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INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB

Dr. Derek Lichti Department of Spatial Sciences Curtin University of Technology GPO Box U1987 Perth, WA 6845 AUSTRALIA 1

 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 1 INTRODUCTION 2 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Motivation 2 1.3 Document Organisation 2 2 THE MATLAB ENVIRONMENT 4 2.1 Starting MATLAB 4 2.2 Saving and Loading a Workspace 5 2.3 Getting Help 5 2.4 Getting Help 6 3 VARIABLES 7 3.1 Variable Definition 7 3.2 Variable Management 7 3.3 Output Suppression 8 3.4 Formatting Output 8 3.5 Indexing, Partitioning and Hypermatrices 9 4 OPERATORS AND BUILT-IN FUNCTIONS 10 4.1 Operators 10 4.2 Important Built-in Functions 10 4.3 Important Built-in Constants 11 5 M-FILES AND PROGRAMMING 12 5.1 Introduction 12 5.2 Script and Function M-Files 12 5.3 Some Important Programming Constructs 12 5.3.1 for Loop 13 5.3.2 while Loop 13 5.3.3 if Decision Structure 13 5.3.4 break Termination Structure 13 5.3.5 Other Constructs 14 5.4 Program Design 14 5.4.1 Documentation 14 5.4.2 Modularity 14 5.4.3 Meaningful Variable and Function Names 14 5.4.4 Avoid Complicated Constructs 14 6 TEXT FILE INPUT AND OUTPUT 15 6.1 Introduction 15 6.1.1 fopen 15 6.1.2 fscanf 15 6.1.3 fprintf 16 6.1.4 fclose 16 7 PLOTTING AND GRAPHICS 17 7.1 Overview of Plotting Functions 17 8 A WORKED EXAMPLE 18 8.1 Problem Statement 18 8.2 Least-Squares Solution 18 8.3 Solution in MATLAB 19 8.4 Results 20 APPENDIX A EXAMPLE SOURCE CODE 22

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1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

MATLAB is an acronym for MATrix LABoratory. It is powerful software that allows one to perform complex scientific computations with relative ease. Examples of complex computations that can be performed with built-in MATLAB functions include as matrix inversion, singular value decomposition, Cholesky factorisation, the fast Fourier transform and many others. It is not a structured programming language, such as C or FORTRAN, though it does have programming functionality in the form of a scripting language. MATLAB also has powerful plotting and graphics functions for easy data display and visualisation.

MATLAB is used in several courses within the Surveying degree programme in the Department of Spatial Sciences. In Measurement and Adjustment Analysis, it is used to perform least-squares adjustments of surveying network problems. Other surveying courses that require students to use MATLAB to solve practical problems include Survey Network Analysis and Design, Analytical Photogrammetry, Satellite and Space Geodesy, GPS Surveying and Satellite Navigation and Hydrography, to name a few.

1.2 Motivation

Undeniably, there are many commercial software packages available to perform network adjustments. The danger in using these packages in an introductory course such as Measurement and Adjustment Analysis is they can assume the role of a “black box” that performs the critical computations behind the scenes. To gain a clear understanding of the least squares adjustment process, a better approach is to “learn by doing”, i.e., formation and solution of the relevant equations by composing one’s own software. One might argue that in this approach, a student can be overwhelmed by the details of multiple source code file management, debugging and, in particular, composition of matrix algebra functions such as inversion, transpose, etc. Since most of these operations are built-in as functions, MATLAB is an excellent tool for solving least-squares problems. A student can learn the process of least squares without having to compose matrix inversion or other functions. However, the benefits of software composition (e.g., planning a logical problem solving process) are gained in composing MATLAB script files.

1.3 Document Organisation

This document was not intended to serve as a definitive reference on the use of MATLAB. On-line help or hard copy manuals are the best source to obtain the intricate details of MATLAB functions and operators. Instead, this document should be regarded as only an introduction to MATLAB, as its title implies. Simple examples are provided throughout the document to further explain the use of operators or functions.

Chapter 2 provides the reader with a brief tour of the MATLAB environment and addresses fundamental tasks like saving and loading workspaces. Chapter 3 is devoted to variable types, definition and management within the MATLAB environment. Chapter 4 introduces some basic MATLAB operators and some built-in

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functions, such as matrix inversion. With the foundation of MATLAB operation laid, Chapter 5 is devoted to programming. Here, all the tools are put together to enable the reader to solve more complex problems such as survey network adjustment. Chapter 5 introduces the fundamental unit of a MATLAB program, the M-file, describes the different types of M-files and provides advice on M-file design and management. The syntax of various constructs, such as loops and decision structures, is also described in Chapter 5. Text file input and output is the subject of Chapter 6. A brief introduction to the use of MATLAB plotting and graphics functions is given in Chapter 7. Finally, a worked example (a least-squares curve fit) that brings together the elements of Chapters 1-7 is provided in Chapter 8.

As in this chapter, text throughout this document appears in Times New Roman font. Menu options are indicated in italics. MATLAB code and commands as well as file names appear in courier font.

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2 THE MATLAB ENVIRONMENT

2.1 Starting MATLAB In the PC laboratories on the third floor of the Engineering and Surveying Building (204), MATLAB is found under Start | Mechanical | MATLAB (CHECK). Be patient while MATLAB is initialising, as many preliminary processes, such as environment variable initialisation, must be completed before you can start.

Once initialisation has completed, a window structure similar to that shown in Figure 2.1 should be visible. Workspace
Command Window
Command History

Figure 2.1. MATLAB Window Structure.

The MATLAB window structure shown in Figure 2.1 consists of the tool bar at the top, the status bar at the bottom and four views, three of which are visible. The Command Window is the large view on the right. This is where MATLAB commands are entered. The variable definition

x=9

is visible in the Command Window.

The Workspace view, located in the upper left portion of Figure 2.1, provides a summary of all variables currently resident in the MATLAB environment. Details about the variable x are visible.

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The Command History view (lower left) provides a list of commands previously entered in the Command Window. Several commands are visible, including the definition for x.

The fourth view, Current Directory, is not visible, only its tab can be seen below the Command History view.

The first thing one must do is to set the working directory. This is done by clicking on the Browse for Folder button as indicated in Figure 2.2.  Help Button Figure 2.2. Extracted Portion of the MATLAB Toolbar.

Browse for Folder Button

Set the working directory to d:\temp. This is the location to which all files you create within MATLAB will be stored. This directory is cleaned regularly, so be sure to copy all your files to a disk prior to leaving the PC lab!

As will be explained in detail in Chapter 3, all variables entered by the user are stored within the MATLAB environment. To save the contents of your workspace, type

save filename

This command saves your workspace as a file called filename.mat. If the file name is omitted, the workspace is saved to matlab.mat.

To load a previously saved workspace, type

2.3 Getting Help

To access MATLAB’s built-in documentation, type

help

In doing so, many possible topics will scroll past. To view each one, type

more on

help

This will cause the first page of topics to appear, followed by the prompt

-- more --

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Press the enter key to see the next topic or press the space bar to see the next page of help topics. To turn off the controlled page output, type

more off

To get help on a specific topic, say the function inv, type

help inv

Help can also be accessed with the Help button on the tool bar, as shown in Figure

2.2.

2.4 Getting Help To exit MATLAB, type

exit

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3 VARIABLES

3.1 Variable Definition

MATLAB permits computations with scalar, vector and matrix variables. Variable names can be any combination of alphanumeric characters provided that the first character is a letter. Underscores are also valid characters.

Some variable definition examples are given below.

Scalar:

x=8

Row vector:

r =

[

1

2 3 4]

Column vector (method 1):

 c1 = [1 ; 2 ; 3] • Column vector (method 2): c2 = [1 2 3 ] • Matrix (method 1): mat_m1 = [ 1 2 3; 4 5 6 ; 7 8 9]

Matrix (method 2)

mat_m2=[123

456

789]

Matrix by juxtaposing vectors:

mat_m3 = [ c1 c2]

Diagonal matrix diag_mat = diag (c1)

In the final example, the elements of the vector c1 are placed in the diagonal elements of the square matrix using the built-in MATLAB function diag().The off-diagonal elements of diag_mat are set to zero.

Note that the semicolon indicates the start of a new matrix or vector row.

3.2 Variable Management

To view a list of all variables stored within the MATLAB environment, two commands are available, who and whos. who simply provides a list of variables. whos provides more verbose output, listing the dimensions, size in bytes and class or type for each variable.

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3.3 Output Suppression

When a variable is defined or an operation performed in MATLAB, the resulting output is, by default, echoed to the Command Window. For large variables and repeated computations, this can be unsightly and confusing. The output echo can be suppressed by ending a variable definition or operation with a semicolon (;). However, the operation is still performed and the resulting variable is stored in the MATLAB environment.

To illustrate the use of the semicolon, consider the following two examples. In each case, the command whos was entered after the definition of x.

 1. No output suppression: x=[ 1 ; 2 ; 3] x = 1 2 3 whos Name Size Bytes Class x 3x1 24 double array Grand total is 3 elements using 24 bytes 2. With output suppression: x=[ 1 ; 2 ; 3]; whos Name Size Bytes Class x 3x1 24 double array Grand total is 3 elements using 24 bytes 3.4 Formatting Output

All computations in MATLAB are performed in double floating point precision. However, the precision with which variables are displayed in the Command Window can be changed with the format command. Some of the relevant variations of format are given in Table 3.1

Table 3.1. Variations of the Format Command.

 Command Display Format format short Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits format long Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits format short e Floating point format with 5 digits format long e Floating point format with 15 digits format short g Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits format long g Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits

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Full details about format can be found by typing.

help format

3.5 Indexing, Partitioning and Hypermatrices There are many situations in which individual elements of a matrix or a sub-matrix must be accessed for initialisation or extraction of results for output. This can be accomplished in many ways, as demonstrated below. The examples refer to the variable definitions for c1 and matrix_m1 above.

Assignment of an individual matrix element (row 1, column 2):

matrix_m1(1,2)=7

Extraction of an individual matrix element and assignment to a new variable:

variable=matrix_m1(1,2)

Assignment of an individual vector element (element 3):

c1(3)=11

Extraction of a sub-matrix (rows 1-2, columns 1-2):

sub_mat=matrix_m1(1:2,1:2)

Extraction of a column vector from a matrix (column 2):

col_vect=matrix_m1(:,2)

Extraction of a row vector from a matrix (row 2):

row_vect=matrix_m1(2,:)

Notes:

A comma is used to separate indices for multidimensional

matrices).

variables

(e.g.,

A colon is used to indicate a range of elements. If used on its own, the colon refers to all elements of that dimension. A subset of elements are specified by numerical limits on either side of the colon (e.g., start:end).

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4 OPERATORS AND BUILT-IN FUNCTIONS

4.1 Operators

Some of the most important MATLAB operators are summarised with examples in Table 4.1. Where appropriate, they can be used with scalars, vectors and matrices.

Table 4.1. Some MATLAB Operators.

 Operation MATLAB Operator Example Addition + c=a+b Subtraction - c=a-b Matrix Multiplication * c=a*b Matrix Power ^ c=a^2 Transpose ‘ a_trans=a’ Array Multiplication .* c=a.*b Logical Equal == a == b

Array multiplication differs from matrix multiplication in that corresponding elements of a and b are multiplied, rather than following the normal rule. To illustrate the difference, consider the following example, in which the matrix a is defined and multiplied by itself using both matrix and array multiplication.

a=[1 2; 3 4]

a =

1

3

a*a ans = 7

15

a.*a ans = 1

9

2

4

10

22

4

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4.2 Important Built-in Functions

Some of the important built-in MATLAB functions for matrix operations are given with examples in Table 4.2. A comprehensive list can be obtained by typing

help matfun

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Table 4.2. Some MATLAB Built-In Matrix Functions.

 Operation MATLAB Function Example Matrix Inversion inv a_inv=inv(a) Matrix Determinant det det_a=det(a) Create Diagonal Matrix 1 diag a=diag(b) Extract Diagonal Matrix 2 diag b=diag(a) Create Identity Matrix 3 eye I=eye(3) Create Null Matrix 4 zeros z_3x4=zeros(3,4) Create A Matrix of Ones 5 .* o_2x3=ones(2,3) Pseudoinverse pinv a_pinv=pinv(a) Size of Matrix size [m,n]=size(mat)

1 b is the vector of elements assigned to the diagonal of the resulting matrix a.

2 b is the resulting vector of elements extracted from the diagonal of matrix a.

3 A 3x3 identity matrix is created in the example.

4 A 3x4 null matrix is created in the example.

5 A 2x3 matrix with all elements equal to one is created in the example.

Table 4.3 lists some of the elementary mathematical functions defined in MATLAB. A comprehensive list can be found by typing

help elfun

Table 4.3. Some MATLAB Built-In Elementary Functions.

 Function MATLAB syntax absolute value abs(x) minimum value, maximum value min(x), max(x) sort values sort(x) sine, cosine, tangent sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) inverse sine, cosine, tangent asin(x), acos(x), atan(x) inverse tangent (two arguments) atan2(x,y) exponential exp(x) natural logarithm log(x) square root sqrt(x) round to nearest integer round(x)

4.3 Important Built-in Constants Perhaps the most important built-in constant is π, defined in MATLAB as pi.

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5 M-FILES AND PROGRAMMING

5.1 Introduction

An M-file is an external text file comprised of variable definitions and function that MATLAB reads, interprets and executes. An M-file is ideal for performing long instruction sets as it precludes the need for manual re-entry of commands. M-files are very useful for constructing programs to solve least-squares problems.

M-files can be composed with the MATLAB Editor/Debugger (File | New | M-file). All M-files have the extension .m. For easy access, they can be located in the same directory as your workspace.

5.2 Script and Function M-Files

A script M-file is a set of instructions. All variables defined within a script M-file are

global in the sense that they reside in the MATLAB environment. The instructions within a script file are invoked by entering the filename (without the .m extension)

from the MATLAB environment or from another M-file.

A function M-file is also a set of instructions, but is used like a built-in MATLAB

function. That is, a function file can accept parameters and can produce return values. The critical syntax for a function M-file appears in the first line of the file. For

example,

function [u,v]=my_func(x,y)

The keyword function indicates that the file is a function M-file (the file name is my_func.m). The function, my_func, accepts two arguments or parameters, x and y, and returns two output values, u and v. Any number of parameters and return values are possible, and both may be scalars, vectors or matrices. The syntax to call this function, either from the MATLAB environment or from another M-file, is

[u,v]=my_func(x,y)

Though the variable names in the function call match those in the function definition, they have different scope. Apart from the return values, function M-file variables have local scope. That is, any variables defined within the file (e.g., parameters and variables for intermediate computations) are not visible in the MATLAB environment

or M-file from which the function was called. Only the return values can be accessed by MATLAB (or calling M-file). Return value variables must be explicitly defined within the function M-file.

Examples of both script and function M-files are given in Appendix A.

5.3 Some Important Programming Constructs

MATLAB possesses several built-in programming constructs, including keywords for loop and decision structures. All may be imbedded within M-files or entered directly

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into the MATLAB environment. Examples of some of the most pertinent constructs are given below.

5.3.1 for Loop

The for loop allows repeated computation a fixed number of times. In the example below, j is the index variable that is incremented from 1 to n (predefined as 10). The elements of the vector x are sequentially accessed each iteration. As with most MATLAB programming constructs, the for loop is terminated with the end keyword.

n=10;

x=zeros(n); for j=1:n

x(j)=j*10;

end

5.3.2 while Loop

The while construct also allows repeated computation, but does so only once a termination criterion has been satisfied. To illustrate, consider the example below, in which the loop executes until c10.

c=0;

while c >= 10

end

c=c+1;

5.3.3 if Decision Structure

The sytntax for the if decision construct is illustrated by the example below.

if x == 10

y=5;

else if x > 10

y=4;

else y=3;

end

5.3.4 break Termination Structure

The break keyword terminates execution of for and while loops. The syntax is illustrated below by example. When the break statement is reached, program control jumps out of the for loop.

for j=1:10

 if j > 5 break end

end

Note the use of semicolons in each example. Semicolons are not usually placed at the end of for, while, if, else if, else or end statements.

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5.3.5 Other Constructs

Other important programming constructs, such as switch, and functions can be found by typing

help lang

5.4 Program Design Some of the elements of good program design are outlined in the following subsections. Adherence to these guidelines will make program organisation and composition easier, streamline debugging, allow easier addition of extra sub-routines and make the code more readable by others.

5.4.1 Documentation

Documentation (commenting) of source code is not merely an academic exercise. It is designed to indicate the code composer, provide a revision history, explain the purpose of the code and explain how the code functions. Good documentation makes code more readable and easier to debug. As a general guide, someone who had no input into the code composition should be able to follow the program flow on the basis of the documentation. Comment lines in MATLAB begin with the per cent (%) character. For example,

% this entire line is a comment

Examples of well-documented M-files are found in Appendix A.

5.4.2 Modularity

Large MATLAB programs should not be composed such that all variable definitions and commands appear in one long, obfuscated file. Blocks of code that perform different functions (i.e., sub-routines) should be placed in separate function M-files. This measure makes the code more readable and easier to debug. See Appendix A for an example of a modular program.

5.4.3 Meaningful Variable and Function Names

Variables and functions should be given descriptive names so that someone adding to or debugging source code can readily understand their purpose. Some variables, such as loop counters, can be given single character names (i.e., c, j, etc.). In general, though, single character names should be avoided.

5.4.4 Avoid Complicated Constructs

One of the best pieces of advice a programmer can accept is to keep it simple. Construction of complicated constructs to perform a set of computations in ten lines rather than twenty is indeed impressive. However, the readability and “debugability” of such code must be considered. Bugs are more difficult to locate in complex code than in simple, clearly laid-out code.

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6 TEXT FILE INPUT AND OUTPUT

6.1 Introduction MATLAB has several built-in functions that facilitate input and output of data from both binary and text files. Use of these functions removes the need to hard-code data into M-files and awkward cutting and pasting of data from other applications into the MATLAB environment. An overview of a few important functions is given in the following sub-sections. Examples showing the use of some of the functions are found in Appendix A.

6.1.1 fopen

The fopen function must be used before reading from or writing to a file. The syntax is given by

fid=fopen(filename,permission)

This function call opens the file indicated by the text string filename. The permission argument indicates both the type of file (i.e, text or binary) and mode in which it is to be opened (i.e., for reading or writing). Table 7.1 gives a list of some of the permission strings. Others can be found by typing

help fopen

Table 7.1. File Open Permission Strings

 Permission String Mode ‘r’ Read from a binary file ‘rt Read from a text file ‘w’ Write to a binary file (creates the file if nonexistant; erases all contents if file already exists) ‘wt’ Write to a text file

The return value, fid, is the handle to the file. It is integer-valued and if the file open operation was successful, is positive-valued. If fopen was unsuccessful, fid is equal to -1.

6.1.2 fscanf

The function fscanf is used to read data from a text file. (fread is used to read from a binary file.) The general syntax is

[a,count]=fscanf(fid,format,size)

The fid parameter is the handle to a previously opened text file. format instructs MATLAB what type of data is to be read from the file and is a text string made up of conversion specifiers similar to those of the C programming language. Some examples are given in Table 7.2. Others can be found by typing

help fscanf

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Table 7.2. Conversion Specifiers.

 Conversion Specifier Data Type Read ‘%f’ Floating point ‘%d’ Integer ‘%u’ Unsigned integer

The optional size argument tells MATLAB how many elements of type specified by format to read into the variable a. Possible entries are indicated in Table 7.3. If size is omitted, then fscanf reads the contents of the entire file.

Table 7.3. Possible Size Entries.

 Entry Function N Read at most N elements into a column vector. Inf Read at most to the end of the file. [M,N] Read at most M * N elements filling at least an M-by-N matrix, in column order. N can be inf, but not M.

The return value count is useful for error checking as it indicates the number of elements successfully read into the variable a.

6.1.3 fprintf

The function fprintf is used to write data to a text file. (fwrite is used to write data to a binary file.) The general syntax is

count=fprintf(fid,format,a…)

fprintf can take a variable

number of arguments to print as indicated by the ellipsis () after the first variable, a.

The return value count indicates the number of elements successfully written to the file.

The fid and format arguments are as in fscanf.

6.1.4 fclose

When finished reading from or writing to a file, the stream is closed using fclose, for which the syntax is

st=fclose(fid)

The st return value is set to 0 if successful and –1 if the file pointed to by fid could not be closed. Failure usually indicates the file is already closed.

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7 PLOTTING AND GRAPHICS

7.1 Overview of Plotting Functions MATLAB has many graphics and plotting tools available to represent data. Use of these is very helpful for visualising data from, for example, a least-squares adjustment. An example showing the use of the plot command is given in Appendix A. Some of the more relevant plotting functions are reviewed here. Details of each can be found in MATLAB help.

2-D plot of x and y data plot(x,y)

3-D plot of x, y and z data plot(x,y,z)

Display of a digital image (each element of the matrix c specifies the colour of an individual pixel) image(c)

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8 A WORKED EXAMPLE

8.1 Problem Statement

Estimation of the coefficients of a polynomial that optimally fits a set of point

observations is a classic problem for which the least-squares method is utilised. As an example, consider the set of point observations (x and y co-ordinates) listed in Table

8.1.

Table 8.1. Observed Point Co-ordinates.

 i x i y i 1 0 4.26 2 1.5 4.58 3 2 4.33 4 4 1.45 5 5.2 -1.61

Required is a parabola that best fits these data points. parameterised as

y

i

=+ a

01

ax

ax 2 ,

ii

2

+

Given that a parabola can be

(8.1)

the problem boils down to determination of the coefficients a 0 , a 1 and a 2 . Since there are more observations, 5, than unknowns, 3, this is an over-determined problem, which is highly desirable for least-squares estimation. In this problem, the x co- ordinates are considered as constants and the y co-ordinates are treated as the observations.

8.2 Least-Squares Solution

The least-squares solution begins with formation of a system of observation equations having the form

Ax + w = r ,

(8.2)

where A is the design matrix, x is the parameter vector, w is the misclosure vector, and r is the residual vector. The design matrix reflects the geometry of the problem, the parameter vector consists of the unknown parabola coefficients, the misclosure vector, in this case, is comprised of the observed y co-ordinates, and the elements of the residual vector represent the deviations of the data points from the best-fit parabola. The parameter and residual vectors are estimable quantities.

The formation and solution of Equation 8.2 is the core subject of Measurement and Adjustment Analysis. Neglecting for the moment the processes behind its formation, the form of this equation is given by

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1

1

1

1

1

x

x

x

x

x

10

12

4

1

1

1

15 .

5 . 2

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

2

1

2

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

a

a

a

0

1

2

0

2 . 25

4

16

27 . 04

a

a

a

+

y

y

y

y

y

1

2

3

4

5

=

r

r

1

r

2

r

3

r

4

5

0

1

2

+

.

4 26

4

.

.

.

4 58

r

r

1

2

3

4

r

5

22 = r

r

145

161

.

(8.3)

The least-squares solution is given (without proof) by

x

= −

(

T

AA

)

1

T

Aw .

(8.4)

Some other quantities of interest are the residual vector, r, computed via Equation 8.2, and the estimated variance factor, σ 0 , given by

2

2

σ 0

=

r

T

r

n

u

(8.5)

where n is the number of observations (5) and u the number of unknowns (3).

8.3 Solution in MATLAB

The MATLAB solution to the parabola fit problem has been formulated in a modular fashion. That is, each major task, such as file input, least-squares solution, etc., is located in a separate function M-file that is called by a main script M-file. The organisation is depicted in Table 8.2.

Table 8.2. MATLAB M-File Organisation.

 M-File Role example.m main script file my_input.m file input of point data form_eq.m form observation equations solution.m least squares solution my_output.m formatted output of results my_plot.m plotting of results

The source code for each file is given in Appendix A. The comments explain the function of each block of code. Note the documentation at the top of each M-file to indicate the purpose, arguments, return values, author and creation date. Read through the code carefully to become familiar with the style and good programming practise.

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The input data (the last two columns of Table 8.1) were contained within a text file called data.txt, the contents of which are shown below.

 0 4.26 1.5 4.58 2 4.33 4 1.45 5.2 -1.61

8.4 Results The formatted output, written to file data.out, is given below.

 A matrix 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.5000 2.2500 1.0000 2.0000 4.0000 1.0000 4.0000 16.0000 1.0000 5.2000 27.0400 w vector -4.2600 -4.5800 -4.3300 -1.4500 1.6100

solution vector

4.2662

0.7486

-0.3617

residual vector

0.0062

-0.0047

-0.0134

0.0234

-0.0115

variance factor

0.0005

The MATLAB plot of the data points and best-fit parabola is shown in Figure 8.1.

21 5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Figure 8.1. Observed Data Points and Best-Fit Parabola.

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APPENDIX A EXAMPLE SOURCE CODE

% example.m

% purpose: main script file for the least squares solution

% of the best fit parabola example

% Derek Lichti

% 28 August 2001

% read input data from file

[x,y]=my_input('data.txt');

% check for file open error and for minmum number of observations (3) if (size(x) < 1) break

end

% form observation equations [A,w]=form_eq(x,y);

% least squares solution

[sol_vect,resid,vf]=ls_solution(A,w);

% file output of results

my_output(A,w,sol_vect,resid,vf,'data.out');

% plotting of results

my_plot(x,y,sol_vect);

% ***end of file***

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function [x,y]=my_input(filename)

% my_input.m

% reads x and y co-ordinates from a text file given the file name

% and extension

% arguments:

% filename

% return values:

% vector of x co-ordinates

% vector of y co-ordinates

x

y

% both are null vectors if file open fails

% Derek Lichti

% 28 August 2001

% open file in text read mode fid=fopen(filename,'rt');

% check fid for success of file open request

% note use of logical equal operator == if (fid == -1)

x=0;

y=0;

return

end

% read data using a temporary variable

% [2,inf] tells MATLAB that there are 2 fields but an unknown

% number of entries

% %f tells MATLAB that the input data are floating point numbers temp= fscanf(fid,'%f',[2,inf]);

% transpose and divide temporary matrix into x and y temp=temp';

% this assigns all elements the first column to x

x=temp(:,1);

% this assigns all elements the second column to y

y=temp(:,2);

% close file--very important fclose(fid);

% ***end of file***

24

function [A,w]=form_eq(x,y)

% form_eq.m

% given the x and y co-ordinates, the A and w matrices are formed

% arguments:

% vector of x co-ordinates

% vector of y co-ordinates

x

y

% return values:

% the design matrix

% the misclosure vector

% Derek Lichti

% 23 October 2001

A

w

% determine the number of points n=max(size(x));

% allocate memory

A=zeros(n,3);

w=zeros(n,1);

% form A and w

for i=1:n

A(i,1)=1;

A(i,2)=x(i);

A(i,3)=x(i)^2;

w(i)=-y(i);

end

% ***end of file***

25

function [sol_vect,resid,var_fact]=ls_solution(A,w)

% ls_solution.m

% given the A and w matrices, various least squares solution

% quantities are calculated

% arguments:

% the design matrix

% the misclosure vector

% return values:

% sol_vect

% resid

% var_fact

% Derek Lichti

% 23 October 2001

A

w

the solution vector (x)

the residual vector

the variance factor

% calc solution vector

sol_vect=-inv(A'*A)*A'*w;

% residual vector

resid=A*sol_vect+w;

% calc n and u from dimensions of A [n,u]=size(A);

var_fact=resid'*resid/(n-u);

% ***end of file***

26

function my_output(A,w,sol_vect,resid,vf,filename);

% my_output.m

% function to write least squares output to filename

% arguments

% A

% w

% sol_vect

% resid

% vf

% filename

% return values

% none

% Derek Lichti

% 23 October 2001

the design matrix

the misclosure vector

the LS solution vector

the residual vector

the variance factor

the output filename with extension

% open file in text write mode fid=fopen(filename,'wt');

% check fid for success of file open request

% note use of logical equal operator == if (fid == -1) return

end

% determine n and u from A [n,u]=size(A);

% write output with specified precision

% A matrix--note use of field width and precision values fprintf(fid,'A matrix\n'); for i=1:n for j=1:u

fprintf(fid,'%8.4f',A(i,j));

end

fprintf(fid,'\n');

end

% other quantities

fprintf(fid,'\nw vector\n'); for i=1:n

fprintf(fid,'%8.4f\n',w(i));

end

fprintf(fid,'\nsolution vector\n'); for i=1:u

fprintf(fid,'%8.4f\n',sol_vect(i));

end

fprintf(fid,'\nresidual vector\n'); for i=1:n

fprintf(fid,'%8.4f\n',resid(i));

end

fprintf(fid,'\nvariance factor %8.4f', vf);

% close file

fclose(fid);

% ***end of file***

27

function my_plot(x,y,sol_vect);

 % my_plot.m % function to plot observed data points and best fit curve % arguments % x,y the observed point coordinates

% sol_vect

% return values

% none

% Derek Lichti

% 23 October 2001

the LS solution vector

% plot observed data as discrete points (diamonds) plot(x,y,'d');

% this allows two series to plotted on the same graph hold on

% plot curve from -1 to 6 with 100 linearly spaced values

x_curve=linspace(-1,6);

% calc curve from solution vector n=max(size(x_curve));

y_curve=zeros(n,1);

for i=1:n

y_curve(i)=sol_vect(1)+sol_vect(2)*x_curve(i)+sol_vect(3)*x_curve(i)^

2;

end

plot(x_curve,y_curve);

hold off

% ***end of file***