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Rev.

for Fac.

designing

Ing. - Univ.

indirect

Tarapacá,

sensors vol.

applied

14 Nº

to 1,

an2006,

induction

pp. 95-101

motor

APPLIED TO AN INDUCTION MOTOR

APLICADO A UN MOTOR DE INDUCCIÓN

Gonzalo Valdés-González1 Héctor Valdés-González2 Juan Zolezzi3

Received: June 28, 2005 Accepted: January 24, 2006

RESUMEN

Este artículo propone una novedosa estrategia aplicada al problema de estimación no lineal de estados en un motor de

inducción (MI). Este método permite, en general, la estimación de variables de difícil acceso o que simplemente no se

pueden medir. Lo cual es posible a través de mediciones indirectas, considerando un modelo dinámico del proceso y un

algoritmo de estimación basado en optimización no lineal. El principal atractivo de esta estrategia de estimación de

estados denominada MHSE (Moving Horizon State Estimation) en un MI, que permite conocer la magnitud del flujo, la

velocidad o posición del rotor, es su simplicidad de implementación, sus buenas características de convergencia, su

independencia de estructuras preestablecidas de modelos y su fácil sintonía. Resultados en simulación muestran la

efectividad del método propuesto efectuando la estimación de la velocidad de un MI bajo diferentes puntos de operación.

Palabras clave: MHSE, estimación de estados, motor de inducción, optimización no lineal, horizonte móvil.

ABSTRACT

This article proposes an innovative strategy to the problem of non-linear estimation of states in an induction motor, (IM).

This method allows the estimation of variables that are difficult to access or that are simply impossible to measure. The

estimation is made possible by using indirect measures, through the consideration of a dynamic model of the process and

an estimation algorithm based on non-linear optimization. This state estimation strategy (a.k.a. Moving Horizon State

Estimation or MHSE) in an IM allows the determination of the flux magnitude and the velocity or position of the rotor. Its

principal advantages are the simplicity of its implementation, good convergence characteristics, independence from pre-

established model structures, and easy tuning. Simulated results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method

through estimates of the velocity of an IM under different operational situations.

Keywords: MHSE, state estimation, induction motor, non-linear optimization, moving horizon.

mechanical performance requirements, it may be

Different industrial applications of IMs require good necessary to know the flux and/or velocity to control an

dynamic response and precise control of torque and/or IM, especially when it is desirable to minimize losses.

velocity (in electric traction, machine tools, etc.) At For the operation of closed loop IMs, conventional

present these requirements can be met through electronic approaches employ a velocity sensor, which is usually

control of the IM [1]. Whichever of the various control mechanically linked to the axis of the motor. However,

techniques is employed, the flux magnitude and the the use of these sensors has a number of inconveniences,

velocity or position of the rotor must be known with among which are:

1 Escuela de Negocios, Universidad de Tarapacá, Av. 11 de Septiembre N° 2222, Casilla 6-D, Arica, Chile, gvaldes@uta.cl

2 Departamento de Computación e Informática, Universidad de Tarapacá, Av. 11 de Septiembre N° 2222, Casilla 6-D, Arica, Chile, hvaldes@uta.cl

3 Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad de Santiago, Av. Ecuador 3519, Casilla 10233, Santiago, Chile, jzolezzi@lauca.usach.cl

Rev. Fac. Ing. - Univ. Tarapacá, vol. 14 Nº 1, 2006 95

Rev. Fac. Ing. - Univ. Tarapacá, vol. 14 Nº 1, 2006

• Less dependability and robustness ( )

= f x, u

(1)

dt

• Less immunity to noise

• Greater maintenance

y=g x()

Due to these inconveniences, different methods have been The first stage of the model (1) represents the dynamic

proposed for estimating the velocity or position of the evolution of the process. The second stage of the model

rotor in an IM that eliminate the need for sensors. There represents the relationship between the inputs (not

are different velocity-estimating strategies based on necessarily measurable), and the output measurements.

measures of tensions and currents in the stator, among It is assumed that the output is measured in certain discrete

which are extended observers such as EKF (Extended instances denoted t0 ,...tk .

Kalman Filter) [2], and those of a non-linear nature such

as UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter) [3]. Although these The objective of the estimation is to provide a state value

methods have given rise to a variety of applications, they

have disadvantages such as the associated mathematical ()

x̂ t where t f tk , using the process model and the

complexities, their limitation to certain types of processes

(for example a hybrid process), non-guaranteed previous values of the input 1 u t = u t0 ,..., u tk

() ( ( ) ( )) ,

convergence, and the fact that they can only be

implemented by specialists. () ( ( ) ( )) . An algorithm

and the output 1 y t = y t0 ,..., y tk

This paper presents a method that is designed to avoid which considers the measurement y ( t ) can be

k

these weaknesses, i.e. a method that guarantees considered as a virtual sensor which can indirectly

convergence (by using non-linear models to carry out an

estimation of states-given that the estimation strategy measure x t . The key component of such an algorithm

()

proposed allows the use of these models regardless of

their structure), and that can be used by non-specialists is the function 1 u k , 1 y k q Xˆ = xˆ tk

( () ( )) { ( )} , which

[9], [12] as there are fewer parameters to configure. In can be understood as a set of estimated states that are a

order to achieve these objectives this article presents the type of inversion of the dynamic system associated to

development of an estimation algorithm for flux and the system’s past history. This set will only have one

velocity based on non-linear optimization of states, and element if, and only if, the system is observable [4], which

validates it by means of simulations. This algorithm is can be difficult to ascertain when considering a

called Moving Horizon State Estimation or MHSE. generalized non-linear system. It is therefore assumed

that the model represented by (1) is perfectly known and

The work is organized as follows: Initially, the non-linear observable.

estimation method MHSE is presented. This is followed

by a presentation of the non-linear model of the induction In this case, the accuracy of the state vector x̂ t depends

()

motor which will be used for carrying out estimates. The on the level of noise in the measurement. A good estimator

non-linear estimation algorithm under consideration is should be able to eliminate the effect of such noise. On

then implemented, and applied to an IM through the contrary, if there are perturbations in the system’s

simulations that verify the benefits of the methods and states, in other words unexpected variations in one or

the estimation strategy outlined previously. more state variables, the estimating algorithm’s role (in

the present case the MHSE method) will be to follow

these perturbations as quickly as possible, because this

MOVING HORIZON STATE ESTIMATION implies a modification of the state of the process.

The problem of estimation With respect to estimation algorithms, there are various

approximations proposed in the literature. The most

Consider the generic non-linear model (1) for a typical famous non-linear model is EKF [2]-[5], which is an

process, where represents the system states vector, the extension of the linear Kalman filter for a non-linear case

input vector and the output or measurement vector. with a linearized model. This implies that when EKF is

applied to a non-linear system, it is not possible to

guarantee the convergence and stability of the filter.

Valdés et al.:An optimisation-based approach for designing indirect sensors applied to an induction motor

Also problematic is the fact that EKF requires statistical to y (ti). The subscripts sh and k represent the origin of

knowledge (covariance matrices) regarding the impact the horizon and present time respectively (end of the

of noise on the states and on the output, which are not horizon). x̂sh denotes the state vector at the beginning of

readily obtainable. A bad approximation of the covariance the time horizon, such that we can predict the trajectory

matrices will lead to poor results in the estimation. By of Yk over the pre-selected time horizon on the basis of

applying this technique non-linear estimations have been this vector.

implemented for an IM [3], taking into consideration

(2)

T

different classes of non-linear models [6], [7]. ¬® yˆ sh yˆ sh+1 ... yˆ k ¼¾ = G xˆsh , tsh , tk

( )

It has been possible to develop specific non-linear Where G xˆsh , tsh , tk is defined as:

( )

observers for certain classes of systems. In these

instances, the convergence of the observers can be ¬ g x ( ti )

( ) ¼

established although mathematical developments are ½

required that are often beyond the expertise of the persons g F x , ti , ti+1

( ( )) ½

implementing them, and moreover, they are limited to (

G x , ti , t j ) =

½

½ (3)

the category of systems for which they were conceived ½

[11], [12]. ( (

g F x , ti , t j

® )) ½

¾

and the typical disadvantages of classical non-linear Likewise, F x , ti , tl is expressed by:

( )

estimation strategies, this paper presents an algorithm

based on non-linear optimization on a horizon which is

finite and moving in time. This method would seem to

tl

F x , ti , tl = x ti + µ f x Y , u Y d Y

( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( )) (4)

be a better solution for industrial purposes in the

estimation of states applied to an IM.

ti

The Principle behind the MHSE method The principle of the method then is the determination of

the state vector x̂ sh such that:

The MHSE method involves replacing a dynamic

estimation problem with a static non-linear optimization *

xˆsh = arg min ¬® J xˆsh ¼¾ ( ) (5)

problem. The defining criterion for this type of problem

is the sum of the quadratic error between the input and

output measurements estimated by the process model From (5) criterion J(.) can be rewritten as:

during a predefined time horizon. The minimization of

this criterion seeks to determine the estimated state xˆ(t )

(6)

1 T

at the beginning of the time horizon, such that this leads ( )

J xˆsh = R R

2 k k

to a minimization between observed measurements and

the predicted trajectory in the time horizon. It should be

Where Rk is the residues vector, expressed as:

noted that in the linear case, the problem can be easily

resolved and a formal solution can be established.

Nonetheless, a non-linear analytic solution cannot be Rk = Yk G xˆsh , tsh , tk

( ) (7)

established for the problem, and it must be solved

numerically through non-linear optimization which forms The observability of the system (1) is restricted by the

the basis of the proposed method. existence and uniqueness of the solution of problem (5),

i.e. this solution will have a unique element if, and only

First, we shall describe the optimization criterion of if, the system is observable. For further details, see [4],

MHSE which must be minimized. We will consider the [9], [12], [14].

non-linear model described in (1), with a single output

in order to simplify notation where MHSE algorithm based on the BFGS method

Yk = ¬® ysh ysh+1 … yk ¼¾ are the measurements of the

T

output in the horizon under consideration, with yi equal

vector x̂k in real time, based on xˆ*sh obtained from the

Rev. Fac. Ing. - Univ. Tarapacá, vol. 14 Nº 1, 2006

two principal parts. The first is a minimization stage and

2 ½½

1

2

the second is a predictive stage, ideally described as

2 3½

follows:

abc 3

¬®T ¼¾ = 0 ½

(9)

FG 0 3 2 2 ½

1) Initialization of the states vector x̂ sh 1 1 1 ½

2) Search for the optimum states vector xˆ*sh ½

® 6 6 6 ¾

a) Prediction of measurements over the complete

horizon: G xˆsh , tsh , tk

( ) Note that the subzero variable is equal to zero due to the

b) Calculation of J ( xˆsh ) balancing conditions. In (8) f can represent voltages,

currents or fluxes, v , i, K respectively. From this it is

( )

c) While J possible to obtain the following voltage equations for the

( ) | 0 , do:

i

xˆsh

rotor and stator [7]:

i+1

xˆsh = xˆsh M i J xˆsh

i

( ) WKsFG = vsFG Rs isFG (10)

d) If J ( ) =0¡

i

xˆsh *

xˆsh = xˆ´ish

3) Calculation of the states vector in present time: WKrFG = Tr jwr KrFG + Tr Lm isFG

( ) (11)

*

(

xˆk* = F xˆsh , tsh , tk ) In (10) and (11), W represents the operator d / dt. Ls,

4) Return to step 2) to calculate *

xˆk+1 , with Lr, Lm are the inductances of the stator, the rotor and the

magnetization respectively. Rs, Rr represent the stator and

sh o sh + 1 rotor resistances respectively. Finally, the equations

Tr = Rr / Lr and X = 1 L2m / Ls Lr can be verified,

*

xˆsh = F xˆsh(, tsh , tsh+1 . ) where wr represents the angular velocity of the rotor.

Considering these equivalencies, the mechanical motion

In the previous algorithm, Mi corresponds to the Quasi- of the system is described by:

Newtonian procedure proposed by Broyden-Fletcher-

Goldberg-Shamo (BFGS) for updating the approximation

n p Te TL

( ) R w

of the inverse of the Hessian of J (.) [8], in the W wr = w r

(12)

minimization of the criterion (6). The convergence of the I I

estimations carried out with MHSE is directly related to

the convergence of the optimization algorithm used to Considering the previous model in a rotational reference

solve (5) (for details see [9]). frame d – q, oriented in such a manner that the flux vector

KrFG of the rotor has axis direction d, an additional

simplification of the mathematical model can be made.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL This simplification shows the independence between the

OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR angle of the magnetic axis of the rotor and the magnetic

axis of the stator. The transformation of the coordinates

The mathematical model of the IM that we will use is from the variables FG to the reference frame d – q is

also described in [1], [7], [10]. In this model the voltage given by the following form:

equations can be written in a stationary reference frame

FG 0 . This can be done by using the following coordinate FG

(13)

T T

transformation: ¬ fd

® f q ¼¾ = ¬®T ¼¾ ·¬® fF

dq

f G ¼¾

FG

In (13), the matrix ¬®T ¼¾ dq can be written as:

(8)

T

¬ fF f0 ¼¾ = ¬®T ¼¾ ·¬® f a

abc T

® fG fb f c ¼¾

FG 0

abc

(14)

Valdés et al.:An optimisation-based approach for designing indirect sensors applied to an induction motor

Taking these considerations into account, a mathematical considered for this purpose is equivalent to a 1.1 KW,

model of the IM can be obtained [1], [13], which can be 220/380 V, 50 Hz and 1500 rpm motor. Additionally this

expressed as follows: model has the following typical characteristics:

Rs = 8 < Rw = 0.005 Nm

In which (15) is completely determined by the following Lr = 0.47 H np = 2

relationships where isd , isq represent the stator currents,

Krd , Krq the rotor fluxes, usd , usq the stator voltages, I Ls = 0.47 H Lm = 0.452 H

the moment of inertia of the machine, np the number of

pole pairs, T L the load torque, T r the rotor time For the estimation trials of the angular velocity w of the

constant and Rw the friction associated with motion. IM rotor, the following three possibilities have been

T considered:

x = ¬® isd isq Krd Krq wr ¼¾

T a) No perturbations.

u = ¬®usd usq ¼¾ b) Instantaneous perturbations of the output w of the

simulated system.

c) Cyclic perturbations of the output w of the simulated

¬ K ¼ system.

L isd + Krd + W Kwr Krq ½

Tr ½

½ Figure 1 corresponds to case a) (no perturbations) and

shows excellent coherence between the simulated angular

K

L isq W Kwr Krd + Krq ½

T r ½ velocity w of the IM rotor, and its corresponding

Lm 1

½ estimation by the proposed MHSE method. The

f x =

() i K W wr Krq ½

convergence time for the estimation method is less than

Tr sd Tr rd ½

½ t = 0.2 seconds.

Lm 1

isq + W wr Krd Krq ½

Tr Tr ½

½

Lm 1 ½

np

® I · Lr

(

Krd isq Krq isd TL + Rw wr

I

) ( ) ½

¾

T

¬ 1 ¼

X L 0 0 0 0½

g = s ½

1 ½

0 0 0 0½

® X Ls ½¾

Lm Rs R L2

K= L = + r m2

X Ls Lr X Ls X Ls Lr Fig. 1 Angular velocity for the IM under consideration

-reference (in blue), and estimated (in red).

Remark: In f ( x ) , the load torque TL is employed as a

known parameter in order to estimate IM states using the If we consider more realistic working conditions for an

MHSE method. This strategy has been used by several IM, as for example case b), figure 2 presents the estimates

different authors; see for example [1], [2], [11], [13]. achieved for four consecutive torque perturbations. The

first three perturbations, typical of industrial processes,

SIMULATION occur for t = 0.8, t = 1.2 and t = 1.8 seconds respectively

in the simulation. The fourth considers an instantaneous

The application of the MHSE method to an IM has been perturbation in velocity (representing a 10% loss of

carried out through a computer simulation. The IM model velocity) at t = 2.5 seconds. For each of these

Rev. Fac. Ing. - Univ. Tarapacá, vol. 14 Nº 1, 2006

perturbations, the coherence obtained between the to solve the proposed optimization problem. This problem

estimation and the simulated process, and the derives from the need to carry out estimations of the

convergence times are excellent. angular velocity of the rotor in an IM. The simulations

of three possible cases have been presented, and all show

an excellent coherence between simulated and estimated

process variables, as well as a good response time. These

features lead us to believe that an experimental application

of the MHSE technique, together with the control laws,

may produce industrially useful results.

FUTURE WORK

for other non-linear estimation methods, such as EKF

(Extended Kalman Filter) and UKF (Unscented Kalman

Filter), especially with respect to response times and

precision.

Fig. 2 Estimation considering perturbations in w :

Reference (in blue) and estimation (in red)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Finally figure 3 also shows good, coherent results with

good convergence times between the obtained estimation The authors wish to thank the Department of Electrical

and the theoretical simulation of the process for each of Engineering at the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, the

the perturbations. This process considers cyclical Fondecyt Project 1030067, and the Computer and

variations in torque as perturbations, with t = 0.9 seconds, Information Engineering Department at the Universidad

such as the start up of a compressor. de Tarapacá for their support which enabled this research

project to take place. The second author also wishes to

thank the “Fundación Andes” for the grant C-14060/17

“Inicio de carrera para jovenes investigadores” which also

partially supported this work.

REFERENCES

nonlinear multivariable control strategy of

induction motors”. Control Engineering Practice.

Vol. 10, pp. 605-613. 2002.

[2] K.L. Shi, T.F. Chan, Y.K. Wong, S.L. Ho. “Speed

estimation of an induction motor drive using an

Fig. 3 Simulation (in blue) and estimation w (in red) optimized extended Kalman filter”. IEEE

for cyclical variations in torque Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Vol.49,

Iss.1, pp.124-133, Feb. 2002.

study on Kalman filtering techniques designed

This paper presents an innovative method for the for state estimation of industrial AC drive

estimation of states in an IM based on non-linear systems”. Proceedings of the IEEE International

optimization. This method is called MHSE, and is based Conference on Mechatronics. ICM ’04. June 3-

on the minimization of a non-linear criterion. In this case, 5, pp. 439- 445. 2004.

the classic Quasi-Newtonian BFGS method has been used

Valdés et al.:An optimisation-based approach for designing indirect sensors applied to an induction motor

[4] D. Aeyels. “On the number of samples necessary indicateur de qualité”. PhD thesis, Laboratory of

to achieve observability”. Syst. Contr. Lett. Vol. Automatic Control of Grenoble (LAG). Francia.

1, pp. 92-94. 1981. 1996.

[5] C. Manes, F. Parasiliti, and M. Tursini. “A [10] I. Barbi. “Teoria Fundamental do Motor de

comparative study of rotor flux estimation in Indução”. Florianopolis: Ed. da UFSC,

induction motors with a nonlinear observer and Electrobrás. 1985.

the extended Kalman filter”. in Proc. IEEE

IECON’94, pp. 2149-2154. 1994. [11] M. Alamir. “Sensitivity analysis in simultaneous

state/parameter estimation for induction motors”.

[6] S. Chávez-Velázquez, R. Alejos-Palomares, A. International Journal of Control. Vol 75. Nº 10,

Nava-Segura. “Speed Estimation for an Induction pp. 753-758. 2002.

Motor Using the Extended Kalman Filter”.

Proceedings of the 14th International Conference [12] M. Alamir. “Optimization Based Nonlinear

on Electronics, Communications and Computers Observers Revisited”. International Journal of

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[13] P. Cataldi, W. Geri, M. Montanari and A. Tilli,

[7] L. Salvatore, S. Stasi, and L. Tarchioni. “A new “A new adaptive approach for on-line parameter

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[14] G. Valdés-González. “Comparación de

[8] D. Luenberger “Linear and Nonlinear algoritmos no lineales de estimación de estados

Programming”. Second edition. Addison-Wesley aplicados a un motor de inducción: estudio basado

Publishing Company, Inc. 1984. en simulación computacional”. MSc thesis (in

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