Semantics From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Semantics (from Greek s mantiká, neuter plural

of s mantikós)[1][2] is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, such as words, phrases, signs and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotata. Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language. Other forms of semantics include the semantics of programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. The word "semantics" itself denotes a range of ideas, from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language to denote a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal inquiries, over a long period of time, most notably in the field of formal semantics. In linguistics, it is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts.[3] Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, proxemics have semantic (meaningful) content, and each has several branches of study. In written language, such things as paragraph structure and punctuation have semantic content; in other forms of language, there is other semantic content.[3] The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others, although semantics is a well-defined field in its own right, often with synthetic properties.[4] In philosophy of language, semantics and reference are related fields. Further related fields include philology, communication, and semiotics. The formal study of semantics is therefore complex. Semantics contrasts with syntax, the study of the combinatorics of units of a language (without reference to their meaning), and pragmatics, the study of the relationships between the symbols of a language, their meaning, and the users of the language.[5] In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. References ^ . Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon at Perseus Project ^ The word is derived from the Greek word (semantikos), "significant", from (semaino), "to signify, to indicate" and that from (sema), "sign, mark, token". 3. ^ a b Otto Neurath (Editor), Rudolf Carnap (Editor), Charles F. W. Morris (Editor) (1955). International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 4. ^ Cruise, Alan. Meaning and Language: An introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, chapter one, Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics, 2004; Kearns, Kate. Semantics, Palgrave MacMillan 2000; Cruise, D.A. Lexical Semantics. Cambridge, 1986. 5. ^ Kitcher and Salmon (1989). Scientific Explanation. Mineapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 35. 6. ^ Barsalou, L. (1999). Perceptual Symbol Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22(4) 7. ^ Ronald W. Langacker (1999). Grammar and Conceptualization. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyer. ISBN 3110166038. 8. ^ a b Jaroslav Peregrin (2003). Meaning: The Dynamic Turn. Current Research in the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface. London: Elsevier. 9. ^ Gärdenfors, Peter (2000). Conceptual Spaces: The Geometry of Thought. MIT Press/Bradford Books. ISBN 9780585228372. http://www.lucs.lu.se/people/Peter.Gardenfors/Abstracts/conceptualspaces.html. 10. ^ Ferdinand de Saussure (1916). The Course of General Linguistics (Cours de linguistique générale). 11. ^ Bimal Krishna Matilal (1990). The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language. Oxford. The Nyaya and Mimamsa schools in Indian vyakarana tradition conducted a centuries-long debate 1. 2.

or whether word meanings are obtained through analysis of sentences where they appear. Hanne Riis. Johnson. J. Cambridge. Philosophy in the Flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. . New York: Basic Books.). which are primary. Flemming (1995). ^ Nielson. The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory (ed. (1996). Lappin. MIT Press. (2010) Semiotic and semantic implications of "authenticity". 17. 16. George. Blackwell. ^ Lakoff. Lecxical & Conceptual Semantics. 15. Lexical Semantics. ISBN 0-471-92980-8.12. Beth & Steven Pinker.. Nielson. (Chapter 8). ^ a b Levin. Chicester. D. 13. on whether sentence meaning arises through composition on word meanings. Ray. Semantic Structures. Chapter 1. Psychological Reports. S. England: John Wiley & Sons. ^ AJ Giannini. (1990). Cambridge University Press.. Cambridge abc Cruse. ^ ^ Nerbonne. 106(2):611-612.) Blackwell Publishing. Cambridge. ^ a b Jackendoff. 14. 18. (1991). (1986). Cambridge. A Formal Introduction (1st ed. Semantics with Applications. Mark (1999). OCLC 93961754.

1998 Over the years Wierzbicka has gained a distinct reputation for playing hardball with others in the linguistics community. April 1997 [+]more[-]hide 2. idiom. metaphor. Word. extension. infinitive. More than semantics is at stake. there is no question that her studies in semantics are a force to be reckoned with. and truth 2 : general semantics 3 a : the meaning or relationship of meanings of a sign or set of signs. naming. Laura Johannes et al. Joseph Hilferty. simile Browse Next Word in the Dictionary: semaphore (noun) Previous Word in the Dictionary: semanticist All Words Near: semantics Concise Encyclopedia semantics ² Study of meaning. 3. allusion. especially : connotative meaning b : the language used (as in advertising or political propaganda) to achieve a desired effect on an audience especially through the use of words with novel or dual meanings Examples of SEMANTICS 1.. 9 Feb. In the case of obesity. the debate has heightened in the wake of major diet-pill recalls last year. semiotics. and the FDA's bar for approving new drugs is lower for disease treatments than for other problems. such as baldness or skin wrinkles. anacoluthon. gerund. one of the major areas of linguistic study (see linguistics) . Many new diet nostrums are in various stages of testing. Origin of SEMANTICS (see semantic) First Known Use: 1893 Other Grammar and Linguistics Terms ablaut.Definition of SEMANTICS 1 : the study of meanings: a : the historical and psychological study and the classification of changes in the signification of words or forms viewed as factors in linguistic development b (1) : semiotics (2) : a branch of semiotic dealing with the relations between signs and what they refer to and including theories of denotation. Though her rhetoric can be rather scathing at times. Wall Street Journal. diacritic.

the art of making words and communicating them is the most basic approach in the discussion of semantics. These all are the major contribution towards our daily routines. English has become the language of the international people. Hence. Like in a country for instance. The second important aspect is the usage of phrases. A number of other signs also exist. the meaning of meaning itself is a new thing which we understood today. is rarely met. but only a few get their due credits. the usage of signs. http://semanticsdefinition. Semantics works basically on the following important attributes. Semantics is what we call it. In day to day communications also. many countries follow this language only to form relationships and expand businesses. Lastly. Writers do this job. This feat.com/ . That means everything that comprises a language is included in this collection in a single word called semantics. These all collectively form to make the vast resources of semantics vaster. A few articles only focus on this base of English language. words. Confused? Semantics is the word that is been tried to discuss over here. phrases and signs. so is the actor and so is the writer. 3. 2. Hence. This part of the web space will discuss the definition and importance of semantics only. the study or the science of the meaning in language lies in a balance on the shoulders of the usage of words. Signs signify the meaning and other entities. Starting with words. 4. Talking about a wider frame. 1. the majority of the population will speak a common language. though. The effective usage of the most substancial words available in relation to the topic of concern is what makes the impression on the listener audience sky high. A lot of them are being noticed when we travel. Thirdly. A lot of symbols whirl across us in our daily life. A speaker is known for his phrases. That is a sign for the common people. STOP is one such symbol. Many of them are the ones we come to notice in the form of traffic symbols. In offices. The collection or a group of words is known as a phrase. sign boards are there carrying the image of a cigarette and a plea to not smoke in public. Every other individual shares a language that is related to himself. symbols.SEMANTICS DEFINITION There are a wide number of articles that discuss the meanings and definitions of a lot of words which we use day to day. the usage of symbols is another category in the understanding of the word semantics. But only a few manage to fetch the attention of the readers discussing the meaning of the µmeanings¶. It is the study of meaning. The entity discussed above combines itself to form a wider variety of semantics known as phrases. The study of meanings is known as semantics. A very few orators are there who can use concrete form of words in a given sentence to construct the most beautiful phrases to come across this human race.

Adjective: homophonous or homophonic. 'rein' and 'reign' 'To'. and often spelling. origin. but which has a different meaning. HOMOPHONE EXAMPLES: y y 'Rain'. HOMOPHONE Homophones are words that are spelled differently but sound the same. About.com Guide See More About: y y rhetoric & style glossary of rhetorical terms Because peas and peace differ in the voicing of the final consonant. AN EXAMPLE OF A HOMONYM: 'Lie' can be a verb meaning to tell something that is not true or to be in a horizontal position. 'Two'. below. and 'Too' Homonym y y y y y A Homonym is a word that is written and pronounced the same way as another. See the observation by David Rothwell. but are different verbs as can be seen from their forms: Lie-lied-lied (to say something untrue) Lie-lay-lain (to be in a horizontal position) . They look and sound the same.HOMOPHONES By Richard Nordquist . A homophone is generally considered a type of homonym. Definition: Two or more words (such as knew and new or meat and meet) that are pronounced the same but differ in meaning. the two words are considered near-homophones (as opposed to true homophones).

the meanings may be distinguished by different pronunciations. natural language processing and other fields.e. but differ in meaning and grammatical function. wood (substance) and wood (area covered with trees). gráph . "same" and . Examples: (1) bear (verb) ± to support or carry bear (noun) ± the animal In (1) the words are identical in spelling and pronunciation (i. A homograph (from the Greek: . in a looser sense the term "homonym" may be applied to words with the same writing or pronunciation. the road winds through the mountains. However. Homograph disambiguation is critically important in speech synthesis. for example.e. Here confusion is not possible in spoken language but can occasionally occur in written language. homós.Term: Homograph Definition: Homographs are words that are written the same way but have different meanings and often different pronunciations: 'Wind' can mean the movement of air when talking about the weather. in which case the words are also heteronyms. they are also homophones). These are different words with different pronunciations although they are written the same way. homographs and homophones) are considered homonyms. . "write") is a word or a group of words that share the same written form but have different meanings. Identically-written different senses of what is judged to be fundamentally the same word are called polysemes. (2) sow (verb) ± to plant seed sow (noun) ± female pig (2) is an example of two words spelt identically but pronounced differently. It can also mean to follow a course or way that is not straight. When spoken. Words with the same writing and pronunciation (i.

adjectives. long and extended become synonyms. Similarly. of Norman French (from Latin) and Old English (Anglo-Saxon) words. phonic qualities. "archer"). for instance. in the early medieval period. In English. "liberty". adverbs or prepositions). Similarly. he expired means the same as he died. nouns. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning (in all contexts or social levels of language) because etymology. orthography. "bowman") and their synonyms by the Norman nobility ("people". often with some words being used principally by the Saxon peasantry ("folk". long and extended are only synonyms in one usage and not in others (for example. two words are often said to be synonymous if they have the same connotation: "a widespread impression that « Hollywood was synonymous with immorality" (Doris Kearns Goodwin) Synonyms can be any part of speech (e. pupil as the "aperture in the iris of the eye" is not synonymous with student. make them unique.Synonym Synonyms are different words with almost identical or similar meanings. In the figurative sense. The ) ("name"). The words word comes from Ancient Greek syn ( ) ("with") and onoma ( car and automobile are synonyms. Different words that are similar in meaning usually differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat. if we talk about a long time or an extended time. as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech. etc. usage. More examples of English synonyms are: y noun o o "student" and "pupil" "petty crime" and "misdemeanor" y y y y verb o "buy" and "purchase" adjective o "sick" and "ill" adverb o "quickly" and "speedily" preposition o "on" and "upon" Note that synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words. Synonyms are also a source of euphemisms. yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. many synonyms evolved from the parallel use. and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. "freedom". Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous.g. verbs. . ambiguous meanings. a long arm is not the same as an extended arm).

buy or sell. Contrast with antonym. wife or husband. (Rooted derivatives are not synonymous. Oxford Univ. slow and fast. (2) Complementary antonyms. y "Linguists identify three types of antonymy: (1) Gradable antonyms. Words may have several different antonyms. examples are hot and cold. which operate on a continuum: (very) big. About. which express an either/or relationship: dead or alive. these are often. and fat and skinny. 1992) . About. Antonyms (gradable opposites) For the purposes of this article (see introduction). Antonym is the antonym of synonym. but not always." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.The purpose of a thesaurus is to offer the user a listing of similar or related words. "Antonym. Adjective: synonymous. depending on the meaning: both long and tall can be antonyms of short." (Tom McArthur. antonyms. Antonymy is the sense relation that exists between words which are opposite in meaning. male or female.com Guide Definition: A word having a meaning opposite to that of another word. (3) Converse or relational antonyms. expressing reciprocity: borrow or lend. Adjective: antonymous. Gradable opposites lie at opposite ends of a continuous spectrum of meanings. such as: to force ²forcing[clarification needed]) Synonym By Richard Nordquist . Such pairs often occur in binomial phrases with and: (blow) hot and cold. synonyms. Synonymy is the sense relation that exists between words with closely related meanings.com Guide Definition: A word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. Press. (very) small. antonym By Richard Nordquist . (search) high and low. from the Greek anti ("opposite") and onoma ("name") are gradable opposites.

and dog is a hyponym of animal. For example. structure is a hyponym of the subordinate thing. The subordinate is the included word and the hyponym is the including one. Edinburgh University Press. boar and piglet are also hyponyms of the subordinate pig. it is not surprising that hyponymy is sometimes referred to as inclusion. Cambridge University Press. For instance. An Introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics. since the meaning of each of the three words sow. Allyn and Bacon. but it refers to a much more important sense relation. boar. inclusion hyponym Pronunciation:/ h p ( )n m/ noun y a word of more specific meaning than a general or superordinate term applicable to it. subordinate term.Hyponym By Richard Nordquist . 1994) "Hyponymy is a less familiar term to most people than either synonymy or antonymy. and. in its turn. oak is a hyponym of tree. or piglet. Linguistics for Non-Linguists." (Frank Parker and Kathryn Riley. a hyponym of the subordinate structure. About. but building is in turn. spoon is a hyponym of cutlery. A subordinate at a given level can itself be a hyponym at a higher level. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language." (Patrick Griffiths. a specific term used to designate a member of a class. 2nd ed. there are a number of hyponyms for each subordinate. the subordinate word pig is often used as part of the definition: 'A sow is an adult female pig. The opposite of a hyponym is a hypernym.') Thus.com Guide Definition: In linguistics. Examples and Observations: y y y "In general. A daffodil is a flower. For example." (David Crystal. 2003) "House is a hyponym of the subordinate building. boar. It describes what happens when we say 'An X is a kind of Y'--A daffodil is a kind of flower. (Note that in defining a word like sow. and piglet 'contains' the meaning of the word pig. 2006) Pronunciation: HI-po-nim Also Known As: subtype. or simply. Contrasted with hypernym .

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