Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

456 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- TextbookList10F
- Munkres Solution
- 58670038 Answers Munkres
- 6342-2 solution to munkres
- Real and Complex Analysis Solutions Manual
- Measure.theory.(Donald.L.cohn).0817630031
- exercicios munkres
- Solution of Chapter 3
- S38
- complex analysis 3
- Topology, Munkres Solution Chapt 3
- 284185717-Munkres-Solucionario.pdf
- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Chapter 3 - Elementary Functions)
- Metric and Topological Spaces notes
- Willard - General Topology (Solutions)
- Deeper Understanding, Faster Calculation - Exam P Insights and Shortcuts
- Munkres Solution S13
- S11
- 325 HW 06
- Functions on Metric Spaces and Continuity

You are on page 1of 4

1. Munkres 26.12

Solution:

Lemma 1. Let p X Y be a closed map. Suppose y > Y, and suppose U is an open set in X

containing p−1 (y). Then there exists an open set W in Y containing y such that p−1 (W) b U.

Proof. Consider U c . This is a closed set, so p(U c ) is closed. Moreover, since p−1 (y) b U, we

have y ~i np(U c ). Let W be any open set in Y such that y > W b (p(U c ))c . Then

p−1 (W) b p−1 ((p(U c ))c ) = (p−1 (p(U c )))c .

But p−1 (p(U c )) a U c , so (p−1 (p(U c )))c b (U c )c = U. Hence p−1 (W) b U, as required.

Solution:

Suppose p X Y be a closed surjective perfect map, and suppose Y is compact. We want

to show that X is compact, so let Uα be an open cover of X. For every y > Y we have

p−1 (y) is compact, so there exists a finite subcover C y of p−1 (y). By the lemma there exists

an open set Wy such that y > Wy and p−1 (Wy ) b 8U>C y U. Since Y is compact, we can cover

Y with finitely many sets Wy k (this step uses the fact that p is surjective). But then the union

8C y k is a finite subcover of X.

2. Munkres 29.5

Solution:

Let X and Y be homeomorphic locally compact Hausdorff spaces, with ϕ being a home-

omorphism. Let ϕ be the extension to X such that ϕ(X ) = Y . We claim that ϕ is

continuous. If U b Y is open, and if Y >~ U, then (ϕ )−1 (U) = ϕ−1 (U), which is open in X

and hence open in X . On the other hand, if Y > U, then U c = K, where K is compact in

Y. But then

((ϕ )−1 (U))c = (ϕ )−1 (U c ) = (ϕ )−1 (K) = (ϕ)−1 (K)

which is compact in X since ϕ−1 is continuous. Hence (ϕ )−1 (U) is open in X. Hence ϕ is

continuous. Since it is a continuous bijection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space, it

is a homeomorphism.

3. Munkres 29.6 The following lemma will be handy for the following problems.

Lemma 2. If X is a compact Hausdorff space and U = X − p for some p > X, then U is

homeomorphic to X.

Proof. Define ϕ U X by ϕ(x) = x for x x , and ϕ() = p. This is clearly a bijection

from a compact space to a Hausdorff space, so to show it is a homeomorphism, we need only

show it is continuous. Clearly if V is open in X and does not contain p, then ϕ−1 (V ) = V

which is open in U. On the other hand, if V is open in X and contains p, then V c is compact

in X and contained in U, and hence compact in U. But then ϕ−1 (V c ) is compact in U. But

then

ϕ−1 (V ) = (ϕ−1 (V c ))c

which is the complement of a compact set in U and therefore an open set in U . Hence ϕ is

continuous.

Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions April 6, 2007

phic to Y. Then X is homeomorphic to Z.

Proof. By Munkres 29.5 we have X is homeomorphic to Y , and by Lemma 2 we have Y

is homeomorphic to Z.

Solution:

Since R is homeomorphic to (0, 2π), it is enough to show that the one point compactification

is homeomorphic to S 1 . Define ϕ (−π, π) S 1 by ϕ(x) = e 2πix . This map is clearly clearly

injective, and is surjective onto S 1 (−1, 0). Moreover, the branch of ln with branch cut

along then negative real axis is a continuous function and, when restricted to S 1 (−1, 0)

is the inverse function of ϕ. Hence (−π, π) is homeomorphic to S 1 (−1, 0). Since S 1 is

a compact Hausdorff space, we conclude that the one point compactification of (−π, π) is

homeomorphic to S 1 .

4. Munkres 29.8

Solution:

Define f R+ R+ by f (x) = 1~x. This is a homeomorphism (it is continuous and is its

own inverse). Let A = f (Z+ ). Then A is homeomorphic to Z+ and is 1~n n > Z+ . Let

Y =08A

This is a closed and bounded subset of R and is hence compact. It is also a Hausdorff space.

Therefore the one point compactification of A is homeomorphic to Y, and hence the one

point compactification of Z+ is homeomorphic to Y.

5.

only if there is an precompact open subset V b M such that M V is homeomorphic

to Rn B1 (0).

Solution, part a:

For each x > M, there is an open set U x that is homeomorphic to Rn via a homeomorphism

ϕ x taking x to 0. Let K = ϕ−1

x (B1 (0)). Since B1 (0) is compact in R we have K is compact in

n

K contains ϕ−1 x (B1 (0)) which is open in U x (and hence open in M since U x is open) and

contains x. Hence we have shown that every point x in M has a compact set that contains

an open set containing x. Hence M is locally compact. It is Hausdorff by definition.

Solution, part b:

Let M be an n−manifold. Then M is a compact Hausdorff space and is hence compact.

Moreover, every compact locally Euclidean space is second countable. So it is enough to

2

Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions April 6, 2007

show that M is locally Euclidean if and only if there is an precompact open subset V b

M such that M V is homeomorphic to Rn B1 (0). Finally, every point in M 9 M is

contained in an open (in M and therefore in M ) set that is homeomorphic to Rn . Hence

we have reduced the problem to showing that has a neighbourhood homeomorphic to Rn

if and only if if and only if there is an precompact open subset V b M such that M V is

homeomorphic to Rn B1 (0).

Suppose such a set V exists. Let Y = 0M V . Then Y is homeomorphic to Rn B1 (0), which

2

is homeomorphic to the closed punctured ball B1 (0) 0 via the map x ( x~ SxS . Since

B1 (0) is compact, we conclude that the one-point compactification of Y is homeomorphic

to B1 (0) by a homeomorphism taking Y to 0. s Let K = M V . This is a closed set in M

and is hence compact. Since Y is homeomorphic to (M V ) M we conclude that Y

is homeomorphic to M V by a homeomorphism taking Y to M .

Composing homeomorphisms, we conclude that there is a homeomorphism ϕ from M V

to B1 (0) taking M to 0.

Let W = M V̄ . This set is open in M and contained in M V . It is therefore open

in M V . Hence ϕ(W) is an open set in B1 (0) that contains 0, and hence contains some

Bє (0). Let U = ϕ−1 (Bє (0)). This set is in M V̄ and is contained in W. Since W is open in

M , we conclude that U is open in M . But U is homeomorphic to Bє (0) (by ϕ restricted to

U) and hence M has a neighbourhood that is homeomorphic to and open subset of Rn .

Conversely, suppose that M is locally Euclidean. Let U be an open set in M that contains

and is homeomorphic to Rn by a homeomorphism ϕ. Without loss of generality we can

assume that ϕ() = 0. Let W = ϕ−1 (Rn B1 (0). This is an open set in U and hence open

in M . It does not contain , so it is also open in M. Let V = (M U) 8 W. This is an

open subset of M. All the limit points of V in M must be in U, since V contains M U.

But it is easy to see that these are exactly ϕ−1 (S n−1 . Hence the closure of V in M must be

(M U) 8 ϕ−1 (Rn B1 (0). This is compact, since its complement is ϕ−1 (B1 (0)), which is

an open subset of . Hence V is a precompact open neighbourhood in M , and its closure

does not contain . Hence it is a precompact open neighbourhood in M, and M V is

homeomorphic to B1 (0) 0 which is homeomorphic to Rn B1 (0). So V is the set we seek.

Solution:

Let G be a topological group and let µ and ι be the multiplication and inversion maps. Since

the identity map id and the inversion map ι are continuous, we have id ι G G G G

is continuous. Hence µ X (id ι) G G G is continuous. But µ X (id ι)(x, y) = xy −1 .

Hence the map taking x and y to xy −1 is continuous.

Conversely, suppose the map taking x and y to xy −1 is continuous. Let g denote this map.

Define h G G G by h(x) = (1, x) where 1 is the group identity. This is a continuous

map (and indeed a topological embedding). But then ι = g X h and hence ι is continuous.

But also, µ = g X (id ι) and hence µ is also continuous.

3

Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions April 6, 2007

Solution:

Let H be a subgroup of G. Since inversion and mutiplication both take H and H H respec-

tively to H, and since these are continuous maps from G and G G to G, their restrictions

to H are also continuous. Hence H is a topological group.

We now show that H is a subgroup. By the above we will have shown that it is a topological

group. Suppose h > H and consider L h G G given by L h (g) = h ċ g. This map is a

homeomorphism, so

H̄ = L h (H) = L h (H̄).

We conclude that if h > H and h > H̄, then h ċ h > H̄. Similarly, h ċ h > H̄.

Now suppose h > H̄. Then by the above we see that L h (H) is a subset of H̄. Hence

H̄ = H̄ c L h (H) = L h (H̄).

Since h > H̄ is arbitrary, we conclude that the product of two elements of H̄ is again in H̄.

Now inversion ι G G, which is a homeomorphism. Then

ι(H̄) = ι(H) = H̄

- TextbookList10FUploaded byHameed Wesabi
- Munkres SolutionUploaded bymolood
- 58670038 Answers MunkresUploaded byasarrazolaa
- 6342-2 solution to munkresUploaded byDonald Church
- Real and Complex Analysis Solutions ManualUploaded byferney10
- Measure.theory.(Donald.L.cohn).0817630031Uploaded byWen Yang
- exercicios munkresUploaded byPaulo Apipe
- Solution of Chapter 3Uploaded byRaeq Torki
- S38Uploaded byMuthumanikandan Hariraman
- complex analysis 3Uploaded byjeffrey_uslan
- Topology, Munkres Solution Chapt 3Uploaded byFitriSilalahi
- 284185717-Munkres-Solucionario.pdfUploaded byJhonatan Orlando
- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Chapter 3 - Elementary Functions)Uploaded byRoberto Armenta
- Metric and Topological Spaces notesUploaded bymiss_bnm
- Willard - General Topology (Solutions)Uploaded byNg Ming
- Deeper Understanding, Faster Calculation - Exam P Insights and ShortcutsUploaded bySteven Lai
- Munkres Solution S13Uploaded byXIván CF
- S11Uploaded byMuthumanikandan Hariraman
- 325 HW 06Uploaded byHyunjoo Noh
- Functions on Metric Spaces and ContinuityUploaded byhyd arnes
- Banach SpacesUploaded byhyd arnes
- Bounded Linear Operators on a Hilbert SpaceUploaded byhyd arnes
- Spectral TheoryUploaded byRazvan Drinceanu
- Math 103Uploaded byRoger Wang
- Curves & Surfaces in Geometric Modelling Geomcs-V2Uploaded byarcangelizeno
- S29Uploaded byjclopez4
- probset1solutionsUploaded bySuncheon8114
- METRIC SPACES and SOME BASIC TOPOLOGYUploaded byhyd arnes
- P-Adic Hilbert SpacesUploaded bydmtri

- Balance This! - Peg&TdfUploaded byMarimuthu Ayyamperumal
- Balancing Overhung Rotors.pdfUploaded byDidit Gencar Laksana
- Nilai Akdm 2012 2013 Rev 1Uploaded byDidit Gencar Laksana
- 127F98 Chapter VUploaded byDidit Gencar Laksana
- Matematika BookUploaded byDidit Gencar Laksana
- Complex NumberUploaded byDidit Gencar Laksana
- e Learning 4Uploaded byDidit Gencar Laksana

- ProductDocument-Opera PMS_Doc_Opera PMS_Doc_Key Features of the OPERA Property Management SystemUploaded byTwinkle Pahuja
- ASSIST Students Push Toward Sleep Apnea InnovationUploaded byShannaMarieRogers
- Hesi HintsUploaded bymareus1105
- Five Generations of Innovation ModelsUploaded byamethyst_arr
- Aziz Mahmud Hüda-i(ks)Uploaded byM.Davud Aziz
- Simon James & Clinton Alley - Tax Compliance, Self-Assessment and Tax Administration (5)Uploaded byarekdarmo
- Pythagorean Theorem Lesson 1Uploaded byMolly Frantz
- [Paul Barry] Head First Python(BookZZ.org)Uploaded byaman
- Pro Wedge Vm 20 ManualUploaded byJohan Songohan
- Manual Prosonic M - Quick SetupUploaded byRaphael Gomes Garcia
- MWH Global ForcesUploaded byHistoryUser
- slenderness notesUploaded byanubhavpt
- RIGHT TO INFORMATION-A CASE STUDYUploaded byabhishree_1677
- dc5100Uploaded bycarameldelite18
- TheGhostsInOurMachineEduGuide BookmarksUploaded byLilisin Lilisisn
- R02 - Shaver 1987 - Emotion Knowledge. Further Exploration of a Prototype ApproachUploaded byGrupa5
- Academic and Professional Porfolio of Dr. Hugo Yu-Hsiu LeeUploaded byHugo Yu-Hsiu Lee
- Difference Between Quality Assurance(QA) and Quality Control(QC) _ Software Testing ClassUploaded byshadab
- Invisible Man, TheUploaded bychithumithra
- Morgenthau’s Unrealistic RealismUploaded byjaseme7579
- lemn pin finlandezUploaded byRoxana Huțanu
- Waste Water Collection and PumpingUploaded byfri_13th
- IntegrationUploaded byAkarsh L
- SC3 Audiology Neil ShepardUploaded byjessicacool
- CE115-Steel ZM Nov-29-2010Uploaded byTabish Islam
- Sitios_amurallados_o_fortalezas_Chancay.pdfUploaded bykrzys dabrow
- printf - C++ ReferenceUploaded bySergiomaguu
- Load Balancing In Cloud computingUploaded byChandan Kumar
- 20th_IPhO_1989Uploaded byDan-Cristian
- Khoo Kay KimUploaded bydandiar1