal changes in mobile applications would increase the computational complexity. such as hand-held and car-based cellular phones multiple antennas²both transmitting and receiving²are needed. It would require manufacture to invest in the development of new multiantenna devices. It would also require new wireless network infrastructure. KADAMMANITTA . In addition.
BLAST should be able to provide significantly higher capacities than conventional architectures. In the real world ofcourse scattering will be less favorable than the independent Raleigh¶s assumption ant it remains to be seen how much capacity is actually available in various propagation environments. even in relatively poor scattering environment. linearly with the number of antennas even when the total transmitted power is held constant.BLAST 17 CONCLUSION Under widely used theoretical assumption of independent Rayleigh scattering theoretical capacity of the BLAST architecture grows roughly. MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. KADAMMANITTA . Nevertheless.
www.bell-labs. September 2001 2.BLAST 18 REFERENCES 1. KADAMMANITTA .com/information theory MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. IEEE Communication Magazine. www.com/projects/blast 3.lucent.
BLAST 19 MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. KADAMMANITTA .
KADAMMANITTA .BLAST 20 MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.
KADAMMANITTA .BLAST 21 MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.
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