This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PART 1 DEMINING
Edition 9, Version 1 01 April 2008
Additional Standards and Guidelines: Part 2 – Information Management and Reporting Part 3 – Mine Risk Education (MRE)
FRONT COVER CONTENTS FORWARD & INTRODUCTION GMAA, SURVEY AND DANGEROUS AREA MARKING SITE PREPARATION AND SETTING OUT MINE/UXO CLEARANCE MARKING SYSTEMS MANUAL MINE CLEARANCE EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL (EOD) NOTICE TO AIR MOVEMENT (NOTAM) BATTLE AREA CLEARANCE (BAC) MECHANICAL DEMINING MINE DETECTION DOGS (MDD) MEDICAL SUPPORT, TRAINING AND CASUALTY EVACUATION COMMUNICATIONS TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS QUALITY ASSURANCE INVESTIGATING MINE/UXO ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH & SAFETY MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL SURVEY MANAGEMENT OF DEMINING OPERATIONS HUMAN REMAINS AND GRAVES LOCATED DURING MINE ACTION OPERATIONS REMOTE EXPLOSIVE SCENT TRACING (REST) ACCREDITATION OF DEMINING ORGANISATIONS ROAD/ROUTE SURVEY AND CLEARANCE STRUCTURE FOR DEMINING OPERATIONS TASK ADMINISTRATION LANDMINE IMPACT SURVEY
Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Chapter 11: Chapter 12: Chapter 13: Chapter 14: Chapter 15: Chapter 16: Chapter 17: Chapter 18: Chapter 19: Chapter 20: Chapter 21: Chapter 22: Chapter 23: Chapter 24: Chapter 25:
Page 1 of 2 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
CHAPTER Forward & Introduction Forward & Introduction Chapter 1 GMAA, Survey & DA Marking Chapter 3 Mine/UXO Clearance Marking System Chapter 5 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Chapter 6 Notice To Air Movement Chapter 7 Battle Area Clearance Chapter 7 Battle Area Clearance Chapter 9 Mine Detection Dogs Chapter 9 Mine Detection Dogs Chapter 9 Mine Detection Dogs Chapter 9 Mine Detection Dogs Chapter 10 Medical Chapter 10 Medical Chapter 11 Communications Chapter 12 Transport & Storage of Explosives Chapter 12 Transport & Storage of Explosives Chapter 12 Transport & Storage of Explosives Chapter 14 Quality Management System Chapter 14 Quality Management System Chapter 14 Quality Management System Chapter 14 Quality Management System Chapter 15 Investigating Mine/UXO Accidents & Incidents Chapter 15 Investigating Mine/UXO Accidents & Incidents Chapter 15 Investigating Mine/UXO Accidents & Incidents Chapter 15 Investigating Mine/UXO Accidents & Incidents Chapter 18 Management of Demining Operations Chapter 21 Accreditation of Demining Orgs Chapter 21 Accreditation of Demining Orgs Chapter 21 Accreditation of Demining Orgs Chapter 21 Accreditation of Demining Orgs Chapter 21 Accreditation of Demining Orgs Chapter 22 Road/Route Survey & Clearance Chapter 22 Road/Route Survey & Clearance Chapter 22 Road/Route Survey & Clearance Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration Chapter 24 Clearance Task Administration ANNEX A B A A A A A B A B C D A B A A A B A B C C A B C D A A B C D E A B C A B C D E F G TITLE Amendments Glossary Marking Systems Marking areas Locating CDS & Procedures During Its Operation NOTAM Request Sub-munitions footprint BAC MDD Accreditation MDD Clearance Procedure MDD First Aid Kit MDD Log Books Training Matrix Sudan Casevac Plan Sudan National & Regional Communications Plan (Pending) Explosive Storage Appendix 1 ELL Safety Dist. Storage Mine Action Organisations Responsibilities External Monitoring Planning External Monitoring Report Format Appendix 1 Post Visit Report Formal Investigation Guide Detailed Investigation Report Guide Conveying Order & Terms of Reference BOI / Independent Investigation Team Demining Process Accreditation Process Training Declaration Desk Provisional Accreditation Certificate Operational Provisional Accreditation Certificate Operational Accreditation Certificate Follow-on clearance Arrow-head formation Permanent Fencing Task Dossier Cover Task Dossier Contents Sample Task Dossier Sample Implementation Plan Handover/Declaration Certificate Task Operations Brief Task Safety Brief
Page 2 of 2 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Reference: International Mine Action Standards, 3rd Edition (2005)
1. The National Technical Standards & Guidelines (NTSG) for humanitarian demining1 in Sudan are essential to enable the National Mine Action Office (NMAO) to plan and assess humanitarian demining being conducted in any form by mine action organisations2 within the Sudan Mine Action Programme (SudanMAP). The mine action organisation may be involved in one or more of the following humanitarian demining activities in Sudan: a. Mine Risk Education (MRE) b. Humanitarian demining – refers to all mine action activities reasonably expected to be undertaken during: (1) Landmine Impact Survey (2) General Mine Action Assessment (GMAA) (3) Technical Survey (4) Manual Mine Clearance (MMC) (5) Road/Route Survey &/or Verification &/or Clearance Operations (6) Mechanical Demining Operations (7) Mine Detection Dogs (MDD) Operations (8) Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Operations (9) Battle Area Clearance (BAC) Operations inclusive of surface / subsurface (10) Remote Explosive Scent Tracing (REST) (11) Humanitarian Demining Operations involving two or more of MMC, MMD, Mechanical and/or other aforementioned activities usually referred to as ‘Integrated Operations’. c. Stockpile reduction A separate technical standard, Part 2, is provided for Information Management and Part 3 is provided for MRE 2. The aim of this and the other aforementioned technical standards is to provide mine action organisations with references for the conduct and management of humanitarian demining activities within the SudanMAP. They have been produced using experiences gained locally and incorporate lessons and best practices learned in other theatres worldwide. 3. This document is not intended to replace or replicate Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) nor does it absolve mine action organisations from the responsibility to produce their own SOPs. Conversely, these NTSG are intended to be used as an aid in developing SOP’s, by detailing the minimum standards and accepted methods for conducting humanitarian demining as part of the SudanMAP.
1 The term ‘humanitarian demining’ is used henceforth within Edition 9 to describe and/or refer to the planning, implementation and/or conduct of all mine action projects and/or tasks and/or associated activities within Sudan. 2 The term ‘mine action organisation’ is used henceforth within Edition 9 to refer to any organisation be they government, NGO, military or commercial entity, prime or sub-contractor, consultant or agent involved in any way in humanitarian demining in Sudan Page 1 of 4 NTSG Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
4. Variations in procedures and methods of operation are to be expected amongst the different mine action organisations. These NTSG provide an example of practices accepted by the United Nations Mine Action Office (UNMAO), and provide a basis for comparison during the desk and operational accreditation process. 5. Organisations that do not conform to the standards outlined in this document shall not be accredited to work within the SudanMAP. Additionally, accredited mine action organisations that do not continue to comply and adhere with the terms of their accreditation i.e. continue to apply the standards and details of accredited SOPs; may have their accreditation suspended or removed. 6. The following terms used throughout this document indicate specific levels of obligation: a. ‘Shall’ is used to indicate a requirements, methods or specifications that are to be applied in order to conform to the standard. b. ‘Should’ is used to indicate the preferred requirements, methods or specifications c. ‘May’ is used to indicate a possible method or course of action. 7. This document is designed to be a “living” document. The procedures and practices shall be continually reviewed in order to ensure they remain relevant to the current mine and UXO situation, and keep up with advances in technology. 8. Where necessary this document meets and exceeds those minimum standards set out in the International Mine Action Standards and should be read in conjunction with that publication at all times.
J. PANSEGROUW Director of Mine Action / Programme Manager United Nations Mine Action Office, Sudan 01 April 2008
Page 2 of 4 NTSG Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
1. In accordance to ‘Security Resolution 1590’, the United Nations Mine Action Office (UNMAO) Sudan, has been appointed by the National Mine Action Office (NMAO) who represent the Government of Sudan (GoS) and the Southern Sudan Demining Commission (SSDC) that represents the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) to co-ordinate and facilitate all humanitarian demining activities in Sudan. This includes the establishment of technical standards for humanitarian demining, accreditation of mine action organisations and the quality assurance tasks completed by such organisations. This requires: a. The establishment of minimum standards for humanitarian demining to include the safety of people directly or indirectly involved in the work, the quality of the work (level of clearance), medical evacuation procedures and common activities such as minefield marking and reporting. b. The identification of acceptable procedures that shall provide guidelines for the conduct of clearance operations. These shall provide the basis for SOP’s to be developed by mine action organisations. c. The evaluation and approval of SOP’s and training programmes submitted by the mine action organisations. d. The formulation of minimum standards which must be fulfilled in order to receive accreditation to conduct mine action operations within Sudan. e. The preparation of an evaluation ground for dogs and criteria for the evaluation of dogs. f. Quality Assurance (QA) of humanitarian demining activities. The standards in this document have been written in conjunction with the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS). Where necessary these minimum standards have been enhanced to provide the most appropriate level of safety required for humanitarian demining operations in Sudan.
NATIONAL TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
2. The NTSG shall be adhered to by all mine action organisations. 3. This NTSG provides limited explanations for conducting specific humanitarian demining activities in order to provide the minimum requirements for conducting recommended and proven clearance methods safely and effectively. In the absence of additional clarification from IMAS, an amendment shall be made to the NTSG by the UNMAO. In circumstances where the organisation intends to conduct specific procedures which are not detailed in the NTSG or IMAS, prior authorisation must be granted by the UNMAO. In this and all cases mine action organisations will be required to have their SOPs and on-site humanitarian demining activities accredited as detailed in Chapter 21. 4. Any amendments to the NTSG must be authorised by the Director of Mine Action or Chief of Staff / Deputy Programme Manager for the UNMAO.
Page 3 of 4 NTSG Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Version 1 . Page 4 of 4 NTSG Part 1. To allow the UNMAO to effectively monitor all humanitarian demining activities conducted in Sudan and to achieve an accepted standard of competence and operational best practice. Edition 9. all organisations are required to conform to the necessary accreditation requirements before and during humanitarian demining activities in Sudan. All mine action organisations must provide the UNMAO with a complete set of SOPs in English that covers all humanitarian demining activities that they wish to be authorised to conduct. ACCREDITATION REQUIREMENTS 6.STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) 5.
ANNEX A to Foreword & Intro
Amendments to this document will be published from periodically. An accurate record of amendments is to be maintained in the table below. Any comments, suggestions or proposed amendments to this document should be addressed to: National QA Coordinator, United Nations Mine Action Office – SudanMAP Ser 01 02 03 Date 01/10/07 01/10/07 01/10/07 Chapter Cover page Amendments 3 Paragraph Old New n/a n/a n/a 1.2f n/a 1.2f Amendment Amended to reflect Version change Amended to reflect Version change ‘When used during clearance operations, small red topped pickets or red rocks shall be positioned between the long red topped post or large rocks at a minimum of 2 metre intervals’ amended to read ‘When used during clearance operations, small red topped pickets or red rocks shall be positioned between the long red topped post or large rocks at a maximum of 2 metre intervals’. Final sentence added – ‘This will normally be necessary when visibility between long pickets/large stones is restricted due to terrain and/or vegetation’. In the 5th sentence all after – ‘…… the Remarks/Reason Amendments as detailed in Serials – 4, 5 and 6 Amendments as detailed in Serials – 4, 5 and 6 For clarity and accurateness of the required standard
To provide an explanation
Original detail was incorrect.
deminer shall be moved to an alternative lane…..’ – is deleted.
Page 1 of 1 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 8, Version 4
ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro
GLOSSARY OF MINE ACTION TERMS, DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
This Glossary is taken direct from the current edition of IMAS and provides a summary of the mine action terms, definitions and abbreviations used in mine action. If two or more alternative definitions are in common use, then both are given in this glossary. All of the terms listed within this glossary may not have been used in this NTSG. They are however included should the requirement to include them in the drafting of mine action organisations SOPs or other documentation arise. When a term listed in this glossary has been used within the NTSG it is not generally accompanied by the definition. For purposes of clarity and conformity this glossary should be referred to at these times. All mine action organisations are requested to apply these principals during the compilation of SOPs, referring to an activity, task or other or when the need to refer to the relevant term is required. Abandoned Explosive Ordnance (AXO) explosive ordnance that has not been used during an armed conflict, that has been left behind or dumped by a party to an armed conflict, and which is no longer under control of the party that left it behind or dumped it. Abandoned explosive ordnance may or may not have been primed, fuzed, armed or otherwise prepared for use. (CCW protocol V) acceptance the formal acknowledgement by the sponsor, or the sponsor’s nominated representative that the equipment meets the stated requirements and is suitable for use in mine action programmes. An acceptance may be given with outstanding caveats. access lane a marked passage leading through a mined area that has been cleared to provide safe movement to a required point or area. accident an undesired event which results in harm. Note: Modified from definition in OHSAS 18001:1999. accreditation the procedure by which a demining organisation is formally recognised as competent and able to plan, manage and operationally conduct mine action activities safely, effectively and efficiently. Note: For most mine action programmes, the NMAA will be the body which provides accreditation. International organisations such as the United Nations or regional bodies may also introduce accreditation schemes.
Page 1 of 32 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro
ISO 9000 usage is that an ‘Accreditation’ body accredits the ’Certification or Registration’ bodies that award ISO 9000 certificates to organisations. The usage in IMAS is completely different to this, and is based on the main definition above, which is well understood in the mine action community.
accreditation body an organisation, normally an element of the NMAA, responsible for the management and implementation of the national accreditation system. advocacy in the context of mine action, the term refers to …. public support, recommendation or positive publicity with the aim of removing, or at least reducing, the threat from, and the impact of, mines and UXO. agreement an alternative term for a contract. An agreement includes all the crucial elements of a contract. Note: Definition when used in a legal sense. alienation in the context of mine action, the term refers to …. the transfer of ownership or property rights following the handover of cleared land. Amended Protocol II (APII) Amended Protocol II (APII) to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW). Note: It prohibits the use of all undetectable anti-personnel mines and regulates the use of wider categories of mines, booby-traps and other devices. For the purposes of the IMAS, Article 5 lays down requirements for the marking and monitoring of mined areas. Article 9 provides for the recording and use of information on minefields and mined areas. The Technical Annex provides guidelines on, inter alia, the recording of information and international signs for minefields and mined areas. ammunition see munition anti-handling device a device intended to protect a mine and which is part of, linked to, attached or placed under the mine and which activates when an attempt is made to tamper with or otherwise intentionally disturb the mine. [MBT] Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) Ottawa Convention Mine Ban Treaty (MBT)
Page 2 of 32 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro
Provides for a complete ban on the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines (APMs) and on their destruction. For the purposes of IMAS documents, Article 5 of the APMBC lays down requirements for the destruction of APMs in mined areas. Article 6 details transparency measures required under the Treaty including information on the location of mined or suspected mined areas and measures taken to warn the local population.
Anti-Personnel Mines (APM) a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons. Note: Mines designed to be detonated by the presence, proximity or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person that are equipped with antihandling devices, are not considered APM as a result of being so equipped. [MBT] applied research research focused at clearly defined problems and market opportunities.
Note: Its principal purpose is to establish the feasibility of applying technology to solve a clearly defined problem, within defined parameters such as cost, time and risk.
area reduction the process through which the initial area indicated as contaminated (during any information gathering activities or surveys which form part of the GMAA process) is reduced to a smaller area. Note: Area reduction may involve some limited clearance, such as the opening of access routes and the destruction of mines and UXO which represent an immediate and unacceptable risk, but it will mainly be as a consequence of collecting more reliable information on the extent of the hazardous area. Usually it will be appropriate to mark the remaining hazardous area(s) with permanent or temporary marking systems. Note: Likewise, area reduction is sometimes done as part of the clearance operation. audit a timely process or system inspection to ensure that specifications conform to documented quality standards. An audit highlights discrepancies between the documented standards and the standards followed and might also show how well or how badly the documented standards support the processes currently followed. Battle Area Clearance (BAC) the systematic and controlled clearance of hazardous areas where the threat is known not to contain mines. benchmark in the context of humanitarian demining, the term refers to … a fixed point of reference used to locate a marked and recorded hazard or hazardous area. It should normally be located a short distance outside the hazardous area. Note: A benchmark may not be necessary if the reference point is sufficiently close to the perimeter of the hazardous area.
Page 3 of 32 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Bomb Live Unit (BLU) part of the nomenclature of a type of submunition e.g. BLU 26 or BLU 97. bomblet see submunition. booby trap an explosive or non-explosive device, or other material, deliberately placed to cause casualties when an apparently harmless object is disturbed or a normally safe act is performed. [AAP-6] boundary lane a cleared lane around the perimeter of a hazardous area. box a squared area that is developed for the purpose of being searched by MDDs. Note: A box normally measures 10m x 10m, but other sizes may be preferred. briefing area in the context of humanitarian demining …. a clearly identifiable control point intended to be the first point of entry to a demining worksite. Note: The briefing area contains a plan of the minefield and its current level of clearance, at a scale large enough for briefing purposes, showing the location of control points (car park, first aid point, explosive storage areas, the areas where mine clearance work is progressing and distances), and where safety equipment is issued to visitors. burning site an area authorised for the destruction of munitions and explosives by burning. cancelled area an area previously recorded as a hazardous area which subsequently is considered, as a result of actions other than clearance, not to represent a risk from mines and UXO. Note: This change in status will be the result of more accurate and reliable information, for example from technical survey, and will normally only be authorised by the NMAA, in accordance with national policy. The documentation of all cancelled areas shall be retained together with a detailed explanation of the reasons for the change in status. CEN (Committee European Normalisation) CEN is the European Committee for Standardisation. Note: The mission of CEN is to promote voluntary technical harmonisation in Europe in conjunction with worldwide bodies and its European partners. European standards (referred to as EN (Europe Normalisation)) form a collection which ensures its own continuity for the benefit of users. CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) an endorsed and adopted standard voluntarily applied by participants.
Page 4 of 32 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro certification committee a committee appointed by UNMAS to regularly review compliance of the impact component of the GMAA process with the UN certification guidelines based on the reports of the UN quality assurance monitor from the field. Note: Acceptance of the findings of the impact component of the GMAA of a specific country by the international community is dependent on its certification by the UN certification committee. clearance (Explosive Ordnance Clearance (EOC)) tasks or actions to reduce or eliminate the Explosive Ordnance (EO) hazards from a specified area. [NATO Study 2187] cleared area cleared land an area that has been physically and systematically processed by a demining organisation to ensure the removal and/or destruction of all mine and UXO hazards to a specified depth. Note: IMAS 09.10 specifies the quality system (i.e. the organisation, procedures and responsibilities) necessary to determine that land has been cleared by the demining organisation in accordance with its contractual obligations. Note: Cleared areas may include land cleared during the technical survey process, including boundary lanes and cleared lanes. cleared lane safety lane the generic term for any lane, other than a boundary lane, cleared by a survey or clearance team to the international standard for cleared land. This may include access lanes outside the hazardous area or cross/verification lanes inside a hazardous area. Cluster Bomb Unit (CBU) an expendable aircraft store composed of a dispenser and sub-munitions. [AAP-6] a bomb containing and dispensing sub-munitions which may be mines (antipersonnel or anti-tank), penetration (runway cratering) bomblets, fragmentation bomblets etc. collaboration in the context of mine action equipment procurement, the term refers to …. an activity which applies solely to the procurement of common equipment by two or more organisations. Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) in the context of mine action equipment procurement, the term refers to …. an equipment that is available direct from the manufacturer and requires no further development prior to introduction into service apart from minor modifications.
Page 5 of 32 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro commonality in the context of mine action equipment procurement. Edition 9. the term refers to …. Note: Community liaison is based on an exchange of information and involves communities in the decision making process. and covers the period of the emergence of the idea to the initial SON. Community mine action liaison aims to ensure community needs and priorities are central to the planning. Note: Community liaison also works with communities to develop specific interim safety strategies promoting individual and community behavioural change. This involvement includes joint planning. concept formulation the first stage in the procurement process. Part 1. (before. community liaison community mine action liaison liaison with mine/UXO affected communities to exchange information on the presence and impact of mines and UXO. during and after demining). contract a formal agreement with specific terms between two or more entities in which there is a promise to do something in return for a valuable benefit known as a consideration. The organisation responsible for the conduct of the overall contract is referred to as the ‘prime contractor’. contractor any organisation (governmental. control area or point all points or areas used to control the movements of visitors and staff on a demining worksite. compatibility in the context of mine action equipment procurement. Other organisations or parties the prime contractor engages to undertake components of the larger contract are referred to as ‘sub-contractors’. in order to establish priorities for mine action. Sub-contractors are responsible to the prime contractor and not to the principal. In this way mine action programmes aim to be inclusive. create a reporting link with the mine action programme and develop risk reduction strategies. the capability of two or more components or sub-components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same environment without mutual interference. Page 6 of 32 NTSG. implementation. the term refers to …. Version 1 . implementation and monitoring of mine action operations. community focused and ensure the maximum involvement of all sections of the community. This is designed to reduce the impact of mines/UXO on individuals and communities until such time as the threat is removed. a state achieved when groups of individuals or organisations use common procedures and/or equipment. monitoring and evaluation of projects. non-government or commercial entity) contracted to undertake a mine action activity.
(Definition for MDD use only).ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro cost-effectiveness an assessment of the balance between a system’s performance and its whole life costs. detonation). community mine action liaison and the handover of cleared land. demining humanitarian demining activities which lead to the removal of mine and UXO hazards. deflagration the conversion of explosives into gaseous products by chemical reactions at or near the surface of the explosive (c. marking. critical non-conformity the failure of a 1. mapping. cost-plus contract a contract in which the contractor is reimbursed all costs incurred in undertaking a specific scope of work and is paid an additional lump sum or fixed percentage of the reimbursable costs. mine accident). Demining may be carried out by different types of organisations. including technical survey. commercial companies. Note: in IMAS standards and guides. IMAS identifies two types of critical non-conformities: a) the discovery of a mine or UXO. Version 1 . demining accident an accident at a demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c. national mine action teams or military units. deminer a person qualified and employed to undertake demining activities on a demining worksite. Demining may be emergency-based or developmental. such as NGOs. decontamination a process of removing undesired contamination from test items. clearance. demilitarisation the process that renders munitions unfit for their originally intended purpose. mine and UXO clearance is considered to be just one part of the demining process.f.0m2 unit of land during inspection to meet the stated clearance requirements. Note: in IMAS standards and guides. demining is considered to be one component of mine action. tools and accessories that are used when preparing a field test. Note: in IMAS standards and guides. the terms demining and humanitarian demining are interchangeable. Peter Courtney-Green. May 2000. Edition 9. Note: Definition from NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency (NAMSA). Part 1. post-clearance documentation.f. Page 7 of 32 NTSG. and b) other critical non conformities as defined by NMAAs.
Note: Survey. destruction the process of final conversion of munitions and explosives into an inert state whereby they can no longer function as designed. consultant or agent. demining incident an incident at a demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c. however named. demolition (dml) destruction of structures. clearance and EOD activities are undertaken including centralised disposal sites used for the destruction of mines and UXO identified and removed during clearance operations. NGO. facilities or material by use of fire. demining worker all employees who work at a demining worksite. demining organisation refers to any organisation (government. explosives. in relation to a demining worksite includes general survey undertaken to identify mine and UXO hazards and hazardous areas.f. Page 8 of 32 NTSG. Version 1 . destroy (destruction) in situ blow in situ. subcontractor. The demining organisation may be a prime contractor. manual clearance. normally by placing an explosive charge alongside. such as technical surveys. mine incident). which is operationally accredited to conduct one or more prescribed demining activities. water. the destruction of any item of ordnance by explosives without moving the item from where it was found. Part 1. mechanical or other means. Edition 9. military or commercial entity) responsible for implementing demining projects or tasks. demining worksite any workplace where demining activities are being undertaken. Note: Demining worksites include workplaces where survey. EOD or the use of MDD teams. demining sub-unit an element of a demining organisation. demolition ground an area authorised for the destruction of munitions and explosives by detonation.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro demining accident response plan a documented plan developed for each demining workplace which details the procedures to be applied to move victims from a demining accident site to an appropriate treatment or surgical care facility.
the discovery by any means of the presence of mines or UXO. including the government of mine affected states. The procedure normally removes one or more links from the firing chain. detonator a device containing a sensitive explosive intended to produce a detonation wave. [AAP-6] development the stage of the project (and its associated costs) prior to production concerned with developing a design sufficiently for production to begin.f. subcontractor. Page 9 of 32 NTSG. military or commercial entity) responsible for implementing stockpile destruction projects or tasks. Version 1 . drill munition an inert replica of a munition specifically manufactured for drill. DNT (Dinitrotolulene) a residual product of TNT manufacture. Is normally present in varying amounts in any explosive device containing TNT. Durability is a function of reliability with time. The destruction organisation may be a prime contractor. Part 1. the term refers to …. the velocity of such a shock wave is more than two orders of magnitude higher than a fast deflagration. disposal site an area authorised for the destruction of munitions and explosives by detonation and burning. and under some conditions it may be easier to detect DNT than TNT. consultant or agent. Edition 9. Typically. display or instructional purposes. deflagration). The vapour pressure of DNT is much higher than that of TNT. durability the ability of an item or material to continue to perform its required function under stated conditions as time progresses. detection in the context of humanitarian demining. donor all sources of funding.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro destruction organisation refers to any organisation (government. disarm the act of making a mine safe by removing the fuze or igniter. and a breakdown product of TNT decay. detonation the rapid conversion of explosives into gaseous products by means of a shock wave passing through the explosive (c.
cracking. truths or principles). Wind. a component. rain. (i. the detection of the target odour or the ability of people and dogs to work safety and effectively. electrical and/or electronic system which is used to enhance human activities. (Definition for MDD use only). corrosion. (UNICEF Policy and Programming Manual) explosive materials components or ancillary items used by demining organisations which contain some explosives. attitude and practices through teaching and learning. ideas. procedures and practices. mechanical. equipment or system. Note: Definition when used in context of equipment test and evaluation. thermal shock. recognising bias and reconciling perspectives of different stakeholders (all those interested in. Note: The word ‘objectively’ indicates the need to achieve a balanced analysis. wear and the effects of foreign object damage. Edition 9. education the imparting and acquiring over time of knowledge (awareness or possession of facts. Part 1. within the environment in which it will operate. equipment a physical. a process that attempts to determine as systematically and objectively as possible the merit or value of an intervention. Note: Definition when used in relation to programmes. humidity.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Note: Durability involves resistance to degradation. European Normalisation (EN) See CEN (Committee European Normalisation) evaluation the analysis of a result or a series of results to establish the quantitative and qualitative effectiveness and worth of software. environmental factors factors relating to the environment and that influence the transportation of odour from the mine. and affected by programmes. [Oxford Concise English Dictionary] ensemble the group of protective clothing designed to be worn as a protective measure. Note: Evaluation is considered to be a strategic exercise. sun and vegetation). temperature. altitude. Version 1 . delamination. including beneficiaries as primary stakeholders) through use of different sources and methods. such as detonators and primers. or behave in an explosive manner.e. Page 10 of 32 NTSG.
pyrotechnics. evaluation. clandestine and improvised explosive devices. Version 1 . equipment. costs and time. Feasibility Study (FS) a study to establish the feasibility of the STO in terms of technology. (this may be a single UXO. components or sub-components does not perform as previously specified. artillery. degree. cartridge and propellant actuated devices. (CCW protocol V). damage or attempted destruction. Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and Abandoned Explosive Ordnance (AXO). explosives a substance or mixture of substances which. The fixed price covers the whole of the works. field editor an individual whose main responsibility is to ensure accuracy. Page 11 of 32 NTSG. upon discovery of the UXO. identification. recovery and disposal of EO. and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature. all mines. Note: The field editor must work closely with the survey teams in order to ensure that the review process is done shortly after the survey has been completed and while the teams are in the same general vicinity as the community being reviewed. b) to dispose of UXO discovered outside mined areas.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Explosive Ordnance (EO) all munitions containing explosives. is capable of rapidly releasing energy in the form of gases and heat. fixed price contract a contract in which a contractor is paid a fixed price to undertake a specific scope of work or to provide a specific number of assets (demining teams. mortar. [AAP-6] Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) the detection. torpedoes and depth charges. clusters and dispensers. [AAP-6] failure an event in which any system. guided and ballistic missiles. electro-explosive devices. render safe. MDD teams or mechanical equipment) over an agreed time-frame. Part 1. EOD may be undertaken: a) as a routine part of mine clearance operations. relevance. rocket and small arms ammunition. consistency. dependence and responsibility. supplies and services to be provided by the contractor. Note: Failures may be classified as to cause. c) to dispose of EO which has become hazardous by deterioration. or a larger number inside a specific area). This includes bombs and warheads. under external influences. Edition 9. nuclear fission or fusion materials and biological and chemical agents. readability and clarity of the information gathered by enumerators in the field.
and assessment of the scale and impact of the landmine problem on the individual. store. geographic data. update. and display all forms of geographically referenced information. Note: GIS allows a user to graphically view multiple layers of data based on their geographic distribution and association. and personnel designed to efficiently capture. the area that could be reached by fragmentation in the case of detonation. GIS Geographical (or Geospatial) Information System an organised collection of computer hardware. explosive storage or mine/UXO contaminated area. tripwires. GIS incorporates powerful tools to analyse the relationships between various layers of information.g. the amount of explosive. type of material. ground conditions etc. vegetation. body construction. georeferencing a process whereby graphic coordinates or other indirect referencing codes are added to tabular data in order to allow simple comparison. compilation and analysis of disparate datasets based on common locations. community and country. Edition 9. fuze a device which initiates an explosive train. Full Development (FD) the procedure containing all of the engineering processes. ground preparation preparing of ground in a minefield or hazardous area by mechanical means by removing or reducing obstacles to clearance e. See also [secondary fragmentation]. software. Page 12 of 32 NTSG. Part 1. fragmentation hazard zone for a given explosive item. manipulate. vegetation and climate. hard soil and metal contamination to make subsequent clearance operations quicker and safer. and information on local soil characteristics. Version 1 . generic requirement the performance and environmental characteristics which will be common to all planned uses of the proposed equipment. Note: Several factors should be considered when determining this zone. analyse. [AAP-6] General Mine Action Assessment (GMAA) the continuous process by which a comprehensive inventory can be obtained of all reported and/or suspected locations of mine or UXO contamination.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro force majeure unforeseeable circumstances that prevent a party from completing a task required by a contract. trials and tests necessary to establish the final detailed design to enable full production to commence. the quantities and types of explosive hazards.
handover certificate documentation used to record the handover of cleared land.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro ground processing the practice of applying a mechanical tool or system to a minefield or hazardous area with the aim of clearing all of the mines or UXO within the mechanical tool or system’s capabilities. group interview the conduct of a formal interview with a group of key informants in an impacted community on what to survey within that community. Version 1 [ISO Guide . UXO or other explosive devices. harm physical injury or damage to the health of people. is designed to provide warning to the public of the presence of mines. or damage to property or the environment. the NMAA on behalf of the local community or land user) accepts responsibility for the cleared area. hardware equipment with physical size and mass. 51:1999(E)]. manufactured sign which. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] hazard (ous) area contaminated area a generic term for an area not in productive use due to the perceived or actual presence of mines. other than hazard signs. hazard potential source of harm. hazard sign a permanent. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] harmful event occurrence in which a hazardous situation results in harm. when placed as part of a marking system. hazard marking system a combination of measures (signs and barriers) designed to provide the public with warning and protection from mine and UXO hazards. or the erection of physical barriers. The system may include the use of signs or markers. guide an IMAS guide provides general rules. Page 13 of 32 NTSG. Edition 9. Part 1. Hazard markers shall conform to the specification established by the NMAA. advice and information. hazard marker object(s). used to identify the limits of a mine and UXO hazard area. The term 'alienation' is sometimes used to describe a change of ownership of the land which accompanies the handover of a cleared area. handover the process by which the beneficiary (for example. principles. as opposed to software.
e. marked and unpopulated areas.) impact the level of social and economic suffering experienced by the community resulting from the harm or risk of harm caused by mine and UXO hazards and hazardous areas. impact free a term applied to countries that may still have mines but where the mined areas are not having a negative socio – economic impact on communities. water sources etc. information analysis and project management. it also includes the physical and mental elements affecting health. markets etc. which are directly related to safety and hygiene at work. Version 1 . Edition 9. the terms demining and humanitarian demining are interchangeable. biological or other toxic components or substances. inert a munition that contains no explosive. The Field Module (FM) provides for data collection. It is used by the staffs of MACs at national and regional level. and d) number of victims of mine and UXO incidents within the last two years. (In IMAS standards and guides. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)].ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro hazardous situation circumstance in which people. pyrotechnic. incident an event that gives rise to an accident or has the potential to lead to an accident. chemical. lachrymatory. indicates not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Note: Impact is a product of: a) the presence of mine/UXO hazards in the community. radioactive. Part 1. impact survey see Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) IMSMA the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) Note: This is the United Nation's preferred information system for the management of critical data in UN-supported field programmes. b) intolerable risk associated with the use of infrastructure such as roads. c) intolerable risk associated with livelihood activities such as use of agricultural land.g. Page 14 of 32 NTSG. the mines may be in remote. and by the implementers of mine action projects such as demining organisations. property or the environment are exposed to one or more hazards. [ILO C155] humanitarian demining see demining. health in relation to work.
Version 1 . insurance an arrangement for compensation in the event of damage to or loss of (property. by defining international requirements and specifications. International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) documents developed by the UN on behalf of the international community. the term refers to …. examination.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Note: An inert munition differs from a drill munition in that it has not necessarily been specifically manufactured for instructional purposes. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E) Note: Intended land use should be included in the clearance task specification and clearance task handover documentation. by establishing principles and. which aim to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by providing guidance. life of a person). evaluation or gauging of one or more components of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirements to determine conformity. Page 15 of 32 NTSG. Self insurance (under-writing) schemes. intermediate point survey markers used between turning points that are more than 50m apart. except for adjustment. inspection the observation. measurement. Note: Intended use: use of a product. Edition 9. a condition which exists when two or more items of equipment possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability. Note: Insurance should include appropriate medical. inspection body an organisation which conducts post-clearance QC on behalf of the NMAA by applying random sampling procedures. Note: Such insurance need not necessarily have to be arranged through an insurance broker or company. The inert state of the munition may have resulted from a render safe procedure or other process to remove all hazardous components and substances. testing. and are capable of being exchanged for one another without alteration of the items themselves. unless otherwise required by contractual arrangements. process or service in accordance with information provided by the supplier. intended use (land) use of land following demining operations. Part 1. interchangeability in the context of mine action equipment procurement. or other appropriate and agreed methods of inspection. provided they are formally constituted on accepted actuarial principles and provide adequate cover. It also refers to the state of the munition during manufacture prior to the filling or fitting of explosive or hazardous components and substances. may be an acceptable alternative. and without selection for fit and performance. or of adjoining items. in some cases. death and disability coverage for all personnel as well as third party liability coverage.
key informants individuals who have relatively good knowledge on the hazardous areas in and around their community. and in some cases requires. the sponsors and managers of mine action programmes and projects to achieve and demonstrate agreed levels of effectiveness and safety. ISO deals with the full spectrum of human activities and many of the tasks and processes which contribute to mine action have a relevant standard. national and regional organisations who are accustomed to the ISO series of standards and guides. and a greater acceptance by international. safety and environmental aspects) have been adopted by many countries as part of their regulatory framework. in order to assist the planning and prioritisation of mine action programmes and projects. Adopting the ISO format and language provides some significant advantages including consistency of layout. lachrymatory ammunition lachrymatory ammunition contains chemical compounds that are designed to incapacitate by causing short-term tears or inflammation of the eyes.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Note: Note: They provide a frame of reference which encourages. investment appraisal the process of defining the objectives of expenditure. Page 16 of 32 NTSG. schoolteachers. ISO is a NGO and the standards it develops are voluntary. and recommend the formats and rules for handling data which enable the free exchange of important information. identifying the alternative ways of achieving those objectives and assessing which way is likely to give best value for money. mine-affected individuals.iso. They provide a common language.ch/infoe/catinfo/html]. Note: Key informants may include. Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) impact survey an assessment of the socio-economic impact caused by the actual or perceived presence of mines and UXO. A list of ISO standards and guides is given in the ISO Catalogue [www. this information exchange benefits other programmes and projects. although some (mainly those concerned with health. and assists the mobilisation. Version 1 . International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) Note: A worldwide federation of national bodies from over 130 countries. Edition 9. prioritisation and management of resources. use of internationally recognised terminology. Note: The revised mine action standards have been developed to be compatible with ISO standards and guides. but are not limited to. Part 1. community leaders. religious leaders etc. Its work results in international agreements which are published as ISO standards and guides.
marking system an agreed convention for the marking of hazards or hazardous areas. an area (comprising a number of 1. logistic disposal in the context of mine action. Logistic disposal may or may not require the use of RSP.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro letter of agreement a simpler form of contract that states the essentials of the agreement without including all the detail. magazine in the context of mine action. Version 1 . Part 1. under stated conditions and using prescribed procedures and resources. (that may not necessarily involve destruction). maintainability the ability of an equipment.. for example a demolition site may be licensed for certain explosive limits and explosive storage areas may be licensed for certain types and quantities of munitions. to be retained or restored to a specific condition. or the erection of physical barriers. the term refers to …. in some cases. may be used in place of a more formal contract. It may be used as a precursor to a formal contract or. structure or container approved for the storage of explosive materials. This may include the use of signs.. marking emplacement of a measure or combination of measures to identify the position of a hazard or the boundary of a hazardous area. any building.. the term refers to ….. Demining organisations receive organisational or operational accreditation from an accreditation body authorised by a NMAA. the term refers to …. operating procedures and operational requirements. the removal of munitions and explosives from a stockpile utilising a variety of methods. level 2 survey the term previously used for a technical survey. when maintenance is performed by personnel having specific skill levels. a certificate issued by a NMAA in relation to the capacity or capability of a facility. local requirement the performance and characteristics of the proposed equipment which reflect local environmental conditions. licence in the context of mine action. paint marks etc. the term refers to …. component or sub-component under stated conditions of use. Edition 9. Page 17 of 32 NTSG.0m2 units of cleared land) offered for inspection. lot size in the context of humanitarian demining.
and how they are affected by landmine contamination. d) stockpile destruction. and in which the victims’ needs can be addressed. QM and the application of effective.e. including: assessment and planning. demining accident). human skills development and management training. Mine action comprises five complementary groups of activities: a) MRE. Note: Mine action is not just about demining.f. the mobilisation and prioritisation of resources. Version 1 . in which economic. medical support staff employees of demining organisations designated. marking and clearance. Edition 9. b) humanitarian demining. mine munition designed to be placed under. Part 1. Note: A number of other enabling activities are required to support these five components of mine action. proximity or contact of a person or a vehicle. mine action activities which aim to reduce the social. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) a document used to facilitate a situation or operation when it is not the intention to create formal rights and obligations in international law but to express commitments of importance in a non-binding form. economic and environmental impact of mines and UXO. appropriate and safe equipment. social and health development can occur free from the constraints imposed by landmine contamination. trained and equipped to provide first aid and further medical treatment of demining employees injured as a result of an accident. information management. Page 18 of 32 NTSG. mapping. including rehabilitation and reintegration. and e) advocacy against the use of APM. The objective of mine action is to reduce the risk from landmines to a level where people can live safely. it is also about people and societies.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro mechanical application the generic term to describe the use of machines in the conduct of mine clearance operations. [MBT] mine accident an accident away from the demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c. on or near the ground or other surface area and to be exploded by the presence. c) victim assistance. i. mine and UXO survey.
[UN Terminology Bulletin No. the MAC/MACC usually acts as the operational office of the NMAA. UXO and other explosive devices. military or commercial entity) responsible for implementing mine action projects or tasks. of (mine action) NGOs and of local deminers. and community mine action liaison. subcontractor. consultant or agent. mine free a term applied to an area that has been certified as clear of mines to a specified depth. demining incident). Part 1. mine risk the probability and severity of physical injury to people. Also applied to a country or an area that has not had a mine contamination problem. Version 1 . Mine Detection Dog(s) (MDD) a dog trained and employed to detect mines. Edition 9. [Adapted from ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] Mine Risk Education (MRE) activities which seek to reduce the risk of injury from mines/UXO by raising awareness and promoting behavioural change including public information dissemination. conducts reconnaissance of mined areas.f. The mine action organisation may be a prime contractor. Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC) see Mine Action Centre (MAC) mine action organisation refers to any organisation (government. mine awareness see Mine Risk Education (MRE).ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Mine Action Centre (MAC) Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC) an organisation that carries out MRE training. mine incident an incident away from the demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c. Page 19 of 32 NTSG. mine clearance the clearance of mines and UXO from a specified area to a predefined standard. NGO. education and training. 349] For national mine action programmes. property or the environment caused by the unintentional detonation of a mine or UXO. collection and centralisation of mine data and coordinates local (mine action) plans with the activities of external agencies.
activities. mine sign a sign which. Edition 9. procedures or standard practice and often includes recording and reporting elements. monitoring body an organisation. policies and specific objectives. [MBT] minefield an area of ground containing mines laid with or without a pattern. the authorised observation. in the context of MRE. strategies. property or the environment. Page 20 of 32 NTSG. Version 1 . normally an element of the NMAA. [Adapted from ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] Mine risk reduction can be achieved by physical measures such as clearance. Monitoring is usually carried out to check conformity with undertakings. fencing or marking. b) measuring change in a condition or set of conditions or lack thereof (e. Part 1. This includes: a) measuring progress in relation to an implementation plan for an intervention – programmes/projects/activities.. when placed as part of a marking system. mined area an area which is dangerous due to the presence or suspected presence of mines. the term refers to …. the term refers to …the process of measuring or tracking what is happening. disposition and detectability of mines and UXO in a given area.g. changes in the situation of children and women or changes in the broader country context).ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro mine risk reduction those actions which lessen the probability and/or severity of physical injury to people. c) definition from UNICEF Policy and Programming Manual. inspection or assessment by qualified personnel of worksites.. mine threat mine and UXO threat an indication of the potential harm from the number. is designed to provide warning to the public of the presence of mines. equipment. processes. responsible for management and implementation of the national monitoring system. procedures and documentation without taking responsibility for what is being monitored. [AAP-6] monitoring in the context of mine action. nature. facilities. or through behavioural changes brought about by MRE.
incapable of firing on passage of a target. women’s union. or when the material itself strikes hard surfaces. civil society organisations (e. a schools based education project or a community mine action liaison project evaluation. Note: It does not make an item completely safe as removal of the safety devices will immediately make the item active again (c. MRE partner an institution or agent within the mine-affected community who is able to work with an MRE organisation to facilitate. and fulfil some or all the functions. management and coordination of mine action. [AAP-6] Note: In common usage. red cross and red crescent societies). organisation(s) or institution(s) in each mineaffected country charged with the regulation. national authority in the context of stockpile destruction the term refers to …. propellants. Edition 9. or on behalf of. The MRE organisation may be a prime contractor. Version 1 . that is accredited to conduct one or more prescribed MRE activities such as a public information project. commercial entities and military personnel (including peace-keeping forces). youth union. ammunition and equipment. initiating composition. pyrotechnics.f. including governmental. non-governmental. Page 21 of 32 NTSG. Note: In certain situations and at certain times it may be necessary and appropriate for the UN. The term 'MRE sub-unit' refers to an element of an organisation. which is responsible for implementing MRE projects or tasks. the government department(s). subcontractor. of a NMAA. munition a complete device charged with explosives. Note: A mine is said to be neutralised when it has been rendered. or some other recognised international body. disarm). [AAP-6] non-sparking material material that will not produce a spark when struck with tools. Note: In most cases the national MAC or its equivalent will act as.g. biological or chemical material for use in military operations. organisation(s) or institution(s) in each country charged with the regulation. National Mine Action Authority (NMAA) the government department(s). the NMAA. neutralise the act of replacing safety devices such as pins or rods into an explosive item to prevent the fuze or igniter from functioning. although it may remain dangerous to handle. including demolitions. or nuclear. by external means. ‘munitions’ (plural) can be military weapons. establish and implement an MRE project. Part 1. rocks. however named. consultant or agent.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro MRE organisation any organisation. to assume some or all of the responsibilities. management and coordination of stockpile destruction.
Page 22 of 32 NTSG. post clearance inspection in the context of humanitarian demining.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Operational Analysis (OA) operational research a field of research that applies scientifically based quantitative and qualitative analysis to assist management decisions. the term refers to …the process of measuring. examining. or at least is encouraged. design and engineering work necessary to explore areas of technical uncertainty and to provide detailed estimates of duration and cost before the decision to proceed to full development is made. Edition 9. which is intended to be worn or held by an employee at work and which protects him/her against one or more risks to his/her safety or health. Preliminary Development (PD) the planning. and it articulates the rules. usually requiring maintenance (c. Note: During PD a relatively flexible relationship should exist between the technical specification and the operational requirements. temporary marking system). such as team deployment. bonded together. Note: Policy evolves in response to strategic direction and field experience. reporting and administration. In turn. it influences the way in which plans are developed. are functioning as planned. standards and principles of action which govern the way in which the organisation aims to achieve these goals. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) all equipment and clothing designed to provide protection. Policy is prescriptive and compliance is assumed. Part 1. Note: PDS may be used after the initial contract in order to update the equipment in response to changing circumstances and requirements. permanent marking system a marking system having an indefinite period of use. pilot test a process ahead of the commencement of wide range data collection to ensure that all survey project elements. subsequent to the acceptance of the equipment.f. and how resources are mobilised and applied. data collection. testing or otherwise comparing a sample of cleared land against the clearance requirements. policy defines the purpose and goals of an organisation. operational research see Operational Analysis (OA) particle board a composition board made of small pieces of wood. Version 1 . Post Design Services (PDS) further services such as ongoing development and modification of equipment.
Version 1 . [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] prototype an equipment.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro preliminary study a study to give an indication of the practicability of the idea in terms of technological possibilities and cost. primer a self-contained munition which is fitted into a cartridge case or firing mechanism and provides the means of igniting the propellant charge. prodding a procedure employed in the process of demining whereby ground is probed to detect the presence of sub-surface mines and/or UXO (c. pre-test a process at the start of a survey to validate clarity and appropriateness of the selected survey instrument. principal the entity that contracts another entity to undertake the required mine action activity. an organisation acting on behalf of the NMAA.f. project an endeavour in which human. a commercial organisation or any entity that desires mine action to be conducted and engages a mine action organisation to do so. The principal may be a donor. proposal an offer for consideration or acceptance by another entity. Part 1. component or sub-component built as nearly as possible to the final design and build standard. of given specification. procurement the process of research. development and production or purchase which leads to an equipment being accepted as suitable for use. programme a group of projects or activities which are managed in a co-ordinated way. protective measure means used to reduce risk. so as to achieve beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives. within constraints of cost and time. Page 23 of 32 NTSG. to deliver benefits that would not be possible were the projects and/or contracts managed independently. sapping). project management the process by which a project is brought to a successful conclusion. Edition 9. a NMAA. material and financial resources are organised to undertake a unique scope of work. and continues with the provision of spares and Post Design Services (PDS) throughout the life of the equipment.
Such information may focus on particular issues. Version 1 . due to time constraints and the lack of available data. In other situations it can support community liaison. but its immediate aim is to establish generic principles. Such projects usually include risk reduction messages. effective and efficient manner. or may be used to raise public support for the mine action programme. It may take the form of formal or non-formal education and may use mass media techniques. In the case of humanitarian demining. quality degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements. pure research research activities not linked to any specific application. proximity verification an activity to observe mine/UXO hazard areas reported during the community interview. Part 1. The outcome of pure research may eventually lead to a product. Note: In an emergency situation. and will achieve the stated requirement in a safe. the 'product' is safe cleared land. through public information. but external inspections by an external monitoring body should also be conducted. [ISO 9000:2000] Note: QC relates to the inspection of a finished product. Quality Control (QC) part of QM focused on fulfilling quality requirements. Note: Public education is a mass mobilisation approach that delivers information on the mine/UXO threat. [ISO 9000:2000] Note: The purpose of QA in humanitarian demining is to confirm that management practices and operational procedures for demining are appropriate. 9000:2000] [ISO Quality Assurance (QA) part of QM focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. public information dissemination information concerning the mine and UXO situation. such as complying with mine ban legislation. Edition 9.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Note: Prototypes are used to aid development of the final production standard and/or to demonstrate performance or specification compliance. but may also be used to reflect national mine action policy. are being applied. public education the process aimed at raising general awareness of the mine and UXO threat. Note: Observation must be done from a safe area and in accordance with the relevant protocols. Page 24 of 32 NTSG. formal and non-formal education systems. Internal QA will be conducted by demining organisations themselves. used to inform or update populations. it is the most practical means of communicating safety information.
RDX (1. reference point landmark a fixed point of reference some distance outside the hazard(ous) area. Version 1 . RDX is never handled pure and dry because of the danger of accidental explosion. Relational Database Management System (RDMS) as opposed to a single table with numerous fields for each record entered. RDMS are very effective in managing large amounts of data and permitting detailed queries to determine the relationship among data compiled against different records. lines are identified as a set of connected cells. Edition 9. [ISO 9000:2000] random sampling selection of samples by a process involving equal chances of selection of each item. although lower than that of TNT. reduced area see area reduction the area of hazardous land remaining after the process of area reduction. The codes used establish the relationship between data tables. RDX is relatively insensitive. It is used as a component in explosive mixtures.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Quality Management (QM) coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to quality. It is still referred to as a hazardous area. a RDMS uses identification codes to link multiple tables of data. process or service in a way not intended by the supplier. it has a high chemical stability. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] recognition piece A metal piece. raster data the use of an imaginary grid of cells to represent the landscape. 5-triazacyclohexane) RDX is another military explosive which is used extensively as an explosive in many munitions formulations. but which may result from readily predictable human behaviour. Used as an objective or impartial means of selecting areas for test purposes. which is placed under test items to make them recognisable with a metal detector. It should be an easily recognised feature (such as a cross-roads or a bridge) which can be used to assist in navigating to one or more benchmarks. Note: Internationally these are often also referred to as Geodetic Points when they refer to a pre-surveyed location such as a trig point. 3. Part 1. especially plastic explosives. Page 25 of 32 NTSG. and areas are distinguished as all of the cells comprising a feature. reasonably foreseeable misuse use of a product. Point features are stored as individual column/row entries in a grid.
[ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] Page 26 of 32 NTSG. Normally the term tolerable risk is more appropriate and accurate. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] risk assessment overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] risk evaluation process based on risk analysis to determine whether the tolerable risk has been achieved. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] risk analysis systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk. component or sub-component to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. Part 1. [Modified from ISO Guide 51:1999] risk combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. Render Safe Procedure (RSP) the application of special EOD methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or separation of essential components to prevent an unacceptable detonation. Version 1 . Edition 9. the term refers to …. negative consequences or both. safe the absence of risk. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] risk reduction actions taken to lessen the probability. residual risk in the context of humanitarian demining. safety the reduction of risk to a tolerable level. reliable (mine action) information information deemed acceptable and reliable by the NMAA for the conduct of demining operations. associated with a particular risk. the risk remaining following the application of all reasonable efforts to remove and/or destroy all mine or UXO hazards from a specified area to a specified depth.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro reliability the ability of an equipment. examination and experimentation to establish facts and principles.. research the systematic inquiry.
as determined by the NMAA or an organisation acting on its behalf. self-neutralisation action generated by means of a device integral to a mine. the term refers to …. sample size in the context of humanitarian demining. scent a distinctive odour. Page 27 of 32 NTSG. Edition 9. a specific plan that indicates 2 the number of 1. ground is cleared by digging forward to a specified depth from a safe start point.. sampling plan in the context of humanitarian demining. a procedure employed in the process of demining whereby. sapping in the context of humanitarian demining. Part 1.. as a representation of the whole area. the term refers to ….ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro sample in the context of humanitarian demining. the term refers to …. in conjunction with other procedures. specified depth in the context of humanitarian demining. [AAP-6] specified area in the context of humanitarian demining. that area for which mine clearance activity has been contracted or agreed. the term refers to …. the term refers to …. but not necessarily safe to handle. a defined procedure whereby part or parts of an area of cleared land are taken... the term refers to ….0m2 units of land in the sample. fragmentation which was not originally part of the mine/UXO.0m2 units of land drawn at random from a lot. for testing. the term refers to …. which renders the mine inoperative. the number of 1. one or more 1. Version 1 .. the depth to which a specified area is contracted or agreed to be cleared of mine and UXO hazards. secondary fragmentation in an explosive event. as determined by the NMAA or an organisation acting on its behalf.. Specified Quality Limit (SQL) in the context of humanitarian demining. sampling in the context of humanitarian demining. the term refers to …. an indication of the quality required from clearance operations. In landmines. this process may be reversible..0m units of land from each lot which are to inspected (sample size or series of sample sizes) and the associated criteria for determining the acceptability of the lot (acceptance and rejection numbers).
uniformity. Part 1. Note: The SON should be prepared by the User who has identified the need. standards requirements. achievable and verifiable. with the aim of improving operational effectiveness and safety.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Note: Note: For acceptance sampling purposes. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) instructions which define the preferred or currently established method of conducting an operational task or activity. SOPs should reflect local requirements and circumstances. guidelines. Note: Mine action standards aim to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by promoting the preferred procedures and practices at both headquarters and field level. To be effective. Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) see Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Note: Their purpose is to promote recognisable and measurable degrees of discipline. In the case of mine clearance. to be used consistently to ensure that materials. the standards should be definable. Statement of Operational Need (SON) the document that describes the user’s operational needs. products. or by a sponsor acting on a user’s behalf. donor or demining organisation. standard a standard is a documented agreement containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules. sponsor the sponsor of an equipment trial is the authority requiring the trial to be carried out. the SQL is a specified borderline between what can be considered reasonable as a process average and what can not. Edition 9. Note: This is most likely to be an international organisation. Version 1 . It has to be attainable by the producer (demining organisation) but tolerable to the consumer (NMAA or contracting agency). the SQL indicates the average contamination (in terms of non-conforming items per square metre) following a lengthy and steady process run. measurable. Page 28 of 32 NTSG. Note: Mine action standards aim to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by promoting the preferred procedures and practices at both headquarters and field level. products. Statement of Requirement (SOR) the document that provides a detailed statement of the characteristics and performance expected of the equipment. processes and services are fit for their purpose. or definitions of characteristics to ensure that materials. national MAC. based on the preferred solution. processes and services are fit for their purpose. specifications or other precise criteria. consistency and commonality within an organisation.
Task identification technical survey previously referred to as a Level 2 survey the detailed topographical and technical investigation of known or suspected mined areas identified during the planning phase. stockpile destruction the physical destructive procedure towards a continual reduction of the national stockpile. and communities affected by landmines and UXO. steel general purpose (hot or cold rolled) low-carbon such as ASTM A366b or equivalent. giving the tasks of the equipment and the key characteristics.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Statement of Tasks and Outputs (STO) the document that articulates the user’s needs in broad terms. numbers shall be allocated by the NMAA. economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights through acts or omissions related to the use of mines and UXO. Edition 9. Such areas would have been identified during any information gathering activities or surveys which form part of the GMAA process or have been otherwise reported. separates from a parent munition.. the term refers to …. [AAP6] mines or munitions that form part of a CBU. stockpile in the context of mine action. survivor assistance see victim assistance task identification number (ID) a unique number used to designate a hazardous area. artillery shell or missile payload. Mine survivors or victims include directly impacted individuals. survivor (landmine/UXO) persons either individually or collectively who have suffered physical. so as to enable full consideration of alternative solutions. Part 1. to perform its task. survey marker a durable and long lasting marker used to assist in the management of marked and cleared land during demining operations. their families. permanent marking system). with the emphasis on the output required rather than the means of achieving it. temporary marking system a marking system having a stated finite period of use (c. emotional and psychological injury. Version 1 . submunition any munition that.f. a large accumulated stock of EO. Page 29 of 32 NTSG.
4. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] trial a series of tests organised in a systematic manner. Note: Activities include the formation and use of procedures and standards. friction. tolerable risk risk which is accepted in a given context based on current values of society. Page 30 of 32 NTSG. nonhygroscopic and relatively insensitive to impact.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro tender to present to another entity an unconditional offer to enter into a contract. TNT is the most widespread type of explosive used in mines and munitions. turning point a fixed point on the ground which indicates a change in direction of the perimeter of the hazardous area. test site the site at which a series of test boxes or lanes are prepared for the purpose of operational accreditation testing of MDD. Version 1 . tender process the process of calling for and evaluating tenders to select a preferred contractor. threat see mine threat TNT (2. [ISO 9000:2000] Test and Evaluation (T&E) activities associated with the testing of hardware and software. shock and electrostatic energy. equipment or system. Edition 9. It shall be clearly marked and recorded. theft resistant construction designed to deter and/or delay illegal entry into facilities used for the storage of explosives. test determination of one or more characteristics according to a procedure. Buried metal objects should be used to mark all turning points for permanent future reference. the individual results of which lead to an overall evaluation of a component. 6 Trinitrotoluene) one of the most widely used military high explosives. TNT is very stable. the reduction and processing of data and the assessment and evaluation of test results and processed data against criteria such as defined standards and specifications. Part 1.
through the provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled. Version 1 . [ISO 9000:2000] victim an individual who has suffered harm as a result of a mine or UXO accident. validation the act of ratification that takes place after a process of verification. Note: UNMAS is the office within the UN Secretariat responsible to the international community for the development and maintenance of IMAS. fuzed. within the guidelines of UNMAS overall coordination. Page 31 of 32 NTSG. Part 1. Note: In the context of victim assistance. verification confirmation. today and in the future’. Y coordinates closing on itself and implying its interior. Note: Points (towns. hence having a broader meaning than survivor. the term victim may include dependants of a mine casualty. armed or otherwise prepared for use or used. Y coordinates. point. dropped. relief.ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) EO that has been primed. Areas or polygons (lakes. boundaries etc) are represented by a set of X. Lines (roads. victim assistance survivor assistance refers to all aid. Note: For the purpose of mine action. Edition 9. line and areas. incident locations etc) are represented by a single pair of X. rivers etc) are represented by a series of X. unit rate the rates agreed and accepted for specific priced activity items and quantities stated in a contract. It may have been fired. user the individual or organisation that will operate the equipment. vector data the use of X. launched or projected yet remains unexploded either through malfunction or design or for any other reason. Y coordinates to locate three basic types of landscape features. comfort and support provided to victims (including survivors) with the purpose of reducing the immediate and long-term medical and psychological implications of their trauma. the user could also be defined as ‘a composite body of informed and authoritative opinions on the needs of national commercial and NGO users. Note: UNICEF is the focal point for MRE. United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) the focal point within the UN system for all mine-related activities. Y coordinate points connected in order.
visitor for the purposes of IMAS. White Phosphorous (WP) a chemical smoke screening agent which burns in contact with air. Part 1. international and national non-governmental organisations. Often described as a self-help initiative or spontaneous demining. village demining usually sits outside or in parallel with formal mine action structures. Edition 9. among others. (with serious anti-personnel affect if the phosphorous comes in direct contact with people).ANNEX B to Foreword & Intro village demining self-supporting mine and/or UXO clearance and hazardous area marking. Version 1 . a person who is neither a member of the demining organisation. such as demining undertaken by militaries or humanitarian demining such as is supported by the UN. normally undertaken by local inhabitants. on their own behalf or the behalf of their immediate community. private enterprise and governments. nor a demining worker accredited by the NMAA. workplace all places where employees need to be or to go by reason of their work and which are under the direct or indirect control of the employer. [ILO R164] Page 32 of 32 NTSG. Note: In circumstances where the NMAA does not have an accreditation system the demining organisation should determine the status of nonemployees.
terrain. To collect general information such as the security situation. To investigate all reported and/or suspected areas of mine or UXO contamination. This systematic information gathering process shall also indicate areas that are free from mine/UXO contamination. the quantities and types of explosive hazards. The information collected should be sufficient to enable priorities to be established or updated and plans to be developed. to assist the planning of future mine action projects. 3. Technical Survey. To assess the scale and impact of the landmine problem on the country and individual communities. infrastructure and local support facilities. Part 1.1 The scope and extent of the GMAA depends on many factors. soil characteristics. routes.1 GMAA is the continuous process by which a comprehensive inventory can be obtained of all reported and/or suspected locations of mine or UXO contamination. material and information. 2. and the human and financial resources available. and post clearance completion activities are functional areas of the overall GMAA process. b. quantities and types of explosive hazards. community and country. and information on local soil characteristics.3 Impact Survey. Edition 9. INTRODUCTION 1. climate. d. The process of gathering information carried out in the early stages of an emergency programme will be quite different in form and detail to those conducted as part of a more stable developmental mine action programme. Its scope and thoroughness will also depend on the urgency and need for planning information.1 AIM OF GMAA The aim of the GMAA is: a. 2. including the availability of (and access to) existing information. To support the work of external organisations and agencies. It is a continuous process. c. SURVEY AND HAZARDOUS AREA MARKING 1. 2. the local security situation.2 The GMAA process gathers information on national capabilities and potential to address the problem. GMAA PURPOSE AND SCOPE 3. Page 1 of 5 NTSG. 2. human skills. vegetation and climate.Chapter 1 GENERAL MINE ACTION ASSESSMENT. and assessment of the landmine problem on the individual. and the need for external assistance including financial. Version 1 .
there may be a requirement to conduct some marking (eg. This shall enable the preparation of a tasking order and allow subsequent clearance operations to be conducted in a safe.is the investigation and recording of suspected mine or UXO contamination areas. basic necessities. b.an assessment of the socio-economic impact caused by the actual or perceived presence of mines and UXO that should include factors such as the collection of information on numbers of casualties. the depth of clearance. Technical Survey . whereas a ‘survey’ is a distinct operational task capable of being contracted. An IMSMA ‘Completion’ report shall be submitted to the UNMAO when conducting a Completion Survey.Chapter 1 3. local soil conditions. An IMSMA ‘Technical Survey’ report shall be submitted to the UNMAO when conducting a Technical Survey. 4. The general survey process shall also identify areas which are free from mine or UXO contamination.1 The primary purpose of a mine action survey is to establish the scope of the mine/ERW problem in sufficient detail to enable mine action organisations to plan and conduct effective clearance operations.2 For the purpose of this NTSG. The primary aim of a Technical Survey is to collect sufficient information to enable the clearance requirement to be more accurately defined. and the vegetation characteristics. the loss of houses and livestock. The following survey categories and forms shall be used in Sudan: a. An IMSMA ‘Impact Survey’ report shall be submitted to the UNMAO when conducting a Landmine Impact Survey. Edition 9. hazardous area perimeter). d. Depending on task requirements.is conducted by the mine action organisation who shall accurately record all clearance conducted and post clearance marking prior to a QA inspection by the UNMAO. Landmine Impact Survey . c.2 The records of all surveyed areas shall be stored in the national IMSMA database. Standard report formats shall therefore. Completion Survey . (for a further explanation. MINE ACTION SURVEY 4. such as water and firewood. General Survey . An IMSMA ‘Dangerous Area’ or ‘Minefield’ report shall be submitted to the UNMAO when conducting a General Survey. Part 1. ‘assessment’ shall be defined as a ‘continually refined process of information gathering and evaluation’. are key to determining and assisting with the planning and prioritisation of mine action programmes and projects. including the area(s) to be cleared. Version 1 . Technical Survey). Page 2 of 5 NTSG. be used so that information may be easily collated for analysis. 4.is the detailed topographical and technical investigation of suspected mine/UXO areas identified during the GMAA Assessment. see Chapter 17. effective and efficient manner. bench mark.
6. Soil maps. 6. Page 3 of 5 NTSG.Chapter 1 e. so that there are common formats for collation and dissemination. however if no suitable maps are available accurate sketch maps may be used. An IMSMA ‘Suspension’ report shall be submitted to the UNMAO when conducting a Suspension of a task.1 All information obtained.1 Reports: Standards have been set for the recording of information. The map series. Suspension Report – is produced by the mine action organisation when for a variety of reasons a task is suspended prior to final completion. 4. date of production and scale must be clearly identified. 4. 5. graphic. bridge and agricultural features are some examples of data which must be included in the survey plan to establish priority areas and methods to be used in clearing mines/UXO. there must be no confusion in cross-referencing. collected from sources (primarily the military) in the field must be centralised in the IMSMA database.4 Mine/UXO Technical Data: Technical information on mines and UXOs. hydrology. This information is vital to establish the level of the mine/UXO threat. This procedure is to be implemented at all levels. road. STANDARD REPORTING 6. The most detailed and accurate maps available are to be used as the standard for recording of mined areas. Any information received on the probable location of mines/UXO must be investigated appropriately. It is important to remember that a different map series may have been used and referred to in earlier surveys/mapping reports. Records must be kept in written.3 Measurement: All measurements used in humanitarian demining shall be metric measurements.3 Geographic: All available forms of geographic and topographical data are vital to the planning and analysis process. which then assists the development of mine/UXO clearance procedures. Edition 9. regardless of the source. 6.2 Maps: Maps are the key element in providing geographical data on suspected mined areas. shall be assessed for its accuracy and completeness. INFORMATION RELIABILITY 5. Part 1. The incorporation of this data in the survey process is required to plan both the survey and subsequent mine clearance operations. and digital formats so both digital and paper based reports can transfer information to operators in the field and planners at the central level. Version 1 .
GPS should not be used for plotting turning points in a minefield because it can give constantly changing readings of up to 100 metres. Improvised marking – Acceptable level to indicate mine/uxo areas when temporary or permanent materials or resources are not available. In each case the equipment selected must provide the greatest degree of accuracy and reliability to the field operator who must ensure accuracy during the application. 7. Personnel tasked to conduct surveys must have a good working knowledge of map reading and be able to operate and calibrate their own equipment. shown at Annex A. binoculars. DGPS should be employed by mine action organisations to accurately record positional data during humanitarian demining activities.2 Hazardous area marking has been categorised into four levels as follows: a. The marking should be able to withstand the elements for between six months to one year. 6.4 Measurement Equipment: A variety of measurement equipment can be used to accurately record mined area data. range finders. MARKING OF HAZARDOUS AREAS 7. Signs should be clearly visible from a safe distance and visible sign-to-sign in heavily vegetated or undulating ground. Version 1 . Edition 9. should be the chosen method however it is accepted that initially this may not always be possible or practicable. cameras etc.5 Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS): DGPS provides the greatest degree of accuracy when recording positional data. DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System). Permanent marking – Acceptable level to mark mine/uxo areas not scheduled for humanitarian demining in the near future. Temporary marking – Acceptable level to mark mine/uxo areas in preparation for humanitarian demining. Route marking – See Chapter 22.1 Hazardous area marking is a vital component of humanitarian demining and should be implemented at the earliest possible opportunity in order to provide a visual warning of the presence of mine/UXO. It should employ a combination of signs and/or markers visible from a safe distance and visible sign-to-sign in heavily vegetated or undulating ground and physical barriers and should be able to withstand the elements for greater than one year. When organisations are contractually obligated to utilise DGPS during the recording of positional data. Page 4 of 5 NTSG. Whenever possible the standard mine sign and minefield marking system. These include compasses. However it should be installed at the earliest opportunity. Part 1. GPS (Global Positioning System). Whenever possible and/or practicable. GPS should only be used in plotting permanent landmarks and as a navigational aid. The marking used shall be clearly recognisable from a safe distance by all who may come across it. b.Chapter 1 6. shall be placed to ensure access is restricted and should be able to withstand the elements for six months. protractors. The system should provide a physical barrier. For example. d. 7. c. they shall be required to do so.
1 Communications: Survey teams shall be equipped with suitable radios to contact each other. 8.Chapter 1 8. Edition 9. Part 1.3 Casualty: All survey teams are to have a proven casualty evacuation plan. Version 1 . 8.2 Medical: All team members must be trained to a Basic Life Support level and when necessary. a qualified Medic shall be included in the survey team. The survey team must be equipped with a comprehensive medical kit containing the appropriate equipment to sustain a traumatic casualty over an extended period of time. OPERATIONAL SUPPORT 8. which is practised regularly. survey coordinator and medical assistance. Page 5 of 5 NTSG.
2 The rear of the sign is to be white or uncoloured to allow differentiation between safe and hazardous areas with the red side being visible from outside of the area. Version 2 . 1. cm 20 Figure A1: 2.25 m Ground level Figure A2: Page 1 of 2 NTSG. Edition 8. Part 1.1 The triangular or square sign conforming to the diagrams below have been adopted as the recognised sign for a hazardous area in Sudan. 30m 1. 28cm Danger Mines WHITE RED 20 cm 250mm x 250mm DANGER M I N ES 1.ANNEX A to CHAPTER 1 HAZARDOUS & CLEARED AREA SIGNS.5 m Picket 15 m Wire strand 0. HAZARDOUS AREA FENCING 2. FENCING & MARKING 1.3. HAZARDOUS AREA SIGNS 1.1 Permanent hazardous area fencing is to conform to the minimum standards depicted in the following diagram: Max. Signs printed in English and Arabic should be used.
roads surfaces or walls.2 All materials used must be durable enough to resist the deteriorating forces in their environment.5 of Chapter 1. In addition a compass bearing and the distance in metres between perimeter corners/turning points shall be recorded on the IMSMA Completion Report. Part 1. Version 2 . c. It must be possible to see the previous and next corner/turning points when standing at any corner/turning point. Page 2 of 2 NTSG. 3. If the view is obscured or the distance is greater than 50m then intermediate points shall be positioned. If only a portion of a suspected minefield is cleared. see paragraphs 6. a minimum of 300mm in diameter shall be applied to rocks. Marking of a cleared area is to be obvious and permanent. The positions and relevant details of the corners and turning points are to be indicated on the map submitted with the IMSMA Completion Report. then the cleared area must be fenced with a hazardous area fence along the line where it joins the unclear area.4 and 6. then high-visibility paint splashes. as a permanent marker.ANNEX A to CHAPTER 1 2. If the ground is such that it is impossible to drive pickets into the ground. marked and recorded as per corner/turning points. Alternatively a DGPS reading will suffice in meeting this requirement. and to conform to the length of time of their intended use.2 For details of the requirement of recording of positional data. When the entire hazardous area has been cleared and no adjacent areas are suspected to be hazardous then the perimeter of the cleared area shall be marked at each corner and each turning point by driving a steel picket flush to the ground. and hazardous areas remain adjacent. The cleared area marking should have the following minimum basic requirements: a.1. MARKING OF A CLEARED AREA 3. 3. Edition 8. b.
Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Part 1. Version 1 . Edition 9.
All vehicles should be positioned in the park so they do not have to manoeuvre to depart in the event of an emergency. Ideally it should be on level. however a consistent arrangement with correct marking shall increase the safety of those involved in humanitarian demining.1 The nature of the ground shall determine the layout of any work site. Medical Area: Shall be sited and equipped in accordance with Chapter Page 1 of 6 NTSG.1 Control Point: The control point acts as an administration and briefing area and is the point where all visitors shall arrive. Edition 9.2 x 100 3 22 x 100 2.2 Access Lane: An access lane shall be a minimum of two metres. 2.8 x 100 = 280m or 3 5kg x 2. The standardisation of site layout and all marking systems is a requirement and shall as a minimum conform to the details within this chapter.4 Stores and Equipment Area: Where all equipment is securely stored. White or unpainted posts or stones shall be used to mark this. 2. Usually part of. or adjacent to. This can be calculated by using the EOD Fragmentation & Evacuation formula of: 3 NEQ kg x 2.2 x 100 = 220m 2.g 3 10kg x 2. 2. This distance shall be increased dependant on the perceived threat that may result from fragmentation should a high order occur. The location of the control point shall be a minimum of one hundred metres from the baseline of the hazardous area. SITE LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS 2. well-drained land and have vehicle access and preferably some shade. GENERAL 1.2 x 100 3 11 x 100 2.Chapter 2 SITE PREPARATION AND SETTING OUT 1. 2.5 10. the Control Point. Version 1 .3 Vehicle Park: This should be close to the Control Point and large enough to accommodate the mine action organisation’s vehicles and visitor’s vehicles. Part 1.2 x 100 e.
of mines and unexploded ordnance. In order to facilitate quality control.7 Rest Areas: Rest areas are to be sited for use by deminers during their breaks and should provide sufficient space for resting and for preparing and/or storing necessary equipment. The area should be dry and shaded if possible. road and verge clearance tasks.Chapter 2 2. Be clearly visible in normal daylight at a safe distance from the direction of approach. Page 2 of 6 NTSG. b. 3. a latrine should be designated for each hazardous area. The demolition area must be at a safe distance from the worksite in order to avoid any fragmentation falling into cleared areas where quality control or sampling is planned. The positioning and locating of rest areas shall need to consider the requirements to comply with the wearing of PPE (see Table 2. Latrines should be located in the vicinity of the control point and should be adequate for the number of personnel on the site. the contents of the metal contamination pit shall be buried and marked or removed to another area for disposal. Note 4). 2. It can be a natural object or man made and shall: a. All scrap metal removed from the mined area should be placed within the metal collection pit.6 12. Edition 9. Part 1. 3.11 Sentry Points: Sited at hazardous area when required. Explosives Area: Shall be sited and stored in accordance with Chapter 2. Be constructed of materials that will endure the environment and shall extend deep enough into the ground with a solid foundation to support the weight. the terrain is featureless. particularly on route. by explosive demolition. location and the safe route from it to the benchmark(s) shall be included in the survey and/or minefield report. There maybe a requirement to identify intermediate points when the reference point is located at a vast distance from the benchmark. 2. SITE REFERENCE POINTS REQUIREMENTS 3. 2. there are a number of obstacles or there are multiple changes in direction along the route.8 Metal Collection Pit: This should be marked and shall be located in a safe area and at a convenient distance from working deminers.1. 2. It shall have radio communications with the senior person on site.9 Latrine: To prevent people inadvertently straying into mined areas. metal collection pits should not be located in areas cleared that day.1 Reference Point: The reference point description. Prior to completion or suspension of the task. and other applicable necessary reasons. and for hygiene purposes. Version 1 .2 Benchmark: May not be needed if the reference point is sufficiently close.10 Demolition Area: A location cleared for the disposal. If it is used its description and direction from the reference point shall be recorded on the survey and/or minefield report.
Version 1 . Protrude a minimum of one metre above the ground. it may be decided to position additional start points for ease of mapping during or on completion of clearance.7 N 33 43 08.7 N 33 43 08. d.05 1m minimum Figure 2.7 LMRUS 12 – 01 . The initial start point should be clearly visible from the benchmark otherwise Intermediate Points shall be located for ease of navigation. Conform to the following figures: 02 White background with blue writing GPS coordinates (space permitting) background/white lettering BM 102 102 E 04 34 56.Chapter 2 c.3 Start Point: This is a clearly identifiable fixed marker and the point where clearance begins.7 LMRUS 01.1 Benchmark Information BM-01 BM 102 E 04 34 56. All minefield measurements are taken from this point and depending on the location of cleared mines / UXO. e.03. A metal picket or similar shall be driven flush with the ground at the base of the benchmark.07 ID number Can be blue Organisation name Date completed Figure 2. Part 1. Page 3 of 6 NTSG.2 Benchmark Information 3. Edition 9.
6 Start Line: This is the line from where mine/UXO clearance begins and marks the divide between the safe and hazardous area. should be moved forward after a substantial amount of the area is cleared and subsequently. The start line. the use of existing linear features such as roads. which may be initially located on the boundary line.2 Cleared Lane: A lane that has been cleared of all mines and UXO to the required standard. This maybe located on the boundary line and should be moved forward after a substantial amount of area is cleared. should be considered..4 Boundary Line: It is a fixed line located from the start point which forms the perimeter of the known hazardous area or cleared boundary lane. intermediary points) shall remain in place to identify the boundary line for navigation and post clearance marking purposes. Edition 9.g.5 Boundary Lane: This is a cleared and marked lane a minimum of two metres wide along the boundary of the hazardous area which is utilised when there is no confirmed safe boundary from which to start clearance. 3. providing a definite location of the safe area.Chapter 2 3. In circumstances where limited clearance has been conducted (e.1 Clearance Lane: This is the lane where deminers are working. Clearance lanes shall also be required to be widened to a minimum of two metres on encountering obstacles i. DURING CLEARANCE 5. trees. The clearance lane shall be a minimum of one meter wide and a maximum of thirty metres in length. in order to safely navigate/clear past said obstacles. turning points. a boundary lane is to be cleared around the entire perimeter of the hazardous area. As clearance progresses. When there is a requirement to clear a boundary lane. The distance from the start line / boundary line to the intermediate lane and between any consecutive intermediate lanes shall be a maximum of fifty metres. 5. clearance lanes for technical survey) the start line should remain in position. 5.3 Intermediate Lane: A cleared lane forward and parallel to the start line or boundary line which connects clearance lanes for safety and command / control purposes. it may be decided that a control lane is not necessary. Depending on the requirement to restrict movement of demining personnel. If there is no requirement to clear a boundary lane then it may be decided to mark a control lane outside and parallel to the Boundary Line. Where possible. paths. the minimum necessary markings (e. Version 1 . Part 1.. To increase safety clearance lanes should be widened to two metres as soon as possible. mark the divide between the cleared and hazardous area. cultivated land etc. The boundary lane shall be a minimum of two metres in width. 3. the boundary line shall mark the rear edge of the cleared lane. SETTING OUT THE BOUNDARY LINE AND LANE 4. 5. rocks. equipment and vehicles in the immediate area around the boundary.1 When determining the position of the boundary line.g. 4. Page 4 of 6 NTSG.e.
Encroachment of the safety distances at Serials 1. Page 5 of 6 NTSG. Before the end of the working day these mines/UXO are to be destroyed unless prior approval has been granted from the UNRMAO.50 metres tank mine areas. At these times supervisory/QA personnel should avoid remaining static and should avoid disturbing the deminers concentration away from their prescribed tasks. These Safety shall be increased when required in accordance to the mine / UXO threat. 2 & 3 will be authorised/acceptable and expected in order to conduct supervisory/QA functions at times when it is not possible to carryout these functions from the stated minimum safety distances due to terrain. the PPE HOTLINE of the control point (see para 5. 4. Part 1. Full PPE will be required to be worn by all personnel at all times regardless of role on encroachment past the designated PPE HOTLINE towards the base line. Any reduction to these distances shall only be authorised by the UNRMAO on a case by case basis and shall be required to be included in the detail of relevant Implementation Plans. Edition 9. Alternately.e. Between designated safe areas and the hazardous area. 2. instruction or comment. (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Table 2. For the purpose of passing on/advising corrective action. Version 1 . Between the explosive storage point.1 Minimum Distance for a Mine Clearance Site 5.4 Mine/UXO: When a mine/UXO is not dealt with immediately upon being located. The base/boundary line shall at all times be a minimum of 100m from the closest ‘safe’ boundary i.5 Minimum Safety Distances: The following table details the minimum safety distances to be enforced at a mine clearance task: Serial MINIMUM DISTANCES FOR A MINE CLEARANCE WORK SITE Situation Minimum Safety Distance (b) (c) Adjacent working personnel wearing PPE in suspected anti25 metres personnel blast mine areas. bounding or directional fragmentation mine areas. the deminer should be told to cease works and if necessary be withdrawn to a relevant area.3. Adjacent working personnel wearing PPE in suspected anti. hazardous area and 50 metres other designated areas.Chapter 2 5. Adjacent working personnel wearing PPE in suspected anti. 5.50 metres personnel stake. environment or conditions. 3. The clearance lane shall then be closed off and a new lane commenced. the mine may be dealt with in situ and clearance in this lane may then continue. it shall be marked by placing a mine marker a minimum of ten centimetres before it. 100 metres Between personnel not wearing PPE and personnel working 100 metres in anti-personnel or anti-tank mine areas.6 & Fig 2.6 Minimum Safety Distances: The following figure pictorially explains the details of this chapter.
3 Example of a Minefield Layout During Clearance Page 6 of 6 NTSG. Edition 9. Version 1 . 50m Access Lane – Cleared if suspect area Min 100m PPE HOTLINE Forward of this point full PPE shall be worn at all times by all persons regardless of role or activity Explosive Area Cleared if suspect area Control Point Cleared if suspect area Medical Bench Mark Figure 2.Chapter 2 Boundary Lane – when cleared 1m Max 50m Clearance Lanes Max 30m Proposed nd 2 Start Line Boundary Lane – when cleared Intermediate Lane As per details in safety distance table Start Point Max 50m 2m Min 2m Boundary/Base Line Boundary/Base Lane – when cleared Start Line Boundary Lane 2m Min. Part 1.
Long-red topped post/large red rock: Indicate the boundary between clear and hazardous areas. Yellow-topped picket/yellow rock: Indicate the location of destroyed anti-personnel mines. When used. small red topped pickets or red rocks shall be positioned between the long red topped post or large rocks at a maximum of 1 metre intervals. intermediate lanes etc when the use of red-topped pickets/posts can be confusing to persons not familiar to the minefield. c. MARKING PICKETS/POSTS OR ROCKS 1. When used during clearance operations. clearance lanes. They are to be spaced a maximum of 15 metres apart and posts shall be a minimum of 1 metre above the ground.e. This will normally be necessary when visibility between long pickets/large stones is restricted due to terrain and/or vegetation. Short red-topped picket/red rock: Indicate the boundary between clear and hazardous areas. The methods to be used shall be wooden pickets/posts and/or painted stones. Pickets shall be a minimum of thirty centimetres above the ground. anti-tank mines or UXO.2 To standardise marking the following colour code and identification system shall be adopted (see Figure 1).Chapter 3 MINE/UXO CLEARANCE MARKING SYSTEMS 1. Red/white rocks1: Red/white rocks are the preferred method of delineating between hazardous and safe areas and should be used whenever practicable and/or available for the following reasons: (1) Rocks are generally of no use to the local population and therefore less likely to be removed. White-topped picket/white rock: Indicate the boundary of designated safe areas. e. Blue-topped picket/blue rock: Indicate the start of a deminers daily clearance and the location of metal contamination pits. (2) The use of them clearly defines safe and hazardous areas i. d. a. 1 Small rocks shall be a minimum of 10 centimeters diameter Page 1 of 3 NTSG. the red side of the rock shall be positioned towards the hazardous area and the white to the safe area so as to indicate the boundary between safe and hazardous areas. They are to be spaced at a maximum of 1 metre intervals and posts shall be a minimum of 30 centimetres above the ground. f. red/white rocks are to be spaced at a maximum of 1 metre intervals (see Annex A page 1 & 2 of 3 for pictorial representation of this standard). and they are unambiguous in certain circumstances i. 1. A mine warning sign is normally positioned on this post. Part 1. Edition 9.1 Boundaries of all areas.e. b. The appropriate method should be utilised after consideration of the prevailing ground conditions. Version 1 . cleared lane. lanes and points in mine/UXO clearance operations shall be marked with appropriate markers.
Annex A. Figure 2 The Base Stick Page 2 of 3 NTSG.3 The aim of marking is to have one continuous perimeter that at all times clearly defines the hazardous and safe areas throughout the life of the task.1 Base sticks are used by deminers to maintain clearance lane width during clearance.Chapter 3 g. Crossed Red Pickets: Used to indicate the extent of clearance when work ends in a clearance lane for whatever reason and for whatever length of time Figure 1 . The rule is that the area behind the stick is safe (cleared of mines). then this shall be painted red. Version 1 . Figures 1 and 2 provides pictorial representations of this using red/white rocks and Figure 3 shows the method to be adopted using red/white rocks during the creation of clearance lanes that border a safe area. In circumstances where organisations opt for a one metre long base stick. Edition 9. Part 1. BASE STICKS 2.Markers a b c d e f g 1. 2. and in front of the stick it is unsafe (not cleared of mines). The red portion of the base stick marks the correct lane width whilst the white ends serves as a reminder to the deminer to overlap the clearance area into the adjoining lanes. The figure below shows the recommended design.
Version 1 . page 3 of 3 for pictorial representation of this standard). Appropriate stone/stick marking shall be placed as forward progress is made i. at 1-metre intervals (see Annex A. Edition 9.2 Two lengths of mine marking tape/cord shall be attached to the base stick in an appropriate fashion that enables it to be unreeled as the deminer progresses so as to indicate progress in the current clearance lane and to assist in the maintenance of the required direction of clearance.e.Chapter 3 2. Part 1. Page 3 of 3 NTSG.
ANNEX A to Chapter 3 FIGURE 1 – AREA MARKING PRIOR TO CLEARANCE LANES BEING STARTED SAFE AREA HAZARDOUS AREA INTERMEDIATE LANE SAFE AREA HAZARDOUS AREA START LINE BOUNDARY LANE SAFE AREA Not to Scale – for all required distance/measurements refer to Chapters 2 and 3 Page 1 of 3 NTSG. Edition 9. Version 1 ACCESS LANE TO CONTROL POINT White stones . Part 1.
Edition 9. Version 1 ACCESS LANE TO CONTROL POINT White stones .ANNEX A to Chapter 3 FIGURE 2 – AREA MARKING ONCE CLEARANCE LANES HAVE STARTED SAFE AREA HAZARDOUS AREA Clearance Lane 4 Clearance Lane 5 INTERMEDIATE LANE SAFE AREA HAZARDOUS AREA Clearance Lane 1 Clearance Lane 2 Clearance Lane 3 START LINE BOUNDARY LANE SAFE AREA Not to Scale – for all required distance/measurements refer to Chapters 2 and 3 Page 2 of 3 NTSG. Part 1.
Part 1.ANNEX A to Chapter 3 FIGURE 3 – MARKING OF CLEARANCE LANE THAT BORDERS A SAFE AREA HAZARDOUS AREA HAZARDOUS AREA HAZARDOUS AREA 1 METRE INTERVALS AS CLEARANCE PROGRESSES AND THE DEMINER REACHES A STONE HE/SHE MOVES IT TO DELINEATE THE HAZARDOUS AREA/SAFE AREA THE ‘START OF DAY’S WORK’ MARKER AND ALL OTHER MARKERS AS DETAILED IN CHAPTERS 2 & 3 SHALL BE USED AS DETAILED CLEARANCE TO COMMENCE THIS DIRECTION SAFE AREA SAFE AREA SAFE AREA SAFE AREA Not to Scale – for all required distance/measurements refer to Chapters 2 and 3 Page 3 of 3 NTSG. Edition 9. Version 1 .
(4) Depressions. type of mines / UXO. mounds. Any reduction must be authorised by the UNMAO. certain techniques may vary between mine action organisations. measured from the surface of the ground to the top of the mine. etc. INTRODUCTION 1. c. (3) Disturbance to the ground. (3) Excavation. mines. Visual Search: Prior to conducting a manual search. (6) Other mine / UXO indicators (packaging. UXO. animal remains). (5) Suspicious objects (inconsistent to the surroundings). METHODOLOGY & ACTIONS ON 2. (2) Protruding fuses.1 The following are established humanitarian demining clearance procedures and although. a. Edition 9. b. certain techniques may vary between mine action organisations. holes. Clearance Depth: The minimum depth when searching for mines is 13 cm (130 mm). the terrain.1 Humanitarian demining techniques used during each project may differ according to equipment. these shall be recognised as the minimum standard required by the UNMAO in Sudan. these shall be recognised as the minimum standard required by the UNMAO in Sudan. cords. STANDARDS. Clearance Lane: A manual mine clearance deminer is responsible for clearing a one metre wide lane using one or a combination of the following recognised methods: (1) Hand-held metal detector. As a minimum. (2) Prodding. Page 1 of 9 NTSG. components. the area where the manual search is to be performed shall be visually searched. Version 1 . The depth shall be increased when required. Part 1.Chapter 4 MANUAL MINE CLEARANCE 1. All procedures used in clearance operations are to be fully explained in step-by-step detail in the mine action organisations SOP. The following are established humanitarian demining clearance procedures and although. 2. The following should be considered when conducting the visual search: (1) Tripwires. a visual search of the unclear area shall be conducted. booby-traps.
forward of the base stick and raised slowly upwards until clear of the vegetation or head height when standing. All vegetation is to be cut to as close to the ground as is safely possible and placed in a cleared area. the tripwire feeler is moved along the ground. a minimum 10 cm and maximum of 50 cm overlap to the sides of the lane. If necessary. Caution shall be taken when cutting vegetation to avoid heavy vegetation from falling into the unclear area. therefore. The deminer shall not pull vegetation and avoid touching any trip wires. Clearance of Vegetation: The clearance of vegetation is to be done in a safe. ensuring that it does not become an obstacle. while the other uses the cutting tool. Part 1. The detector search process shall incorporate an overlap. The detector shall be used to check the one metre wide lane and. over the full width of the clearance lane and overlap. Detection of Tripwires: If the vegetation permits. This should be made from light-gauge wire and fabricated in such a way to allow the detection of both slack and taut wires. as a safety margin. The sensitivity of the metal detector is to be checked regularly in accordance with the manufacturer guidelines and organisation SOP to ensure that it is capable of searching the ground to the required depth. the search is completed using the eyes and hands. branch. Edition 9.Chapter 4 d. Use of Metal Detector: Prior to its use. search the area by slowly moving the hands forward. f. the metal detector shall be checked to ensure that it is functioning correctly. Page 2 of 9 NTSG. If the vegetation does not allow the use of a tripwire feeler. Starting from a crouched/ kneeling or prone position. or clump of vegetation. When cutting vegetation. providing a minimum of ten centimetres safety margin. the operator should be able to see the end of the feeler at all times. e. This is completed a minimum of three times. After a thorough visual check of the area. Version 1 . a tripwire feeler may be used to locate tripwires. ensuring that the area is checked at least twice. In order to deploy the trip wire feeler safely. ensuring that the distance moved forward is at least ten centimetres less than the distance searched with the detector. gently parting any thick vegetation that may obscure tripwires. controlled method. The metal detector search shall be conducted to a maximum distance of 50 cm forward of the base stick. avoiding any disturbance of vegetation outside the width of the lane plus overlap. Details for the calibration of the detector shall be included in the Organisation SOP’s. the operator shall ensure that a visual inspection is made and that the tool does not make contact with the ground. one hand shall be used to hold the tree.
Nothing shall be placed on the area of the detector signal. it should be approached from a cleared area from another side. No attempt should be made to mark the rear of the signal from this position. A signal marker shall be placed before the closest point of the signal or isolation markers maybe used to mark the extremities of the signal. then.1 Use of the Metal Detector g. Isolation & Marking: Prior to investigating the detector signal. If it is deemed necessary. Page 3 of 9 NTSG. Extreme caution shall be taken when using these markers to ensure that they are carefully positioned outside the site of the signal. Version 1 . Detector Signal. Part 1. the precise location of the signal shall be identified and marked. Edition 9.Chapter 4 Limit of travel of metal detector Min 10cm Position of Base Stick after search Overlap Cleared Max 40cm Max 50 cm 1m Uncleared Area Progression of lane 10-50cm Overlap Figure 4.
In hard ground.2 Detector Signal Marking h. then a certain amount of excavation shall be conducted in order to achieve the required prodding depth. is dependent on the size of the signal. Edition 9. Version 1 . A hole is dug a minimum of ten centimetres back from the nearest point of the signal to a minimum depth of fifteen centimetres.Chapter 4 Limit of travel of metal detector Detector Signal Signal Marker Isolation Markers Maximum 50 cm 1m Uncleared Area Progression of lane Figure 4. the prodding procedure may be replaced with excavation (sapping) only. This shall be done by prodding and/or excavating (1) Prodding shall commence a minimum of ten centimetres back from the nearest point of the signal and to the required width. If it is not possible to conduct prodding from the surface of the ground to the required search depth. avoiding any excessive force or stabbing. Part 1. (2) Excavation (Sapping) is used to reveal the identity/source of the signal. The prodder is to be used with an even motion. The depth prodded shall be dependent on the ground conditions. which. search depth and tool design. Alternatively. the source of the signal shall be investigated to identify it. Prodding & Excavation: Once the precise location of the signal has been identified using the metal detector. All prodding is to be at an angle </> than thirty degrees and at maximum intervals of two point five centimetres. Any excessive pressure and Page 4 of 9 NTSG. water could be used to soften the ground before prodding commences. The trowel (or similar tool) is used to slowly remove the soil towards the location of the source of the signal. resulting from extremely dry conditions.
Only qualified EOD personnel shall conduct demolitions or render safe procedures. The area where the metal was removed from shall be checked visually and with the metal detector for additional signals. Edition 9. Version 1 . The planned destruction of located mines should be carried out during or after each working day unless a specific safety hazard (or lack/limited amount of explosives) prevents this. All mines shall be pulled prior to neutralising/disarming if it is suspected that they are booby-trapped. Part 1. the Supervisor will decide whether further investigation is required. Action on Locating Metal The metal shall be carefully removed from the ground and placed it in the metal contamination pit. or proves to be impractical. The supervisor is responsible for ensuring all actions relating to the removal or destruction of the mine/UXO in situ are carried out correctly and by a qualified EOD operator. If an object is not located after using the prodder and excavation to the required depth. The lane may be cordoned and mine clearance activities started in a new lane. the mines/UXO shall be manually neutralised/ disarmed and moved to a secure location. place a mine marker a minimum ten centimetres before the mine/UXO and notify the supervisor through the chain of command. Action on Locating Mines/UXO The deminer shall stop mine clearance activities. prior to moving forward. Min 10 cm Mine Marker Figure 4. No personnel shall be allowed past a located mine/UXO in a one metre wide clearance lane. If this is not possible. i.Chapter 4 abrupt movements with the trowel shall be avoided. In circumstances where the mine/UXO is not destroyed or removed immediately. The prodder may also be used in conjunction with the excavation process. Disposal of Mines/UXO Where possible all mines/UXO should be destroyed in situ.3 Marking of Located Mine / UXO k. the deminer shall be moved to an alternative lane. Page 5 of 9 NTSG. j.
l. safe and effective Casevac to be conducted should an accident occur. they are to be accurately reported in the organisations daily clearance log and destroyed as soon as possible.4) and then notify the supervisor. the organisation is to ensure they are included on the weekly progress report for the task submitted to the UNRMAO and an explanation given. If they are not destroyed by the end of the working week. The supervisor is responsible for ensuring that both ends of the tripwire are located and appropriate action is taken depending on what is found at each end. Whilst tracing a tripwire there shall be no other activities within fifty metres.3 Marking of tripwire Page 6 of 9 NTSG. 10cm Figure 4. Edition 9. It is stressed that the method employed in tracing the tripwire should at all times ensure that deminers tasked do not become isolated.Chapter 4 Where mines/UXO are not destroyed on the day that they are found. Part 1. Version 1 . Conditions should always allow for swift. Action on Locating a Tripwire The deminer shall stop mine clearance activity and place 3 x small red stones a minimum of ten centimetres before and in the direction of the trip wire (see Figure 4.
(e) Booby-traps / secondary devices. commencing from the last signs of smoke. Before attaching the cable to the item. ensuring that the PPE is affording the maximum protection possible. avoiding any sharp. a hook/clip is attached or the cable is tied to the item. the sentries shall remain in position while the pulled item is checked. This distance shall only be reduced to a minimum of 50 metres when: (1) There is adequate protection from blast and fragmentation in relation to the item to be pulled and the threat from secondary devices. a check of the cable and the area of the pull shall be conducted to ensure that there are no kinks. (d) The explosive quantity of the ordnance. This shall only be conducted as a last resort and when there is no alternative protection from blast and fragmentation. act as a barrier. blind). A minimum wait-time of 60 seconds is to be allowed before approaching the item. fragmentation). (f) Proximity of personnel. continuous movement. unfired/safe. the original position of the item is then checked as per normal manual mine clearance procedures for any sign of mines.Chapter 4 m. sub-munition). mortar. jerking action. The type of UXO or mine being pulled shall dictate requirements for extended wait times. All personnel not involved in the pulling operation are to be withdrawn to a safe area and sentries posted. EOD evacuation and safety distance calculations should be used to determine how far the pulling point is located from the item to be pulled. and provide a greater angle to dislodge the item from its position. The item is pulled in a slow. (3) The following shall be considered when conducting the pulling drill: (a) The type of ordnance (eg. breaks or obstacles which may impede the pulling procedure. mine. A sandbag fulcrum should be placed at a safe distance before the item to afford some blast/fragmentation protection. This is a ‘one-man risk’ and shall be conducted by an EOD qualified person. a wait-time of at least 30 minutes shall be enforced. equipment and buildings. After the wait-time has elapsed. Edition 9. (2) The person conducting the pull is wearing full PPE (helmet/visor and body armour) and is close the ground. Pulling Procedure When it is necessary to remotely pull a mine/UXO or other item. If signs of smoke are seen from the area where the item is located. fused/unfused. Once all personnel have retired to the safe area. rocket. A pulling cable (made of non-stretchable material) shall be unrolled and laid along the clear ground between the pulling point and the location of the item. grenade. blast. (c) The condition of the ordnance (eg. Page 7 of 9 NTSG. Part 1. animals. Once the item is identified and made safe. projectile. (b) The function of the ordnance (eg. the supervisor is responsible for the pulling procedure. Version 1 . UXO or boobytrap devices.
from the last signs of smoke before conducting demining operations in the burned area. prodding and/or excavation. type of terrain and the availability of alternative clearance assets will determine the most efficient method of clearance to use. (E. the organisation concerned shall liaise with the UNMAO and local authorities. When removing rocks by hand. (2) If possible. The detector procedure shall be replaced with a complete prodding and/or excavating procedure to ensure that all mines/UXO are located to the required depth. the Supervisor shall make a decision on the best clearance method(s) (E. Clearance of Obstacles During the clearance of minefields. Burning of Vegetation in Unclear Areas Burning of unclear areas may be conducted in order to remove vegetation to facilitate mine clearance operations. sand).. such as. (eg. Caution must be exercised by the organisation and the burning must be controlled in order to prevent the undesired burning of other areas and cause an unacceptable risk to the local population. pulling.g. the altered state and instability of mines and UXO. EOD). ‘ghost signal’). Edition 9. Page 8 of 9 NTSG.Chapter 4 n. The minimum depth to be excavated is 15 centimetres and the complete width of the one metre wide lane shall be investigated to this depth. o. Therefore. Prior to commencing burning. sapping. inform the local emergency fire services. obstacles should be identified and special clearance drills adopted as required. caution shall be made so as to avoid disturbing the ground and the rocks should be lifted vertically. High Metallic Areas In areas where the metallic content of the soil is high. lifting. (6) Inform the UNMAO and relevant authorities on completion of burning. The detector should be used to regularly check the soil contamination level and confirm whether the complete prodding and excavation process can be replaced with the detector procedure. (4) Ensure that adequate precautions are taken to extinguish any small fires in cleared areas.. Version 1 . Part 1.g. mines/UXO) and post sentries accordingly. construct a firebreak to prevent the fire from spreading. mark the boundary of the high metallic area for clearance by MDD or mechanical means. p. (5) Calculate the blast / fragmentation safety distance depending on the threat (eg. The results from burning must be considered. physical hazard.Those obstacles that cannot be cleared immediately are to be marked and if necessary fenced for future clearance operations.. (3) If necessary. the metal detector may be ineffective. Mountainous and Rocky Terrain In areas where the ground is mountainous and rocky. fire extinguishers.g. Alternatively. q. pulling drill). suspicion that a mine/UXO is beneath the rocks. The supervisor on site must give consideration to the approach and clearance method used for each type of obstacle encountered. there may be a requirement to remove rocks (E. Any demining organisation conduct burning of unclear areas is to ensure that the following precautions are adhered to: (1) Inform the UNMAO and local authorities. The size of the area. (7) Allow a 24 hour soak time. detector search.
Version 1 . Working Hours A manual mine clearance deminer shall not work for longer than sixty (60) minutes before taking a break of at least ten (10) minutes. however. Page 9 of 9 NTSG. the aforementioned times shall be adhered to. the working hours may be reduced or the daily routine changed. Part 1.Chapter 4 r. Edition 9. A safe and sensible approach shall be made by the demining organisation supervisor in order to achieve the best possible mine clearance results without compromising the safety of demining personnel. climate). A normal working day for a manual mine clearance deminer shall not exceed 6 hours actual mine clearance work a day. In excessive climatic conditions. The working time may vary between organisations and specific situations (eg.
under supervision. Level Two EOD – enables a deminer to undertake the destruction. Such operations may involve a single UXO. Part 1. Edition 9. 3. b. 2. TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS 3. tank gun ammunition and artillery ammunition up to 240 mm in diameter including HEAT charges.1 EOD training and qualifications should be appropriate to the UXO threat encountered in Sudan. grenades and mortar ammunition up to 84 mm in diameter including high explosive anti tank (HEAT) ammunition.1 For the purpose of this NTSG the term unexploded ordnance (UXO) applies to all ordnance.2 A mine action organisation or a contractor specialising in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) may clear UXO.1 EOD may be undertaken during humanitarian demining when UXO is encountered in a minefield and also at times when UXO is encountered outside of mined areas. munitions and landmines which may be found in Sudan and which present a significant risk to human life. in situ mines that the deminer has been specifically trained on. c. All organisations involved in specific EOD operations shall have at least one qualified level four EOD Technician within their organisation. Level Three EOD – applies to a deminer who has been specifically trained in the disposal by detonation of larger UXO such as rocket. 2. The following is a guide: a. expose and destroy. The training and qualifications of deminers carrying out EOD activities shall satisfy the requirements and policies of the UNNMAO and be in accordance with IMAS 09. The above categories normally represent the majority of UXO found in or around minefields. INTRODUCTION 1. Version 1 . 1.30.2 The establishment and preservation of a safe and effective EOD capability will require varying levels of expertise. Level One EOD – enables a deminer to locate. a level three operator should be qualified and trained to render safe UXO for safe removal and subsequent destruction: d. of a single small UXO such as sub-munitions. in-situ. Under the supervision and direction of a qualified EOD supervisor. a number of UXO in a specific location or stockpiled ammunition. EOD operators are only authorised to deal with those items and situations for which they have been trained and are qualified.Chapter 5 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL 1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES 2. Level Four EOD – applies to specialist EOD operators who have been trained at an internationally recognized institution and are Page 1 of 5 NTSG. For the purpose of this NTSG all such activities are included as EOD operations.
specific training in the disposal of these items may be given to selected operators. Edition 9. Examples are items containing white phosphorous. . Note1: Where particular items or ERW are frequently encountered.1 The following definitions are not included in the glossary but are applicable in terms of this NTSG: a. b. missiles or the need for bulk demolitions. Part 1. Note 3: It should be noted that sub-munitions are particularly hazardous to deal with and should only be dealt with by appropriately trained and qualified personnel. Note 4: EOD operators shall only carry out operations and techniques for which they have been suitably trained.Chapter 5 subsequently qualified to destroy the remaining EOD hazards using specialist EOD techniques and equipment. 5. Such specialist’s skills would include the render safe of liquid propellant systems. The Level Four EOD qualification shall clearly indicate the specialist areas of expertise attained by the individual and level four tasks shall only be conducted if the appropriate technical reference documentation and supporting specialised tools are available to the operator. This does not include Render Safe Procedures (RSP). Any training of this nature is to be approved and accredited by the UNMAO. Local authorities and affected population (if any) need to be involved in the site selection process and their agreement sought. are qualified and for which they have been accredited. 4. Page 2 of 5 NTSG. (Annex A details considerations to be taken into account when choosing the location of a CDS and procedures to be adopted during its operation). This includes bulk disposal of rendered safe UXO and other recovered items of ERW. Note 2: Some UXO items present a specific or additional threat. 2 Consideration should be given to any donor charge used when calculating the total NEQ.1 RESPONSIBILITIES UNMAO: The UNMAO shall where applicable establish and/or maintain: Approval for the establishment of a CDS is to be obtained from the Director of Mine Action in Sudan. disposal of depleted uranium and the clearance of conventional munitions with improvised firing systems. c. Consideration is required in regard to the need for additional training in the disposal of some UXO items that present additional hazards to the operator or environment. Central Demolition Site – an area authorised for the destruction of bulk UXO1. Primary Fragmentation – in an explosive event fragmentation that was originally part of a mine/UXO 5. Version 1 1 . DEFINITIONS 4. therefore enabling them to deal with these items rather than continually referring the problem to the next higher level of expertise. Net Explosive Quantity/Content (NEQ/NEC) – the total amount of explosive material contained within a given item of ammunition2.
Neutralization and Disarming – (1) Wherever possible and/or practicable UXO shall be destroyed in-situ by detonation. The capability to monitor the effectiveness and safety of mine action organisations involved in EOD operations e. Version 1 . Part 1. Page 3 of 5 NTSG. c. National standards for the qualification of EOD operators. their livestock. then alternative techniques of disposal should be applied. their buildings and other such concerns that may be affected by operations by implementing sufficient safety distances and the isolation of any danger area by the use of sentries and warnings. environmental considerations or the possibility of unacceptable damage being inflicted on nearby infrastructure. The capability to accredit mine action organisations involved in EOD operations. Apply the detail of accredited SOPs during EOD operations in a consistent.20 should be referred to for clarification of laying down ‘danger areas’ however it should be remembered this is only a guide. Establish and maintain SOPs for EOD operations which comply with IMAS and this NTSG b. must be strictly adhered to. 6. (3) All techniques planned to be used are to be detailed within the organisations SOPs. National systems for EOD incident reporting 5. IMAS 10. This includes consideration into the safeguarding of the general public. (2) If not possible to destroy in-situ because of safety factors. This may include low order (deflagration) or render safe techniques in which case the UXO can be removed to a safe location for disposal. National standards for EOD procedures. contained in IMAS 10.1 The guidelines for setting up demolitions.Chapter 5 a. train and maintain appropriate staff to carry out EOD operations c. b. Destruction – this applies to UXO destroyed in-situ and those removed for disposal either individually or in bulk: (1) Appropriate measures shall be taken to contain blast and fragmentation effects. The following requirements and procedures shall be applied during EOD operations: a.30. d. b.2 Demining Organisations: Demining organisations shall: a. REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES 6. Cooperate with UNMAO staff responsible for implementing policy and monitoring EOD operations. Recruit. d. Edition 9. effective and safe manner.
A wait time of 30 minutes shall be applied for all nonelectrical misfires. iii. ii. final placement of charges and all clear checks at the completion of a demolition are a ‘one man risk’ and shall only be completed by the OIC of the disposal site. (5) EOD operators shall be conversant with all protective works techniques. (b) Non-electrical Initiation – This should only be used when electrical initiation is not possible and/or practicable. iv. (4) SOPs shall contain details of the organisations procedures/methodology for calculating and implementing danger areas. When used: i. (2) Firing points shall be sited outside of the fragmentation hazard zone or be suitably protected against the effects of fragmentation and blast caused from the demolition. iii. Page 4 of 5 NTSG. Test the burning time of 300mm of safety fuse noting the burning rate. (3) SOPs relating to demolitions are to be strictly adhered to and shall include the following safety precautions when conducting either electrical or non-electrical methods of initiation: (a) Electrical Initiation – This is the preferred method and should be used whenever possible and/or practicable. d. c. Edition 9. Version 1 . All electrical firing circuits shall be sited a minimum distance of 300m from the nearest radio or radar transmitting aerial when the wattage output is unknown. When used: i. calculations and construction methods.Chapter 5 (2) Sites chosen for bulk destruction shall be sited away from populated areas so as to represent no risk to the local inhabitants. The first and last 300mm of the safety fuse coil is to be discarded. Calculate the length of fuse required to walk from the demolition site to the safe area. The minimum safety distance from all HF vehicle radio transmitters is 160 m. Part 1. iv. live stock or infrastructure. A wait time of 10 minutes shall be applied for all electrically initiated misfires. EOD Reporting – Comprehensive reports are required following the completion of an EOD task. Initiation Methods – The following applies to whichever method is used: (1) Crimping of detonators. Minimum length of safety fuse permitted to be used per firing serial is 600mm. The minimum safety distance from all VHF radios is 25m. Anti-static precautions shall be taken prior to handling any electro-explosive items. v. v. (3) EOD Operators shall only deal with those items and situations for which they have been trained and accredited. ii. The destruction of a single item of UXO (spot EOD task) shall be recorded in the IMSMA Dangerous Area Report. Organisations are to include protective works measures in their EOD SOP.
Version 1 .Chapter 5 ensuring the appropriate section on EOD spot tasks is completed. Edition 9. Part 1. All other EOD tasks are to be recorded in the IMSMA Progress Report Form. Page 5 of 5 NTSG.
Requirements for and practicality of upgrading access and egress vehicle routes across the site. Edition 8. Other considerations to be taken into account are: a. Part 1. sentry positions.2 On approval the user organisation shall mark the site on the ground. be above the surrounding area to reduce the effects of earth shock and consideration given to the presence of rocks or other debris that may produce secondary fragmentation hazards. explosive storage. 2. e. all details including the expected NEQ. Only when this is achieved can the disposal process commence. 3. LOCATION 1. Availability of visually interlocking sentry positions outside of the danger area. Suitable positioning of Helicopter Landing Site (HLS). if possible. Locations for site office. firing point.3 A master map and other relevant details of the approved CDS shall be kept with the UNRMAO. i.1 Safety of all personnel. Suitable position for the firing point. Suitability of underfoot conditions where vehicles and personnel will traffic across the whole site. Availability of a suitable location for a sheltered and protected explosive storage area.1 Once a suitable CDS has been identified. briefing areas. d. b. The selected site should. Sited away from known flight paths and from known used waterways. rest areas and vehicle parks. vehicle parking areas. 2. h. g. 2. Version 2 . This will be evaluated and a recommendation for approval/non-approval as appropriate will be forwarded to the Director of the Mine Action Programme in Sudan for a final decision. f.ANNEX A to CHAPTER 5 LOCATING CDS AND PROCEDURES DURING ITS OPERATION 1.1 The preferred site should be situated away from populated areas and afford good all round visibility. PROCEDURES 3. Proximity to a suitable and appropriate medical facility. a map and a scale drawing of the site and an Explosive Safety Trace shall be forwarded to the UNRMAO. c. rest areas. This should include demolition pits. AUTHORITY AND LICENCING 2. livestock and property who/that may be affected during any demolitions or other activities conducted at the CDS shall be made the Page 1 of 2 NTSG.
For this reason a CDS shall be situated in isolated areas. effective and accredited procedures. (6) Planning and safe. qualified and experienced OIC shall be appointed and shall be responsible and accountable for all activities conducted at the CDS on behalf of his organisation and that includes: (1) The conduct of all demolitions and associated activities including submitting NOTAMs. b. Edition 8. (4) That post demolition clearances and procedures are adequately covered and carried out. Version 2 . (8) That all safety precautions are observed and implemented and that only approved and accredited demolition techniques/methods are used. (2) The safety and security of the CDS. (5) The security and accounting of stored and destroyed munitions. No demolitions of any sort shall take place at the site without the direct approval of the Director of SUDANMAP. effective implementation of all activities for which he/she is responsible and that are to be conducted at the site.ANNEX A to CHAPTER 5 highest priority. The following procedures shall apply before. A suitably trained. (3) That appropriate medical evacuation procedures are always in place. responsibilities and duties. application of SOP during operations and the implementation of safe. during and after a demolition activity at a CDS: a. Page 2 of 2 NTSG. of explosives and of organisational equipment. Part 1. (7) Briefing all team members on their individual tasks and responsibilities and ensuring that the team clearly understand their roles.
with or without a NOTAM. 2. Demolitions are not to proceed without military knowledge and approval. Page 1 of 2 NTSG. SUBMISSION OF NOTAM 2. Whenever mine action organisations are using explosives for any reason. they are to inform the local military unit. Planned Date of Detonation: If no time zone is shown on the NOTAM. If demolitions are to be carried out at the same time each day.1 A NOTAM shall be submitted when the total of any one explosive charge exceeds 25kg. 1.1 NOTAMs are required in order to warn aviators of the use of explosives in any area. c. d. Maximum Quantity of Explosives to Be Used In Any One Detonation: This is to be reported in kilograms. The only exception to this rule is demolitions within 1 km of any airport or main HLS. 1. Part 1. Version 1 .2 All NOTAMs are to be submitted direct to the UNRMAO or UNMAO suboffice who are to disseminate it to both UNMIS and WFP Air Operations and to the local office of UNDSS. so that these areas are not over-flown at critical times.3 All explosive demolitions are to be formally co-ordinated by mine action organisations. INTRODUCTION 1. Planned time of detonation: This must be a stated specific time.2 This guideline is to assist in the authorisation and reporting of the use of explosives by mine/UXO clearance organisations.4 It is the responsibility of the mine action organisation carrying out any demolitions to inform and co-ordinate their activities at the local level with military units and where necessary and/or required other national. The following details are required: a. 2. on or off a recognised Central Demolitions Site (CDS).Chapter 6 NOTICE TO AIR MOVEMENT (NOTAM) 1. Edition 9. b. 1. governmental and local authorities. local time is to be stated. which require a NOTAM at all times. However the information can also be used to warn/inform other interested parties. daily timings should be stated on a consolidated weekly NOTAM. Location of Demolition: This is to be in the form of GPS coordinates in longitude/ latitude.
3. Page 2 of 2 NTSG. 3. and this figure included in the statement of net explosive quantity (NEQ) in kilograms.2 Normal safety precautions are to be taken whenever the explosive destruction of any item of ordnance is carried out. radio call sign and frequency of demolition supervisor. Contact Details: Name and telephone number of contact at mine/UXO clearance organisation’s headquarters or field office. 3. e. Vertical safety distances are to be reported in feet. Team Details: Name. destruction of UXO. Vertical safety distances are to be calculated by adding 500 feet additional safety distance to the horizontal safety distance.Chapter 6 e. f.1 When the use of an explosion in an emergency situation is necessary. such as for the destruction of UXO in a dangerous location or emergency situation. Safety distances for charges used: Horizontal safety distances are to be reported in metres. the organisation carrying out the explosive demolitions should contact the airport control tower or authority in order that local co-operation is achieved.3 A NOTAM shall always be submitted in advance of a planned demolition. These should be the exception rather than the rule. This. Additional Information: This is to include the reason for demolition. 2.g. In all such cases the means of initiation is to be electrical and the time of detonation is to be carefully controlled to ensure that the airspace is clear of aircraft. EMERGENCY NOTAMS 3. should be submitted at least 48-hours in advance. These safety precautions are to include visual and aural inspection of the airspace above and around the demolition area to encompass the implemented safety distance.3 If explosive charges or the explosive destruction of ordnance is carried out within 1 km of an airport. unless prior approval is granted through the NOTAM system. whenever practical and possible. Part 1. the details required for NOTAM are to be passed on to the UNRMAO. All UXO. 3. Version 1 . Maximum vertical safety distance allowed within 10km of an airport or main HLS is 1500 feet.4 An example of a NOTAM is contained at Annex A. The only exception to this 48-hour rule is when exceptional circumstances and the tasking process dictate otherwise. anti-personnel mines and anti-tank mines for explosive destruction are to be assessed by weight of explosives contained inside them. An Emergency NOTAM will be dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Edition 9. h. g.
ii iii. i. Name & Call Sign of Contact Name & Tel of Contact at Org HQ G. B.Annex A to chapter 6 Notice to Air Movement (NOTAM) From To For Information SUBJECT: NOTAM REQUEST No . Part 1. Location (name) Co-ordinates Map Name Sheet No Quantity of Explosive per Charge Time from Vertical (ft) Time to (Horizontal + 500’) Latitude Longitude C. F. Horizontal (m) E. Date D. A. Radio Call Sign H Additional Information Frequency Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Safety Distances. Edition 8 .
Survey: This is the definition. datum point. 1.3 BAC planning shall include the preparation of appropriate procedures for neutralisation and disarming of all types of UXO likely to be encountered. BAC: This is the clearance by systematic search. b. Page 1 of 4 NTSG. boundary lines and lanes. the use of suitably trained and qualified personnel and the use of effective and safe equipment.Chapter 7 BATTLE AREA CLEARANCE (BAC) 1. registration and mapping of a hazardous area. controlled and systematic clearance and recovery procedure. This type of clearance requires a defined. It involves the removal and/or destruction of all UXO and their component parts which would otherwise pose a significant threat to the local population and progresses through the identification of a hazardous area achieved by detailed reconnaissance to the reporting and registration of its completion to UNMAO. Whilst individual areas will vary from location to location the basic principals of conduct will remain the same 1.1 BAC is the systematic search and controlled clearance of hazardous areas where the hazards are known not to contain mines. stores and supplies.1 Phase of BAC All BAC tasks shall have the following five phases which may differ in proportion and conduct depending on the task type and task priority given by the UNRMAO. BAC Supervisors should be qualified to EOD Level 3 and BAC Team Leaders should be qualified to EOD Level 2. With areas that have been subjected to sub-munitions attack this will mean defining the actual contaminated footprint. Version 1 . 2. intermediate lanes and other defined requirements. INTRODUCTION 1. a. 1. Part 1. Edition 9. d. detection and removal of all UXO within the marked area. turning points. c. BASIC PROCEDURES 2. start point.4 Personnel who have successfully completed the Basic Deminer Training Course may be used to man BAC Teams following specific BAC and basic EOD training. regardless of the method of search to be employed should conform to the requirements of ’Site Preparation and Setting Out’ a minefield (see Chapter 2) and include benchmark. Reconnaissance: This is the identification and selection of a hazardous area for clearance. Marking: This is the physical marking of the defined hazardous area which.2 BAC may involve the clearance of bunkers and ammunitions stockpiles that includes stockpiles left in any ammunition storage type facility whether it be a purpose built or a field storage facility.
(5) A team will be allocated a ‘box’ to search and this will be further segmented into ‘lanes’ of a width determined by the restrictions detailed in paragraphs (1).is the most effective method of removing the immediate threat from a hazardous area. punctual recovery and dissemination of cleared area information in the form of a suspension or completion report. Regardless of the method employed all personnel entering within 100m of the hazardous area will wear appropriate PPE. 3. (2) The TL must be able to see and hear all deminers at all times. the location of cluster bomb strike marks should be recorded to assist in the identification and future evaluation of the strike area footprint and boundary.1 Selection of which method to use is dependent upon clearance instructions. (9) Any deminer who identifies an item of UXO is to immediately alert the remainder of the team and the TL. Visual Search . Page 2 of 4 NTSG. It must be strictly controlled to ensure that the complete area is systematically searched. (3) Each deminer must be able to visually search the area he/she is responsible for at all times and must be able to hear the TL at all times. (8) Searching shall always be carried out in complete silence. the team can then move onto the next box.Chapter 7 e.2 Methods that may be used include: a. Edition 9. except for instructions given by the TL and on the identification of a UXO by a deminer. Version 1 . (7) Each lane will be searched until the whole box has been covered. (6) A minimum safety distance of 50 metres is maintained between each BAC team but it may be necessary to increase this depending on the fragmentation threat. (11) In those areas where sub-munition clearance is being conducted. vegetation etc. terrain and environment will dictate the number of deminers making up a BAC team and the spacing between these individuals. Once a box has been searched and all UXO found is marked. terrain. (10) After an evaluation by the TL the UXO is to be appropriately marked. Reporting: This is the accurate. (2) and (3) above. 3. Under no circumstances shall the UXO be moved or disturbed at this stage. Part 1. The following applies: (1) The vegetation. A combination of different search methods will normally be employed in order to achieve the desired result. METHODS OF SEARCH & MINIMUM GUIDELINES 3. (4) BAC teams shall not search continuously for more than 60 minutes without at least a 10-minute break.
except for instructions given by the TL and on the identification of a UXO by a deminer. strike or otherwise disturb the item giving the signal. adequate supervision and overall conduct of this method of search must take into consideration the use of detectors whilst applying the details of paragraph 3. (4) A deminer shall not search continuously for more than 60 minutes without at least a 10-minute break. Numbers of deminers. terrain. the deminer can be moved to the next box. (8) Searching shall always be carried out in complete silence. future use of the land and perceived threat. effectiveness. Once a box has been searched and all UXO found is marked. (2) The TL shall allocate each deminer a box. (6) A minimum safety distance of 25 metres is to be maintained between each deminer but it may be necessary to increase this depending on the fragmentation threat. At all times any signal from the instrument that may reasonably be expected to be an item of UXO is to be investigated. All sub-munitions are to be destroyed in situ. (9) Levels of clearance will be identified during the tasking and will be dependant on the overall requirement.1a (1) to (12) as closely as possible. (7) Each lane will be searched until the whole box has been covered. in pairs and even in threes1 but this should be the maximum. Edition 9. Version 1 . Sub-surface Search – may be employed initially or following a visual search of the contaminated area. c. Regardless of this the following applies: (1) The weather. (10) On location of a sub-surface signal. (2) and (3) above. Instrument Aided Visual Search – used to assist visual search procedures when the density. The extent of excavations should be such that it allows the item to be positively identified.Chapter 7 (12) All items of UXO that have been identified are to be rendered safe either by disposal by detonation/burning or if safe to do so. normal demining probe and excavation drills should be employed. b. Part 1. (3) Each deminer must be able to visually and instrumentally search the area they are responsible for at all times and must be able to hear the TL at all times. allocation of tasks. recovered to a central storage area for demolition at a later date. 1 Whichever entity is used reference to a single entity in this chapter is made by the term ‘deminer’ Page 3 of 4 NTSG. (5) A deminer will be allocated a ‘box’ to search and this will be further segmented into ‘lanes’ of no more than 2m width taking into account the restrictions detailed in paragraphs (1). vibrate. He must be able to see and hear all deminers at all times. efficiency and safety. Dependant upon methodology and equipment used deminers may work singularly. Every effort must be made not to jolt. environment. instruments and equipments being used and fragmentation threat shall dictate the composition of deminers and the spacing between each. covering and/or spread of vegetation hinders progress.
1 Upon completion of a BAC task a Completion Report is to be completed and submitted to the UNRMAO. Version 1 . Excessively large quantities must not be allowed to accumulate. DISPOSAL OF UXO 4. Page 4 of 4 NTSG. 4. protected and the local inhabitants informed.3 Items of UXO that are considered safe to move may be transported to a predesignated storage area for future bulk disposal. (12) After an evaluation by the TL any item of UXO is to be appropriately marked.1 All items of metallic scrap that have been certified as Free From Explosive (FFE) are to be stockpiled on site and arrangements made for its removal to a final place of disposal. where disposal cannot take place that day.Chapter 7 (11) Any deminer who excavates and identifies an item suspected of being UXO is to immediately alert the TL. All sub-munitions are to be destroyed in situ. explosive and accessories usage. REPORTING 5. These details shall also be detailed on the Weekly Summary Report submitted to UNRMAO. In circumstances. recovered to a central storage area for demolition at a later date. Part 1. (15) All items of UXO that have been identified are to be rendered safe either by disposal by detonation/burning or if safe to do so. 4. (13) In all cases UXO and sub-munitions to a minimum depth of 20cm are to be located and removed/disposed of. This should include the details of all demolitions conducted. the item is to be effectively marked. 4. (14) In those areas where sub-munition are expected the location of cluster bomb strike marks should be recorded to assist in the identification and future evaluation of the strike area footprint and boundary (see Annex B).2 Any UXO should be disposed of by detonation/burning either in situ (if unsafe to move) or at a CDS (if safe to move) as soon as possible. Edition 9. 5.
1.5 Intrusive machine refers to those machines that are designed to work inside a hazardous area. such as flails. Edition 9. excavators. 1. tillers. the necessity for post-mechanical follow-up clearance is reduced to the minimum possible. logistic and administrative support to provide sustainability.1 MECHANICAL ROLE When conducting mechanical demining. 2. INTRODUCTION 1. a single machine employing a variety of tools or a number of machines employing a variety of tools. b. 2. while the term ‘non-intrusive machine’ refers to those designed to operate from a cleared or known safe area. 1. As a consequence of this ground processing. Ground Preparation Machines – Ground preparation machines may or may not be involved in the detonation. 1. destruction or removal of landmines however they are primarily designed to improve the efficiency of demining operations by reducing or removing obstacles by: (1) Vegetation cutting and clearing (2) Removal of tripwires (3) Loosening soil (4) Removal of metal contamination (5) Removal of building debris. rubble. boulders. magnets etc. eliminated i. A single machine may utilise a number of different tools. which may be fixed or interchangeable. where the perceived hazard was non existent. machines are divided into three distinct roles: a.Chapter 8 MECHANICAL DEMINING 1. where the machines removed the hazard or where the remaining hazard forms a tolerable residual risk. Part 1.1 Mechanical demining is an essential component of humanitarian mine action and part of an integrated approach with the associated organisational structure.2 Mechanical demining operations may involve a single machine employing one mechanical tool. with its mechanical tool working in the hazardous area. or in certain cases. rollers.e. sifters. Version 1 . defensive wire obstacles and other hindrances Page 1 of 8 NTSG. destruction or removal of landmines.4 Mechanical tool refers to the working component(s) attached to a machine. a front end loader and a screening plant. Mine Clearance Machines – Mine clearance machines are those machines whose stated purpose is the detonation. ploughs.3 A mechanical demining unit refers to one or more machines working as part of a system for example.
vegetation.Chapter 8 (6) Sifting of soil and debris. e.2 Ground Preparation Machines: When machines are used for ground preparation. While these operations are not strictly mechanical demining operations involving ‘machines’ and ‘mechanical tools’ some of the work carried out by MPVDS falls into the category of mechanical demining. the less information available about a hazardous area. Part 1. they shall always be followed-up by other demining operations such as manual. MPVDS are commonly used during detection and survey operations. 4.2 The scope and extent of mechanical area reduction operations depends on factors such as the accuracy and completeness of existing information. 3.g. c. the more investigation is required by a machine in order to be able to confirm the location of landmines and reduce areas. 3. MECHANICAL AREA REDUCTION 4. Page 2 of 8 NTSG.e. machine and tool type. 3. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 3. mine and ERW types and area reduction procedures used. leading to a decision to clear the area. 4. Edition 9. Mine Detection Dog (MDD) or mechanical mine clearance. where they may carry equipment such as detector arrays. the information they provide shall be followed up as appropriate and determined by an information management process. Generally. Version 1 . Mine Protection Detection and Survey Vehicles (MPVDS) – MPVDS are specifically designed to protect the occupants and equipment from the effects of a mine detonation. For example: (1) Heavy MPVDS using their wheel tracks to provide an access path for manual sampling teams (a ground preparation role) (2) MPVDS pushing or towing rollers (a mechanical mine clearance role). mark the area or classify the area as non-hazardous i.3 Mine Protected Vehicles for Detection and Survey (MPVDS): When machines are employed for detection and survey operations.1 Mine Clearance Machines: When machines are used for mine clearance. vapour sampling devices or in some cases push or pull a roller.1 Mechanical area reduction can be a part of a technical survey process or a part of a clearance operation. ‘no evidence of mines’. terrain. follow-up demining operations shall be carried out before the area is considered cleared. and the machine has been assessed as potentially leaving hazards which pose an intolerable risk to the end users of the land. Mechanical area reduction involves a machine being used to indicate or confirm the presence of landmines and/or ERW within a hazardous area. The aim is to enable the deployment of other demining assets in areas proven to contain landmines and ERW.
2 Both ground preparation and mine clearance machines may be used within the systems approach. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO MECHANICAL DEMINING 5. 5. PHASE 2 Identify what the mechanical demining systems cannot achieve when applied to the landmines and ERW likely to be in the hazardous area.Chapter 8 5. PHASE 1 Identify what the mechanical demining systems can consistently achieve when applied to the landmines and ERW likely to be in the hazardous area. TOLERABLE RISK 6.1 Following mechanical mine clearance a risk assessment should be carried out aimed at identifying the residual risk posed by remaining hazards in order to assess the requirement for further demining. Page 3 of 8 NTSG. at different stages during the demining process to achieve the maximum possible standard of clearance. PHASE 3 Identify what further demining is necessary to reduce the residual risk posed by remaining hazards to a tolerable level.1 In mechanical demining. 5. Edition 9. The mine action organisation and the UNMAO shall be involved in the risk assessment process and all relevant information shall be annotated in the Completion Report. 6. a ‘systems approach’ is the application of machines with a combination of tools.4 Shown below is an example of the phases involved in a systems approach leading to the selection of an appropriate method to deal with a suspected hazardous area. Version 1 .3 The systems approach is then continued with mechanical demining being integrated with other demining operations (manual or MDD) to ensure that required standards of clearance are achieved. 5. or a combination of machines with different tools. Part 1. This will identify the remaining hazards and the residual risk they pose.
(4) Procedures for the integration of the machine with other machines or demining operations. d. On no account shall any person be permitted to enter an unclear area to fight a fire on a burning machine. TESTING AND EVALUATION (T&E) 8. (5) Procedures to be followed in the event of a fire on a machine covering immediate actions to be taken and ensure the safe extraction of an operator from a hazardous area – where an onboard operator is present. The operation of each machine shall be assessed and confirmed as safe for the operator and any other person on a mechanical demining worksite. Prior to the deployment of any machine to Sudan. Part 1.Chapter 8 7. Machines shall not be used with tools. Each machine shall be Tested and Evaluated (T&E) to determine its suitability for the task(s) it is expected to carry out in the conditions in which it will work. SOPs shall be developed for each machine. or in conditions for which they do not have on-site accreditation. These SOPs should include: (1) General mechanical operating procedures.40 should be referred to for guidance on T&E requirements and parameters but in summary the following are the minimum requirements. The protection level for machines shall be sufficient to meet the perceived threat following a risk assessment for the particular task. an assessment should be made to ascertain that suitable in-country infrastructure and support systems are available to ensure that a machine is operationally deployable. f. Page 4 of 8 NTSG. (2) Specific operating procedures (3) Procedures detailing the recovery of the machine and extraction of operator in the event of a machine becoming stranded in a hazardous area. MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS 7. c. 8.1 T&E of machines is carried out to ensure that a machine is suitable for its intended use in the conditions in which it will work. On-site accreditation of a machine shall be determined after fulfilling specific T&E and before employment on operations. b. or on tasks. e. Version 1 . machines shall be fitted with fire extinguisher or fire suppressing systems.1 DEMINING OPERATIONS - GENERAL Machines to be used shall conform to the following general requirements: a. Edition 9. g. IMAS 03.
Survivability test – A test to verify that the machine survives the explosive forces used as design criteria. may help in understanding the operational constraints and/or in visualising performance trends of particular machines. Performance test – A test to establish whether the machine and its tool(s) is capable of performing the role for which it is intended under comparable and repeatable conditions and to evaluate the manufacturer’s specifications. This may subsequently help an organisation to improve the efficiency of its mechanical operations.1 MACHINE SUPPORT The mine action organisation shall ensure the following: a. 10.Chapter 8 a.1 Demining organisations shall maintain detailed records of their mechanical and follow-up operations in order to build up a statistical database of information that can be used for operational decision making. Such information may for example. MECHANICAL RECORDS 9. Acceptance Test – A test to ensure that a machine is able to work in the environment where it is intended to be used. Machines are maintained and serviced in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations. that the residual risk posed by remaining hazards is tolerable. Version 1 . is essential to maintain sufficient statistical records. 9. b. 10. the damage is repaired before further work continues. c. b. facilitate the release of land after mechanical mine clearance without follow-up demining if statistical data proves sufficiently. Routine inspections of safety features on machines are carried out and where damage is identified. Reporting on non-operational time. Page 5 of 8 NTSG.2 Reporting on operational performance indicators. Appropriate and sufficient provisions for the maintenance and servicing of machines. such as mechanical breakdowns. transport between sites and logistical delays. e. 8. Routine checks are made on the working components of machines and where working components critical to the effective operation of a machine are damaged or lost they are repaired or replaced before further work continues. 9.2 T&E shall only be conducted in a safe / controlled environment and on authorisation from the UNMAO. Edition 9. Fire fighting equipment is available at all places where refuelling of machines is carried out. such as hours worked. c. d. Part 1. land cleared and landmines and ERW found. Maintenance and servicing is carried out by qualified personnel and authorised agencies. f.
i. Version 1 . Where damage to a machine may place personnel in danger from subsequent detonations. Establish reporting systems and procedures for the gathering of data on mechanical and follow-up demining operations.1 In addition to routine and normal safety practices employed during humanitarian demining the following safety precautions/procedures shall apply to all mechanical operations: Page 6 of 8 NTSG. make. d. c. Edition 9. the machine should not return to work until the damage is repaired. Obtain from the UNMAO the operational accreditation for each different machine (model. type) to be used in demining operations. 11. Implement QM systems to ensure the safe. h. c. Develop and implement national standards for the employment of machines on demining operations. with their SOPs and with the terms of their specific contract. b. b. Mechanical operators shall be appropriately trained and qualified in the operation and maintenance of their machines. Ensure sufficient qualified personnel to cover all aspects of the ongoing operations are on site at all times.Chapter 8 g. Establish systems and procedures to ensure that machines operate effectively and are properly maintained and serviced and remain safe for the operator. Whenever a machine is subject to a detonation that may have affected the safety of the operation. effective and efficient use of machines on demining operations. 11. When operating machines comply with the NTSG. 11. d. Part 1. 12. the machine is immediately withdrawn from the hazardous area and inspected. Provide advice to prospective machine users. Establish and maintain reporting systems and make the information available on mechanical and follow-up demining operations as specified by the UNMAO.1 RESPONSIBILITIES The UNMAO shall: a. e. SAFETY 12. Accredit mine action organisations’ SOPs prior to carrying out on-site accreditation of machines in accordance with the requirements of this standard.2 The mine action organisation shall: a. e. Such data should be made available to all stakeholders.
a hazard is identified which a machine was not designed or approved to be used against. Edition 9. Between Supervisor/Remote control machine operator wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected AP fragmentation and AT mine areas. Minimum Safety Distance (m) (c) 200 300 100 200 100 150 7 50 8 9 10 100 300 200 Page 7 of 8 NTSG. If during operations. either in situ or in a separate disposal area. c. Between Personnel not wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected UXO areas. Between Supervisor/Remote control machine operator behind an approved blast/fragmentation screen in suspected AP/AT mine areas. b. e. The following minimum safety distance shall be adhered to: Ser (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Situation (b) Between Personnel not wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected AP blast mine areas Between Personnel not wearing PPE and a machine working in a suspected AP fragmentation and AT mine areas. Between working machines in Anti Personnel and Anti Tank mine areas.Chapter 8 a. Between Personnel wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected UXO areas. When using rollers or flails and inspecting the area afterwards through clearance or visual inspection. Once pulled the mines are to be destroyed by explosive means. the mechanical operation shall cease and a review of the task shall be carried out. mines may be remotely pulled to remove the danger of explosive kick-outs when attempting to destroy mines. all found mines or mine parts that include the fuse shall be destroyed in situ. ERW or hazardous components remain in the working or moving parts of the machine or are attached to the machine. Version 1 . Communications between the site supervisor and the mechanical operator shall be in place and confirmed at all times while a machine is working in a hazardous area. Machines shall be checked prior to moving from hazardous to safe areas to ensure that no landmines. Under no circumstances are these objects to be remotely moved or neutralised and recovered because of the possible unstable nature of the mine. Between Personnel wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected AP blast mine areas. f. When using ploughs. Between Personnel wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected AP fragmentation and AT mine areas. firing train or firing train component. Between Supervisor/Remote control machine operator wearing PPE and a machine working in suspected AP blast mine areas. d. Part 1.
Chapter 8 1. Any reduction to these distances shall only be authorised by the UNRMAO on a case by case basis and shall be required to be included in the detail of relevant Implementation Plans. 2. These safety distances shall be increased when required in accordance to the mine / UXO threat. 3. When operating a remote controlled clearance machine from inside a protected vehicle the minimum safety distance from a working machine shall be determined by the level of protection provided. The manufactures guide for the vehicle should be referred to. In circumstances where this information is not available, the minimum distance for the maximum suspected mine/UXO threat at the task shall be enforced. Table 8.1 Safety Distances
The following applies during all mechanical demining operations: a. Each clearance line shall have at least 300mm overlap. b. A 500mm overlap is a minimum for larger flail machines. c. The clearance lines should be as straight as possible, which shall ensure a more precise overlap of lines. If the machine cannot work in straight lines, the overlap area should be increased to ensure the correct overlap. d. When flail machines are used the machine must be backed at least 10m before commencing clearance again to ensure an adequate overlap of the area where the flail stopped. e. An external controller should carefully record all detonations and visible throw-outs of possible mines/UXO. This shall assist the quality assurance and ease the work of manual clearance follow-up afterwards. If the machine is used for area reduction or mine verification, this information is important in order to determine the exact location of the mined area. f. If mines are encountered in an area and the purpose of the clearance is area reduction, clearance should be undertaken from another direction or in another line in order to determine the extent of the minefield. g. Prior to deploying machines, certain considerations such as the threat (type of ordnance and depth), the terrain (eg, vegetation, rocks, slopes), and the purpose of clearance (eg, 100% clearance to the required depth, area reduction, verification, removal of vegetation, ground breaking) must be taken into account. Machines maybe adjusted accordingly to search for mines at varying depths depending on the task requirement. h. The purpose, method and requirement shall be included in the Task Dossier and Implementation Plan. Any deviation to this must be approved by the UNMAO. i. Soil expansion (the increase in volume of soil as a result of mechanical processing) is to be taken into consideration when planning follow-up demining. Depth of clearance shall be referenced to the original undisturbed ground surface.
Page 8 of 8 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
MINE DETECTION DOGS (MDD) OPERATIONS
1.1 The use of Mine Detection Dogs (MDD) is an effective aid to humanitarian demining especially for Technical Survey and as an area reduction tool prior to deploying other clearance assets. MDD can support or be used as an alternative to manual clearance and mechanical demining for working in difficult conditions such as areas with a high metallic content and minimal metal mines. 1.2 MDD will undergo a period of acclimatisation in order to become acclimatised to the local weather conditions, vegetation, soil condition and surrounding environment prior to be putting forward for accreditation. 1.3 MDD should be regarded as a method of confirming the presence of mine contamination rather than identifying the location of every individual mine. When searching for mines / UXO, the hazardous area is to be searched by a minimum of two mine detection dogs, with no indications before it can be considered as cleared. 1.4 All MDD deployed will be subject to accreditation prior to commencing operational tasks and will only be tasked for activities that they accredited for (the MDD accreditation process is at Annex A).
2.1 The mine action organisation is responsible for ensuring that the following general requirements are implemented: a. Each team (MDD and handler) is to be operationally accredited before commencing any humanitarian demining. b. A daily evaluation of the MDD is to be undertaken prior to commencing work that shall include a check of its health and general well-being, a detection test and based on these, an assessment that the MDD can carryout the tasks required from it. c. Routine internal training and evaluation of all teams is to be addressed by mine action organisations every 2 months. d. Records of QA to include training, evaluation, accreditation and daily performance are to be maintained in the relevant MDD logbook that is available for inspection at any time. e. MDD SOPs shall cover: (1) Operational details for each activity to include: (a) Team composition (b) Area marking before, during and after clearance (c) Tools and equipment requirements (d) Safety distances (e) Details of specific clearance drills
Page 1 of 9 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 9 (f) Command and control (to include communications) (g) Marking indications (h) Investigating indications (i) Actions on locating a mine/UXO (j) Marking of mine/UXO (k) Disposal of mine/UXO (l) Retesting and evaluation procedures (m) Manual clearance of areas inaccessible to MDD Work routine for MDD teams MDD team refresher training and QA, evaluation requirements The integration of MDD with other clearance assets Data collection and recording Administrative and support Reports, records and returns Medivac/Casevac plan for in case of illness/injury to an MDD Demining accident/incident procedures to include retrieval of MDD details
(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
3.1 The following general safety precautions shall be considered and applied during MDD operations: a. MDD operations shall be under control of a supervisor who is responsible for all aspects of the work site. b. Testing of the MDD for obedience, motivation, concentration and detection capability shall be carried out on site each day prior to commencing work and the results recorded within the MDD logbook. c. The MDD handler shall determine how long a MDD shall work depending on the temperature and prevailing conditions. At any time the MDD shall not work for more than 60 minutes without having a 10 minute break however, if at any time the MDD handler is not satisfied with the performance of the MDD then it is to be withdrawn from work immediately and corrective action taken. The reasons for withdrawal and the corrective action is to be recorded in the MDD logbook. d. MDD operations shall not be carried out if the wind speed is greater than 7m/s however this can be reduced if dust is being raised by the wind. e. Entry into the hazardous area by other personnel or assets is to be restricted until it has been checked by at least 2 MDD. This includes entry by persons responsible for marking indications. f. MDD handlers are shall not be permitted to carry mobile phones. g. Suitable and effective PPE will be worn by MDD handlers as per the requirements of all other humanitarian demining operations with the only exception being that ‘half-visors’ may be used. These must however conform to the specifications of IMAS. h. Safety lanes cleared by MDD are to be cleared to the required search depth to provide safe access for the MDD team to boxes, areas and start
Page 2 of 9 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 9 lines. The lanes shall be a minimum of 2 metres wide and a maximum of 30 metres in length. i. The layout of the hazardous area and deployment of the MDD shall ensure that the MDD is at all times visible to the handler during operations. j. The minimum safety distances when conducting MDD clearance shall be as per Chapter 2, Site Preparation and Setting Out where MDD shall be regarded as ‘Personnel’.
4.1 Listed below are common circumstances which may influence the MDD ability to operate effectively. a. Areas heavily contaminated by explosives, unless the MDD are specifically trained for such conditions. b. Area of dense vegetation where the handler has difficulties to see signals and indications from the MDD. c. Areas where the MDD may have to traverse steep slopes that may affect the dogs ability to indicate. d. Wet areas with a water mirror exceeding 1m2 or any areas where the MDD may be required to jump for what ever reason. e. Near cliff edges. f. High-density minefields. g. Areas where tripwires are expected, unless the MDD is accredited to do so. h. Weather conditions where consideration should be given to the wind speed, the heat and general prevailing conditions. i. Temperature and heat will affect the ability of the MDD. Planning should ensure that MDD are utilised during hours which least impact on their ability to work effectively i.e. avoiding the hottest part of the day which will alter from season to season. MDD will generally not work effectively when the temperature or heat index exceeds 34°c however this is only a guide. The MDDs should have proven themselves able to detect mines/UXO well under similar conditions during training and tests. 4.2 This list is not exhaustive. It is the overall responsibility of the mine action organisation to decide when and how to use their MDD assets whilst ensuring compliance with its accreditation and its abilities and effectiveness based on ongoing training and evaluation. It is the responsibility of the MDD handler to make on-site decisions as to the MDD capability, effectiveness and efficiency.
MDD teams may be tasked for the following operations: a. b. c. Verification, survey or area reduction of suspected mined areas. Clearance of low-density mined areas. Clearance of suspected mined railroads.
Page 3 of 9 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 9 d. Clearance of suspected mined roads. e. Clearance in areas where handheld mine detectors are unable to operate (eg, high metal content). f. Quality Control on any clearance task provided it is suitable for MDD operation.
The following shall be considered when planning all MDD
6.1 General: operations:
a. Assessment of the general task and of the threat to ensure the use of the MDD is in accordance with its abilities and accreditation. b. Assessment of the type of mines/UXO in the area to ensure the MDD has received relevant training and accreditation. c. Previous and/or planned demolitions of mines/UXO in the area and the MDD effectiveness to operate. d. The layout/boxing of the area taking into account safety distances between each MDD and between the MDD and other humanitarian demining activities. e. The prevailing wind direction (or the changes in the wind direction), humidity of the soil, vegetation and requirements for the supervision and general management of the operation. f. Restrictions and/or limitations present in the area that will affect the safety and effectiveness of the MDD. g. Training and evaluation minefields where MDD teams will practice must be established by the mine action organisation in the area of operation. These should mirror as closely as possible and where practicable all aspects i.e. vegetation, environment, wind direction, terrain etc that the MDD will be required to operate in. Mines/UXO used shall: (1) Stay in the ground untouched for a significant period (minimum of 3 weeks). (2) Be buried at different depths and down to the maximum requirements of clearance (15cm). (3) Conform to the different types likely to be encountered. 6.2 Clearance behind Mechanical Clearance: The following shall be applied when planning MDD operations behind mechanical clearance: a. If the machine has disturbed the soil, the MDD shall not be used to clear behind the machine until at least 2 days after the mechanical mine clearance has taken place, provided that it has rained at least one time during these days. b. In periods with no rain, the soak time must be increased to a minimum of 7 days.
Page 4 of 9 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 9 c. If the machine has been used to clear an area with a relatively high density of mines, MDD should not be used since lumps of explosives and bits of mines casing are likely to be widely spread around the area that may confuse the MDD and make the search less reliable. d. If the machine is not disturbing the soil, but working with any type of bush cutting machine, the MDD shall not be used to clear behind the machine until at least 24 hours after the cutting of the vegetation. e. When an MDD has indicated, an area of at least 5 metres radius around the indication point shall be manually cleared (see diagram below).
6.3 Using MDD in areas where the vegetation has been burned or cut: The following applies: a. MDD shall not be used to search in areas where the vegetation has been burned within four days, unless they have proven, through testing (internal), to be capable of detecting mines and UXO in recently burned areas. b. Vegetation should be cut as close as possible to the ground allowing for the threat and should aim to be cut without leaving sharp or ragged edges that may injure the MDD. 6.4 Using MDD for Road and/or Verge Clearance: Depending on the method to be employed the following shall be applied when planning MDD operations for road clearance: a. Safe access and egress of the MDD team. b. Number of MMD that can be used safely and effectively. c. Method of clearance i.e. from the sides, from one end to the other, from both ends to the middle. d. Layout of boxes and/or lanes to include safe lanes where relevant e. Vegetation removal
Page 5 of 9 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Page 6 of 9 NTSG. Painted posts/rocks shall be painted at least 7 days before MDD operations commence. Oil and spirit-based spray paints should be avoided. c.2 General Requirements: The following general requirements shall be applied: a. Edition 9. an area of at least 1 metre radius around the indication point shall be manually cleared (see diagram below). Part 1. MARKING 7. 100% of the hazardous area shall be searched by a minimum of 2 MDD before implementing subsequent actions (see Annex B). Prior to deployment. b. all MDD are to be checked by a vet and recorded as cleared as medically fit for deployment and work in the environment which they will be required to operate. 8. When an MDD has indicated on areas other than those that have been mechanically processed. In addition the following shall be applied: a. The MDD shall apply and adhere to accredited drills for the operation and/or as agreed with UNMAO. 8. during and after MDD operations shall be in accordance with the details in Chapters1. d. MDD are to re-checked by a vet each 6 months to assess the MDD capability to continue works the results of which are to be recorded accordingly.Chapter 9 7. b.1 Area marking prior to.1 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS Pre-deployment Requirements: The following shall be applied: a. 2 and 3 of this NTSG. The MDD shall have a recorded search depth down to a minimum of 15 centimetres. Version 1 . 8. b.
flight box Shade/sun protection (umbrella) First aid kit (Annex C) MDD log Book (Annex D) 8. f. it shall not be used. Version 1 . b. e. If it is impossible to motivate the MDD for work. suitable transport shall at all times be available at the task site for evacuation of the dog to a more suitable health care centre. The MDD shall be given frequent rests as per previous detail within this chapter. In case of injury or illness. 8. d.5 Equipment: The following is a list of the minimum equipment required for each MDD: a. l. e. The minimum requirements of this can be seen at Annex D. b. q. i. Procedures for countering the relevant threats from stray dogs and other animals. Sufficient water. c. 8. o.6 Recording: The mine action organisation shall ensure that a logbook is prepared for each MDD or group of MDD and that this is available at all times for inspection. c. at least five litres per MDD per day. Kennels and Feeding: The following applies: Page 7 of 9 NTSG. 8. h. qualified and capable.3 Command and Control: The site Supervisor is responsible for the overall management and supervision of all assets deployed on the operation and shall ensure that all operations are conducted in accordance with the mine action organisations SOP. p. f. Healthcare. As such he/she is to be sufficiently experienced. Part 1. Adequate provision to ensure that MDD are not kept in the sun or in conditions that do not offer acceptable temperatures and/or shade. d. j.Chapter 9 8.4 On-site Requirements: The following shall be implemented during all operations: a. m.7 Medical. n. Collar Lead Harness Tie cable/chain Food bowl Drinking bowl Water container Grooming brush Reward equipment Indication markers Measuring tape (minimum of 30m) Compass Weather instruments (temperature. Edition 9. wind speed) Portable kennel. k. g. shall be available at all times.
loaded and unloaded from vehicles in a manner that ensures the health and wellbeing of the animal at all times. Care must be taken to ensure the blocking the ventilation holes of the portable kennel/crates is at all times avoided f. MDD are to be unleashed in the portable kennel/crates during transportation c. The following shall be adhered to when conducting MDD operations: 8. Listed below are aspects to be monitored daily and aimed at assisting the handler to understand his/hers MDD day to day status that should enable him/her to recognise sickness and other problems with the MDD in a timely fashion: Anal area Paws Tail Testicles Legs Grooming Ears Mouth Temp Nose State of Coat Eyes Vagina Penis c. remove MDD. Handlers shall ensure that as a minimum the following is applied: a. MDD are to be placed into the kennels/crates which are then to be lifted on/off the vehicle. MDD are to be transported in portable kennels/crates which are to be adequately secured to prevent movement. tipping.8 Transportation: MDD are to be transported.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE The each mine action organisation shall comply with the following: a. out of character behaviour in their MDD.Chapter 9 a. clear or enter the kennels. it is recommended that only certified handlers/kennel assistants should feed. Page 8 of 9 NTSG. slippage etc b. b. Whilst MDD are in kennels. 9. Present MDD every 3 months on request of UNMAO to undergo External QA. health problems or unusual. When long-distances are to be covered adequate breaks where the MDD can be released to take on water and stretch should be accounted for 9. b. Under no circumstances is an MDD to be allowed to jump off a vehicle e. Version 1 . Routine and regular training and internal QA processes are to be implemented and conducted by the mine action organisation in accordance with the detail of this chapter the details of which are to be kept on record and be presentable to UNMAO representatives on request. The only exception to this is if suitable ramps are provided which the MDD can walk up/down safely d. Handlers are responsible for reporting to their Supervisor any medical. Part 1. Edition 9.
Page 9 of 9 NTSG.1 All organisations intending to use MDD for mine/UXO clearance operations must ensure that the MDD team have received the necessary accreditation and licensing from the UNMAO. ACCREDITATION OF MDD 10.3 Continuous evaluation shall be conducted by the UNMAO to ensure that safe and effective MDD operations are being conducted.2 Accreditation shall only be given on completion of the desktop accreditation and appraisal of the mine action organisation SOP and on-site assessment of the MDD teams. further evaluations or termination of the accreditation license. NTSG or IMAS may result in suspension. 10. 10. 10. Version 1 . Part 1. Edition 9.Chapter 9 c. At least 25% of any area searched by an MDD is to be checked and this is to comprise of at least 4 separate areas spread over the complete area. Failure to comply with the mine action organisation SOP.
d. operational accreditation should not be carried out if it is too hot. too windy or if it is raining.ANNEX A to Chapter 9 MINE DETECTION DOG ACCREDITATION 1. It should be fenced and secured at all times and entry restricted only to those authorised to enter.42. OPERATIONAL ACCREDITATION MDD PROCEDURES 1. e. Version 1 . If the weather is such that the organisation would not use the dog and this is stated in the SOP. All activities must conform to the minimum standards detailed in IMAS 09. It is the mine action organisation’s responsibility to construct a training field for these purposes. c. Maturity: An operational accreditation box shall have mines that have been in the ground untouched for at least 3 months. No MDD should be accredited on boxes that have been used recently for the accreditation of Page 1 of 4 NTSG. Details covering the exact location. The type of mine/UXO. The following provides pertinent details to be applied during the operational accreditation of MDD in SudanMAP: a. exact location. f. b. Accreditation Area: All MDD operational accreditation should be carried out at an accredited and approved UNMAO accreditation site that should mirror as closely as possible the overall environment of the area where operations are to take place. An organisation can expect 2-5 days of access to these training boxes prior to an operational accreditation. design and overall size of this area should be recorded in a ‘minefield record’ and kept by the relevant Regional UNMAO. Each MDD shall search a minimum of three boxes (300 m²) and maximum five boxes (500m²). As a general rule. Training Area: A training area outside of the accreditation site shall be available to allow mine action organisations to carry out internal ‘work up’ training before the operational accreditation commences. Edition 9. the operational accreditation should be called off to allow improvement in weather conditions. depth and any other relevant detail are to be recorded in the ‘minefield record’. Type of Mines/UXO: The accreditation site shall consist of mines/UXO likely to be encountered during operations that are buried at differing depths down to the maximum (15cm) required by operations. Weather Conditions: Operational accreditation of MDD’s should only be carried out if the weather is similar to that which the organisation would use the MDD during normal clearance. Search Area: Boxes of 10m x 10m containing a varying number of mines/UXO should be used. Each box shall have from zero to four mines. This area will not provide the space to conduct any major training or to ‘work up’ new dog handlers. Part 1.1 The most important element of the accreditation is the operational accreditation of the MDD team.
i. All indications are within 100cm of the mine/UXO. Ageing time since last accreditation is a minimum time period of 3 weeks. A break may be required because of a provisional lapse or if the MDD or the handler needing to drink water. g.g. If the MDD handler uses two dogs. This will reflect the times detailed in the SOP to clear an area during live operations to which will be added a further 10%. throwing beanbags in to the box to indicate a find is not allowed and instead the edges of the box can be marked to record the position of an indication. If the MDD QA Officer suspects that the secondary MDD is not conducting its search properly the first search dog should be ordered to sit randomly 3-4 times at spots in the box after completion of the search and before the secondary search dog is allowed to search the box. h. k. Some modification may take place when the procedure in question is affecting the effectiveness of the accreditation e. 100% indication of all mines/UXO per MDD. Failure Criteria: The MDD will fail the operational accreditation if it fails to meet or conform to any aspect of the pass criteria or if t MDD dog scratches or digs the ground at any time during the operational accreditation. Part 1. Pass Criteria: The following is the pass criteria: (1) (2) (3) (4) SOP is followed correctly. Edition 9. he may let the first MDD rest and start the search with the second MDD in another box assigned by the MDD QA Officer. If no time is detailed in the mine action organisation SOP then a time restriction of 3 hours for 3 boxes and 5 hours for 5 boxes will be applied that will include rest and breaks and in which the MDD must complete the operational accreditation. l. Clearance Technique During Accreditation: The area shall be searched in accordance with the SOP of the organisation to be accredited.ANNEX A to Chapter 9 other MDD’s. A maximum of 4 false indications per box per MDD. Primary and Secondary Verification of a Box: During the operational accreditation every MDD shall do a primary search in at least two of the boxes. Search Break: The MDD handler may ask for a search break any time during the operational accreditation. j. Version 1 . If an MDD team is not able to complete the search of all assigned boxes during one day then the search may then be continued the next day provided that the given time restrictions are not been exceeded. Time Restrictions: The UNMAO will use the mine action organisation MDD SOP policy as a reference for implementing time restrictions during operational accreditation. Page 2 of 4 NTSG.
A minimum of 200 m² to be searched per MDD. The following are the requirements for the External Evaluation: a. due to unavoidable circumstances. If this process includes notification to a team leader etc to put out a marker. 2. However it is not allowed to throw anything into the box during the operational accreditation even if this is the normal procedure. this is acceptable. This shall be completed during the operational accreditation by the UNMAO officer and on completion shall be signed by him/her. the handler shall mark it in accordance with the mine action organisations SOP. Edition 9. o. d. Version 1 .1 Continual external evaluation of accredited MDD shall be conducted every 3 months. Marking of Finds: When a mine is found. If an MDD fails the test three times then the MDD shall be denied to be re-tested for a period of one (1) year. The pass criteria is: (1) The SOP is followed correctly. Accreditation Team: The operational accreditation shall normally and wherever possible be conducted by the UNMAO MDD QA Officer.ANNEX A to Chapter 9 m. the UNMAO have the right to terminate the operational accreditation for that organisation. q. c. Part 1. Accreditation Forms: An example of the operational accreditation form shall on request be made available to all mine action organisations prior to the operational accreditation period. If more than 75% of the MDDs from the same mine action organisation fail. the dog handler and the senior supervisor (if present). At least 0-4 mines/UXO items to be in each box used. Action on Failure: If an MDD team fails to pass the operational accreditation. p. The items are to have been in the ground for at least 3 months and untouched for a minimum of three weeks. EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF MDD 2. a third operational accreditation should only be undertaken after one month. Additional Regulations: The MDD handler has the right to observe the site prior to the operational accreditation and to walk the dog around the accreditation site outside the boundary marking tapes before the operational accreditation commences. he/she is not available an UNMAO QA Officer with relevant experience can stand in. the MDD team cannot be re-assessed within the next 7 days. When. This should be done at a UNMAO accreditation area either at the Regional office or at a Sub-office. Test items shall include mines/UXO items common to the theatre. The evaluation should be carried out by the MDD QA Officer or suitably experienced UNMAO QA Officer. Page 3 of 4 NTSG. If an MDD fails a second evaluation. The manager or the senior supervisor of the mine action organisation which is undergoing operational accreditation has the right to be present during the evaluation if desired. e. b. n.
(3) All indications are within 100 cm from the mine/UXO. The MDD will fail if it does not conform to any of the pass criteria or it scratches or digs the ground at any time during the evaluation. an MDD specialist and the Regional Operations Officer. Part 1. the dog and the whole mine action organisations previous work may be disqualified as well as their licence withdrawn. (4) A maximum of 2 false indications per box per MDD. If one or more MDD are performing badly during a second evaluation. Page 4 of 4 NTSG. This shall be decided by a board consisting of the MDD QA Officer. Edition 9. If the MDD fails the evaluation. Version 1 . h. g. f. the dog shall be taken out of work for a minimum of 1 week when it will undergo re-training.ANNEX A to Chapter 9 (2) 100% indication of all mines/UXO per dog. A new licence shall not be given out until the organisation has commenced proper re-training and a new operational accreditation has taken place. A further evaluation will be undertaken successfully before the dog can regain his operational status.
Part 1. Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Start line of Box 3 Second Box 1 metre (min) Start line of Box 2 First Box Start line of Box 1 MDD clearance shall start at least one metre prior to the base line of the next box to ensure that the MDD is searching immediately on crossing the base line. Version 1 . Edition 9.ANNEX B to Chapter 9 MDD CLEARANCE PROCEDURE 1. To ensure that 100% of any hazardous area is cleared the clearance procedure is to be adopted by mine action organisations when employing MDD. 2. Operational accreditation will require this process to be practiced and mine action organisation SOPs shall detail this procedure.
Edition 9. Part 1.0 ETT Stylet Chest Decompression Scissors/Forceps Sterile Scalpels Trauma Shears Bandage Scissors Kelly Forceps Tongue Forceps McGill Forceps Splints Traction Splint Sam Splints and Hard Triangular Bandage C – Collar Solutions/Creams Antibiotic Cream Iodine/Alcohol Intubation Jelly Bandages/Dressing 2”/4” Tape AB Bandage Petroleum Gauze 2” Field dresssing 4” Field Dressing Quantity Expiration Date Notes 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Each 1 1 /14ga 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1/2 2 1 1 Tube 1 Bottle 1 Tube 6 Rolls 2 10 6 Rolls 6 Rolls Minimum 500 PSI 100cc Page 1 of 3 NTSG. 8. The recommended minimum medical equipment is listed as : Item AIRWAY/O2 “D” Size Oxygen Cylinder with regulator attached Adult NRB O2 Mask G – Tube #3 G– Tube #4 Ambu-bag Suction Device Suction Canister Laryngoscope Handle Miller Blade MacIntosh Blade Suction Catheter 12 FR ETT 7.0. Version 1 . Equipment and materials should be replaced before the stated expiry date (Subject to availability).5. GENERAL 1. Each Medic will be issued a Trauma Pack and that Medic will be responsible to have it immediately available during clearance operations.ANNEX C to Chapter 9 MDD FIRST AID KIT & ROUTINE HEALTH CHECKS 1.1 All medics should be equipped with the medical kits and training that are sufficient to stabilise expected trauma injuries at the location. The Medic will also be responsible for ordering replacement medical supplies. 7.
1 to: The following minimum daily and monthly health checks are to be adhered Daily health check The dog’s general condition and willingness to play and respond to positive stimuli Examine the skin and coat and let the hand run over the body to feel for wounds.9% 10cc IV Drip Sets IV Saline/ LR Medications Tramadol Promethazine Naloxone Ambulance: Blanket Roll Strertcher Ambu Bag O2 Tank` O2 Regulator Sharps Container Codan Radio Hard Board or Scoop Stretcher 25 25 1 Includes dressings 1 Pair 12 Pair 2 1 1 1 1/1 Set 1 25 1 1 5 5 10 5 5 10 5 2 each 5 Amps 5 Amps 2 Amps 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 500cc Btl 500 min 2. or lumps and Monthly health check The dog’s general condition and willingness to play and respond to positive stimuli Check the appetite by asking the dog handler Page 2 of 3 NTSG. thorns and areas of matted hair. ticks. Part 1. TABLE OF RECOMMENDED DAILY AND MONTHLY HEALTH CHECK POINTS 2. Edition 9.ANNEX C to Chapter 9 2 x 2 Pads or Eye Pads 4x4 Pads Burn Kit Exam /Equipment Protective Glasses Latex Gloves Large Extra Straps Stethoscope B/P Cuff Penlight Body Bag/Triage Tags Face Mask IV/Syringes/Caths Alcohol Swabs Tourniquet Sharps Bottle 5cc Syringes 10cc Syringes 21ga Needles 14ga IV Catheters 18ga IV Catheters 20ga IV Catheters Water Inj 0. Version 1 .
thorns and areas of matted hair. or lumps and bumps Examine the tail. dry pads. anal region and anal sacs. Look particularly for hot spots swollen joints. throat. Look for swelling. Control mucous membranes. Version 1 . eyes and ears Examine the nose. throat. tongue and teeth.ANNEX C to Chapter 9 bumps Examination of breast. changes in colour. legs and paws. tongue and teeth Examine the eyes and ears Check visually the lung functions and the hydration status Inspect lymph nodes for swelling or sore points Examine the mouth and throat. Look for swelling and irritation Examine the vagina/penis and testes Examine the nose. long or damaged claws and fungus diseases between toes Check the skin and coat for wounds. bad breath and foreign bodies/objects and lose or broken teeth and accumulated tartar Check the temperature if there is any doubt about the dog’s health Check the heart and pulse function Check the body temperature Page 3 of 3 NTSG. mucous membranes. Edition 9. inflamed gums. Part 1. ticks.
including an appraisal of the MDD’s performance c. Part 1. 1. Log books are to be stored in the archive for a minimum period of 12 months after the completion of the last demining tasks on which the MDD was employed.ANNEX D to Chapter 9 MDD LOG BOOKS 1. The logbook shall be kept by the responsible manager and presented to QA teams upon request. An assessment of the MDD after the search has been completed .4 The log book is to remain in the possession of the MDD handler at all times during operations in the field and is to be available for inspection by external QA inspection teams as required. including any comments or observations made by a veterinarian.3 If the dog handler has not written the logbook himself. Version 1 . Log books are to record details of: a. MDD Log Books 1. all its log books are to be placed into an archive.2 The log book should provide a continuous written evaluation of the MDD health condition and search ability . 1. Daily health checks and assessment of each MDD prior to starting work b.1 Log books are to be maintained for all MDD employed in Sudan and updated daily by the MDD group leader/supervisor or handler. e. sickness or injury to the MDD. he shall sign the log after each entry to confirm its accuracy. Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Disease.5 If a MDD is removed from operations. d. Rest and rotation routines of the MDD whilst working. Edition 9. Details of the MDD daily work carried out.
during operational hours is used for no other purpose.4 No mine/UXO clearance operations shall commence without an acceptable level of medical support and a casualty/medical evacuation plan that everyone involved fully understands. Located on the operational site.1 Appropriate medical support and a workable casualty/medical evacuation procedure is one of the principles of mine/UXO clearance and shall always be a compulsory requirement for mine clearance. 1.Chapter 10 MEDICAL SUPPORT. 1. b. Part 1. Chapter 2. AND CASUALTY EVACUATION 1. Edition 9. Version 1 . In submitting contract applications. In the case of survey teams an ALS qualified Medic shall be within 5 minutes of the team and shall have radio communication should assistance be needed.1. 1. 1. NTSG. The minimum requirement is: a.3 Teams shall formally exercise casualty evacuation at least once a month and upon changing worksites. These exercises shall be recorded in the clearance task log.5 Every mine/UXO clearance and EOD activity shall make provision for adequate medical cover and casualty/medical evacuation. Demining. TRAINING. GENERAL 1. peri-arrest situations and other special circumstances and to treat the casualty(ies) until transfer to a critical care area is possible. cardio-respiratory arrest. 1 Page 1 of 11 NTSG. all FSD staff on the operational site are BLS certified. and has practised. clearance shall cease immediately until it has been restored. 2 Advanced Life Support (ALS) is provided by one FSD Medical Technician with equipment and practical skills to effectively manage trauma.2 If the medical cover stipulated in this chapter is removed or unavailable. The vehicle shall be suitable to transport a casualty quickly and safely to the nearest appropriate medical facility or identified Helicopter Landing Site (HLS) or airstrip. The Medic shall have passed Accreditation by the UNMAO Medical Coordinators office. the organisation must be able to conduct casualty collection and Basic Life Support1 (BLS) within 5 minutes and have Advanced Life Support2 (ALS) qualified Medic available at the casualty within 15 minutes. c. The medic shall have immediate access to a serviceable and suitable evacuation vehicle and an appropriately trained driver. Part 1. Basic Life Support (BLS) does not include the use of drugs or invasive skills. The safety distance for the medic and medical point shall be situated in accordance to Table 2. which. contracting organisations shall have to state clearly the level of medical support to be provided for their teams.
Part 1. this shall also be clearly shown . The compulsory minimum medical equipment is listed in Table 10:1. f. Where this changes from different site locations. (2) If the vehicle is used as an Ambulance it should have appropriate alarm lights and sirens and the driver shall be trained in driving the Ambulance. Where a vehicle is used it shall be able to carry at least one stretcher and casualty and be equipped with communications and other equipment according to Table 10:2.4 CANNULATION AND INJECTION EQUIPMENT Protective eyewear Sharps disposal container Intravenous Cannula size 14G. 16G. (1) All equipment shall be fixed safely in the vehicle when it is used as an evacuation vehicle. (3) It should be remembered that the comfort and safety of the casualty in transit is more important than speed. Edition 9. e.9% 10ml Medical gloves TRAUMA SUPPLIES Triangular bandages Sterile dressings (10cmx10cm or 10cmx20cm) Bandage 10cm Bandage 15cm Large multi-trauma abdomen/chest dressing Burn dressings Eye pads Pressure dressing / field dressing Antiseptic solution SPLINTS Upper limb splint (e.g. 20G I. Sam. Kramer. cardboard) Page 2 of 11 NTSG. All organisations are to clearly state in their SOP and implementation plans the intended means of evacuation of casualties.V administration set Medical adhesive tape 2. The Medic on site shall be equipped with the medical facilities that are sufficient to stabilise expected trauma injuries at the location.1: Compulsory Minimum Medical Equipment for Trauma Care Pack ITEM AIRWAY EQUIPMENT Manual ventilation bag with mask Oral airway disposable various sizes 2.3. Table 10. Version 1 QUANTITY 1 1 each 1 1 2 each 4 1 1 25 5 5 10 10 10 pair 2 10 5 5 2 2 8 4 100 ml 1 .Chapter 10 d. 18G..5 cm Venous tourniquet Alcohol swabs Syringe 5ml Syringe 10ml Needle 21G Water for injection or NaCl 0.
g.. 2 2 Table 10:2 Minimum Medical Equipment for the Evacuation Vehicle ITEM Stretcher with straps and means of securing the stretcher to the vehicle Spinal Board and Head Block set (or similar device) Blanket Water container Proven radio communications (on the UNMIS/NMAO communication net) Signal smokes (if possible) Flash light QUANTITY 1 1 2 10 litres 1 1 1 Table 10:3 Recommended Additional Medical Equipment ITEM Manual ventilation bag with oxygen reservoir + mask Hand held suction unit with oral catheter Non-rebreathing oxygen mask with reservoir bag Oxygen supply for 120 mins at 8 litre/min (10 litres 200 Bar) Oxygen manometer and regulator with minimum flow of 8 l / min 8 lit / i t (with blades and batteries) Laryngoscope Nasopharyngeal airways various sizes Endotracheal tubes sizes 7. wooden. Part 1. Edition 9. cardboard) Cervical stifneck collar set or adjustable stifneck collar OTHER ITEMS Universal scissors (paramedic shears) Dressing scissors Kelly forceps Dressing Forceps Stethoscope Blood pressure manometer.8 (cuffed) and Tube check ETT Guide stylette Magill forceps size 8 Magill forceps size 9 KY Gel tube Normal saline 1000ml Page 3 of 11 NTSG. medium Torch (preferably penlight) Adhesive medical tape Sterile scalpel DRUGS Inj. 2 amps. Morphine 10 mg/ml (or similar drug) Inj.4 mg/ml (if using opoid) Inj.9% 500ml 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 1 1 roll 1 4x 1 ml.Chapter 10 Lower Limb Splint (e. Anti-emetic drug (if using opoid) Ringer lactate 1000ml Normal saline 0. Version 1 QUANTITY 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 each 1 1 1 1 4 . Casualty triage tags (set 5) Gauze Pads. 2 x 1 ml. Naloxone 0.
Version 1 .V dressing 1 1 2 1 10 1. and include both sight and hearing checks. Locate. c. b. Refresher course should be held at least on annual basis. d. Courses should be recorded and result submitted to UNMAO. g. The Medic shall have the knowledge and experience of using the medical equipment according to the organisations SOP. have passed at least a basic first aid course in accordance with Annex A to Chapter 10 (table 1) of the Guidelines and Technical Standards. A record of known blood groups. e. A list of all staff engaged in demining activities shall on monthly basis be updated and submitted to the regional UNMAO office.7 The method of evacuation in the event of an accident shall always be specified and understood by all and should be by the safest and expeditious method available to an appropriate medical facility. Ensure that all Medics recruited by the organisation are qualified in accordance with Annex A to Chapter 10 (table 2) of the Guidelines and Technical Standards. f. An appointed person that shall be responsible for all preparations related to the medical support and evacuation plans. Evacuation by air (if available) should be considered if the CASEVAC by road is expected to take more than 60 minutes or that the injuries may be as worsened because of road movement. Medical health checks shall be conducted before recruitment of clearance personnel. A list of appropriate medical facilities and their locations shall be provided to the clearance organisations by the RUNMAO/UNMAO on a regular basis. Page 4 of 11 NTSG. Ensure that all personnel. visit and establish the necessary contacts and agreements with the most appropriate medical facility in the vicinity. PREPARATIONS BEFORE CLEARANCE ACTIVITIES EXECUTION OF MINE/UXO 2. Part 1. allergies and infections from each working personnel shall be available on the site. Edition 9. 2. 1.Chapter 10 Chest decompression set Convenience bag Emergency blanket Asherman chest dressing I. Ensure a valid CASEVAC plan to a Level Two Medical Support Facility in theatre and if required a medevac plan to a level Three Medical Support Facility in or out of theatre. If necessary.1 Before commencement of any mine/UXO clearance activity clearance organisations are responsible for the following: a.6 A list with the contents of the medical trauma kit is to be included in the organisations SOP. arrange refresher courses for personnel in first aid. who are deployed to the site.
Ignition key should be left in the vehicle at all times when parked at a task site. k. A copy of these protocols shall also be submitted to the UNMAO Medical Coordinator as an annex to the emergency medical SOP. Ensure that a HLS is identified and marked in close vicinity of every clearance site. d. Ensure effective communication to headquarters is maintained during operations.Chapter 10 h. There shall be a minimum of one medical trauma kit per medical team attached to a clearance team. All medics should have immediate access to a copy of the organisations emergency drug administration protocols when deployed in support of mine/UXO clearance operations. i. treatment protocols and emergency protocols should be made available in Arabic. where possible. PREPARATIONS EVACUATION FOR A CASUALTY/ MEDICAL 3. Ensure that effective communication lines are always functional and that every mine clearance operation site has communications with its own headquarters and with its medical support. the following preparations shall be conducted before clearance commences. Part 1. Ensure that an appropriate and serviceable evacuation method is available on site at all times during operations. Edition 9. c. Page 5 of 11 NTSG. The medical trauma kit shall remain under the control of the team medics. For static clearance tasks. If this is a vehicle it should be parked so that it can be loaded with a casualty and leave the site without having to manoeuvre. The site Supervisor shall: a. ensure relevant insurance coverage for all members. n. Version 1 . The HLS coordinates should be provided to the RUNMAO/ UNMAO sub office. l. If the medics don’t speak or read English. Equipment and material are to be replaced before the stated expiry date. the HLS should be approved and registered by UNMIS Air Operations and be a minimum 300 metres from the known hazardous area. Should further surgical treatment or rehabilitation at a Level Four Medical Facility be required. j. 3. Clear and mark a HLS in accordance with regulations. (2) The nearest HLS. All medical personnel shall have correct medical equipment and material to undertake their role in providing medical support to casualties and general health care. The driver shall be available at all times. Identify and nominate a road evacuation route from the clearance site to: (1) The nearest appropriate medical facility.1 To ensure effective casualty/medical evacuation in the event of an accident. b.
(4) Stays with the casualty and report to the next Level of Medical Facility. the responsibilities of personnel within the operation remain the same. (4) All Team leaders report to the supervisor. (3) Start to give first aid to the casualty at the location of accident. but still within a cleared area. Version 1 b. takes the appropriate action to stabilise and evacuate the casualty. (6) In the event that the Medic is a mine/UXO victim. Edition 9. f. (2) Clear the base line of personnel and equipment not required for the medical evacuation. (2) Organise casualty into the nearest cleared area (if necessary organise deminers to clear lanes to the casualty). (7) Maintains radio communications as per the Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan and the organisation headquarters and provide the correct information when required. (by air or road). Part 1. A copy of this documentation should follow the casualty. casualty evacuation procedures. Page 6 of 11 NTSG. including the location and condition of the casualty and possible presence of other mines/UXO. Supervisor/Senior uninjured person: (1) Assesses the scene of the accident. takes over the responsibility for the execution of the casualty evacuation procedure. (4) Maintains overall responsibility for the safety of all personnel during the casualty evacuation procedure. CASUALTY EVACUATION PROCEDURES 4. 4. (5) Maintains overall responsibility for the execution of the casualty evacuation. and with procedures for loading a casualty and/or stretcher into the identified evacuation vehicle. a. The medics should be easily identified from a distance as medical support personnel. in accordance with the extent of the casualties’ injuries. if possible. Ensure that the Medics are available to the site at all times during clearance operations and located a maximum of 5 minutes away from the site. (2) Once the casualty has been brought to the cleared area. c. (3) Maintains radio contact with the Medic and. Operators: (1) Stop clearance immediately.Chapter 10 e. Ensure that all personnel involved in the operation are competent in: Basic first aid.1 Although the medical evacuation procedure may differ for every clearance site. provide information on the condition of the casualty. The following responsibilities apply. (3) Recommends the method of evacuation. Medic: (1) Utilises personnel to bring the stretcher and medical equipment to a point close to the casualty. (5) The Medic shall monitor and record a medical journal of the casualty’s vital signs and the treatment that has been given. .
c. 6. e. List all the people who witnessed the accident or worked in the immediate area. The headquarters shall ensure the receiving hospital is notified and arrange all administrative support. If evacuation is by road. The Medic and the medical kit for trauma injuries shall where necessary accompany with the casualty until they are at the higher level of medical facility. If communications are lost. As soon as possible implement the accident investigation. f. i. b. The Supervisor informs the headquarters that there has been an accident. if he/she is in an uncleared area. An accident log should be kept of all communications and events during the evacuation process for reference during the post accident investigation. Supervisor shall organise team members to clear around the casualty. Start preparations for the Accident Investigation according to Chapter 15. Transport casualty to the nearest HLS or surgical hospital. f. the following procedure is to be adopted: a. i. The headquarters shall confirm the method of evacuation away from the task site. Make available professional counselling services to those shocked by the accident who request professional psychological assistance Page 7 of 11 NTSG. escorted by a second vehicle. Account for all equipment and stores. Account for all personnel and make sure no one else is injured. e. h. Transfer the casualty from the vehicle to the helicopter /hospital under the supervision of the Medic. Edition 9. Stop all work and inform the Supervisor and Medic that an accident has occurred. 6. where possible separate them and assist them to write their statements. g. Return to the base and assist the headquarters staff to conduct an investigation. then evacuate by road to the nearest appropriate medical facility. the vehicle should be driven carefully and if possible. The Medic shall assess and stabilise the casualty in the safe area and arrange evacuation by stretcher from the safe area to the identified evacuation vehicle.1 PROCEDURE IN THE EVENT OF AN ACCIDENT In the event of an accident the following procedure shall be adopted: a. Support those personnel shocked by the accident. d. Version 1 . g. Close off the lanes and area of the accident.Chapter 10 5. 5. b. d.1 PROCEDURE FOLLOWING AN ACCIDENT Subsequent to an accident. and then move the casualty to a safe area. c. h. A debrief should be conducted with all people that were involved in the accident. Part 1. j.
7. and any management staff involved in clearance operations are all required to regularly attend BLS training provided by the mine action organisation.3 Level One Medical Support: Casualty Evacuation and a Level One medical capability. Consists of additional paramedics and equipment to sustain the casualty and assist evacuation. Version 1 . diagnose and treat patients suffering from serious or life threatening conditions. Located on the operational site. Edition 9. An IMSMA Mine/UXO Incident/Accident Report shall be completed and submitted to the UNRMAO/NMAO within 24 hours after the accident occurred.1 Casevac: (Casualty Evacuation).Chapter 10 j. Off-site it should be able to tend to basic medical treatment and advise on preventative measures for mental and physical health. 8. TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS 8. Deminers.4 Level Two Medical Support: Casualty sustainment and a Level Two medical capability.1 Medical Training Courses. Regular (at a minimum . 7. DEFINITIONS 7. Off-site Level One Medical Support should be able to tend to basic medical treatments and advise on preventative measures against disease and stress. 7. the organisation shall be able to conduct casualty collection and Basic Life Support and have Advanced Life Support available within 15 minutes. 7. Should have dental facilities and where possible provide hygiene support. Used when the site is more than 2 hours from a Level Three facility. drivers. 7. The evacuation of a casualty from the scene of an accident to the nearest appropriate medical facility that can stabilise and treat the injuries. supervision and medical investigation.6 Level Four Medical Support: Definitive care – A medical facility (hospital) with the capability for reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation. usually for further treatment or treatment not available at the first medical facility. 7. Part 1. Be able to investigate. The evacuation of a patient between one medical facility and another. Provide facilities for Level One and Level Two medical support and be able to conduct life and limb saving surgery. Basic Life Support Training: Basic Life Support (BLS) training is a requirement for all demining personnel.2 Medevac: (Medical Evacuation). qualifications and training standards: a.5 Level Three Medical Support: A medical facility (hospital) with life saving surgical capability.biannual) refresher courses should be included in Page 8 of 11 NTSG. Two levels of training shall be imparted under the following terms. Full medical support facilities.
(3) Obtain and maintain airway patency of a casualty with an altered conscious status through manual positioning techniques (4) Place a casualty in a lateral position (5) Treat a choking patient with manual techniques (6) Ventilate a casualty using expired air resuscitation (7) Perform basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (8) Control bleeding using pressure point. All operational staff shall be trained to the level of basic life support prior commence of operations and shall be able to: (1) Observe basic barrier protection methods when dealing with human body fluids (for example. (3) Systematic assessment of the casualty’s vital signs of perfusion status. kinematics and mechanism of injury. respiratory status and conscious status (clinical approach) (4) Demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of accident scene assessment. Based on an understanding of anatomy and physiology.Chapter 10 the agency’s mission schedule (as submitted in their SOP) as well as forming a part of their routine activities. the course shall cover the subjects outlined in Annex A to this chapter (table 1. Topics taught shall include as a minimum those outlined in Annex A to this chapter (table 2). As a minimum. this may be facilitated by deminers carrying non – sterile medical gloves and small field dressing during operations) (2) Assess a casualty and control life threats using the mnemonic D (Dangers – control dangers). C (Pulse check and control bleeding). kinematics and mechanisms of injury and suspicion of occult injury. A first aid course consists of at least 20 hours of training. The syllabus is to be included in the organisations SOP. ALS Qualified Medic Personnel designated to be Medics. Edition 9. shall be required to attend a trauma life support training course. Part 1. elevation and bandaging techniques (9) Immobilise a fracture using basic splinting techniques (10) Provide basic management for snake bite or scorpion sting (11) Provide basic management of burn injury (12) Provide manual stabilisation for suspected spinal injury (13) Demonstrate an understanding of casualty evacuation procedures as outlined in the organisations SOP. the NTSG and the Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan b. (2) Obtain and maintain airway patency of a casualty with an altered conscious status through manual positioning techniques using technical equipment available in the Trauma Kit. Version 1 . R (Response check). BLS Course). basic medical and trauma pathology principles the medics shall be able to calmly and systematically provide medical treatment to a casualty. A (Airway assessment). (5) Insert an Oropharyngeal airway (6) Treat a choking patient with manual techniques Page 9 of 11 NTSG. As a minimum the following skills are required: (1) Basic Life Support skills as described above. B (Breathing check).
M. hygiene and the prevention of diseases.Chapter 10 (7) Airway toiletry with hand held suction unit (8) Seal open chest wound (9) Ventilate a casualty using bag / mask ventilator (both intermittent positive pressure ventilation for non-breathing and assisted positive pressure ventilation for inadequately ventilating patients) (10) Perform methodical full body examination (11) Perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (single / 2 rescuer) (12) Control bleeding using pressure point. the NTSG and the Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan (27) Recognise and treat disorders related to heat (hyperthermia and hypothermia) (28) Demonstrate a basic understanding of aviation physiology and principles of air medical evacuation for different pathologies (29) Obtain an A. (17) Recognise and appropriately treat accidental overdose of narcotic drug (18) Correct and appropriate administration of emergency drugs outlined in table 10. Part 1.3 Medics are also trained to provide basic medical attention and medical advice on sanitation. Page 10 of 11 NTSG.P. Version 1 .L. 8. (16) Assess and treat pain with appropriate parenteral administration of available medicines. (15) Perform intramuscular and subcutaneous injections.1 (19) Appropriately treat casualty with traumatic injuries according to organisations treatment protocols including injury caused by mines and ERW.E history (30) Conduct adequate casualty hand over to next level of medical support. elevation and bandaging techniques (13) Administer oxygen via face mask (14) Insert intravenous cannula and appropriately administer intravenous fluids and drugs. Edition 9. (20) Appropriately treat casualty with emergency medical condition according to organisations treatment protocols (21) Provide appropriate management of snake bite and scorpion stings according to organisations treatment protocols (22) Provide appropriate management of fractures and soft tissue injuries (23) Provide appropriate treatment and transport of a casualty with a suspected spinal injury (24) Record a treatment log and provide an appropriate and concise handover of a casualty to a responsible and more highly qualified medical person (25) Conduct triage and treatment for accidents involving multiple casualties (26) Demonstrate a thorough understanding of casualty evacuation procedures as outlined in the organisations SOP.
5 Medics shall receive an introduction to Mine/UXO clearance operations. that the Medics rotate in order to work in a hospital or a clinic. NATIONAL CASEVAC PLAN The Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan is added as an Annex to this Chapter. 9. 8. Edition 9. if possible.6 The syllabus for the Medic Training is to be included in the organisations SOP. Version 1 . Page 11 of 11 NTSG.4 The Medic shall have the knowledge and experience of using the medical equipment according to the organisations SOP. 8.Chapter 10 8. To maintain medical competence it is desirable. Part 1.
Signs and Symptoms of Snake bite and scorpion sting. It should be noted that the focus of medical training should be practical scenario based training where the Deminer is called on to treat a casualty in a systematic approach. jaw thrust technique for suspected spinal injury. fragmentation mine injury. chemical burn injury. Head positioning. Part 1 Edition 9. bleeding control Signs and Symptoms: Thermal burn injury. Deminers shall also be taught the basic principles of multiple casualty accidents Hyperthermia / Hypothermia prevention. Circulation (assessment for pulse and bleeding control) Introduction of airway equipment and demonstration of basic airway maintenance techniques. Minimum ratio instructor per student should be I instructor for 10 student in classroom and I for 5 in practice. Students shall understand the UNMAO evacuation plan and the role of the AME teams and sector hospitals. Expired air resuscitation. and white phosphorous burns. electrical burn injury. Version 1 Minimum Time Period 30 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 120 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min . In the practical phase. what are the responsibilities of the first aider. These scenario-based exercises shall best prepare the Deminer for treating a casualty in the field setting. Heimlich manoeuvres Techniques for single and two responders for adult CPR as a minimum Deminers shall have a complete understanding of the emergency casevac procedures and understand the roles of all responsible persons following an accident. back slaps. Theory Subjects Principles Of First Aid DRABC Algorithm – Controlling Life Threats Basic Airway Maintenance and Ventilation Management Of A Choking Patient Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Theory Emergency (Casevac) SOP Heat Disorders Mine Injury Burn Injury Management Of Bites And Stings Remarks What is first aid. Response. airway clearance techniques using finger sweeps. communicating with a casualty and gaining his / her trust. Airway. reassurance techniques. Burn injury management Outline of types of snakes and scorpions in Sudan. some of the practice drills should be conducted after the theoretical lecture that applies to this drill. basic treatment Mine injury: blast mine injury. calling for help Immediate Control Of Life Threats: Danger. Management snake bite and scorpion sting Page 1 of 8 NTSG. mechanism of venom types.Annex A to Chapter 10 Table 01 Training Matrix for Basic Life Support Course Note: All operational personnel shall complete a BLS course and as a minimum undergo refresher training biannually (every 6 months). placing a casualty in the recovery position. Bag Mask Ventilation Signs and Symptoms of choking. Breathing (breathing assessment and sealing open chest injury with palm of hand).
Version 1 . finger sweeps. management of different types of wound. procedures following possible accidental exposure to these viruses Helicopter safety and HLS requirements Remarks Placing a casualty in lateral position. loading and transport of a casualty Provide outline on the job of the medic and how the deminer can assist the medic. blanket lift. spinal board lift. Management of open and closed fractures using splints. Part 1 Edition 9. Healthy Living Barrier Protection. holding IV fluids. HCV transmission and prevention. use of head block Fore and aft lift. safe ambulance and (where appropriate) helicopter approach. Prevention measures Mental Health. stretcher carry. slings and anatomical splinting techniques In line spinal immobilisation. lift and drag method. log roll. Bag Mask ventilation oxygen administration using a face mask Use of pressure point. Single responder and two – responder CPR techniques using the DRABC approach Signs and Symptoms of a fracture. HIV. HBV. airway suctioning. chin lift. chair lift. pressure dressings. Safe Lifting techniques Health and Hygiene Measures. Disease transmission routes. Expired Air Ventilation. controlling bleeding etc Practical casevac exercise conducted in training area TOTAL 30 min 30 min 30 min 30 min 15 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 120 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 30 min 120 min Page 2 of 8 NTSG. treating a choking patient. Stress management. jaw thrust. preparing tape for IV line. use of spine board.Annex A to Chapter 10 Health And Safety Safe Lifting Health And Hygiene Healthy Living Universal Precautions Helicopter Safety & HLS Requirements Practical Phase Airway Management Ventilation Practical Wound Management And Bleeding Control CPR Practical Fracture And Dislocation Management Spinal Immobilisation techniques Safe Lifting and Transport Techniques Assisting the Medic Casevac Exercise Prevention of Back injury. elevation. fireman carry. flat lift.
Circulation (immediate control of life threats) Assessment techniques and understanding of normal physiological parameters for pulse. Version 1 Universal Precautions Principles of First Aid DRABC Algorithm – Controlling Life Threats Casualty Assessment and Normal Adult Physiological parameters 120 min . QA procedures Cardiovascular system Musculoskeletal System Respiratory System Nervous System Endocrine System Integumentary System Reproductive System Urinary System Gastrointestinal System Barrier Protection. conscious status (using the AVPU scale Page 3 of 8 NTSG. These scenario-based exercises shall best prepare the medic for treating a casualty in the pre-hospital setting. Minimum Time Period 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min Theory Subjects Introduction to Humanitarian Demining Anatomy and Physiology of Systems of the Human Body Remarks Medical support in humanitarian demining operations. what are the responsibilities of the medic. In the practical phase. Role of UNMAO. systematic. basic outline of structure of national demining programme. Airway. Minimum ratio instructor per student should be I instructor for 10 student in classroom and I for 5 in practice. skin perfusion. rhythm & effort). reassurance techniques. HBV. HCV transmission and prevention. procedures following possible accidental exposure to these viruses What is first aid. calling for help Danger. temperature. respiratory (rate. conscious status for an adult. IMAS and the NTSG chapter 10. blood pressure. Response. clinical based approach. Medics shall be taught to assess skin perfusion. HIV. BP. communicating with a casualty and gaining his / her trust. It should be noted that the focus of medical training should be practical scenario based training where the medic is called on to treat different pathologies in a calm.Annex A to Chapter 10 Table 02 Training Matrix for the Field Medic Course Note: Personnel attending the Field Medic course should where possible have completed BLS training through a recognised national medical institute and have experience in assessing and treating patients. some of the practice drills should be conducted after the theoretical lecture that applies to this drill. pulse rate. Breathing. Part 1 Edition 9. respiration.
oxygen administration for trauma and medical emergencies Signs and Symptoms of choking. suctioning.E History Mechanism of Injury & Kinematics Basic Airway Maintenance Management of a Choking Patient Ventilation Techniques Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Theory Developing a Systematic Approach for Casualty Management (Drill) 60 min 60 min 120 min 60 min 60 min 120 min 60 min Respiratory pathology Asthma Accidental Narcotic Overdose CVS Pathology 180 min 60 min 60 min 240 min 120 min 60 min Fluid Resuscitation . treatment using Naloxone Hydrochloride and oxygen therapy (ventilation if necessary) Heart attack. Medications. signs and Symptoms of Shock. crystalloids and colloids. positioning techniques for casualties with respiratory distress.P. risk factors. obtain AMPLE history and commence appropriate treatment in a calm efficient and systematic manner – “The Clinical Approach” Recognition and treatment of respiratory distress. signs and symptoms. Full body examination (anatomical assessment) Obtaining an adequate history is vital for safe an effective treatment. treatment fluid resuscitation Causes of shock. trigger factors and treatment of asthma Recognition of signs and symptoms of accidental narcotic overdose. and crycothyroidotomy (optional – not NTSG requirement)) Ventilation techniques using expired air resuscitation and bag/mask ventilation techniques for intermittent positive pressure ventilation and assisted positive pressure ventilation including frequency of ventilation and tidal volume Techniques for single and two responders for adult CPR as a minimum Immediate control of life threats. Page 4 of 8 NTSG. oxygen administration Signs and Symptoms. airway clearance techniques using finger sweeps. Head positioning. Quick assessment of an accident scene for clues to establish Mechanism of Injury and suspicion for occult injuries. conscious status. assessment of perfusion status. this history includes: Allergies. full body examination. treatment of Shock Fluid resuscitation protocols – I. Heimlich manoeuvres.Annex A to Chapter 10 or Glasgow Coma Scale) (physiological assessment). fluid compartments. pathology. Version 1 Obtaining an A. Past Medical History.M. respiratory status. Last Meal. (( laryngoscopy and magil forceps. Introduction of airway equipment and demonstration of basic airway maintenance techniques. narcotic analgesia administration as a precaution in respiratory distress. back slaps. airway adjuncts. Compensation and decompensation. Event (including assessment of Mechanism of Injury) Assessment and understanding of Kinematics and Mechanism of Injury for blunt and penetrating injury.V fluid suitability for different pathologies. use of accessory muscles.L. Part 1 Edition 9. pathology.
management of open and closed head injury. principles of splinting Page 5 of 8 NTSG. Treatment of Chest Injury. Compression. haematoma etc. fragmentation mine injury. convulsions. types of fractures. blast mine injury. treatment of abdominal Injury Pelvis and limb injury including traumatic amputation. limb assessment Embedded Objects: Signs and Symptoms. flail chest. Signs and Symptoms. penetrating trauma. primary and secondary head injury Overdose / poisoning.Annex A to Chapter 10 Mine injury: mechanism of injury. Nerve Damage. treatment in the recovery phase. strains. Penetrating and Blunt Chest Trauma. facial injury. haematemesis. complications of fractures and dislocations. Amputation. chemical. (Rest. chemical burn injury. hypoglycaemia. sprains. Signs and Symptoms.A). cardiac tamponade. wound infection. cavitation. Version 1 Wound Management 120 min Head Injury Other Causes of Unconsciousness Spinal Injury 120 min 60 min 120 min Chest Injury 120 min Abdominal Injury Pelvis and Limb Injury Embedded Objects Soft Tissue Injury 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min Burn Injury 120 min Management of Bites and Stings Fractures and Dislocation Theory 60 min . Management of a casualty with an embedded object. Ice application. syncope. Use of NSAIDS Signs and Symptoms: Thermal burn injury. inhalation injury Outline of types of snakes and scorpions in Sudan. Pneumothorax. ((chest decompression (optional ATLS skill – not a requirement of NTSG)) Abdominal injury: Signs & Symptoms. critical burns. management of burns. log roll. mechanism of venom types. avulsions. S&S of CO poisoning. application of cervical collar application. electrical and phosphorous burns. dislodged teeth. spinal immobilisation techniques. use of head block. hyperglycaemia. infection. Part 1 Edition 9. Hemothorax. limb preservation. transportation of spine injured casualty Chest injury: Signs and Symptoms. tumours Spinal injury: mechanism of spinal injury. Signs and Symptoms of Snake bite and scorpion sting. Burn Depth assessment and categories of burns. Elevation) treatment following injury. penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma. Management of snake bite and scorpion sting Signs and Symptoms of fractures and dislocations. scalp injury. laceration. abrasions. Compartment Syndrome. metabolic disorders. vessel damage. electrical burn injury and white phosphorous burns. apoplexia (C. Dangers of smoke / CO inhalation. compartment syndrome. Management of Pelvis and Limb Injury. management. Assessment of Burn Size. use of spinal board. basic ballistics concepts. evisceration of organs. Tension Pneumothorax. safety when dealing with thermal. signs and symptoms. blood vessel damage. wound debridement Head injury: signs & symptoms.V.
Indications Of Mine / UXO Presence. The Organization of a Demining Team Basic radio communications procedures shall be taught for VHF and HF Medics shall be able to complete a treatment log of a casualty and should record a daily morbidity report and drug register. anaphylaxis. signs and symptoms and management Anatomy of the eye. Version 1 60 min 60 min Emergency Field Drugs 120 min Heat Disorders Endemic diseases 60 min 120 min Emergency (Casevac) SOP 120 min Triage and Multiple Casualty Incident Management Aviation Physiology & Principles of Air Medical Evacuation 60 min 60 min Mine Awareness & Mine Field Marking 60 min Radio Communications Field Medic Documentation 60 min 60 min . On Site Work Routine. The Layout of the Minefield. use and completion of casualty triage tags Medics shall be taught the basic principles of aviation physiology and the principles of air medical evacuation Medics shall have a basic mine awareness and shall understand the minefield marking system used by the organisation. and blunt trauma. avoidance and treatment Medics shall have a complete understanding of the emergency casevac procedures and understand the roles of all responsible persons following an accident.Annex A to Chapter 10 Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis Eye Injury Basic understanding of allergy. Pre-administration drug checks and safe drug administration. Students shall understand the UNMAO evacuation plan and the role of the AME teams and sector hospitals. precautions etc). Basic Introduction to make up of a Mine. dose. they shall be trained in the completion of basic field medical documentation. indications. Basic UXO recognition. Part 1 Edition 9. Signs & Symptoms of eye injury and treatment Medics shall completely understand all emergency drugs they are carrying to ensure safe administration (including presentation. role of triage officer. heat stroke) and hypothermia Medics shall have an understanding of the pathology of common endemic diseases. Minefield Marking System. Medics shall be taught the principles of triage and management of accidents involving multiple casualties. side effects. contraindications. Page 6 of 8 NTSG. causes. Correct storage and drug accounting procedures. Considerations for air evacuation. Causes of anaphylaxis. routes of administration. Medics shall understand environmental hazards and be able to recognise disorders related to heat and treat hyperthermia (heat exhaustion. causes of eye injury including penetrating eye injury. On-Site Requirements. The Concept of Integrated Operations. Prophylactic use of anti-emetic. chemical burns. role of supervisor. Triage priorities.
airway suctioning. Part 1 Edition 9. health and hygiene monitoring Oxygen handling. Relief) and severity assessment using a verbal pain scoring system (0 – 10 pain scale or severe – moderate – mild) and pain management through titration of analgesia to reduce pain to comfortable level. the students should visit a clearance operation to see the operational set up and should receive a site brief from the supervisor and medic/s Medics shall be familiar with all emergency medical equipment that they shall use in an emergency. Page 7 of 8 NTSG. oxygen administration using a face mask Use of pressure point. Version 1 Pain Assessment and Management 60 min Patient Handover Health and Safety Safe Lifting Health and Hygiene Oxygen Handling and Storage Healthy Living Helicopter Safety & HLS Requirements Practical phase Minefield Visit 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 15 min 120 min Emergency Medical Equipment 120 min Airway Management 120 min Ventilation Practical Wound Management and Bleeding Control 120 min 120 min . insertion of OP & NP airway. Prevention measures. Other signs and symptoms. finger sweeps. injuries. connect oxygen equipment and administer oxygen. elevation. stretcher function. Commencing with introductions of medic and casualty to medical officer. AMPLE history. management of different types of wound. disassemble and reassemble laryngoscope etc Placing a casualty in lateral position. It is the choice of some organisations to teach endotracheal intubation. Safe Lifting techniques Health and Hygiene Measures. jaw thrust. pressure dressings. storage and administration Mental Health. Healthy Living Helicopter safety and HLS requirements Remarks Where possible following the theory class on minefield marking and MRE. ambulance set up. Students shall be taught the analgesia administration protocol of the organisation for the drug they shall use in the field Medics are taught how to conduct a concise patient handover.Annex A to Chapter 10 Assessment of pain using for example mnemonic DOLOR (Description. Disease transmission routes. chin lift. crycothyroidotomy (these are ATLS skills and not a requirement for NTSG) Medics shall be taught bag – mask ventilation (both intermittent positive pressure ventilation and assisted positive pressure ventilation techniques). treating a choking patient. Stress management. Medics shall be able to disassemble and reassemble Ambubag and suction equipment. trauma kit layout. Onset. initial vital signs. Role playing exercises are helpful in this class Prevention of Back injury. Location. casualty status during transport. last vital signs taken prior to handover.
blanket lift. ballistics. IV cannulation should be practised on I. Giving set preparation. Blood pressure. Version 1 . parenteral drug preparation. vascular injury.V injection. Universal precautions. respiratory status. spinal board lift. Part 1 Edition 9. loading and transport of a casualty Aseptic technique. stretcher carry. use of head block Fore and aft lift. Medics should demonstrate IV cannulation of a person as well during the course Radio communications procedures and handing over a casualty to doctor – practical scenario training The majority of practical training should be spent doing scenario-based training combining all of the skills learnt over the course to assess and treat a casualty appropriately. fractures. blast wave Single responder and two – responder CPR techniques Physiological (skin. flat lift.Annex A to Chapter 10 Mine Injury Management CPR Practical Assessment Techniques Bandaging Fracture and Dislocation Management Chest Injury Practical Head Injury Management Practical Spinal Immobilisation Techniques Safe Lifting and Transport Techniques Specific management of blast mine injury and Fragmentation mine injury. log roll.C injection. safe ambulance and (where appropriate) helicopter approach. In the scenario based training a casualty is assigned injuries and a conscious level. The medic shall then be called to control life threats. assessment for compartment injury. conscious status) and anatomical assessment (full body examination / secondary survey) Bandaging and slings for injuries to different anatomical regions Management of open and closed fractures using splints and anatomical splinting techniques Management of Open Pneumothorax. Decompression of Tension Pneumothorax. groin injury. use of spine board. securing IV line and changing IV soft pack.V arm where possible.M injection. pulse. S. fireman carry. lift and drag method. flail chest management Management of open and closed head Injury (Primary and secondary brain injury) In line spinal immobilisation. I. cervical collar application. I. fragmentation wounds. safe sharp handling and disposal. assess and provide appropriate treatment for the assigned pathology (medical or trauma emergency) Total 120 min 120 min 120 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 120 min 60 min Parenteral Administration 180 min Communications Procedures 60 min Casevac Scenario Exercises 3000 min 7575 minutes Page 8 of 8 NTSG. chair lift.
Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 0 .
..Introduction: ............................................................. ADMINISTRATION ....... 11 Casevac Requesting Format ........................................... 39 KASSALA..................................................... 4 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 WAU ............................................................................................ 22 HLS Marking Requirements. 10 ANNEX A 1........................................................................ Templates............................................................................................... 36 MALAKAL ........... GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... A 2 ........................... 37 RUMBEK ........................................................................................................................................................................................... AUTHORITY AND PROCEDURES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Medical Resources in Sudan ............................................................................ 5 3.................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Definitions: ............................................................ 40 KADUGLI (Sector IV) ...........A 3 Annex B Annex C Annex D Annex E Annex F Annex G Annex H Letter of Introduction........................................................ HELICOPTER LANDING SITES ................................................................ HOSPITALS ........................................................................................................................ 9 5......................................... 23 In Flight Medical Guidelines and Records ....................................................................... 44 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 42 EL FASHER ... ACCESS....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 ABYEI (SECTOR VI) ............................................................................ 43 NYALA .......... 14 UN Contact Lists ........................................................... 21 UNMIS Air Crafts ........................................ 2 1........................................................................................................................................................... 8 4......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 ED DAMAZIN ...................................................................................................................................... 34 JUBA ................................................... 24 Area specific Emergency Medical / Casualty Evacuation Protocols .......................
Non-emergency Medevac: The patient is not responding to treatment at the Originating Medical Facility or the treatment required is not available at the Originating Medical Facility. The use of dedicated air resources assigned for this type of emergency is not required. The patient can be accompanied by sector medical personnel or can be fetched by Kadugli medical personnel on a scheduled flight returning the same day. The activation of the plan will be through the responsible UN security officer. The objective of this plan is to ensure clear guidelines and that a rapid response is in place for medical emergencies involving staff involved in humanitarian mine action within Sudan. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 2 . The aircraft could be any aircraft that is available near the patient.Introduction: This plan encompasses all participants of the Sudan Mine Action Programme. Emergency Medevac: The Patient is seriously ill / injured and will be evacuated to the next level of care as quickly as possible with the most suitable aircraft available at the moment and by the most suitable medical personnel available. The United Nations Mine Action Office or United Nation Office for Project Services accepts no liability or responsibility whatsoever in respect of any use of or reliance upon this plan by any unauthorised party. which should ideally be conducted within 1 hour of injury. Definitions: Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC): Evacuation of a casualty from the site of injury to the closest medical facility. The patient will be admitted in the next level of medical care facility. Medevac will be considered when available medical facilities are not adequate to provide the necessary treatment. usually to the first available level of medical care. Medical Personnel could be from the Medevac Team or Medical personnel from the sector (with the patient). a flight diverted towards the patient or by a special arrangement of UN flight that is sent to the patient. Prior appointment scheduling with the specialist at out Patient department is required (Patient may not require to be admitted). It is written in conjunction with the UNMIS Casevac/ Medevac SOP (Version: Jan 2006) and in accordance with the MoU (July 2007) between UNOPS and UNDPKO for UN contracted Mine Action Organisation in Sudan. Specialist Consultations: For a patient who has a medical condition which needs special investigations or needs a specialist opinion. This entails the movements of an injured or seriously ill person. by whatever available means and will usually involve the use of dedicated air resources available on continuous 24/7 basis. The patient will be evacuated on the next available scheduled or diverted flight. Verification by a doctor or qualified medic is not required Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC): Evacuation of a casualty between two medical facilities either within the Mission area (in-theatre) or out of it (out-of-theatre). including national and international staff of UNMAO-accredited commercial companies and NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs).
Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 3 . Level 1 Medical Support: This is the first level where a doctor is available. Level 2 Medical Support: this is the first level where surgical expertise and facilities are available. stabilisation. triage. 2 ICU nurses. pharmacist. basic radiology. Capable of treatment of common medical conditions. Bases are detailed in Annex E. The helicopter is capable of transporting 3 stretcher casualties but can be configured to receive 6 stretcher casualties. Capable of performing: Emergency resuscitation. Destination Medical Facility: Next level of medical care where the patient is being evacuated to. 1 general physician. and evacuation of casualties. advanced life support and intensive care. 1 anaesthetist.This category of patient can be transported on regular scheduled flight as near to the appointment date as possible and can travel alone or accompanied – as indicated by the referral physician. basic laboratory. AME teams – Air Medical Evacuation teams consist of a crew of three and one paramedic. AME teams may reach further than these when fuel has been pre-positioned. 1 internist. basic dental care. Originating Medical Facility: Place of injury or illness from where the patient is being evacuated from. Staffing consists of 2 medical officers and 6 nurses/paramedics. minor surgical procedures. 1 dentist. The SUPER PUMA helicopters have a fuel capacity for 400kms and therefore cover a 150km radius from the base. Manning: 2 surgeons (general and orthopaedic). The helicopters have night vision capability and 24 hour response with 30 min start up time during daylight hours and 60 minute start up at night. perform basic field diagnostic and laboratory tests. and 10 nurses. Level 3 Medical Facility: this combines the capability of level one and two facilities with the added capability of providing specialised in-patient treatment and surgery as well as extensive diagnostic services. head nurse. Full laboratory services as well as diagnostic radiology with ultrasound and CT scan. life and limb saving surgery under anaesthesia. Medical Repatriation: Return of a patient or casualty to his home country because of medical reasons.
11 Mine Action Organisations are responsible for bilateral agreement with appropriate non UN medical facilities both in and outside Sudan. 1. Access to air evacuation is never 100% certain.8 Medical evacuation from the casualty site to the nearest appropriate medical facility shall always be considered as a first alternative. 1.14 Formulation of operation site casevac plan shall be in accordance with SOP and NTSG. GENERAL 1. 1. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 4 . 1.10 Any out of country evacuation will be decided and coordinated by the casualty’s Office/ Organisation.3 UNMAO staff and UNOPS contracted mine action organisations can rely on UNMIS for emergency medical support within available resources 1. 1.4 Non UN contracted mine action organisations in Sudan will be provided with assistance by the UN in accordance with this plan on case by case basis. 1. 1.1 This National Medevac /Casevac Plan is an annex to NTSG Ch10. 1.6 UN air crafts are available for MEDEVAC/ CASEVAC when possible and to the extent feasible.2 The plan is written in conjunction with the UNMIS Casevac/ Medevac SOP (Version: Jan 2006) and in accordance with the MoU (July 2007) between UNOPS and UNDPKO for UN contracted Mine Action Organisation in Sudan. 1. Communication may be relayed through UN Radio Room.1.7 All evacuations by UNMIS and the World Food Programme Humanitarian Air Services (WFP-HAS) air crafts are to be coordinated by UN Security with support of the regional UNMAO offices. Any travel or financial assistance given to such persons will be on a reimbursable basis. The requesting party should supply the VHF frequency on the ground and attempt to contact the AME 10 minutes prior to the ETA of the AME. when possible and to the extent feasible.5 Available UN field hospitals and clinics will always be made available for any life threatening emergency. Road evacuation be undertaken by road if the casualty is within 60 minutes drive (normal driving speed) of the medical facility.12 Mine Action Organisations shall be fully compliant with the National Technical Standards and Guidelines (NTSG) Ch 10. (Note that only UNMIS staffs are guaranteed access to UNMIS medical facilities for non emergencies).13 Mine Action Organisations are to further ensure that they are able to establish direct ground to air radio communications with the AME. 1.9 In coordination with regional UNMIS operations office the regional UN security office is responsible to and ensure that appropriate measures remain in place for speedy evacuation and that trial runs of casualty evacuations are conducted regularly. 1. Thus having necessary communication equipment to initiate evacuation of a casualty from the field as well as necessary equipment and personnel to stabilise the casualty until further support is available. 1.
AUTHORITY AND PROCEDURES 2.1 Access: 2.1 Within available resources.ACTIVATION PROCEDURES FLOW CHART – CASEVAC Site of Mine Accident 1. ACCESS. (Figure A) . Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 5 .1. weather.1. all UN staff and UNOPS contracted mine action organisations can rely on UN support for air evacuation and emergency medical support.: UN Security Operation Room 2: UNMAO Regional or Sub Office FSCO/CSO CMO / DCMO Request for AME UNMIS Sector UN Medic Officer in Charge (Medical Unit and Ambulance) UNMIS/WFP Air Operations AME not available (Any reason: security. technical etc ) Aircraft Crew / AME Team Casevac by land AME Available Medical Clinic for stabilization of patients overnight Fix winged flight to New Location for treatment Definite care 2.
1 2. it is ultimately the responsibility of each individual demining organisation to ensure that casualties are evacuated and treated.2.3. Medical Officers shall receive accident report as per Annex B from UN Security. UN Security will always have the final say on all security decisions pertaining to the movement of UN staff members. Regional UNMAO Office shall always be informed in order to assist and follow up assuring appropriate actions are taken. Additional authority is clarified in UNMIS and WFP’s internal Medevac/Casevac SOP’s.2 2.3 2. UNMIS Medical Officers then decide on MEDEVAC/CASEVAC and inform AMET to prepare for emergency evacuation. Assistance to Non UN staff or UNOPS contracted mine action organizations will be provided when possible and to the extent feasible.4 2.1.3. For UNMIS AME. MovCon or WFP Humanitarian Air Services (HAS) and nearest UNMAO officers of the likelihood of a MEDEVAC/CASEVAC.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.2 Whilst the UN will use available resources to assist. UN Security passes on received information to nearest / dedicated UN medical unit and alerts the UNMIS Aviation.3. UN Security decide on MEDEVAC/CASEVAC utilizing UNDSS or WFP HAS Air Assets.3. On site of accident responsible person shall follow site specific and regional/ sector specific procedures.2. UN Security and regional UNMAO office will receive information as per Annex B from the site of the accident and contact relevant actors as per location specific SOP’s annexed to this document While the certification by the Medical Officer or Medical Personnel on site is required to authorise all Medevac and Casevac from the location. Decision shall be made to either transport casualty(ies) by road or request AME using the format shown at Annex B.3 2.3 Procedures: 22.214.171.124 2.1 2.2.9 . For South Sudan.8 2. UN Security are responsible for initiating the process for all Casevac and Medevac involving the UN in Sudan. They may attempt to communicate back to site of casualty for further information.3.2. Any support to non UN staff or across agencies will be on cost recovery basis. UNMIS Air Ops will decide the air assets which are available to be used in the event of there being a likelihood of land/ airborne evacuation. (Only UNMIS have access to helicopters in South Sudan).126.96.36.199.7 2.3. The callout of the AME team will be conditional upon the information provided to the UN Security officer from the site of accident. fixed wing air crafts can be made available from UNDSS or WFP. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 6 2.5 2.2 Authority: 2.
188.8.131.52 Access and financial arrangements to non UNMIS medical facilities is the responsibility of each organisation.15 The UNMIS CMO and / or Duty Medical Officer will make the necessary decision in terms of the Medevac/Casevac to a higher level facility. 2.1 In a situation where the UNMIS Medical unit attends the scene of the incident the most senior UN medical officer on site will be the primary decision maker regarding the most appropriate medical treatment and Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 7 . Access to hospitals in Khartoum 184.108.40.206 UNMIS AirOps and UN MovCon inform aircrew on readiness and possible emergency MEDEVAC/CASEVAC.22. Costs for utilizing UN and other medical facilities should covered by each organisation.3. Contact shall be made with UNMIS Chief Medical Officer and UNMIS Air Operations office.21 UNMAO Operations Department in Khartoum shall be kept informed by RMAO and follow up as needed to ensure that protocols are followed and evacuation is progressing smoothly.13 Depending upon the nature and location of the incident UN Security may also assist the UN Medical Unit with road ambulance transport and escort the team direct to the incident and if the need arises the patient to the nearest medical facility or landing site. 2.2.19 UNMAO Regional Operations Officer will assist UN Security and UNMIS as needed. 2.1 For accidents involving UNMAO staff.12 Responsible UN Security Officer regularly cross check with actors and assure that air operation team have been alerted to the incident and placed the AME asset and team on standby.3. 2. 2.3. 2.18 Air MEDEVAC to a higler level facility involving non UN Staff to Khartoum from a UN hospital / clinic may not be processed until a formal request has been provided to the UN from respective organisation. 2.11 UNMIS MovCon to process MOP’s for AMET and casualty(ies) without delaying emergency evacuation. to Khartoum or any external country. 2.16 This includes ensuring appropriate medical authorities are informed about the arrival of the patient and preparations for transfer to the designated medical facility have been made.14 The UN Security officer will cross check to assure that the UNMIS CMO and / or Duty Medical Officer in Khartoum are informed of the decisions of the medical unit at site or in the region regarding Medivac/Casevac. UNMAO Director/OIC will contact UNOPS NY/ CPH and Van Breda insurance company.22 On site medical command: 2.3. 2. and will be responsible to assure that arrangements are made either in Khartoum or with counterparts in the designated country.3. 2.20 UNMAO Regional Operations Officer shall establish contact with UNMAO Operations Department in Khartoum 2.3. A template for this request can be found in annex X.220.127.116.11.3.3.
2 The AME team will accompany a Medevac patient providing stabilisation for the flight to the designated location where treatment will be carried out.3 Non UN staff will fall under their employer’s policy.destination for the patient. ALD UNOPS contracted persons will be covered by UN insurance. 2. 3.3. 3. then the UNMIS Medical Clinic at that location will be used for stabilisation of patients overnight.3. Where or when the Aviation AME asset is used the AME Team Leader will become the primary decision maker. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 8 . will decide whether there are adequate facilities in country to treat the injury or complaint.3. 3. 3. The responsibility of the patient will end at handover of the patient to the medical team collecting the patient at the airport. For evacuation outside of Sudan from other areas the decision will be made by the treating doctor. 3. This shall be given to the UNMIS Chief Medical Officer (CMO) at the time of request or and provided in copy to UNMAO Khartoum.5 Organisations that request special flight support from UNMIS shall produce and sign a written air medical evacuation request as per annex X. following assessment. Decision for Medical repatriation or international medical evacuation of UNOPS staff from Khartoum will be made by either UNMAO OIC.3.3. UNMIS CMO or the UNDP Medical Officer who.26 WFP air crafts requests should be routed directly to WFP HAS focal points in respective area or through WFP HAS Khartoum. 2. 2.25 WFP-HAS do not have specially equipped aircraft (other than stretcher capability) nor medically trained staff to accompany any Medevac’s. 2.4 Any costs incurred for treatment and evacuation in country will be the responsibility of each individual organisation. UNMIS/WFP-HAS Air Ops will then make the necessary arrangements with the national authorities for clearance of the flight with the assistance of UN Security if required.1 UNOPS falls under UNDP medical policies and procedures.27 WFP HAS have presently only helicopters in the Darfur and it would therefore be necessary to identify a nearby airstrip to be able to rely on their support elsewhere in Sudan. 2.22.2 All UNMAO staff fall under the same category as UNMIS staff. If for some reason the Medevac patient can not be transported to the required location for medical treatment.24 WFP-HAS will assist with providing medical evacuation transport for all organizations with access to their services in accordance with their Standard Operating procedures. the senior UN Medical Officer on site will co-ordinate with UNMIS/WFP-HAS Air Ops and UN Security while still at the scene of the incident. ADMINISTRATION 3.3. 2. It will be on cost recovery basis.23 If Medevac by fixed-wing aircraft is to be required for the further treatment of the patient.
5 metres). The HLS must have a levelled surface. in this case an appropriate emergency HLS must be identified according to the HLS requirements listed below.1 4.4.4. Size of the landing surface: The minimum size of the touch down and take off area (TLOF) should be no less than 25 metres x 25 metres for the Super Puma AME or 32 metres x 32 metres for the Mi8 non-medical helicopter (one and half times the rotary diameter).4 Obviously it is not feasible for mobile teams to have an established HLS. 4. Within the selected approach and exit path the normal maximum obstruction angle should not exceed 8° as measured from the edge of the cleared to ground level area to a distance of 85.3 4. Helicopter Landing Sites identified or prepared by non-UNMIS personnel will.3 metres (maximum obstacle height 10. a minimum of three days notice is required to arrange inspection. HELICOPTER LANDING SITES 4. to UNMIS Air Operations for every Helicopter Landing Site identified for use by an operational demining task site.4. 4. The area around the landing zone should be cleared of obstacles that could damage the aircraft. where possible.3 Regional UNMAO Offices are to provide a completed UNMIS HLS form.4. be subject to inspection and approval by UNMIS. 4.2 The HLS must be at least 300m from the nearest dangerous area. The area should be as free as possible of stones and loose debris.1 UN approved Helicopter Landing Sites (HLS) are listed in the HLS Directories and issued periodically by UNMIS Aviation Section and WFP HAS. High terrain power lines and other obstacles should be taken into consideration.4 .3. The bearing strength of the surface should be sufficient to withstand the dynamic and static loading of the super puma helicopter. 4. Elongation should be in the area of takeoff Obstacles: The approach and departure path of the landing site should be clear of obstacles above the approach angle. and the HLS grid reference documented and called in when requesting a casevac.2 Should a demining operational task site require the use of an HLS not previously approved by UNMIS and WFP. as shown at Annex E. The direction of approach or departure should be over the lowest objects and predominate wind direction should be taken into consideration. Request for inspection shall be processed through Regional UNMAO office.6 UNMAO Regional Operations Officer shall – if the casualty is a UNOPS contracted staff and admitted to a UN (TCC) L2 or UN L3 hospital – complete the “Letter of Introduction” (annex A) and produce it to responsible UN Medical Officer. during the initial setting-out on day one of the task. 2. Surface Conditions: The surface conditions must be firm enough to prevent the helicopter bogging down or creating excessive dust.4 HLS Requirements 4. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 9 4. a new HSL is to be located and prepared as part of the CASEVAC plan.
HLS marking: Refer to Annex C 4.4.7 4. This will be determined by the air medical evacuation team but will normally be nearest UNMIS level II or III hospital 5. Receiving hospital staff should be briefed about the types of injuries anticipated from mine accidents. Senior staff at the facility is to be informed that demining personnel will be working in the area and that if accident occurs.8 5. This map shall be placed on or next to the passenger seat in front of the ambulance.4 Recognised regional hospitals are in Egypt (Al Salem Hospital Cairo).1 Every task site shall have a detailed map and route card of the primary road route to the designated hospital or medical facility which casualties would be evacuated to. The safety area must be clear of objects. The routes must be driven by the ambulance driver and timed at normal driving speed.4. An alternative route should also be identified and planned. HOSPITALS 5. All demining personnel should be taught how to safely approach a helicopter and to protect their eyes from dust. 5. 5. Distances and timings shall be recorded on the route card. Safety Area: The safety area must be provided and is to be no less than 3 metre width surrounding the touch down and take off zone.6 4.5 Wind Indicator: Wind indicator is recommended.4.3 The local medical facility identified for initial stabilisation selected receiving medical facility must be visited by the field medic and senior officer prior to commencement of operations at the location.4.4. Smoke grenade may be used but should not be put on the leeward side to avoid obscuring the touch down point (DO NOT USE RED SMOKE SIGNALS). Access and possible financial agreement shall be discussed. Nairobi (Nairobi Hospital).2 Demining casualties evacuated by helicopter will be taken to the nearest appropriate hospital or medical facility. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 10 . Jordan (Al Khalidi Hospital Amman) and South Africa. casualties will be evacuated there for initial stabilization.
MineTech .RONCO . Khartoum – Sudan United Nations Office for Project Services To: Receiving Medical Officer at TCC Hospital From: United Nations Mine Action Office (UNMAO) Through: Regional representative UNMAO and UNMIS Level 1 Clinic Letter of Introduction This letter is to introduce Mr/ Mrs _______________________________________________ with UN ID card number ________.ANNEX A . He / She shall thus have full access to emergency medical support by UNMIS in accordance with the MoU between UNDPKO and UNOPS dated July 2007.. . He/ she is fully insured and any costs related to emergency medical treatment at your hospital can be fully recovered.AGMA . a staff member of . Signed ____________________ By assisting UNMAO Officer Name:_____________________ Title: ______________________ Date / Time:_________________ Location:____________________ Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 11 .1 Letter of Introduction UNOPS United Nations Mine Action Office Head Office.TDI implementer of the project “Mine Action Activities in Support of UNMIS” . which is a UNOPS contracted organization and MECHEM .
Non UNOPS Contractors United Nations Mine Action Office Head Office. a staff member of _____________________________ which is a part of the Sudan Mine Action Programme accredited by the UNMAO.2 Letter of Introduction .ANNEX A . He/ she is fully insured and any costs related to emergency medical treatment at your hospital can be fully recovered. Khartoum – Sudan To: Receiving Medical Officer at TCC Hospital From: United Nations Mine Action Office (UNMAO) Through: Regional Ops / QA Officer UNMAO Letter of Introduction This letter is to introduce Mr/ Mrs _______________________________________________ with ID card number ________. Signed ____________________ By assisting UNMAO Officer Name:_____________________ Title: ______________________ Date / Time:_________________ Location:____________________ Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 12 .
org From: ____________________________ Cc: Regional representative UNMAO and UNMAO Medical Coordinator: email@example.com Request for Special Flight for Air Medical Evacuation “Organization Name” . Tafesse. Onebunne@un. He/ she is fully insured and any costs can be fully recovered from firstname.lastname@example.org and DCMO Roberts Onebunne.3 Draft e-mail / letter Formal request for Medevac from UNMIS Medical facilities using UNMIS air assets To: UNMIS CMO 'Teferi Tafesse.ANNEX A . Signed ____________________ Organization Officer Name:_____________________ Title: ______________________ Date / Time:_________________ Location:____________________ Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 13 . hereby request assistance with air medical evacuation (AME) for Mr/Mrs Full name with ID card nr “____” from hospital / clinic in “Location” to Airport “Location” today “Date”.which are a part of the Sudan Mine Action Programme and accredited by the UN Mine Action Office.
Shooting. VHF Call sign Name of Informant: Title: Date and time Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 14 . if Vehicle involved description of colour. type. markings etc Is there a pre-arranged Helicopter Landing Site at location? Who Is Involved: 1. Nationality of Injured / Sick 1. Is there a direct contact method with incident site eg Telephone number. Electric Shock. Names of Injured / Sick (Do not provide over radio) Type of incident: eg: Mine accident. suspected Mine Incident Blood Types of injured if known Other Information: 1. shooting.. Following an accident the casualty party calls for help via radio/telephone to UNDSS Regional radio room.Annex B Casevac Requesting Format a. Number of Injured / Sick 2. b. Burns… Description of Injuries / Sickness if available Special Security Considerations e.g. 2. The following information is required: AGENCY: FOCAL POINT: DATE: Information Required Where incident occurred: TIME: Information Supplied Place Name or GPS Plot Extra Description eg.
Basundhara Barathy MO Dr. Jiang Chenghua FMO Dr.CMO Dr. Krstic Zoran MO Dr. Almoiz Ali MO Dr. Rasha Osman MO Dr. Yousra Awad Office Assistant Mr Omer Derar Laboratory Technician Nazim El sayeg Driver Osama Ayoub Driver Dr Mathiu Kanyili MO Dr Collette Hounsinou Dr Lt Col S M A Salam (BAN L2) UNMIS MS JUBA Dr Maj Md Ershadul Kader (BAN L2 surg spl) Nagat Boshara Nurse MOBILE PHONE 0912170121 0912 170012 0912178337 0912179347 0912178348 0912 170016 0912174077 0912141917 O912174069 O912179034 0912178829 EXT DECT PHONE 6873 7451 9648 CALL SIGN KQ 27 M39 6236 7536 7548 7448 6818 6949 9527 M 139 KQ 271 KQ 272 KQ 941 KG 371 KG 375 KG 373 UNMIS MS KHARTOUM 7550 7546 7547 7549 6970 7845 0912178820 0912178866 7199 7212 7652 7488 6689 M 21 M 226 9590 0912 174074 0912969703 0911155156 09 12179349 0912177848 0912177851 +249910178770 +249915031334 +249187082152 +249187082077 0913043712 . Roberts Onebunne Dep. Hesham Farag SOM Dr Joji Varghese SOM Mr. Nahid Sahib Nurse Ms.Hashem Abdallat FMO Dr. POSITION Khartoum 24 Hour Emergency Number Dr.Annex C UN Contact Lists UNMIS Medical Services / Officers REGION NAME OF THE STAFF MEMBER. Amira Abdalaziz Nurse Ms. Fatima Elmubarak Office Assistant Ms. Saida Talegi Nurse Ms. TeferiTafesse CMO Dr. Karambizi Marylou Head Nurse Ms. Célestin Kanuma Clerk / SGT FMO Ms. Samia Abdulmageed Nurse Ms. 0122193470 0914837678 7195 7213 7690 6841 7827 7465 7599 9521 9517 2152 M 261 KQ 143 KQ 116 K Q 149 Tango 963 Tango 965 JQ 239 UNMIS MS KHARTOUM 2078 2300 JQ213 ( CO-JG 85) 0911345938 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 15 .
UNMIS Medical Services / Officers REGION NAME OF THE STAFF MEMBER.Zeinab Behar Nurse . POSITION Zeinab Behar Nurse Dr William Sebit MO Grace Poni Bismark Nurse Rufina Rana Nurse Dr Munisa Kadirova MO Yugusuk Juwan MO Jacqueline Nyanga (AMET) Nuha Aboud Nurse Dr.Nagat Boshara Imelda Hernandez Nurse Dr Omara Izzeldin MO Elham Ahmed Nurse Aburaida Sharief Ambulance Driver Ahmed Nagmedin MO Haliema Ahmed Nurse Sharief AbuRaida Ambulance Driver MOBILE PHONE 0918319996 0912178347 EXT DECT PHONE 4489 4489 CALL SIGN NQ 212 UNMIS MS MALAKAL 0912177871 0912179255 0912179274 +249911367785 +249187085389 0912933245 0912177870 0912179309 3510 4489 5359 U Q 22 UNMIS MS KADUGLI 5389 5389 3578 UQ221 GQ251 GQ253 GQ254 GQ252 WQ 218 FQ 252 FQ 254 UNMIS MS EL GENEINA 3511 0914103779 0912207788 0918205024 0912827806 0912827806 0912972859 0915217330 0915463373 192 5037 3177 3185 3510 3157 3195 FQ 254 FQ 255 FQ 713 FQ 718 FQ 714 UNMIS MS EL FASHER 0912365109 0912114647 0918319996 0911345938 0912179284 0912695818 1924029 NQ143 NQ 213 NQ 212 UNMIS MS NYALA 4913 4914 UNMIS MS ZALINGI 0912952129 0912178339 0918137407 0912952129 4082 4082 4118 OQ315 OQ 218 UNMIS MS KASSALA UNMIS MS EL OBIED Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 16 . Yassir Korak MO Nurse Fatima Hamouda Nurse Ms. Caberera Dr Dawaha Salih Nurse . Manazil Mohammed Manzil Mohamed Nurse Ali Adbalkareem Lab Technician Muktar Khater Ambulance Driver Adbullah Abdurahman Ambulance Driver Emad Alhaj Ambulance Driver Dr Gerry C.Jha Kandarpa Dr Taha Mohamed MO Alice Ausa Nurse Nurse – Dhere Djissa Esther Dr.
+24918708 5150 Channel 31 WG MED Base UNMIS MS WAU C/S Channel 31 WQ 223 / 224 Tel - +88216558000573 or +249197085070 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 17 .UNMIS Medical Services / Officers REGION NAME OF THE STAFF MEMBER. Mashoum MO Gabriel Gugu Nurse Dr. Mawiya Khairy / MO Dr. Patrick Nzene / MO Hammam Omer MO Stephen Okwera Odera Nurse Morgan James MO Veronica Alexander Nurse Gladys Katasi Medical Officer MO UN Mission Wau (Level 2) C/S Channel 31 WG 865 Duty Medical Officer MO UN Mission Wau (Level 1) MOBILE PHONE 0912949989 0915256608 EXT DECT PHONE 4116 6304 CALL SIGN 9146 UNMIS MS Rumbek UNMIS MS El Damazin 091 211 9887 091 431 6819 Sat phone : +88216558000570 5785 5785 3979 3956 ZQ911 VQ 215 VQ 216 UNMIS MS ABYEI Sat phone: +88216558000573 0912814493 +249 187-08-5148 Tel – +24918708 5131 / 5150 / 5158 5070 5070 190-5148 Tel . POSITION Mohamed abd al fadeel Lab Technician Dr Makier G.
Regional Chief of Ops Ops Officer Deputy PM (South) Regional Ops Officer Medical Coordinator Ops Officer Operations Officer Regional Ops Coordinator Operations Officer Operations Officer +249 912304078 DECT 6603 DECT 6605 DECT 6608 DECT 7092 +88 216 54204694 Calsign UV4.Contacts UNMAO Sudan Location Name Khartoum UNMAO Duty Officer UNMAO Operations room Jim Pansegrouw Jacobus Nieuwoudt Joe McCarten Salim A M Nour Position Tel.1 0631822739. +256(0)477109521 +8821655582972 +8821654208990 Kadugli Jan Bosman Suleiman Nyamwaya +88 216 5420 8233 +88 216 3114 5161 +88 216 5107 0107 +88 216 5420 8260 +882 1621 204 503 +88 216 5107 3066 +88216 5200 2989 +88 216 3110 0182 +88 216 5107 0570 +88 216 5420 8244 Juba Simon Porter Paul Eldred Per Engstrom Adam Wheeler El Fasher John Raddatz Phillip Rowe +254733260088 Kassala Latif Matin Wau Timothy (Robbie) Roberts Malakal Mark Argent Operations Officer Operations Officer Operations Officer QA Officer Admin Asst. 0912501143 +256477101001 +254723333439 0912501282 0912177643 +88 216 5119 8115 +88 216 5420 8263 +88216 215 29242 +8821654208993 Damazin Richard Derieux Rumbek Piet Brink Yei Alan Wall Nairobi Esther Leipah Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 18 . Callsign UV4. Thuraya +249912167698 +249187086605 +249187086608 0912304078 0912179130 0912174468 0912 3329 07 0912177917 0912174428 0912174429 0912177213 +249 91 23 27 378 +249912177817 0912177634 0912167221 0912170267 +249 187085071 +46736234288 Director / Programme Manager Operations Officer Chief of Staff National Medical Advisor.Kenya/ Other Tel. Sudan Tel.
2.Darfur FSCO OIC LSA RS1 FS1 FS. 6.1 Nyala 12. Eman Atalla POSITION Medical Officer CONTACT +249912304070 UN Security Sudan SER 1.1. Willie Harrison Cheikh Diouf Elbishary Musa FSCO .2 Zalingei Jonny Otieno Malakal Josaia Waqaivolavola 18.1 NS 5.1 Juba 19. 14.2 +249 9121 74801 +8821651191909 0912160421 +8821651192602 0912170248 +8821651192602 0913352886 +8821658000753 0912174139 +8821651192918 0912167703 +8821651124520 09125o1183 +8821651191918 0912174802 0912178309 +88216558000627 0912160742 +249912174594 +249187084498 +8821654207797 +249915181045 +8821658000610 +882-1643339620 +882-1643338517 +88 216 542 07766 +88 216 433 39623 +249915684374 ZS515 ZS512 ZS513 091 517 1849 +8821654207781 091 562 0044 091 858 4353 El Geneina 10.UNDP Medical SER NAME 1 Dr. 13. 24. 22. NAME Khartoum Steve Gluning Johannes Jacobs Ibrahima Ndiaye Gaspar Zavala UNDSS Control Room Close Protection Duty Shift POSITION FSCO/CSA AFSCO UNMIS/PSA UNDSS/ FSCO CALLSIGN KS1 KS4 KQ 5 KS 5. 15. 20.2 MS5 NS 5 NS. 17. Samual Odei Abdalla Janakat Elsadig Abubaker AFSCO AFSCO AFSCO UNMIS Security Officer ZQ 5. Lu'ay AL-QSAR MK5. 26. 3. 5. 9. 8. 25. 21. 23. 11.3 GS 1. 16. 4.3 CONTACT +249 9123 04064 +882 1651 124515 +249912160420 +8821651129549 +249 912179391 +249 9123 03579 0912178359 0912178357 El Fasher 7.1 Shihabeldin El Tahir UNMIS Security Officer AFSCO ZQ 5.1.5. David Komen Firas Mihyar FSO FSCO OIC GS 1. Marcus Culley Ilka Laukkanen Yashpal SINGH Saleh Mahboob Deputy Security Advisor (Sudan) UNFSCO DUNFSCO(DPKO) UNFSCO UNMIS Sec Officer UNMIS RSO UNMIS Sec Officer UNMIS Sec Office JS1 JS2 JQ51 JS3 Kassala Zecks Nyangari Ed Demazin Joel Busadre Stefan Bernstrom Nelly Boit Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 19 .
SER 27. 31. 6724 +249187087009. MAOC Dect +249187087007. 6708 Mobile 0912-178275 +249912178250 0912-177885 0912-178262 +249918708600 +249912170130 0912-178765 Regions 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abubaker Mohamed Joe van Eeden Amadedin Ismail Abdalla Mahmoud Ismail Rajo Shanmugaraj Rivera Julio Air Ops Asst (Nyala) Air Ops Asst (Kadugli) Air Ops Asst (Al Fasher) Air Ops Asst (Al Fasher) Air Ops Asst Ed Damazin Air Ops Officer (Juba) 2061 5475 3190 3197 0912177604 0918-318669 0912178346 0912396612 0912-177606 0912-177607 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 20 . NAME Kadugli Alonzo Baldwin Perfecto Labaddan Abyei POSITION UNMIS Sec Officer UNMIS Sec Officer CALLSIGN TBC UQ512 CONTACT +249912170134 +882165000561 +249912392173 +8821654207751 +88216558000624 0912177880 +249912179252 +8821658000617 29. +249187087399. Aidian Laroche Ahmed Mistarihi Wau AKM Sufiul Anam Charles Amuabeng Security Officer VQ 51 VQ 51 Security Officer WQ513 UNMIS AIR Operations Khartoum No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name Incoming Kevin Shelton-Smith Patricia Rafferty Desmond Mensah-Coker Mustafa Sharif Air Ops Duty Officer Title OIC Aviation Chief Air Operations Air Ops Asst (Planning) Air Ops Officer OIC. 32. 28. 30.
Sahiroon Specialised Hospital – Khartoum Ph: 265 315 / 6 / 7 Medical Director: Dr. +249-83-789951. MUTAZ A. Elmoiz Ali Arabi Tel: + (249 11) 789555 Mobile: + (249) 12141917 Ambulance: 09124444000 MEDICAL FACILITY Level I & II Hospital.Annex D Medical Resources in Sudan UNMIS Medical Resources Sector/ Location Khartoum Sector I / Juba Sector II / Wau Sector III / Malakal Sector IV / Kadugli Sector V / Ed Damazin Sector VI / Abyei Nyala El Fasher (AMIS) El Geneina Kassala Level III Hospitals Khartoum 3. +249-83-789826 Medical Director: Dr. 2x AME Level I & II Hospital / 2x AME Level I & II Hospital / 2x AME Level II Hospital / 1x AME Level III Hospital / 1 x AME Level II Hospital / 1 x AME Level I Hospital / 1 x AME UN Level 1 Clinic UN Level 1 Clinic UN Level 1 Clinic Level 1 Hospital Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 21 . Al Faisal Specialist Hospital – Khartoum Ph: +249-83-789824. JAMAL Tel: +249-11-265316(217) Mobile: 0912938454 PR Officer: Abdu Rapbu Mobile: 0912369877 Office: 83 279600 4. +249-83-789823.
5 GENEINA SUMMARY 192- 12 1 x Puma Helog Fixed Wing: Commercial: 15 Military:8 Helicopter: Commercial: 15. 5 6 7 8 1 x Mi 8 T 5 x Mi 17 1 x Mi 8 AMT 1 x Mi 8 T 1 x Mi 8 AMT 1 x Mi 17 1 x Mi8 T UT Air Indian Avaiation Vertical T UT air Vertical T Indian Aviation UT Air AME Paramedic UN Air Ops Ext 5190 AME from UN L2 hospital UN Air Ops Mob 0912 177 606 AME UN L3 hospital AME UN L2 hospital UN Air Ops Ext 4422 AME UN Air Ops Ext 9189 / 9106 AME UN Air Ops Ext 3060 Mobile 0912 170 033 UN Air Ops Ext 3455 Mob 0912 885 849 9 1 x Mi 8 T 1 x Puma 1 x L410 1 x Mi 8 AMT UT Air Helog Heliair Vertical T 192 11 NYALA (HSNN) Cat. 4 RUMBEK (HSMK) – Nil Crash Cat EL FASHER (HSFS) Cat. 4 ED DAMAZIN (HSDZ) Cat. Military: 16 AME . 5 UN Air Ops 4027/4061 Ext 3 JUBA (HSSJ) Cat. Serial 1 Airfield KHARTOUM (HSSS) Cat. 8 Air craft 2x MD -83 2x DHC – 8 2x B-200 1x Lear 35A 1x Mi 8 T 1x AN 74 1 x L100 2 x L 410 1 x IL-76 1 x L410 1 x Mi 8 T 4 x Mi 8 MT 1 x Mi 8 MTV 1 x Mi 8 T 3 x Mi 17 3 x Puma Company Swift Air Voyager King Air Evergreen UT Air Motor Sich Safair Heli Air Abakan Heli Air UT Air Russian Aviation NEFTYGANSK UT Air Pakistan Aviation Pakistan Aviation Remarks AME DO Mobile 0912170130 2 EL OBEID (HSOB) Cat.Annex E UNMIS Air Crafts The following facilities list is to be used as a guideline for rescue operations within each Sector. 5 L2 Hospital (Pakistan) UN Air Ops Ext 2162 4 5 WAU (HSWW)Cat. 4 KADUGLI (HSLI) Cat. 7 MALAKAL (HSSM) Cat.DISTANCES AND AVERAGE FLIGHT TIMES (Take off to landing) Juba Juba Juba Wau Wau Malakal Malakal Malakal Kadugli Demazin Demazin Maridi Torit Kapoeta Rumbek Aweil Bentui Ayod Paloich Delling Kurmuk Dindaro 78 70 127 118 68 113 86 45 68 81 49 NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM 0:39 0:35 1:04 0:59 0:34 0:57 0:43 0:23 0:34 0:41 0:25 HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS HRS Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 22 .
Figure: Vehicles Cross Lights Method WIND DIRECTION TOUCH DOWN POINT H 35 meter 35 meter Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 23 . preferably flashing lights or spotlights. Method for night lightning of HLS Use as much light as possible. Park two vehicles are placed 35 m apart and 35 m downwind of the center of the landing point with their headlights beams intersecting at the center of the landing point. The ground shall be free of any objects. The material used to mark the “H” such as rocks / sand bags shall be painted white which will assist in the visual recognition of the site. Periodical checks of the LS shall be completed to ensure that there is no large amount of garbage has collected at the site. which is visible from all direction and a distance of 1000m from high places. which could become airborne and damage the aircraft. Turn on warning blinkers. The material used shall be leveled with ground so they shall not obstruct the landing of the copter. The size of the “H” shall be approx 9X6 meters.Annex F HLS Marking Requirements Set up of the Helicopter Landing Site (HLS) The area to marked with an “H”.
urine output. Always consider adding supplemental Oxygen by mask or ventilator. CVP etc). Use pulse rate or CVP (preferably jugular. Neurological e. Procedures such as intubation. One copy of the notes should be handed over with the patient. saturation. etc. urine tests). the patient should be optimally stabilized. Before transporting the patient to the aircraft. Maintain sat between 94 and 97% if possible. Pulse oximeter is the primary instrument.g. Resuscitation measures (e. should be recorded. Respiratory. not subclavian) as alternate indicators. Intubation if applicable (fill cuff with water).2. while one copy should be retained for record purposes. It is virtually impossible to monitor blood pressure in the aircraft unless and electronic sphygmomanometer is used. Rather overprepare a patient than under-prepare. malaria tests. Urinary catheter (fill cuff with water).Annex G In Flight Medical Guidelines and Records 1. The time period in between notes can obviously be varied according to the seriousness of the patient’s condition. Abdominal. are much more difficult in the air than on the ground. and record your findings. and examinations already done (e. Glasgow Coma Scale if applicable etc). and notes (in duplicate) should include observations (blood pressure. CVPs (and even peripheral lines). systemic examination (Cardiovascular. and should include parameters like pulse rate. Monitor all gas-filled appliances (e. This includes: 2 peripheral venous lines (preferably at least 18G cannula). (Oxygen demand will vary with altitude).g. intercostal drain. During the flight. IN FLIGHT MONITORING It is important to monitor the condition of the patient. as well as documentation of fractures and external injuries. pneumatic splint etc). respiration rate. Nasogastric tube.).1.g. Intercostal drain if applicable (with one way valve / urine bag).g. The assessment of the patient should be a complete examination. intubation. clinical notes should be made every 15 minutes. as well as to whom the patient is handed over. intercostals drains. Take-off time should be noted. Landing time should be noted. vacuum splint. blood pressure (if possible). pulse rate etc. because changes in altitude will affect these devices. PATIENT PREPARATION Patient should be resuscitated and be as stable as possible before flight. 1. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 24 .
IN FLIGHT MEDICAL RECORD PATIENT DETAILS Surname:___________________ First Names: _______________________________ UN ID No Female Nationality _________________ Blood Group ____________Gender: Male _________________ Location:______________________________ DESCRIPTION OF ILLNESS / INJURY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCORE Airway Bleeding Circulation Fractures Neurology Transportability 1 No Respiration Profuse / DIC Shock Present Unconscious Must be carried 2 Compromised Some Compromised Suspected Depressed Consciousness Requires assistance 3 Normal None Normal None Normal Ambulatory TOTAL /18 PROCEDURES ALREADY PERFORMED IV lines Tracheal Intubation Intercostal drain Urinary catheter Nasogastric tube Peripheral Yes Yes Yes Yes Central No No No No X-rays -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Blood Tests / Other -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 25 .
Head. Perineum. Yes 1. Neck 4. Chest 6. Motor function 14.70 < 50 None Respiration Rate 10 . followed by the description. Cranial nerves 13. Use sketches as required). General signs (JACCOL) 2. Musculoskeletal system 11. Vagina 10.90 50 . Psychological impression Yes No 6 5 4 3 2 1 Spontaneous To Verbal instructions To Pain None TOTAL /15 Trauma Score (Modified) GCS 4 3 2 1 0 14-15 11-13 8-10 5-7 3-4 Systolic BP > 90 70 .35 >35 1-9 None Capillary Refill Resp. Rectum. Consciousness 12. Depth < 2 Seconds > 2 Seconds None TOTAL Normal Shallow / None /15 DETAILS OF ABNORMALITIES (Write the number of the system in which the abnormality was found. Sensory function 15.Are the following normal? If “No. Cardiovascular System 7.29 29 . Abdomen Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Response Obeys instructions Localises pain Withdraws from pain Decorticate (flexion) Decerebrate (extension) None Verbal Response Orientated Confused Incoherent Unintelligible sounds None Eye Opening No 9. Ear. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 27 . Throat 5.” give full details below. Pupils (PERLA) 3. Trachea. Respiratory System 8. Nose. Reflexes 16.
DETAILS OF ABNORMALITIES (Continued) Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 28 .
PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION Time and Date: PROCEDURES Peripheral IV lines Central Line Tracheal Intubation Intercostal drain Urinary catheter Nasogastric tube Ventilation Oxygen CONFIRM THAT ALL CUFFS ARE FILLED WITH WATER! MEDICATION Medication Dose / Route Time Remarks Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 29 .
IN-FLIGHT MANAGEMENT Time and Date: MEDICATION Medication Dose / Route Time Time Time Time Time Time Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 30 .
Time Date: PROCEDURES Procedure Detail Time Time / Date: PATIENT CONDITION Time O2 Sat Pulse BP RR Output GCS Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 31 .
Location: __________________ Person Taking Over Time and Date Other Team Members UN ID Name Signature Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 32 .TIMES Person Handing Over Originating Medical Facility. Location : __________________ Person Taking Over Time and Date Take off time and date from Originating Facility: Landing time and date at Destination Medical Facility: Person Handing Over Destination Medical Facility.
Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 33 .
Annex Protocols H Area specific Emergency Medical / Casualty Evacuation JUBA ED DAMAZIN MALAKAL RUMBEK WAU KADUGLI ( Sector IV) KASSALA ABYEI ( Sector VI) EL FASHER NYALA Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 34 .
Illka Laukkanen) +882-1643338517 DUNFSCO (DPKO) (JQ51. Doctor-on-call: STEP III AMREF (Kenya) STEP IV +254-20344170 1.2 AMET Team 1 1. Marcus Culley) +8821643339620 DUNFSCO (Agencies) (JS2. Saleh Mahboob) +8821643339623 Chief (JS1. +8821631145162 . Mob: 0912178337 3. Dr Collette Hounsinou + 249187082077 / 2078 callsign : JQ213 4. 0122193470 Dect 2300 2. Yashpal Singh) +88 216 542 07766 Step AND III 3. Dr Capt Syed Mohammed Shaifuddin 2. Dep. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236. FMedO: Col.UNDSS Security Ops Officer (JS3. Mob: 0912170012 2. Huque Mahfuz 2. Dr MinYu. Mathiu Kanyili +249910178770 /+249915031334 +249187082152 JQ 239 STEP III STEP III Step II • - Adam Wheeler+249912177817 Dect2067 Callsign JV 4. Mob: 0912178348.2259 Rivera Julio JQ 317 Mobile + 249910177607 +249187082082 Einar Rubach +249187082313 Aircraft Crew 2.Paul Eldred (JV4) Dect 2195 +249912177213. Cpl (MA) Md Mominul Islam 3. Juba MovCon Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 35 . Cpl (ICA) Md Younus Miah Mojumdar 1. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL JUBA Site of Mine Accident Step 1 1.Per Engstrom (JV 4. Dr Lt Col S M A Salam ( CO-JG 85) 0913043712 . +249187087448 4.DECT 2300 1. Cpl (Med A) Md Tofazzal Hossain 3. UNMAO Juba . +249187087548. +88 216 5420 8260 . Or direct . Dr. Mission Radio/Room JG Base (in priority order): Signals Officer: Maj Bhaskar Menon Sat Phone +8821658000602 Inmar Sat +870 764 626 872 / 873 +249187082059 +249187082061 +249187082125 +249187082058 +249912177847 2. Cpl (OTA) Sk Fozilat Hossain Team 2 1. Dr Maj. Juba Air Ops M.Simon Porter(JV1) Dect 2401 +249912174429.6) Dect 2195 Mobile:+249 91 23 27 378 Sat: +882 16 21 204 503 • BAN Level II Hospital Juba Call sign medical Base 2 . SO Air Ops-JQ513 (Ch32) Dect No-2570. Shan.CMO: Dr. Dr Maj Md Ershadul Kader (surg spl) 0914837678 UNMIS L 1 Clinic 3.
Selcall 260626. Dep. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536. FMedO: Col. Thu: + 88 216 211 11106. Mawiya Khairy Mob : 0912119887 Dect: 5785 Dr Patrick Nzene Mob : 0914316819 Kurmuk Pak Demining Coy Doctor on call: 0924139609 III Kassim Olukhanda 0912160223.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL ED DAMAZIN Site of Mine Accident Step 1 UNMIS L2 Clinic Damazin 1. DECT: 5765 Evan John: Mob: 0913253268 Dect: 5765 2. +88 216 5420 8263 Mob 0914312125 UNMIS L1 Clinic Kurmuk Dr. Contact UNDSS Ltc Sajid Naeem Through UNMIS Radio Room: Mob : 0915175630 Satphone: +87 076 462 6241 0922116741 STEP II Mobile: 091 217 8861 Dect : 5725 Dect: +249187085739 / 5737 5785/5767 Or through WFP Radio Room (office hours 0900 –1700hrs) Callsign NZF. +249187085737. MovCon AMREF (Kenya) +254-20344170 Aircraft Crew Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 36 . Mob: 0912170012 2.CMO: Dr. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236. Landline: +551 – 821740 Or directly UNDSS STEP • Nelly Boit: Callsign ZS513 AMET Mob: 091 858 4353 STEP III LtC Sajid Naeem • Elias Kindong Dect: 5725 / Callsign ZS513 Mob: 091 517 5630 Mob: 091 858 43 53 0922116741 2. Mob: 0912178337 3. Mob: 0912178348. STEP III 1. Dr MinYu. +249187087548. UNMIS Air Operation Room: +249187085739. Contact UNMAO: Or Richard Derieux: STEP II Major Zakir 0912177643. +8821654208241 STEP IV 1. +249915136758 Aviation Operations Officer Abraham Hunde Mob: 0914589759.
M.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL MALAKAL Site of Mine Accident Step 1 1. MovCon Joseph Girgi i/c Dect 4410 Call Sign MQ 762: Svein Axelson .CMO: Dr. Mob: 0912170012 2.V. +249187084437. Contact UNMIS Radio Room VHF Ch 31 Call sign M.M. Air Operations Ratish Kumar .Q.1 UN Dect Phone +24918708. 4.Q. 5. Dr S Bhattacharya Maj. 5 UN Dect Phone +24918708-4496 Cell +249-912-174594 Mr. +249187084445 Thuraya: +8870764181275 2. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236. +88 2165420 8266 DECT 4439 VHF =M.3. FMedO: Col. +249187087448 4.G. Mob: 0912178348.0 Hz Call sign NMG +249187084439. Luay Alqsar – RSO Call Sign . Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536. 255 UN Dect Phone +249187084489 +249912178347 Indian Level II Lt Col. +249187087548.0 Hz Call sign NMG HF Ch 70 7744.Q. Doctor-on-call: 0912170121 Aircraft Crew STEP III AMREF (Kenya) +254-20344170 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 37 . Mob: 0912178337 3.C/S MQ762 STEP II STEP II Dr William Sebit VHF Ch 31 Call sign M. Dr N Banenju 2i/c i/c UN Dect Phone +249187084443/4430 Cell +249915069468 STEP III STEP III AMET: Mr Sulung Purwouq Call sign MQ 251 Cell+249-9130313716 Dect: 4547 STEP IV 1.2i/c Dect 4483 C/S MQ 311 5. 253 Dr Myra Bobis VHF Ch 31 Call Sign M. Josaia Waqaivolavol Call Sign .Q. Malakal Security Office Mr. Dep. Mark Argent Operations Officer Call Sign Ch 31 VHF = MV 4. Dr MinYu.2 +249912501282 +8821651198115 +2491874439 DECT 4539 Steve Fantham – QA Officer 09 1250 1084.Dect # 4422 . UNMAO Mr. Base HF Ch 68 5295.4457 Cell +249-915-181045 Thuraya +88-216580-00610 3. 4.
Doctor-on-call: 0912170121 Rumbek Air Operations Rumbek Aviation Officer.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL RUMBEK Site of Accident Mission Radio Room 24/7 Callsign: Romeo Golf Base +24918708 9102 +24918708 9103 +00871763941163 Rumbek Security Officer Melknew Legesse Call Sign = WQ 555 +88216 558 000 590 +24918708 9157 Bob Andrews Call Sign = WS 512 +88 216 658 000 590 +24918708 9126 / 9160 1. Mashoum +249 187 089 146 CS=WQ 216 Nurse WQ 215 Nurse WQ 229 1. Dep.CMO: Dr. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236 0912170012 2. Mark Levack CS = WG 895. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536 0912178337 3. FMedO: Col. +24918708 9172 Air OPs Asst. UNMAO Piet Brink +88 216 215 292 42 Michael Hands +88 216 542 089 96 Robbie Roberts +88 216 542 082 44 Wau Office +24918708 5071 UN Clinic Dr Makier G. +249187087548 0912178348. +249187087448 4. John Aliandi WQ 321 +24918708 9189 / 9167 AMREF +254-20344170 Aircraft Crew Details update 03/09/2007 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 38 . Dr MinYu.
Freq 260623 Tel .+24918708 5109 / 5110 / 5000 Casevac by land UN Medical Clinic for stabilization of patients overnight Ambulance and teams available to assist if needed by medivac origination (arrival time) Request for air lift Uplift Patient return to initial medical Facility Fix winged flight to New Location for treatment Wau Air Operations room SQD Leader on Duty C/S – WG 761 / 916 / 861 Tel .+8821621529242 UNNMIS Radio Room C/S – WGB Freq – HF 7744 day channel 70 / 5295 Channel 66 VHF Channel 31 Tel . WS 51 / 511 / 513 channel 31 Mission or Channel 26 Security Tel .Mission Level2 .+24918708 AMREF +254 .WFB .+873 76709932 or +8821651126513 Or directly UNDSS Chief Security Officer Wau C/S .Chinese MO UN Mission Wau (Level 1) C/S Channel 31 WQ 223 / 224 Tel .+24918708 5150 2.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL WAU Site of Accident 1 Contact UNDSS in WAU Through: WFP Radio Room: C/S .+8821654208244 or +8821654208996 QA C/S – WV 43 channel 31 Tel .20344170 AMET – MS Rufina Rana Tel +249912177871 Casevac by air Aircraft and aircrew scrambled for airlift evacuation Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 39 . Contact UNMAO in Wau Operations C/S – WV 42 / 421 channel 31 Tel .+8821658000617 or +2491875077 / 5164 / 5118 Sector UN Medic Officer in Charge (Medical Unit and Ambulance) Level 1 .+88216558000573 or +249197085070 MO UN Mission Wau (Level 2) C/S Channel 31 WG 865 Tel – +24918708 5131 / 5150 / 5158 Duty Medical Officer C/S – Channel 31 WG MED Base Tel .
EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL KASSALA Site of Mine Accident Step 1 1. +249912178262 AMREF +254-20344170 AMET – Deckphone +249187085389 Ms. + 882 1621111103. +249912178250 Mustafa Sharif +249187087399. +249 18 70 874 48 4. Doctor-on-call: 09 121 701 21 Aviation Operations Khartoum Duty Officer: +249187086708. Selcall 260612. Mob: 0912178337 3. Dr MinYu. Mob: 091 21 78 348. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536. Dep. Mob: 0912170012 Step 2 2. Jacqueline Nyanga Mob-+249911367785 UQ221 Aircraft Crew Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 40 . +249912170130 Kevin Shelton-Smith +249187087007. and contact UNMAO Latif Matin +88 216 5107 0570.CMO: Dr. +24 991 21 70 267 Step 2 1. FMedO: Col. +249 18 708 75 48. +249912174203 Or Directly Monique Fingerg. WFP radio room: callsign NLF. Contact UN Security either directly or through WFP radio room. ASC Kassala +249912166132 2. +249918708600 Desmond Mensah-Coker +249187087009. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236.
Operations / Radio Room Call Sign: Zero Base +249187085317 or +249187085302 Step II Dect: 5318. +88 216 3114 5161 Step II Egyptian level-III Hospital 1. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236. Dr Juwan Yugusuk Ext 5316. +249187087548. Call sign UQ222 +249912179274 Step III III 1.+2491870 85427 DECT: 5426/5427 Step Call sign: Medical Base UNMIS level-1 clinic 1.CMO: Dr. Mob: 0912178337 3. Dr. Dep.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL KADUGLI (Sector IV) Site of Mine Accident Step 1 1. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536. Munisa Kadirova +249187085319/5316. Mob: 0912178348. Doctor-on-call: 0912170121 Step IV AMREF AMETs Team 1 Team 2 Jacqueline Nyanga +249911367785 +249187085389 +254-20344170 Air operations officers Van Eeder Johan Dect: 5475. MOHAMED KHALIL +249187085426. Dr. Mob: 0912170012 2. UNMAO Jan Bosman: +249912177917 +8821654208233 Suleiman Nyamwaya +249912174428. Dr MinYu. Call sign: Kadugli Airops or UQ 316 Movcon Officer: Raul Farfan Ext 5401 Call sign UQ 132 Step III Aircraft Crew Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 41 . FMedO: Col. +249911309850 3. UNMIS Security Perfecto Labaddan Callsign UQ512. +249912392173. 5317 2. +249187087448 4. Call sign UQ22 Ext 5319/5316. 2. Dr HAMADA AHMED 2.
Dr. Mob: 0912170012 2. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236. Dep. Tamer Abdel Monem 2.level 01 clinic Dr.Mjr Floyd Malasha +249187083989 1. Doctor-on-call: +249912170121 Aeromedical teams (AMTs) Team 1 1. Aircraft Crew Puma Aircrafts are ready at the air field. Dr Ahmed Sherif Nada 2. Dr Ahmed Seef 3. Nairobi.CMO: Dr. +249187087548. Nurse – Sahar Mohammed AMREF (Flying Doctors. FMedO: Col. Freeman Katuta +249187085475/5445. Kenya).Alex C George +249187083939 Call sign VQ 223 TCC ZAM . Rehem Team 2 1.Omer Hammam +249187083979 Call sign : VQ 215 Thuraya : 00882168000570 Dr. Mob: 0912178337 3. Driver – Abdel Aziz A. +249187085401/5476 Call sign – UQ312 UN LEVEL I CLINIC Dr. Maj. Timo Karhunen (OIC Movcon). +249187087448 4.Call sign: Kadugli Airops or UQ 856 Movcon Officer: 1. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 42 .EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL ABYEI (SECTOR VI) Site of Mine Accident Step 1 UN Security VG base/ 3902/3901 AFSCO: 3984/ VQ 51 Security Officer : VQ 511/ 3977 Air operations officers 1. Call sign: Kadugli Airops or UQ 316 2. Dr MinYu. Nurse – Diana Abdel Fattah 4. Mob: 0912178348. Nurse – Rabee Rashad 7. Nurse – Alyaa Shehatta 5. Van Eeder Johan +249187085475. Nurse – Mohammed Al Said 6. Dr Ahmed Mostafa 3. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536.
1 +249 9121 60421. Manazil Mohammed Mob No .091282706 Call Sign .CMO: Dr. Doctor-on-call: +249912170121 John Raddatz +88216 5200 2989. +249912173346. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536. +249 912174801. Dr MinYu.+ 8821658000625 Call Sign – FQ 18.104.22.168.1 Nurse Fatima Hamouda Mob No . Sel call: 1906.FQ 2. Mob: 0912170012 2. INMARSAT: + 873763709948 Thuraya: +8821651194889 Mobile: 0912177956 Or Directly Willie Harrison Callsign RS1.+8821651191909 Cheikh Diouf callsign FS.2 Nurse Ms. Mob: 0912178337 3.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL EL FASHER Site of Mine Accident 1. +249187087448 4.0918205024 Call Sign . CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236. Contact UNDSS Radio Room: UNDSS Radio Room: Call sign NFS.FQ 2.4 1. Dep. Mob: 0912178348. 1 MI8 AMT and 1 MI8 MTV (long range) AMREF +254-20344170 Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 43 . +8821651192602 1. FMedO: Col. +249187087548. +249912177634 Aviation Operations Officer +249912177604. AND contact UNMAO Phillip Rowe Mob: +249912167221 Sat: +88 21631100182 Dr Yasir Korak Mob No – 0912174568 Thuraya . 2 MI8T . +249912396612 Aircraft Crew Puma with paramedic and night landing capability.
+249187087548. Dawaha Salih 0912179751 Dect 192-3457 Dr Gerry Caberera 0912365109 Dect 192-4029 Duty Sat +8821654207810 Step 2 1. FMedO: Col. Dep. Doctor-on-call: 0912170121 MOVCON Oliver Nyang 0912396589 AIR OPS Abobaker Mohamed Tel:0912177604 AMREF +254-20344170 Aircraft Crew Puma Aircrafts are ready at the air field. Mob: 0912170012 2.EMERGENCY MEDICAL / CASUALTY EVACUATION PROTOCOL NYALA Site of Mine Accident Operation Room +249912177957 RadioRoom:ext: 3409 Call sign: November Sierra Base +8821651194890 +873764100584 UNDSS Nyala +249912167703 AND contact UNMAO Phillip Rowe Mob: +249912167221 Sat: +88 21631100182 Step 2 Dr. Roberts Onebunne (in the absence of the CMO): +249187087536. Sudan Mine Action Medical Evacuation Plan Version: September 2007 44 . Mob: 0912178348. CMO: Dr Teferi Tafesse +249187086236.CMO: Dr. +249187087448 4. Mob: 0912178337 3. Dr MinYu.
UNRMAO. Local Network: This network provides a link on task-sites between team leaders. GENERAL 1. medical assistants and other radio users at task-sites. b. c.1 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS In ideal circumstance the communication systems are: National Network Primary System n/a Emergency Back-up Emergency Back-up Regional Network Primary System Secondary System Emergency Back-up Emergency Back-up Local Network n/a Primary System Emergency Back-up Emergency Back-up Remarks System HF Radio VHF Radio Satellite Phone Mobile Phone (The use of these is also restricted by the network coverage which The use of these systems is limited in so much as they only allow one-on-one communication and rely on the individual receiving the call being available and as such Page 1 of 4 NSTG Part 1.4 Communications are to be manned during all operational activities and should also cover the travel periods to. 3.1 Mine action organisations shall ensure that an effective communications network is in place prior to and throughout all humanitarian demining operations. 3. 1. 1. and in between the sites. sub-team leaders. Version 1 . UNRMAO sub-offices and all mine/UXO clearance organisations. from.1 COMMUNICATION NETWORK 3 different levels of communications are operated to co-ordinate and control operations: a.3 Mine action organisations are to clearly define in their SOP the details of their communications plan. Regional Network: This network provides a mine action/Joint Military Commission (JMC)/UNMIS. clearance teams.Chapter 11 COMMUNICATIONS 1. National Network: This is the operational network between the UNMAO. 1. Edition 9. 2. 2.2 Humanitarian demining operations shall not be undertaken without suitable and effective communications between the personnel on site and the relevant support elements. frequency that will enable all mine action organisations to communicate with each other.
checked and if relevant confirmed prior to organisations sub-units departing from bases. Communications equipments are to be checked for serviceability on a daily basis prior to operations commencing. 4. all supervisory personnel physically supervising the work. e.1 Frequencies are issued upon request to the Sudanese government. reports and returns and other nonemergency and/or routine communication throughout the network. where applicable. c. A current list of frequencies for each region/location is available on request from the UNRMAO. Page 2 of 4 NSTG Part 1. This ensures organisation do not cause conflict with national security channels.Chapter 11 is generally only available in and around the principal regional towns). should only be used in the context of a ‘national or regional communication system’ when the primary and/or secondary systems have failed. Dect Phone Email 4. FREQUENCIES & CALL-SIGNS 4. If communications at any level cannot be established and safety is to any degree compromised then work shall not start or shall cease until the situation is rectified or resolved. A desk top national telephone system between UN agencies. 5. ambulance/safety vehicle drivers and. individual mechanical operators and other radio users prior to work commencing.2 UNRMAO will coordinate the allocation of calls-signs for mine action organisations. Communications are to be manned. The following general requirements shall be implemented by mine action organisations: a. all medics. Mine action organisations are to have primary and secondary communication systems established and functioning between the operational site and base camp and/or UNRMAO before any work commences. d.1 It is the responsibility of the mine action organisation to ensure that a suitable and sufficient communication system in place to control the on-going operations and that meets all the necessary requirements to ensure safe and effective operations. b. Edition 9. The recognised communication system used for sending text messages. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 5. Communications are also to be confirmed internally between the demining worksite supervisors. Version 1 .
Use the call-sign letters provided by the UNRMAO. The network should be closed either on arrival at base or once all end of day operations have ceased. 7. l. On completion of all operations for the day. a. Mine action organisations are to be aware of other organisations/agencies whereabouts within the region and are to be familiar with their frequencies. h. n. reliable and suitable system and implement its use as the primary means and supplemented by a suitable back-up system) k. A communications log of key (important) communications traffic is to be maintained at the task site Control Point. Mine action organisations are to ensure that operational locations shall have continuous effective communications with all other relevant organisations.1 The following general principles are to be implemented to establish a reliable communications network. p. the operator is to have radio communications with the demining worksite supervisor. i.Chapter 11 f. Details of the mine action organisations communications systems are to be included in Implementation Plans. GENERAL PRINCIPALS 6. clarity and brevity by users during radio transmissions. This as a minimum should include the following (to include all equipments likely to be used): Page 3 of 4 NSTG Part 1. TRAINING 7. where relevant.1 Mine action organisations are to ensure that a suitable and sufficient communications introductory and regular refresher training programme is imparted to all its personnel. Communications shall be appropriately tested at least once every hour. At all times when a mechanical asset is working in a hazardous area. The UNRMAO is to be informed of the net closing down. and call-signs. discipline. m. o. If no such call-sign has been assigned then the UNRMAO should be contacted for provision of a call-sign. b. Edition 9. teams are to advise their higher echelon HQ that work is finished and if relevant that they are returning to base. Version 1 . channels. Mine action organisations are to ensure that their assets deploy with suitable and sufficient communication equipment and that. Use of voice procedure. National and/or Regional communications systems will be established using HF radio sets and/or satellite phones (mine action organisations shall make an assessment of the most effective. On-site communications will be established using VHF hand held radio sets. j. g. UNRMAO call-signs have been allocated. 6.
Communication systems. radios are to be switched off before doing so. Edition 9. At no times are deminers to carry radios or mobile phones into a hazardous area. vehicles with radios mounted are to remain at least 160m outside the boundary of any uncleared hazardous area. General voice procedure (to include the phonetic alphabet) e.Chapter 11 a. Sending/answering messages f. Daily routine communication requirement. b. responsibilities and routine h. ORGANISATION SOP 8. including channels to be used. Accident reporting procedures. During all operations where the hazard is thought to include electrically initiated UXO. g. Overall communications system (net diagram) to include details of the systems for all possible operations b. primary and secondary. Refresher training requirements. The requirement to use correct procedures and guidelines for its use. Types of radios held by each net station. Accident/incident reporting h. If vehicles have to move inside this distance. What to do in the event of an emergency if primary communication systems fail 8. Page 4 of 4 NSTG Part 1. Version 1 . Recording and/or logging sent/received messages g. 9. 9. h.1 The minimum communication procedures to be included in mine action organisations’ SOPs are: a. f. d. c. Turning on/off of equipment c. Tuning in to required stations and/or frequencies and changing of stations and/or frequencies d. Basic maintenance and serviceability checks b.1 RESTRICTIONS The following shall be implemented and adhered to by mine action organisations: a. Hand held communication equipment is to be turned off within 25m of electrically initiated UXO or any unidentified UXO. This may be in the form of a net diagram. e. The carriage of radios and/or mobile phones into hazardous areas is restricted to team leaders and/or supervisors. Network station allocation by teams and call sign. c. Operational and specific-to-operation communication requirements.
Edition 9. Part 1. Version 1 .ANNEX A to Chapter 11 National/Regional Communications Plan Page 1 of 1 NTSG.
2. load and unload dangerous material into vehicles or storage under supervision of a qualified person. all types of igniters.3 When used within this chapter. transportation and handling of explosives and where applicable and/or appropriate for ammunition. The detail within this Chapter also applies throughout to the safe handling. transportation and storage of ammunition. TRANSPORTATION & HANDLING OF EXPLOSIVES 1. 2. detonators. temporarily or permanent must be recorded in a log book showing the amount of explosives transported or stored and the amount of explosives being used. for purposes of brevity these terms are not used again and the term explosives whilst being specific also applies to these natures when appropriate. UXO. 1. adhered to and implemented by mine action organisations. ordnance. provided they are verbally briefed on safety measures prior to handling explosives.1 All persons charged with. 1. 2.4 These specifications and guidelines do not exclude application of future national rules and regulations concerning storage.2 Whenever and/or wherever possible and/or practicable. are to be suitably qualified and experienced and are to be familiar with the details and guidelines of this chapter. transportation and/or handling explosives are to be in good health. detonating cord. Version 1 1 . responsible for or involved in the storage. Part 1. 2.3 Persons not qualified to store.2 Persons responsible in whatever capacity for the storage. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF RESPONSIBLE PERSONS 2. transportation and handling of explosives are to have received appropriate training.Chapter 12 STORAGE. these specifications and guidelines are to be followed. Edition 9. safety-fuse. INTRODUCTION 1. ordnance and UXO. transport or handle explosives may carry. ammunition. 1. However. transporting and handling explosives.4 All transportation and storage of explosives. the term explosives refers to all items of an explosive nature including but not restricted to bulk explosives. Page 1 of 12 NTSG.1 This chapter provides details of the minimum specifications and guidelines for the safe storage. ordnance and UXO1.
b. Edition 9. c. 3. 3. weather resistant and ventilated.1 The environmental requirements (temperature. The magazine should be constructed of steel with an interior lining of timber. and are dependent on their intended storage conditions (including shelf life).3 In general. Version 1 . A day box is used for the on-site storage of explosives required for daily mine/UXO clearance operations. e. (2) Wherever possible or practical it should be of steel construction but can be wooden boxes or other appropriate containers. All storage facilities require adequate ventilation to prevent dampening and heating of stored explosives.\ (3) They shall contain no more than 10 kg of explosives and or (including) appropriate quantity of initiating means to fire the given quantity of explosives. humidity and vibration) of explosives vary. size of magazine and location will determine the amount of ventilation required. handling and use. transportation. It shall be: (1) Weather resistant and able to be locked. c.Chapter 12 2. Part 1. 4. Consideration should be given to ground and local features during the design and siting of such structures. Protected from direct sunlight d. Page 2 of 12 NTSG. b. Kept dry and well ventilated. In summary: a. d. fire-resistant and weather-resistant.1 Storage Design: If mine action organisations construct their own explosive stores than the general requirements for the design of magazines and containers used for the storage and transport of explosives given in IMAS 10.5 A person responsible and accountable for the storage. theft resistant. Kept free from excessive and constant vibration. such as a skid-mounted container. trailer or semi-trailer shall be theft-resistant. Kept as cool as possible and free from excessive or frequent changes of temperature. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 3. Magazines of less than one cubic metre in size should be fixed to the ground to prevent theft of the entire magazine. 3. transportation and handling of explosives must always be appointed by mine action organisations. Climatic conditions. Portable storage facilities. explosives should be: a. Permanent and/or main storage facilities shall be fire-resistant. STORAGE REQUIREMENTS 4.50 are to be applied. No indoor storage facility shall be located in a residence or dwelling or office building.2 The performance of explosives will be unpredictable and the safety will be reduced if the manufacturers' environmental conditions are not met.
f. Electric detonators should be stored and carried in closed metal containers to shield them from EED’s (Electro Explosive Devices). Part 1.5 metres. Edition 9. 4. In all circumstances. e. The person holding the torch will not handle explosives or detonators or blasting caps. c. Detonators carried shall not be carried lose within the detonator box but are to be packaged. Materials used for packaging explosives are to be destroyed and not discarded after use. l. The space between the top of the boxes and the ceiling will not be less than 600mm. where possible explosives shall be stored in their original packaging. b. and 500mm away from the walls of the room. blocked or allow water to penetrate. on wooden pallets. Vehicles are not to be left loaded with explosives at any time unless they are under continuous security guard and are not to be used as overnight storage facilities. h. Blasting caps and electric detonators may be stacked only if packed in boxes and on wooden shelves maximum two layers on a shelf. k. j. d. Permanent and/or main storage facilities are to be fitted with lightning conductors.2 Storing Explosives: The following are the minimum general rules and guidelines for the storage of explosives a. When boxes are stacked the height will not exceed 1. i.4 metres. They are also to provide physical protection of the facility. When stacking boxes the width of the base is to be bigger than the height of stacked boxes. When stacked on shelves boxes are to be at least 100mm away from the upper shelf. f. Fire extinguishers shall be available in storage facility.Chapter 12 (4) Detonators and/or other means of initiation are to be stored and carried in a separate box from explosives. If portable lanterns or pocket torches of any description are required they will be switched on before entering the store. g. Page 3 of 12 NTSG. It may also be used to store detonators in when at the mine/UXO clearance worksite. All boxes are to be placed at least 100mm above the floor.g. h. Version 1 . Mine action organisations are responsible for maintaining storage facilities and a protection zone around it according to the prescribed technical norms. A detonator box shall be metal or wooden. Permanent and/or main storage facilities are to have separate rooms or a substantial barrier for separating explosives and detonators/blasting caps. Permanent and/or main storage facilities are to have ventilation. installed in such a way that it cannot be closed. e. Total height of stacked boxes will not exceed 1. g.
(4) That the driver and drivers assistant are aware of all actions to be taken covering all possible eventualities during the journey i. (3) That a route card is prepared covering the complete journey. i. equipment of items and should at all times be kept as clean and tidy as is practicable. 6. and any object or item that might cause fire are prohibited from the storage facility. Page 4 of 12 NTSG. h. storage. breakdown. matches. It should be kept free from any other tools. The storage facility is not to be used for anything other than storing explosives. Facilities are to be constructed in such a way as to provide protection from static electricity. Persons responsible for the transportation of explosives are to ensure: (1) That suitable communications systems are available that will allow for communication from the vehicle to the organisation throughout the complete journey. g. including cigarettes. REQUIREMENTS EXPLOSIVES WHEN PREPARING TO TRANSPORT 6. lighters etc. (2) That an appropriate communication plan (covering as a minimum a radio check prior to leaving the start location and informing on arrival at destination) is in place for the journey.1 The following is to implemented and/or adhered to when preparing to transport explosives by vehicle: a. all explosives and explosive accessories are to be removed before repairs are started. Version 1 . A trained and qualified person is to be responsible for managing the receipt. All smoking materials. f. robbery.1 These following shall be implemented and adhered to by mine action organisations: a. In the event that the facility repair. At the entrance to the facility there is to be a warning sign stating NO SMOKING OR SMOKING MATERIALS ALLOWED BEYOND THIS POINT.e. Only authorised persons are to enter the any storage facility and where appropriate and relevant are to be escorted at all times. etc. ADDITIONAL SAFETY MEASURES FOR STORING AND HANDLING OF EXPLOSIVES 5. d.Chapter 12 5. Part 1. If thunderstorms are predicted all work in and around the facility is to stop and personnel are to go to a safe place. accident. The facility is to secured at all times except when it is being ventilated when it should be guarded. guarding and issuing explosives at all levels b. Shoes are to be manufactured in such a manner as not to cause sparks. e. c. Clothing and shoes of all workers in a warehouse are to be in accordance with rules on storage of explosives. Edition 9.
Part 1. d. f. Boxes containing detonators are to be carried in a separate compartment of the vehicle from boxes containing explosives. one for the vehicle engine and one for the load. The vehicle is marked appropriately. then the distance between vehicles is to be a minimum of 100 metres. Edition 9. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES ARE DETONATORS TO BE CARRIED IN THE SAME BOX AS EXPLOSIVES. Version 1 . The type and quantity of explosives and conditions of roads to be travelled on are to be considered when deciding the type of vehicle to be used. (2) Two hand-torches. a. well maintained. g. Persons in charge of the transport of explosives will check the following prior to any movement of vehicles carrying explosives. and can be loaded up to the height of the sides of the truck. c. Boxes are to be closed and made waterproof in order to prevent any loss or spilling and moisture ingress during transport. (3) Two warning triangles for marking the vehicle when stationary on the road. Boxes. Explosives will not be transported unless securely packed in appropriate boxes. Boxes or individual packages are to have specific identification marks on them. The driver and driver’s assistant are briefed about the type of explosives to be transported as well as their destination and the route they are to take. REQUIREMENTS OF VEHICLES TRANSPORT OF EXPLOSIVES USED FOR THE 7. f. b. All vehicles that are employed for the transport of explosives should also carry the following equipment: (1) At least two appropriate fire extinguishers. pallets and other packaging for transport of explosives are to be evenly distributed over the whole deck area. Each box is to be marked with the applicable hazardous classification code. All individual packaging and boxes with explosives are to be loaded and fixed to prevent spillage from boxes and turning over or impact inside boxes. If the vehicle is not a covered vehicle.Chapter 12 b. boxes are to be covered with a waterproof cover. If vehicles carrying explosives are travelling in convoy. Page 5 of 12 NTSG. c. e.1 Vehicles employed to transport explosives are to be roadworthy. Vehicles transporting explosives shall be fitted with an earthing-strap to take away static electricity from the vehicle to the ground. e. 7. extinguishers are to be charged with a content that will efficiently extinguish an explosives fire. Detonators and explosives are to be loaded on to the vehicle in such a way that they do not move about during transportation. Detonators are to be securely packed in a separate metal box from explosives. d. and in good working order.
9. Part 1. No material that may cause a fire may be carried in vehicles transporting explosives. the crew is to immediately inform their organisation’s headquarters. e. Signs and lamps are placed a minimum of 50 metres behind the vehicle so that they are visible to other drivers from a distance of at least 150 metres from the stationary vehicle. 8. 8. and suggest the necessary action required of the police.Chapter 12 8.2 In case of an accident. Place warning triangles to the front and to the rear of the vehicle to indicate the vehicle is stationary on the road. b. c. At night use lights to warn other vehicles using the same carriageway as the stopped vehicle. Inform the closest local police station. b. Prevent the approach of bystanders and warn them of the danger. d.1 In case of an accident that does not allow for the transport to continue.4 When investigating officials arrive. 8. the crew should carry out the following: a. No smoking is allowed in the driver’s cabin or any other part of the vehicle. ensuring traffic slows down. stops or overtakes safely. b. c. PROCEDURES IN CASE OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT 8. d.1 The following are additional safety measures for the transport of explosives: a. Page 6 of 12 NTSG. No passengers are to be carried in vehicles transporting explosives. Vehicle crews are to consist only of a driver and a driver’s assistant. Extinguish any fires on or in the vehicle. inform them of the content and potential danger the cargo could pose to people. the duties of the driver and drivers assistant are to: a.3 After suitably marking the vehicle. property and environment. Take necessary measures to prevent any danger to other vehicles or people in the area. No repairs that might cause fire by sparking due to impact or violent contact may be carried out. Prevent spillage of explosives. and before any officials arrive to make an investigation. Edition 9. ADDITIONAL SAFETY MEASURES WHEN TRANSPORTING EXPOLOSIVES 9. d. Version 1 . This is to apply both night and day. c. In daytime the driver should send his assistant a distance of 100 metres with a flag to warn oncoming traffic. Remove from the vehicle all documentation relating to the transport of explosives.
A table detailing the Quantity (Safety) Distances that are to be used when licensing Explosive Storage Facilities are detailed at Annex B to this Chapter. If the explosives are stolen. Ammunition Compatibility Groups: Ammunition and explosives have been grouped into twelve Compatibility Groups (CGs) A to H. (1) Group A . and that the explosives is packed and loaded separately from the detonators.Ammunition containing secondary detonating explosive. the organisation or persons transporting the explosives are to take measures to find it and to report the incident to the person in charge of the transport and also inform the local authorities and the UNRMAO. and 100 detonators. The vehicle is not to be left unattended. Full details of the licensing procedures are detailed at Annex A to this Chapter. (6) Group F . (3) Group C . This will only be allowed provided that the detonators are in their originally packed boxes. with its own means of initiation. or ammunition containing both an explosive and an illuminating.50. in each case without its own means of initiation and without a propulsive charge. Group I is omitted to avoid possible confusion between the letter I and the Roman numeral 1. (2) Group B .Secondary detonating explosive or black powder or ammunition containing secondary detonating explosive. 10. without its own means of initiation. Part 1. or ammunition containing pyrotechnic substance.Primary explosive. (4) Group D . h. Page 7 of 12 NTSG. g.2 When storing explosives the following applies: a.Chapter 12 e. The driver will drive with care and at an appropriate speed for the roads and conditions which in all cases shall never exceed 70 KPH or 80% of the highest speed determined for the road whichever is less. L and S. f. incendiary.1 Those storage facilities under the control of UNMAO will be licensed to store explosives in accordance with IMAS 10. (5) Group E . K.Pyrotechnic substance. explosive or other secondary deflagrating explosive or ammunition containing such explosive. Explosives and the means to initiate explosives may be transported together only when the quantity of explosives does not exceed 50 kg. Group S is given a distinctive letter since it corresponds to a unique possibility for mixing in storage and transport. (8) Group H .Ammunition containing secondary detonating explosive. phosphide or flammable liquid or gel). 10. J.Propellant.Ammunition containing both an explosive and WP. with a propulsive charge. (7) Group G . Edition 9. SAFE STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES 10. with or without a propulsive charge. Definitions of compatibility groupings are.Ammunition containing primary explosive. lachrymatory or smoke producing substance (other than a water-activated article or one containing WP. Version 1 .
OTHERWISE. provided they are adequately segregated. WARNING: Compatibility group F CAN are stored in the same magazine as C. (11) Group L . 3 (b) Compatibility group C no no yes yes yes no yes no no no no yes D no no yes yes yes no yes no no no no yes E no no yes yes yes no yes no no no no yes F2 no no no no no yes no no no no no yes G no no yes yes yes no yes no no no no yes H no no no no no no no yes no no no yes J no no no no no no no no yes no no yes K no no no no no no no no no yes no no L no no no no no no no no no no yes no S no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no yes A B C D E F G H J K L S no yes no no no no no no no no no yes WARNING: Detonators may be stored or transported with other materials. CG L applies. WARNING: Fuses in B with D or E of which fuses are components. WARNING: CG D applies only when secondary detonating explosive (high explosive) or black powder is properly packed in a dust-tight container. Compatibility groups which may be stored together: A yes no no no no no no no no no no no B1. WARNING: CG D or E may apply to ammunition that is fused or packed together with fuses.Ammunition so packaged or designed that any explosive effect during storage or transport is confined within the package except when an external fire has degraded the packaging.Ammunition containing explosive and presenting a special risk needing isolation of each type. Otherwise it MUST be stored separately. WARNING: Compatibility Group G MUST be stored in its standard service packaging for it to be allowed to be stored with C. but it must be well segregated and the entire quantity must be considered as Compatibility Group F. The load is treated as Compatibility Group F. electric squibs.Ammunition containing both an explosive and a flammable liquid or gel.50.Ammunition containing both an explosive and a toxic chemical agent. Part 1. or igniter cord and as specified in IMAS 10. WARNING: CG F does not necessarily apply to ammunition that is fused or packed together with fuses. (12) Group S . WARNING: Exception: Detonators that are not mass detonating may be stored with safety fuse. Version 1 . Edition 9.Chapter 12 (9) Group J . igniters. D and E. (10) Group K . D or E. Page 8 of 12 NTSG.
stored and accounted for accurately. 11. Avoid accidents. Avoid incidents of mistaken identification leading to unnecessary clearance operations or render safe procedures. instructional or replica items shall be carried out by appropriately qualified and authorised EOD personnel. Ensure that drill and inert mines and ammunition are not subjected to unnecessary damage. DRILL.3 The storage specifications provided in these Guidelines are specifications that apply to the storage of explosives normally used for the destruction of UXO hazards. Part 1. These should be used as the first choice. 11. b. INSTRUCTIONAL OR REPLICA MINE AND AMMUNITION 11. Such operations should only be carried out by a Level 4 EOD technician. d. Version 1 . INERT.Chapter 12 10.2 Modification: All authorised breakdown or modification of live mines and ammunition into inert. Edition 9. drill. WARNING: Drill and replica mines and ammunition are readily available on the commercial market. which can be expensive. drill. As such operations carry a high degree of inherent risk. in order to: a. Page 9 of 12 NTSG.1 General: Inert. Ensure the security of drill and inert mines and ammunition. instructional or replicas of mines and ammunition shall be handled. Locally manufactured drill and instructional mines and ammunition should only be used as a last resort. c. Demining organisations shall not indulge in the production of Free From Explosives (FFE) ammunition and explosives as souvenirs. the authorisation for such activities shall be the responsibility of the senior in-country representative of the mine action organisation. either obtained direct from the original manufacturer or specifically made for the purpose. EOD Units should not presume that these specifications are safe for the storage of munitions awaiting EOD procedures for destruction in a central disposal site or other requirements. They are made up from empty components.
which shall be clearly marked INERT or DRILL in English and Arabic. which shall be clearly marked INERT or DRILL in English and Arabic. training or other non-live/FFE items: a. and have been certified as FFE. drill. but it is accepted that local circumstances may not allow for this. b.3 Storage: The following applies when storing inert. instructional and other replicas of mines and ammunition shall not be stored in the same containers as live ammunition. Inert. All shall be clearly marked on all sides as either ‘INERT’ or ‘DRILL’ as appropriate in English and Arabic. shall be stored in the same manner as drill and inert ammunition. then it shall be treated as live.4 Movement: The following applies when moving and/or transporting inert. They shall be stored in a separate container. Edition 9. and technical demining or EOD advice shall be immediately requested. All shall also be marked with a unique serial number. All other markings shall be eradicated from the container to ensure that there is no possibility that it could mistakenly be identified as containing live ammunition. 11. Part 1. Version 1 . All other markings shall be eradicated from the container to ensure that there is no possibility that it could be mistakenly identified as containing live ammunition. training or other nonlive/FFE items: a. training or other nonlive/FFE items: a. Inert.Chapter 12 11. The following also applies: Page 10 of 12 NTSG. Inert.5 Marking: The following applies when marking inert. b. Mines and ammunition that have been subjected to render safe procedures. 11. instructional and other replicas of mines and ammunition shall not be stored with live ammunition. This unique serial number should be in the following format: 11. b. drill. They shall be stored in a separate location. drill. This ensures that they can be clearly identified from all angles.6 Safety: If an individual is in any doubt as to the explosive status of a mine or item of ordnance. drill. It is recommended that inert. They shall be moved in a separate container. instructional and other replicas of mines and ammunition are not moved on the same vehicle as live ammunition wherever possible. instructional and inert replicas of mines and ammunition shall not be moved in the same containers as live ammunition. c. and therefore do not inadvertently or accidentally become the focus of a clearance operation or render safe procedure.
instructional or replica items shall be developed by appropriately qualified EOD personnel. 12. hazard division. b.2 The mine action organisation shall operate an appropriate accounting system to ensure accountability and traceability for all inert. hazard compatibility code. Date Name of inspecting EOD technician Brief description of item An FFE certification statement 13.4 The following is a recommended statement and should be written in English and Arabic: Page 11 of 12 NTSG. 13. pyrotechnic. REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNTING FOR INERT OR DRILL MINES AND AMMUNITION 12. 13. that refer to the previous live condition of the item have been removed or obliterated. d. FFE 12. b. 13. Unique serial number. chemical. This certificate shall contain the following information: a. d.1 All inert. c. e. modification or disposal in accordance with the appropriate technical procedures. UN symbols etc). Technical procedures for the breakdown or modification of live mines and ammunition into inert. biological or other toxic components or substances. previous serial numbers. Mine action organisations should not breakdown.Chapter 12 a. Part 1. instructional or replica mines and ammunition shall be visually inspected and physically examined by an appropriately qualified EOD technician to ensure that the item contains no explosive. drill. (designation. lachrymatory. FREE FROM EXPLOSIVE (FFE) CERTIFICATE 13.3 The EOD technician shall then issue a FFE certificate for the item. modify or tamper with mines and ammunition. drill.2 The EOD technician shall also ensure that all ammunition markings. Version 1 . instructional or other replica mines and ammunition that it has responsibility for. instructional or replica mines and ammunition in its possession. unless it is done in the course of inspection. drill.1 The demining organisation shall maintain a master register of all inert. c. This register shall include the following information: a. drill. Edition 9. b. Serial number Type of mine/UXO Current location. It is recommended that this is based on their live ammunition accounting system. radioactive.
Edition 9. biological or other toxic components or substances. lachrymatory. Version 1 . radioactive. chemical. Signature of inspecting EOD technician. Part 1. I also certify that I have ensured that all previous ammunition markings have been removed and that the item as been remarked as either DRILL and/or INERT. display or instructional purposes. I am satisfied that it is safe to use for drill. Page 12 of 12 NTSG.Chapter 12 I certify that I have visually inspected and physically examined the item referred to on this FFE certificate and confirm that this item contains no explosive. 13.5 The demining organisation shall maintain a register of all FFE certificates issued. pyrotechnic.
To minimise this hazard. b. facility or place of assembly that is hazarded by a PES is considered to be an Exposed Site (ES). Version 1 .2 Any building that contains. Inhabited Buildings Distance Public Traffic Route Distances Inter-magazine Distances. inhabited buildings and other civilian property. facilities are to be sited at prescribed distances from other buildings and facilities. b. 3. The factors that affect a Quantity (Safety) Distance are: a. c. distances are to be measured along a straight line without regard to barricades.1 Inhabited Buildings Distances: These distances are the minimum permissible distances between a PES and inhabited buildings or assembly areas. d. 1. The distances are intended to prevent serious structural damage by flame.1 In the event of an explosive accident or incident within an explosive storage facility. would not suffer direct injury from the blast itself.2 Hazard Divisions NEQ at the PES PES and ES building Construction Effective Barricades around PES The functional use of the ES The 3 main governing Quantity (Safety) Distances that concern us are: a. Quantity (Safety) Distances 2. Personnel in the open. e. 2. is considered to be a Potential Explosion Site (PES). Introduction 1.1 Quantity (Safety) Distances are measured from the nearest point of the PES to the nearest point of the ES. thereby making consequential death or serious injury to their occupants unlikely. SAFETY DISTANCES 3. adjacent storage sites. or is intended to contain explosives. blast or projections to ordinary types of inhabited buildings. Part 1. 2. Page 1 of 2 NTSG. 1. any building. Edition 9. for example on playing fields. These distances are known as Quantity (Safety) Distances and they limit the permissible Net Explosive Quantity (NEQ). which may be stored. structure.ANNEX A to Chapter 12 THE EXPLOSIVE LICENCING OF EXPLOSIVE STORAGE FACILITIES. c. there is a potential hazard to personnel.
Full details on the proposed Explosive Storage Facility. 4. this will be considered on a case by case basis but if considered acceptable. railways and navigable waterways. It also details those ES’s that have been taken into consideration when actually calculating the NEQ and what the limiting factor ES actually was. the use of the full inhabited Public Traffic Route is to be used for traffic volume exceeding 3. Part 1. including a map of the general area.g.2 Public Traffic Route Distances: These distances are the minimum permissible distances between a PES and Public Traffic Routes. but the degree of protection is highly dependant upon factors such as the sensitiveness of explosives. The following applies: a. all relevant information must still have to be annotated on the ELL Appendix 1 to this Annex details an example ELL. a schematic diagram of the area detailing both the PES and ES and the actual licence itself are to be forwarded to the National QA Officer for acceptance and approval.000 vehicles per day and the reduced Public Traffic Route Distance is to be used for traffic volume below 3. There may be some locations where some ES are deemed as being acceptable risks e. mine clearance organisations base locations etc. Version 1 . The Term Public Traffic Route covers roads.ANNEX A to Chapter 12 3.2 ELL Approval: Regional and Sub-office QA Officers are required to draft ELL’s for both UNMAO and mine action organisations explosive storage facilities within their area of responsibility. Edition 9. 3. the type of ammunition. LICENCING 4. b. Since the risks presented by Public Traffic Routes are so diverse. the type of packaging and the type and construction of the building at the PES or the ES or both. These Distances are intended to provide specified degrees of protection to the explosives at the ES. On acceptance by the National QA Officer and on approval by the UNMAO Director a serial number will be annotated. 4.3 Inter-magazine Distances: These distances are the minimum permissible distances between a PES and other Explosive Storage Facilities.000 vehicles per day. Page 2 of 2 NTSG. UNMAO Offices.1 Explosive Limit Licences (ELL): An ELL is a formal document that outlines the maximum permissible NEQ that any given Explosive Storage Facility can store. two basic alternatives are provided dependant upon the volume of traffic over a period of one day.
Edition 9.Appendix 1 to Annex A to Chapter 12 EXAMPLE EXPLOSIVE LIMIT LICENCE SCHOOL NASSER VILLAGE TRACK 145M 130M EXPLOSIVE STORE BARRICADE RIVER 65M 186M UNMIS OFFICES UNAMO OFFICE Page 1 of 2 NTSG. Version 1 . Part 1.
Version 1 . Edition 9.50 Annex E. Part 1. 4. The UNMAO and access road has not been included in the NEQ calculation they are deemed to be an “Acceptable Risk”. The ELL will be reviewed after a period of 12 months. The river has not been included in the NEQ calculation as it is not a navigable waterway.000 vehicles traffic the road per day.50.50. 6. Less than 3. A copy of this licence and associated diagram is to be displayed at the Explosive Storage Facility. 5. The storage of ammunition and explosives within the facility will be in full accordance of NTSG and IMAS 10. the maximum permissible NEQ is therefore 136 KGS. 7.Appendix 1 to Annex A to Chapter 12 EXPLOSIVE LIMIT LICENCE FOR UNMAO NASSER EXPLOSIVE STORAGE FACILITY ELL Serial SS005/2006 ELL Date 27/03/06 INHABITED BUILDINGS DISTANCE FACTOR (M) PERMITTED NEQ (KG) VILLAGE 130 M 136 KGS SCHOOL 145 M 182 KGS UNMIS OFFICES 186 M 454 KGS PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE DISTANCE FACTOR (M) PERMITTED NEQ (KG) ROAD 65 M 272 KGS INTER-MAGAZINE DISTANCE FACTOR (M) PERMITTED NEQ (KG) NA PES PES PES ANOK Village is the Limiting Factor. 2. 3. The Explosive Storage Facility is deemed to be adequately barricaded in accordance with IMAS 10. 8. NOTES 1. SIGNED AS ACCEPTED National QA Officer UNMAO Khartoum Sudan SIGNED AS APPROVED Director UNMAO Khartoum SUDAN Page 2 of 2 NTSG. Fire Prevention Procedures are to be in accordance with IMAS 10.
Version 1 . Part 1. Edition 9.ANNEX B to Chapter 12 QUANTITY (SAFETY) DISTANCES FOR EXPLOSIVE STORAGE FACILITIES NEQ (KG) OVER LESS THAN INHABITED BUILDINGS DISTANCE (M) BARRICADED DISTANCE (M) PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE VOLUME LESS THAN 3000 VEH/DAY MORE THAN 3000 VEH/DAY UNBARRICADED BARRICADED UNBARRICADED INTER-MAGAZINE DISTANCE (M) BARRICADED UNBARRICADED UNBARRICADED BARRICADED 0 2 5 9 14 18 23 34 45 57 68 91 114 136 182 227 272 318 363 409 454 545 636 726 817 908 1135 1362 1816 2 5 9 14 18 23 34 45 57 68 91 114 136 182 227 272 318 363 409 454 545 636 726 817 908 1135 1362 1816 2270 32 41 50 57 64 68 77 86 91 98 107 116 123 134 145 159 161 170 177 182 193 204 213 222 229 247 263 288 311 64 82 100 114 127 136 154 173 182 195 213 232 245 268 291 318 322 341 354 363 386 409 427 445 459 495 527 577 622 14 16 20 23 25 27 32 34 36 39 43 48 50 54 59 61 66 68 70 73 75 77 79 82 84 86 89 95 102 27 32 41 45 50 54 64 68 73 77 86 95 100 109 118 123 132 136 141 145 150 154 159 163 168 173 177 191 204 23 29 37 42 47 50 58 63 68 72 79 86 91 100 108 115 103 126 131 136 144 153 159 166 172 185 196 215 233 46 58 74 84 94 100 115 126 136 144 159 172 183 201 216 230 235 252 262 272 289 305 319 332 343 370 392 430 466 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 16 18 19 20 20 20 22 24 26 28 5 7 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 19 21 22 25 26 28 29 30 32 33 35 37 39 40 41 44 47 53 55 Page 1 of 2 NTSG.
4. Weights and distances are converted from the imperial weights and distances used in the American table of distances (IME safety library publication No 2). Natural barricade means natural feature of the ground such as hills or timber with sufficient density that the magazine cannot be seen from the building or features requiring protection when the trees are bare of leaves. or other building or railway or roadway by a natural or by an artificial barrier. A straight line from the top wall of a building or magazine containing explosives to the eaves line of any other building or a point 3. Part 1. Barricaded means the effective screening of the magazine containing explosives from a building containing explosives.ANNEX B to Chapter 12 NEQ (KG) OVER LESS THAN INHABITED BUILDINGS DISTANCE (M) BARRICADED DISTANCE (M) PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE VOLUME LESS THAN 3000 VEH/DAY MORE THAN 3000 VEH/DAY UNBARRICADED BARRICADED UNBARRICADED INTER-MAGAZINE DISTANCE (M) BARRICADED UNBARRICADED UNBARRICADED BARRICADED 2270 2724 331 663 107 213 248 496 30 59 NOTES 1. Edition 9. Version 1 . 3. 2. Artificial barricade is an artificial mound or revetted earth wall not less than 90 cm thick.5m above the centreline of any roadway or railway shall pass through such a barrier. Page 2 of 2 NTSG.
4 Training is to be designed and conducted in such a way as to ensure that mine action organisations are able to assess an individuals/teams competency in the role(s) they are likely to be involved in prior to qualifying him/her/it to do so. 2. 3. 2.2 Mine action organisation personnel shall receive suitable and sufficient training in all aspects of operations they are likely to be involved in. 1. Details of assessments/testing for all courses f. Details of the activities that an individual/team will be competent in on successful completion of the training Page 1 of 4 NTSG.1 INTRODUCTION Training is essential in order to ensure safe and effective operations. aptitude and proficiency to conduct their role in a safe and effective manner.Chapter 13 TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS 1. 2. Details of their training policy b. 1.3 Personnel shall not conduct any operations for which they have not received appropriate training. Methods of quality assurance designed to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of the training e. Types and schedules of training – to cover all activities the organisation is to be involved in c. Responsibilities and resources in the training d. qualified and have sufficient experience. 2. Part 1. SOPS 3. 2.1 All mine action organisations are responsible for ensuring that the minimum training standards as outlined in this chapter are achieved prior to conducting humanitarian demining operations.5 As part of the accreditation process.2 Mine action organisations are responsible for ensuring that their personnel have received suitable and sufficient training in any activities they are to be involved in and for ensuring they are competent.1 Mine action organisations SOPs shall contain as a minimum the following information: a. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2. Version 1 . mine action organisations will be required to sign a declaration confirming that any training has been in conformance and/or to a standard that ensures compliance with these NTSG (refer to Chapter 21). Edition 9.
Chapter 13 g. Details of and requirements when additional and/or refresher training and updating will be necessary to provide h. Policy on the recording of training and qualifications and the holding/storing of these records
QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE
4.1 Mine action organisations shall have suitably qualified international staff members who are experienced in the humanitarian demining operations that they are responsible for or are to be involved in and who are capable of training national staff in their area of expertise. 4.2 Mine action organisations shall submit proof of these individuals’ qualifications and experience to the UNMAO National QA Officer that will substantiate that they are adequately qualified to conduct their respective role. 4.3 All personnel completing the training shall be able to perform at the level established by UNMAO under the guidance of IMAS.
TRAINING COURSES & QUALIFICATIONS
5.1 The majority of courses necessary for conducting safe and effective humanitarian demining operations/activities at the various practical and management levels are well known and the syllabuses are generally similar for most organisations depending on the approach to the activity by that organisation. 5.2 Mine action organisations are to ensure syllabuses adequately cover all aspects of the activity(ies) the training course is designed to deliver and all courses should include theory and practical lessons, assessments and/or examinations: 5.3 Mine action organisations shall conduct syllabuses that are modified to include specialised training specific to that organisations role. 5.4 All personnel attending a specific complete training course shall be given certificates of competency, achievement and/or qualification on successfully completing the course or after a suitable probationary period (three months is recommended). 5.5 Mine action organisations are to record an individuals training, his/her qualifications, the period the qualification is applicable for prior to requiring refresher training and the achievements/awards/results. This information is to be forwarded to the National Quality Assurance Coordinator as per the details of Chapter 21. .
Page 2 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 13 5.6 The following are typical courses conducted. Course titles may vary between organisations and additional courses e.g. mechanical mine clearance, MDD etc shall be conducted as required. a. Surveyor: The following minimum training requirements apply: (1) Mine /UXO identification (2) Mine clearance procedures. (3) Map reading (4) Sketch drawing (5) Land navigation and surveying techniques (6) Manual operation of surveying equipment will be taught even if automatic/computerised-surveying equipment is used and taught. b. Mine / UXO (Deminer) Training: The following minimum training requirements apply: (1) Mine/UXO identification (2) PPE (3) Equipment & tools (4) Minefield layout and marking (5) Manual clearance procedures to include: detector, investigating a detector signal – prodding and/or excavation, actions on: vegetation, trip-wires, high metal contamination, obstacles, locating mines, UXO, trip-wire, controlled demolition, animals or people entering minefield and pulling drills. c. BAC Training: The following minimum training requirements apply: (1) Mine & UXO identification (2) PPE (3) Equipment & Tools (4) Site Layout and marking (5) Clearance procedures to include: visual, shallow and deep and sub-surface clearance techniques d. EOD: All personnel involved in EOD operations are to have received suitable and sufficient training in EOD applicable to the role and responsibilities for which they are appointed. Details of training and qualifications requirements are as per Chapter 5 and the IMAS but should also include specific to country training to ensure the person is fit for role. e. Junior Leadership Training: Personnel selected for junior leadership positions shall have either successfully completed a leadership course applicable to the selected role or have been operating on the ground in the applicable role for a period of not less than 6 months. For all future instructors and for designated team leaders the following minimum training requirements apply: (1) Basic Leadership (2) Instruction techniques (3) Supervisory roles and responsibilities
Page 3 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 13 f. Senior Leadership Training: Personnel selected for senior leadership positions shall have been employed in a junior leadership in the specific role on the ground for a period of not less than 6 months. They will have successfully completed a training course reinforcing all of the junior leadership training and covering specific to role responsibilities and general supervisory responsibilities. Prior to being appointed they are to show competency and knowledge in all activities for which they are responsible. g. Medical Training: All personnel are to receive medical training as per details in Chapter 10. h. Refresher Training: Refresher training should cover all aspects of original training courses but should concentrate on specifics provided by the reason for the refresher training. Refresher training shall be conducted on the following occasions: (1) Following a planned or unplanned break of 10-days or more (2) Introduction of a new procedure or any significant changes to current procedures (3) After an accident or incident (4) When requested by the UNMAO after failing a QA assessment or failure of safety when implementing the IMAS and/or the NTSG in any way for demining, (5) Other circumstances specified by the mine action organisation.
MONITORING OF TRAINING COURSES
6.1 As part of the accreditation process, mine action organisation training will be regularly and routinely monitored throughout its duration by relevant UNMAO regional and sub-office personalities in order to provide advice and guidance as required and to assess compliance with SOPs and NTSG.
Page 4 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1.1 As part of its mandate, the UNMAO, as the appointed representative of the NMAO and the SSDC, is required to ensure that the standards of humanitarian demining activities and the processes and procedures implemented whilst conducting them are in accordance with IMAS, SudanMAP NTSG’s, mine action organisations own SOP and/or implementation plans and any other agreements, contracts or memorandums of understanding that are in place between the authoritative bodies and said mine action organisations. 1.2 This will be achieved through the appointment of a monitoring body responsible for the programmes overall Quality Management (QM) system and the implementation of a comprehensive and robust QM system, developed by the UNMAO that shall, under the terms of accreditation, be implemented and adhered to by all accredited mine action organisations.
2. General Principles, Implementation and Conduct of the QM System
2.1 The QM system is designed to coordinate activities aimed at directing and controlling the UNMAO quality processes and procedures. The overall objective is to provide the authoritative bodies and donors with the confidence and assurance that mine action organisations have applied and adhered to standards that are in accordance with IMAS, NTSG and their own SOPs by applying safe, effective and efficient humanitarian demining processes and procedures during the conduct of operations for which they are contracted. 2.2 The QM system comprises the following: a. Internal QA/QC processes throughout the life-cycle of a task b. External QA processes and procedures carried out prior to the commencement of and during humanitarian demining activities. c. External QC processes (restricted to confirmatory checks on the accuracy of positional data provided by in Completion Reports) when practicable on the completion of humanitarian demining activities. 2.3 The system aims to scrutinise all aspects of a mine action organisation’s capabilities, competency, processes and procedures prior to, during and on completion of humanitarian demining activities. 2.4 The complete system process comprises of the following: a. Accreditation: This is the overall process of determining an organisation’s suitability, competency and ability to plan, manage and operationally conduct humanitarian demining activities safely, effectively and
Page 1 of 11 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 14 efficiently. For all information and detail concerning the accreditation process within SudanMAP see Chapter 21. b. Internal Monitoring: Internal monitoring is that required from mine action organisations. The following detail shall be implemented and adhered to: (1) Internal QA: In addition to mine action organisations own internal QA processes/procedures; they shall also implement a system of internal QA that involves the following minimum requirements: (a) Accurate and timely completion of internal IMSMA QA forms (see paragraph 4.1 and Annex A) in order to check &/or record that accredited standards are being implemented and maintained during relevant mine action activities. (b) Accurate and timely recording of all manual mine clearance that has taken place in order to allow immediate identification of the following factors should it be necessary: i. Details of the individual/asset that cleared a specific area ii. The exact areas that are cleared on any given day iii. The date/time that clearance was conducted iv. The method of clearance e.g. Deminer Name: Abrahim Mustaffa
Date 21/02/07 21/02/07 22/02/07 M/F Details &/ TD/DA Numbers Kurmuk MF / NR – 123 / DA 456 Kurmuk MF / NR – 123 / DA 456 Lane # 10 12 Area Cleared Meters 3 - 8 Meters 1 - 3 Method Used Detector/prodder & excavation Detector/prodder & excavation Remarks 1 x M14 found meters 8 - 9 Moved to new lane, Lane closed end of day at 3.5m point Lane closed end of day at 14m point
Kurmuk MF / 10 Meters 8 - 14 Detector/prodder & excavation NR – 123 / DA 456 Kurmuk MF / 23/02/07 10 Metres 14 - 20 Detector/prodder & excavation End of lane NR – 123 / DA 456 Kurmuk MF / New lane started, closed 23/02/07 12 Meters 3 - 5m Detector/prodder & excavation NR – 123 / DA 456 end of day at 5.5m point The above provides an example of the minimum requirements of recording that SHALL be implemented to record MMC conducted by individual deminers. The same process of recording should be applied to other applicable procedures i.e. BAC, mechanical demining etc
(2) Internal QC: In addition to mine action organisations own internal QC processes and procedures, they shall also implement a system of internal QC that accurately records all internal QC carried out in a timely fashion and that allows immediate identification of the following factors should it be necessary: (a) Details of the individual/asset that QC’d a specific area (b) The exact areas that has been subjected to QC (c) The date/time that QC was conducted (d) The method of QC
Date 21/02/07 21/02/07 22/02/07 M/F Details &/ TD/DA Numbers Kurmuk MF / NR – 123 / DA 456 Kurmuk MF / NR – 123 / DA 456 Kurmuk MF / Areas QC’d Lane # 10 10 7 Area Cleared Meters 3 - 4 Meters 1 - 2 Meters 8 - 10 Method Used Detector Detector MDD Person / Role Conducting QC TL / A Dragba QA Offr / G Smith MDD Team Alpha Remarks Area QC’d passed Area QC’d passed Area failed. Lane to
Page 2 of 11 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
NR – 123 / DA 456 be re-cleared Kurmuk MF / Site supervisor 23/02/07 10 Metres 14 - 15 Detector Good / passed NR – 123 / DA 456 Kurmuk MF / QA Offr / G Dect 23/02/07 7 Meters 10 - 11 Detector Good / passed NR – 123 / DA 456 The above provides an example of the minimum requirements of recording that SHALL be implemented to record QC conducted. The same process of recording should be applied to other applicable procedures i.e. BAC, mechanical demining etc
c. External Monitoring: Regular external monitoring visits will be conducted aimed at examining as wide a range of relevant activities as possible. To achieve this, visits will audit the internal monitoring of the mine action organisation, conduct external QA checks and assessments of the mine action organisations activities, processes and practices and examine the level of knowledge and competency of the mine action organisation, by questioning key individuals on site,. d. Quality Management and Auditing of the QM System: Overall quality management and auditing of the QM system will be provided by a Quality Management Body. This will in the main be in the form of an appraisal of post-visit reports, an assessment of corrective advice given and actions taken and where possible and practicable the accompanying of the external QA bodies by a member of this body during visits.
QM System Bodies - General Responsibilities
The following shall be appointed: a. Internal Monitoring: Mine action organisations are responsible for ensuring that they appoint the necessary personnel that enables the achievement of their own Internal Monitoring responsibilities and those detailed in this NTSG (see paragraph 2.4b and ). b. External Monitoring Body: This body1 will be comprised of the following appointments with detailed responsibilities: (1) Regional Quality Assurance Officer – primary responsibility for coordinating the external QA monitoring programme within his area of responsibility (2) UNMAO sub-office Quality Assurance Officer – primary responsibility for conducting external QA monitoring within his area of responsibility (3) UNMAO sub-office Operations Officer and specialists – support and assist external monitoring process as requested. b. Quality Management Body: This body will be comprised of the following appointments with detailed responsibilities: (1) National Quality Assurance Coordinator – primary responsibility for coordinating and ensuring the integrity of the QM process (2) Regional Quality Assurance Officer – conduct audit of the external monitoring when requested to ensure integrity of the QM system.
The term ‘body’ when further referred to within this chapter shall mean one or more of those appointments detailed. Page 3 of 11 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
Chapter 14 (3) Regional Operations Coordinator – support and assist as requested 3. Edition 9. h. c. 4. Page 4 of 11 NTSG.4b (1) & (2) and of accredited SOP.4b and Annex A. Record all critical and non-critical non-conformities identified during Internal QA/QC2 (if a critical non-conformity is identified then work is to cease immediately and the UNMAO sub-office QA officer is to be contacted in order to confirm the non-conformity and to advise on the suitability of the rectifying action). f. b. g.1 Internal Monitoring: Mine action organisations have the following specific responsibilities: a.2 External Monitoring Body: The external monitoring body has the following specific responsibilities: If a critical non-conformity is identified then all mine action activities and/or related activities are to cease immediately. applicable to the mine action activities for which specific/individual assets/teams are operationally accredited regardless of tasks/deployments as detailed at paragraph 2. Ensure appropriate follow-up action is implemented and adhered to following external monitoring body’s recommendations. Continual accreditation status shall be dependant upon mine action organisations ensuring that they implement and adhere to the responsibilities as detailed in paragraphs 2. Specific Responsibilities 4. Part 1.2 Mine action organisations shall ensure that sufficient and suitable resources are appointed to implement the required internal monitoring system. 4. d. In all cases the UNMAO sub-office is to be contacted in order to confirm said non-conformity and to provide details of rectifying action decided upon/taking place or to seek advice on appropriate action to be take action to be taken in order to rectify said non-conformity. Clear and defined details shall be included in mine action organisations SOP’s. Version 1 2 . Store hard copies of completed internal IMSMA QA forms on site and make them available for inspection/review by the external monitoring body during external QA. Upload electronic versions of completed IMSMA forms into the IMSMA data base. Record the results of Internal QC as detailed at paragraph 2. Record the results of Internal QA by way of completing prescribed sets of internal IMSMA QA forms.4b (2). Conduct internal QA/QC of all teams/assets in accordance with accredited organisational SOPs and these NTSG.
e.Chapter 14 a. Record all non-conformities and the general results of the visit. to the QA Coordinator. Inspect the results of internal QA that has been conducted since the last visit by ways of reviewing the details recorded on internal QA IMSMA forms. hard copies of which are to be maintained on-site at all times. Conduct a QA inspection that shall include the accurate and full completion of one or more external IMSMA QA forms that is to be subsequently submitted/uploaded to the IMSMA database in a timely fashion. conduct an external QA inspection of any task that is suspended or completed and accurately complete an external IMSMA Suspension or Completion Form as relevant that is to be subsequently submitted/uploaded to the IMSMA database in a timely fashion. vi. ii. However. c. Edition 9. (2) For tasks of greater than 3-days duration but less than 14-days duration (2-weeks inclusive of non-work days) – once within the first 3days and on completion of the task. Compare the recordings/results of completed external IMSMA QA forms against the most recent internal IMSMA QA forms for accurateness and take appropriate action dependant on findings. The sub-office QA officer is to draft/provide an external monitoring plan/forecast for the next working week to the Regional QA Officer and relevant Operations Officer on the last working day of the previous week. v. Version 1 . Ensure appropriate follow-up action is taken on the Quality Management Bodys’ recommendations. the duration of individual tasks i. communication and travel difficulties. Part 1. (4) For tasks of greater than 42-days duration – once within the first 3days and then subsequent visits of not more than 14-days gap and on completion of the task. Identify any non-conformity and take appropriate action depending on the circumstances and severity of the non-conformity. whenever possible and/or practicable external monitoring visits are to meet the following requirements: (1) If the task is of less than 3-days duration once within this 3-days.e. iv. It is acknowledged that due to a number of factors. (3) For tasks of between 14-days and 42-days duration (6-weeks inclusive of non-work days) – once within the first 3-days. it will not always be possible and/or practicable to adhere to the following visit schedule. iii. including but not restricted to logistical constraints. In addition he is to provide a Weekly Summary based on the previous weeks external monitoring activities. Wherever and/or whenever possible and/or practicable. Page 5 of 11 NTSG. and the general difficulties encountered whilst moving around Sudan in a timely and efficient manner. Identify and recommend corrective actions to the mine action organisation and ensure they are implemented by agreeing and implementing a follow-up plan. once during the lifetime of the task and on completion of the task. EOD spot tasks. d. During every visit the external monitoring body shall: i. Theses documents are to conform to the formats and details at Annex B. b.
Page 6 of 11 NTSG. b. Identify and suggest corrective actions to the internal and external monitoring processes and ensure they are implemented e. Accompany the external monitoring body when ever possible or practicable to ensure general standards and the details of this chapter are being adhered to and met. Ensure compliance with the QM system at all levels by reviewing completed IMSMA QA forms.3 Quality Management Body: The specific responsibilities of the individuals and/or the body as a whole are to: a. Sign presented IMSMA QA forms that have been completed and that record the results of a QA inspection. Board of Inquiry bodies etc. d. Edition 9. In particular. shall on request make available applicable original documentation relating to and/or recording the details of implementation of any aspect of the QM System to external QA bodies and to other appointed authoritative bodies i. c. internal investigation bodies. c. Provide a safety brief to the external QA body ii. Reasons for not wishing to do so should be verbally relayed to the external body senior representative and appropriately recorded in writing by the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site and submitted to the United Nations Regional Mine Action Office (UNRMAO) within 24-hours3. personnel. Develop and keep a database in order to identify trends of performance by teams/mine action organisations. Identify shortcomings in individual QA skills. the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site should record in writing on completed external IMSMA QA forms any response to the written recordings of the external QA body prior to said body leaving the task/site. nonconformities with the system at any level and improvements to the system. As a minimum requirement. d. buildings and other facilities which are visited in order to implement any stage of the QM system. Accredited mine action organisations shall fully cooperate with any external QA process or inspection and shall provide access to all tasks/sites. It is the responsibility of the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site to inform their organisation of the results of or any concerns resulting from an external QA inspection. overall practices. e. the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site shall be required to : i. Part 1. Inappropriate or unjustifiable reason for denying and/or hindering of the external QA process may result in the suspension or cancellation of accreditation status for that mine action organisation.e. 5. prior to the departure from site of the external body.1 Mine action organisations have the following general responsibilities: a. b. Version 1 3 . General Responsibilities of Mine Action Organisations within the QM System 5.Chapter 14 4. Mine action organisations.
b. Mine action organisations shall prepare and maintain records of all site visits/inspections. g. The body is not to get involved in any argument with any member of the mine action organisation during the conduct of an external QA inspection. Inappropriate or unjustifiable reason for denying and/or hindering any part of the external QA process is to be recorded in writing by the body and submitted to the Quality Management Body at the earliest opportunity. If a heated situation does develop the body is to leave the site and draft a written report detailing the incident to the Quality Management Body. All records shall be appropriately safely stored for a period of at least five years. Internal IMSMA QA forms from previous QA inspections of the task/site.Chapter 14 f. v. iii.1 The following guidelines should then be followed: a. clearance plans and or implementation plans. Any applicable accident / incident Investigation reports. They shall remain impartial at all times and not let personal opinions. General Responsibilities of External QA Bodies within the QM System 6. All other required information and/or site documentation detailed elsewhere within this NTSG that may assist the body during the inspection. The body should only annotate recommendations or changes in IMSMA QA forms for possible subsequent further action. and any information needed to understand and interpret them. ii. Mine action organisations are to ensure that appointed managerial and/or supervisory individuals of tasks/sites are fully aware of and have available the following documentary information in order to assist external QA inspections: i. Edition 9. polite and objective when making any judgements. Part 1. Accredited SOP’s. The body shall not to make general commitments to any individual from within the mine action organisation on behalf of the UNMAO. d. c. g. v. the senior UNMAO representative will report to the Control Point and introduce himself to the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site and state the purpose of their visit. family ties or friendships affect their judgement and performance of their duties. f. When a body arrives at a task site. The body are not to make changes to techniques taught by the mine action organisation during training courses or to procedures detailed in accredited SOP’s. Page 7 of 11 NTSG. e. Version 1 . 6. iv. Records and results of internal QC conducted. A safety brief shall be received prior to commencement of the external QA inspection after which all safety instructions are to be adhered to. The body should be firm. All relevant documentation including accreditation documents.
Board of Inquiry bodies etc. At all times objective evidence is to be used to base decisions on. o. The results of the QA inspections are to be discussed with the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site in the way of a full debrief prior to departure from the site. it is to be recorded that any decisions or recommendations subsequently arrived at are based on observations only. Version 1 . mine action organisations. Part 1. Serious concerns resulting from the inspection. Observations based on experience of the body may be made however. n. l. In circumstances where it is considered/identified that the activities of the demining organisation are breaching the terms of accreditation or where there is concern for the safety or wellbeing of any individual. The body is to notify the United Nations Regional Mine Action Office of the decision and the reasons for it at the earliest opportunity. signed and placed in archives. In such circumstances the body is to explain the reasons for this action to the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site and is to record said reasons for later reference. p. m. The external monitoring and Quality Management bodies shall on request make available applicable original documentation relating to and/or recording the details of implementation of any aspect of the QM System to each other and to other appointed authoritative bodies i. Ideally a fully completed 2nd copy of any IMSMA QA forms should be presented to the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site however. j. i. it is acknowledged that this often will not be possible. The mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site is to be encouraged to provide a written response on the IMSMA QA form to the aforementioned written recordings of the body. This recording is to be presented to the mine action organisation appointment in charge of the task/site for review and as confirmation of any discussion/debrief prior to departure from the task/site. recommendations and the details of debriefs are to be recorded in writing by the body on the relevant IMSMA QA form. p. Following the completion of the visit any completed and signed external IMSMA QA forms will be submitted/uploaded to the IMSMA database in a timely fashion by the QA body. All conclusions. Edition 9. the body is authorised to immediately suspend mine action activities on that task/site. especially where the safety or wellbeing of any individual is concerned shall be brought to the attention of the Quality Management Body as soon as possible. particularly those involving safety. Page 8 of 11 NTSG. All completed external IMSMA QA forms are to be signed by appropriate appointments prior to the departure from site of the external body.Chapter 14 h. internal investigation bodies. Appropriate further action will then be implemented. k. On completion of this information transfer the original QA evaluation form will be stamped. Further necessary action will then be addressed.e. drawing attention to any concerns.
When the prescribed communication network is not fully functioning. Edition 9. Refusal to allow monitoring or inspection to take place c. Application of processes known to place staff or the local population at unacceptable risk. When there is insufficient or incorrect marking of hazardous areas where activities are being conducted. The premature release of cleared land e. Where a number of non-critical non-conformities are observed that either individually or as a whole either cannot be adequately and effectively rectified immediately or that as whole constitute a threat to life. When any personnel are not wearing prescribed PPE within the hazardous area during operations. The following list. The following list.1 There may be cause to suspend tasks for safety reasons. Critical & Non-critical Non-conformities 7. The following list. gives examples when the relevant body may suspend a task on behalf of the UNMAO: a. The following paragraphs provide guidance on non-compliances.4 There may be occasions when non-conformities outside of the scope of SOPs may occur. Breaches of SOPs that ARE NOT considered as life threatening and/or:b. Page 9 of 11 NTSG. d. 7. The repeated failure to apply accredited management systems b.Chapter 14 7. The circumstances and/or severity of non-conformities will determine the subsequent actions taken. b. but should not be restricted to: a. Interference with monitoring or inspections d. 7. although not exhaustive. provides examples of such non-conformities that may be recorded: a. When there is no medical support in accordance with the organisation’s SOP and/or NTSG. although not exhaustive. Breaches of SOPs that can be rectified immediately without further training or additional resources being required/deployed.3 Critical Non-conformities: A critical non-conformities can generally be defined as ‘breaches of SOPs THAT ARE considered to be life threatening’. gives examples of critical non-conformities: a.1 General: Internal and/or external QA inspections may identify noncompliances with SOPs/NTSGs. Part 1. Version 1 . e. Where there is inadequate supervision in accordance to the clearance organisation’s SOP. All instances of non-conformities shall be appropriately recorded as previously described in this chapter.2 Non-critical Non-conformities: Non-critical non-conformities can generally be defined. 8. although not exhaustive. 7. Suspension of Tasks 8. c.
1 Special QA Monitoring Special QA Monitoring will be conducted by the QA Management Body. After the suspension of a task as described in paragraph 8. Version 1 . trip-wires and improvised mines). Working on a difficult or hazardous task (e. c. f. Where there is a reoccurrence of non-critical non-conformity(ies) within a team identified during separate visits. When there is any encroachment into hazardous areas that cannot be resolved. d.3 The suspension of a task may result in the suspension or termination of operational accreditation. 9. mine action organisation or other personnel. Handover to national staff as part of the capacity building process. Part 1. c.. Edition 9. Page 10 of 11 NTSG. As a result of a demining accident/incident (refer to Chapter 15). 9. A change in supervisory personnel or when inexperienced personnel are managing a task. identified concerns have not been resolved. 9. Only when the issues have been resolved/rectified and only on the authorisation of the Quality Management Body are suspended tasks allowed to recommence. Such inspections are to be conducted in an open manner in consultation with the management of the particular clearance organisation. 8. 9. residential. Commencing operations after a lengthy period away from operations or after completing a training course. highly vegetated. 9. Where there is a current or imminent threat from external factions to the security and safety of the body. f. undulating ground. The Quality Management Body must ensure objectivity and impartiality of conducting Special QA Monitoring evaluations. e. b. 8. after conducting QA Special Monitoring on at least two separate occasions. e. the Quality Management Body in consultation with the Regional Operations Coordinator and National Operations Coordinator will review the accreditation licence. (refer to Chapter 21.4 It must be appropriately and clearly annotated that Special QA Monitoring is being conducted on the particular asset in question. 9. d.3 If. Starting a task in an unfamiliar area.2 Following the suspension of any task. the Quality Management Body is to be immediately informed. Where a critical non-conformity has been identified. All relevant information is to be clearly and appropriately recorded. nonconformities and/or other such issues have been resolved. rocky.Chapter 14 b.5 The following are examples of circumstances when special monitoring may be required: a.2 Special QA Monitoring aims to identify and confirm that problems. paragraph 6).g.
2 The SudanMAP QM system is aimed at confirming that mine action organisations are applying their accredited management processes and operational procedures in a manner that will result in the safe. Conducting field trials with equipment and machines. Version 1 . Part 1. If implemented correctly at all levels it will enhance the safety. Introduction of new demining procedures or equipment. Page 11 of 11 NTSG. Multiple assets working at a task. effectiveness and efficiency of operations whilst not impinging on or disrupting operations in anyway. that consists of regular monitoring visits and auditable processes at all stages of operations is implemented. h. 10. Summary 10. effective and efficient clearance of land. Edition 9. 10.Chapter 14 g.1 The SudanMAP QM system has been deigned to ensure that an appropriate. suitable and sufficient QA monitoring process. i.
Edition 9.1 regardless of tasks/deployments. 1.2 In order to comply with the requirements of the SudanMAP QM system. Page 1 of 5 NTSG. 2.3 Details of the internal monitoring requirement to be adopted as part of the SudanMAP QM System shall be included into the mine action organisations SOP’s. 1. GENERAL 1.1 In addition to their own organisational requirements pertaining to internal QA and the implementation of other applicable QA processes/procedures detailed elsewhere in this Chapter.ANNEX A to Chapter 14 MINE ACTION ORGANISATIONS INTERNAL MONITORING REQUIREMENTS 1. Version 1 .1 Mine action organisations are to provide adequate resources necessary to implement their own internal Quality Assurance which is to be clearly detailed in SOP. 1. mine action organisations shall ensure that sufficient and suitable resources are appointed in order to implement the required internal monitoring system at each task site and for each specific asset/team as further prescribed in this Annex. applicable to the mine action activities for which specific/individual assets/teams are operationally accredited as detailed at paragraphs 3.3 Mine action organisations are to ensure that hard copies of completed internal IMSMA QA forms are available at all times on-site and to external QA bodies as they will form the basis of external monitoring audits of internal monitoring processes and procedures and compliance with the mine action organisations own SOPs and with NTSG.4 Details within the mine action organisations SOP covering the aforementioned are to clearly define details of but not be restricted to resources. Part 1. 2. 2. 2. responsibilities and conduct/implementation. mine action organisations are to implement a process involving the accurate and timely completion of internal IMSMA QA forms designed to check &/or record that accredited standards are being implemented and maintained during relevant mine action activities. training. IMPLENTATION OF THE SUDANMAP REQUIREMENTS 2.2 This will be achieved by recording the results of Internal QA on prescribed sets of internal IMSMA QA forms.4 Mine action organisations are responsible for submitting electronic copies of completed internal IMSMA QA forms for uploading to the IMSMA database.
Part 1.2 Each mine action organisation shall be required to complete a relevant specific form for each accredited team/asset within the cycle detailed in the ‘Remarks/Requirements’ column or depending on the mine action activity that the team/asset is involved in: TITLE FORM REQUIREMENTS One form to be completed per cycle REMARKS Only required if Area Reduction techniques or activities are being implemented by an asset on a site/task Area Reduction B Battle Area Clearance Clearance Organisation Training C D Demolitions F One form to be completed per accredited team/asset per cycle One form to be completed for each asset/team during each period of training. Edition 9.3.1 There are 14 internal IMSMA QA Forms that are to be utilised by mine action organisations in order to comply with the requirements of the SudanMAP QM System as detailed elsewhere in this NTSG. 3. CDS demolitions and for minefield and BAC demolitions/EOD Explosive Storage General Survey Manual Mine Clearance Mechanical Demining G U J K One form to be completed per permanent explosive storage facility per calendar month One form to be completed per accredited team/asset per cycle One form to be completed per accredited team/asset per cycle One form to be completed per accredited team/asset per cycle One form to be completed per accredited medical asset per calendar month One form to be completed per accredited MDD team per calendar month One form to be completed per cycle If the asset/team is involved in Area Reduction then Form B will also be required Medical L Mine Detection Dogs M Minefield Marking N If the asset/team is involved in Area Reduction then Form B will also be required One form to be completed per cycle per asset/team where the detail of the form is applicable Mine Risk Education O Preparation & Setting Up T One form to be completed per accredited MRE team/asset per cycle One form to be completed per cycle One form to be completed per cycle per asset/team where the detail of the form is applicable Route Verification R One form to be completed per accredited RVT team/asset per Page 2 of 5 NTSG. IMSMA FORMS 3. Version 1 . including refresher training One form to be completed per accredited team/asset per cycle This form is to be completed for specific EOD teams.
Example 2: A task that involves 1 x MMC team/asset that is conducting a task that involves MMC and end of day demolitions – 1 x Form J. In the absence of any liaison and/or agreement the forms are to be completed as per provided guidance.1 Military Demining Companies are to report the internal QA forms completed on a daily basis as an Annex to the Daily Report that they are required to submit in the format shown at A. 1 x Form T and 1 x Form F per cycle c.3 The following provides examples of internal IMSMA QA forms that mine action organisations will be expected to complete depending on the activities covered by an assets/teams accreditation. Page 3 of 5 NTSG. Version 1 . 2 x Forms N. Example 4: A task that involves 2 x MMC teams/asset that is conducting a task that involves MMC and end of day demolitions – 2 x Forms J.5 Mine action organisations are to liaise with the UNMAO sub-office QA officer to clarify which internal QA IMSMA forms are required if there is any doubt or if they consider that the completion of a specific form is not relevant to the activities being conducted at the site.cycle NOTE: A cycle is 21-days (3-weeks inclusive of non-work days) 3. 4. Example 3: A task that involves 2 x MMC teams/assets that are conducting a task that involves MMC only – 2 x Forms J. 2 x Forms T and 2 x Forms F per cycle 3. 1 x Form N and 1 x Form T per cycle b. Example 1: A task that involves 1 x MMC team/asset that is conducting a task that involves MMC only – 1 x Form J. 1 x Form N.2 Mine action organisations that are not contracted/funded directly by the UN are to report the internal QA forms completed on a weekly basis as in the format shown at B. Edition 9.3 Mine action organisations that are contracted/funded directly by the UN are to report the internal QA forms completed on a daily basis as additional information for each specific task on the Daily Report. 3. MINE ACTION ORGANISATIONS REPORTING OF INTERNAL QA 4. Part 1. 2 x Forms N and 2 x Forms T per cycle d. 4.4 The examples 1 to 4 above can be applied to BAC tasks. the type of task the asset/team is involved in and the mine action activities that it is conducting: a. 4.
Part 1. Edition 9.xxx The team are conducting manual mine clearance at xxxx.xxx The team are conducting BAC at xxxx. Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – BAC completed Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Demolition Drill completed Page 4 of 5 NTSG. Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Nil completed Task SS483 (location xxxxx) Platoon/Asset ID .xxx The team completed marking the minefield at xxxx and are now compiling the report. Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Manual Mine Clearance completed Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Demolition Drill completed Task SSo67 (location xxxxx) Team/Asset ID . Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – BAC completed Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Demolition Drill completed FORMAT B DAILY INTERNAL QA FORMS COMPLETED BY xxxxx (ORGANISATION) Week Number: XX Period Covered: XX/XX/2007 – XX/XX/2007 Task SS392 (location xxxx) Team/Asset ID . Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Manual Mine Clearance completed Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Demolition Drill completed Task SS067 (location xxxxx) Platoon/Asset ID .FORMAT A DAILY INTERNAL QA FORMS COMPLETED Task SS392 (location xxxx) Platoon/Asset ID . Internal QA/QC IMSMA Form – Nil completed Task SS483 (location xxxxx) Team/Asset ID .xxx The team are conducting BAC at xxxx.xxx The team are conducting manual mine clearance at xxxx.xxx The team completed marking the minefield at xxxx and are now compiling the report. Version 1 .
org) on the last working day of each week .9 It will further be used to compile the necessary QA management system information required for the UNMAO weekly and monthly reports. Version 1 .org) on a daily basis.8 This information will then further be used to cross-check during external QA and during post-QA against the IMSMA database system to ensure the forms have been uploaded.4 Format A are to be forwarded (omarm@sudanmap. 4. 4. Part 1. to the QA Coordinators office 4. Page 5 of 5 NTSG. Edition 9. office 4.6 UN funded/contracted organisations will forward the information using normal reporting channels.7 The reported information will then be collated by the QA Coordinators office and the information uploaded onto the QA database.5 Format B are to be forwarded to the QA Coordinators (email@example.com. 4.
Summary: 2. 2.2 These are to be submitted by the last working day of the week.1 REPORT FORMAT The following formats are to be utilised: a.1 Sub-office QA Officers are to submit external monitoring forecasts to the relevant Regional QA Officer and Operations Officer and a Weekly Summary of monitoring activities to the QA Coordinator. Part 1.2 Reports should be submitted on time and in electronic format Page 1 of 1 NTSG.ANNEX B to Chapter 14 EXTERNAL MONITORING PLANNING 1. Forecast: This is to be submitted to the SUB-OFFICE Demining Activities Being Conducted Reason for Planned Visit Date Organisation to be Monitored DA/MF/CL ID Remarks b. GENERAL 1. 1. Edition 9. 2. Version 1 .
b. who can then extract information for other National Mine Action Authorities. INTRODUCTION 1.3 The effective management and supervision of mine action programmes will reduce the likelihood of harm.4 Effective reporting and the thorough investigation of mine/UXO accidents and incidents can play an essential part in meeting this objective. 2. 1.2 The aims of any investigation are to establish the facts and to make deductions from them. There are legal and moral obligations on managers at all levels in mine action to ensure that the likelihood of harm is reduced to the lowest realistic levels. c. improving the quality of the demining process and reducing the likelihood of future demining accidents. Appoint personnel to investigate mine/UXO accidents and incidents in accordance with this NTSG. 2. to ascertain the cause of the accident or incident and finally to make recommendations that may be implemented to prevent any similar reoccurrence and to improve the safety and quality of the demining process. Establish and maintain procedures for the reporting and investigation of mine/UXO accidents and incidents in accordance with this NTSG. Disseminate the findings of all investigation reports to all mine action organisations operating in Sudan.1 RESPONSIBILITIES National Responsibilities: The UNMAO shall: a.1 The need to report and investigate mine/UXO accidents and incidents in a clear. Information collected and presented in a clear and accessible format will contribute to the ‘lessons learned’ process and thereby assisting in any future emergency response. 1. comprehensive and timely manner is an essential part of mine action management. d. but there will always be the potential for mine/UXO accidents and incidents to occur.5 The aim of this NTSG is therefore to provide standards and guidelines on the minimum requirements for the reporting and investigation of mine/UXO accidents and incidents within the SudanMAP. Part 1. Page 1 of 6 NTSG. Ensure that the results of any medical examination. Version 1 . Edition 9.Chapter 15 INVESTIGATING MINE/UXO ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS 1. and importantly to UNMAS. post mortem or coroner’s report are made available to the parent demining organisation. 1. 1.
a site visitor or a member of the local population at a demining workplace. Page 2 of 6 NTSG. c. and assist in the investigation as required. Part 1. b. Take immediate photographs of the accident/incident site. Assist UNMAO personnel that have been appointed to investigate mine/UXO accidents and incidents in any way requested in order for them to meet their aims and objectives. radio log and any other pertinent documentation as requested.1 General requirements: Accidents and/or incidents shall be reported to the UNMAO in the following circumstances: a. b. Apply appropriate standards and SOP’s designed to prevent mine/UXO accidents and Incidents from occurring. Where mine action organisation employees. Report perceived weaknesses in equipment training and procedures that may lead to a mine/UXO accident/incident. c. e. d. training records. f. 2. Report all reportable mine/UXO accidents and incidents to the UNMAO in a timely manner. At all times when a mine/UXO is located in an area previously cleared. INVESTIGATION REQUIREMENTS 3. Report any reportable mine/UXO accidents and incidents. d. Edition 9. and then preserve it until the site is inspected and released by the Board Of Inquiry (BOI) or investigating officer. recorded as cleared or marked as cleared. SOPs. Make available for the investigation the original worksite records.3 Mine Action Organisation Employee Responsibilities: Mine action organisation employees shall: a. When any unplanned detonation of a mine/UXO or explosives occurs irrespective of the cause or outcome. If a non-mine/UXO or non-explosive related accident occurs on a site that requires the urgent evacuation of a casualty to an advanced medical facility for treatment. Provide access and necessary administrative support to BOI personnel of whatever capacity. 3. Version 1 . When an event involving mine/UXO or explosives results in damage to equipment or property.2 shall: Mine Action Organisation Responsibilities: Mine action organisations a. site visitors or the local population are exposed to intolerable risk that results from the application of SOP or the failure of equipment issued to employees. When an event involving mine/UXO or explosives results in harm to a mine action organisation employee. e. b. c.Chapter 15 2.
UXO or explosive related accident on a site that requires the urgent evacuation of a casualty to an advanced medical facility for treatment. standards or approved SOPs. (3) An internal investigation by an investigating officer from the mine action organisation involved. e. d. i. An accident resulting in injury or death. An incident involving the unplanned detonation of a mine. 3. As such. (2) An independent investigation by an investigating officer from the UNRMAO. Version 1 . An incident causing damage that may result in a major claim for compensation from a member of the public. recorded as cleared or marked as cleared. shall disseminate a general warning to all mine action organisations applying the same equipment. all employees of mine action organisations should provide complete and accurate information about the circumstances surrounding the accident/incident and opinions on ways to improve procedures that may assist in preventing a reoccurrence. The UNMAO will have the final decision on whether an accident/incident warrants or requires an investigation however Annex A and the following provides details of occasions and/or circumstances which should result in an investigation: a. standard or SOP. b. Edition 9. h. g. b. Part 1.2 Investigations: The aim of any accident/incident investigation is to identify problems or opportunities to improve the safety and quality of the process. or likely to meet the same new hazards. c.3 Investigation Types: The following applies: a. or that indicate the presence of new types of hazard. An incident resulting in damage to property. An incident involving a major event causing significant damage. When considered necessary by the UNMAO non mine. An incident involving the discovery of a mine or UXO in an area previously cleared.Chapter 15 The UNMAO on receiving reports of mine/UXO accidents and/or incidents. An accident/incident formal investigation may consist of one of three levels of investigation: (1) A BOI. that highlight inadequacies of equipment. f. Page 3 of 6 NTSG. UXO or explosives. 3. An incident where mine action organisation employees. site visitors or the local population are exposed to intolerable risk that result from the application of approved standards or procedures including the failure of equipment. The accident/incident type will decide what level of formal investigation is undertaken. Annex A provides a guide for selecting the appropriate level of formal investigation that will be undertaken however the UNMAO shall have the final decision on the level of formal investigation to be implemented. An incident which could attract media attention or media report.
nationality and blood group of injured. district. Version 1 . lat / long coordinates. Edition 9. (4) WHAT – Brief summary of available information (cause and injuries). (2) WHERE – Location. This is generally to be made via telephone and is to include the following: (1) Confirmation that the casualty is in suitable medical care and that no further immediate assistance is required. (3) WHO – Organisation. Submitted via appropriate in place communications system to the UNRMAO within 30 minutes of the mine/UXO accident/incident occurring. which permits either the UNRMAO and/or UNMAO to assist with any emergency response and if necessary to provide a general warning to other mine action organisations. Task No.Chapter 15 c. Follow up Report: Upon receipt of the initial contact report the UNRMAO will inform the UNMAO. Mine/UXO accidents and/or incident reports shall normally follow two formats. (3) Confirmation that all other mine/UXO sites where the same organisation is operating are shut down and that the scene of the mine/UXO accident/incident is as secure as possible. a.1 All mine/UXO accidents and/or incidents are to be reported initially to the UNRMAO and then to the UNMAO. Ideally any BOI should be comprised of a principal member from the UNMAO. pending the arrival of the Internal Investigating Officer. Initial Contact Report: Provides essential information about the accident/incident. REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS / INCIDENTS 4. Internal Investigations shall be carried out by an appropriately qualified and experienced member of the mine action organisation involved. Page 4 of 6 NTSG.VHF/HF radio channel / telephone number for further contact. province. a member from a third party mine action organisation and one member from the mine action organisation involved in the accident/incident but this shall not be any person directly involved in the accident/incident. d. (5) CASEVAC INTENTION – What is intent at this time (6) ASSISTANCE – Is immediate assistance required and if so what (7) CONFIRM . (2) Confirm the details contained in the Initial Contact Report. Part 1. The minimum information required is: (1) WHEN – Time of accident. Both will continue to monitor the situation and to provide support where required. 4. C/S and/or name. b. e. As soon as the casualty is successfully transferred to a hospital and is in suitable medical care a more detailed verbal report is to be made by the mine action organisation to the UNMAO via the UNRMAO. but this shall not be any person directly involved in the accident/incident. Independent investigations shall be carried out by an appropriately qualified and experienced independent investigation officer appointed by the UNRMAO.
until released by the BOI or Investigating Officer. Version 1 .3 The following reports are to be produced as applicable: a. Detailed Investigation Reports shall be automatically initiated by mine action organisations for all reportable accidents/incidents. Unless exceptional circumstances exist. The accident/incident site is preserved as far as possible. but this shall not be any person directly involved with the incident.2 On the initiation of any formal investigation both the UNRMAO and the UNMAO shall ensure that: a. b. This report shall be initiated by the mine action organisation involved. The investigation commences as soon as practicably possible. 5. e. c. Annex C details a Convening Order and TOR for a BOI or Independent Investigation. If this form is not relevant to the incident then an appropriate written report covering all details is to be drafted and submitted. Written Report: The mine action organisation is to complete an IMSMA Database Demining Report and attach as much relevant detail as possible and submit it to the UNRMAO within 48hrs of the incident. BOI and Independent Investigations: BOI are initiated by the UNMAO whilst independent investigations are initiated by the UNRMAO after consultation with the UNMAO. Part 1. the investigation report is submitted on time and that it is complete. 5. clear. Internal Investigations and the Detailed Investigation Report: The Detailed Investigation Report (see Annex B) is the result of an Internal Investigation carried out by the mine action organisation involved in the accident/incident. b. Photographs of the accident/incident site are taken immediately. d. Edition 9. For both investigations a Convening Order and Terms of Reference (TOR) will be issued and personnel appointed to carry out an investigation.Chapter 15 c. It shall be completed as soon as practically possible after the accident/incident and passed to the UNRMAO within 2 working days. The report shall be completed by an Internal Investigation Officer. experience and skills needed to conduct a full and through investigation. 5. The personnel selected to conduct a formal investigation had no involvement with the accident/incident and have the qualifications. in order to prevent loss of valuable information. A Detailed Investigation Report should precede a BOI and/or an independent investigation if required and should then form part of the formal BOI Report or Independent Investigation Report. INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE 5. concise and accurate (including conclusions and recommendations for improvement). Page 5 of 6 NTSG.1 Once the initial information has been collated and assimilated by both the UNRMAO and UNMAO a decision will be made regarding what level of investigation will take place.
Clearance Organisations Programme Manager. c. Any other personnel as identified by the Clearance Organisations Programme Manager. The UNMAO is to ensure that a summary of lessons learnt are distributed to all mine action organisations as soon as possible. Investigating Officer. 6. e. National / Regional Programme Manager. the investigation report will be presented to the UNMAO/UNRMAO and the Chief of Operations and Programme Manager for their comments. MDD / Medical specialists if applicable. 5.1 Cultural and religious beliefs are to be considered when dealing with the repatriation of the deceased to their immediate family or in cases were non clearance staff have been injured/killed. This is to be conducted in a formal environment with the following personnel in attendance: a. Part 1. Edition 9. Following this it will be signed.6 The senior in-country appointment from the mine action organisation is to ensure that all recommendations are implemented without delay. b. BOI and Independent Investigation Report Findings: On completion of the BOI/Independent Investigation. National / Regional Chief of Operations.4 Once the BOI report has been signed and prepared. the senior in-country appointment from the mine action organisation is to be given the opportunity to read and discuss its contents. 5. d.Chapter 15 c. f. (4) 1 x copy for the mine action organisation parent HQ. (3) 1 x copy for the mine action organisation in country senior appointment. Page 6 of 6 NTSG.5 Should the mine action organisation senior in-country appointment wish to have any additional comments included in the report he is to submit them in writing and they shall be inserted into the report prior to distribution. Version 1 . REPORTING OF FATAL INCIDENTS TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES 6. 5. (2) 1 x copy for the UNRMAO QA cell. bound and produced as four copies for distribution as follows: (1) 1 x copy for the UNMAO QA cell.
Death of a non-demining worker.00. b. Part 1. 3.000. b. Death of a demining worker. d. e. On a demining worksite that requires the urgent evacuation of a casualty to an advanced medical facility for treatment. Which could attract media attention or media report. Involving a major event that caused significant damage. Serious injury to a demining worker.00 to US$50. c. UXO or explosive related accident: a. Where demining workers. A Demining Accident resulting in: a. visitors or the local population are exposed to intolerable risk that results from the application of approved standards or procedures including the failure of equipment. Resulting in damage to demining equipment of value more than US$50. Causing damage that may result in a major claim for compensation from a member of the public. d. UXO or explosives on a demining worksite. Any injury to a non-demining worker. d. Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Minor injury to a demining worker. c. Involving the unplanned detonation of a mine. 4. Resulting in damage to demining organisation equipment of value less than US$ 5. recorded as cleared or marked as cleared. Involving the discovery of a mine or UXO in an area previously cleared. c.000. e. Version 1 . A Demining / Mine Incident: a. Resulting in damage to demining organisation equipment of value from US$ 5001. Edition 9. A Demining Incident: a. A non mine. 2. b.ANNEX A to Chapter 15 MINE / UXO ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT FORMAL INVESTIGATION GUIDE Type of formal investigation Board of Independent Internal Inquiry Investigation Investigation 1.000.
site office/project number. task no. Executive Summary of Accident / Incident.ANNEX B to Chapter 15 MINE / UXO ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT DETAILED INVESTIGATION REPORT GUIDE MINE / UXO ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT DETAILED INVESTIGATION REPORT From: To: RMAO/NMAO Date report submitted: Subject: MINE/UXO ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT DETAILED INVESTIGATION REPORT Serial Number: Utilise a Sequential Numbering System. 3. Part two – DETAILS OF ACCIDENT / INCIDENT To Include: 1. Demining organisation name. 2. district. Location of Accident / Incident (province. 4. 3. MDD teams and Page 1 of 6 Part 1. team name/number. Type of Accident / Incident. Edition 9. Initial Contact Report. NTSG’s and / or IMAS. Organisation sub unit. 5. grids etc). Version 1 . to include main conclusive findings (Preventable / Non-preventable). 6. 4. Name of Worksite Supervisor. village. 2. Part one – INTRODUCTION To Include: 1. General description of how the Accident / Incident occurred including locations. Date and time of Accident / Incident. timings. Map References. 7. Demining organisation SOPs. demining personnel (demining teams. References: To Include: 1.
1 in 25) to identity maximum/minimum slopes. density or hardness and moisture content. Provide details of the size and composition of the team (deminers. If required use slope ratios (i. diagrams and plans (location plan and detailed site plan). general worksite markings and specific worksite markings in the location of the Accident / Incident.e. e. Edition 9. 3. 5. vegetation and weather: a. b. 2. 4. UXO’s or explosives involved. undulating or hilly. Include dimensions and cross reference to SOPs where appropriate. Indicate if the roots had an effect on the work or if the vegetation had been burned or cleared in any way. Describe the terrain in terms of flat. Details of mines. Details on past history of area. c. Post Accident / Incident Investigatory Activities by Investigating Officer. Describe the layout of the worksite in relation to the location of the Accident / Incident covering control areas. ground and terrain. medics etc). known mining activities etc. Worksite layout and marking. Page 2 of 6 Part 1. Photographs. team leaders. Details of vehicles / equipment involved. supervisors. Describe the conditions on the Accident / Incident site at the time of the Accident / Incident in terms of worksite layout and marking. Describe the weather at the time of the Accident / Incident. area usage. 6. The qualifications and experience of personnel directly involved in the Accident / Incident. Weather. Describe the vegetation in terms of type. Ground and terrain. Team Composition.ANNEX B to Chapter 15 mechanical teams) and any non demining personnel involved. Provide photographs of the site to highlight the Accident / Incident site conditions. including MDD and mechanical teams. Describe the ground in terms of type of soil. Provide dimensions such as height of grass/crops/bush and maximum size of the vegetation stems. size and root structure. positions. Version 1 . Part three – ACCIDENT / INCIDENT SITE CONDITIONS To Include: 1. to include military units. Part four – TEAM AND TASK DETAILS To Include: 1. Vegetation. 2. d. density. section leaders.
e. If work routines involve handovers between personnel. Include copies of survey reports. size or weight) and construction details. vehicles and mechanical equipment. This may cover detection equipment.ANNEX B to Chapter 15 3. Details of any mines. medical equipment. Version 1 . task progress reports or any other relevant demining organisation or demining worksite administration documentation. For items located also include the position in/on the ground (i. 2. detection equipment checks. with reference to SOPs. type. which should include area to be cleared and depth of clearance. 7. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Provide details of the equipment being used on the site relevant to the Accident / Incident. The results of recent QA monitoring (both internal and external) carried out on the team. Part six – EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS INVOLVED To Include: 1. and any known problems with the team. 3. 5. Provide an overview of any procedures used related to the Accident / Incident with reference to SOPs and NTSG’s. UXO's. Sequence and Procedure of Tasking details. a detailed description of the components (name. provide details of when the last handover occurred prior to the Accident / Incident and the details of what is covered during handovers for example. Implementation / Clearance plan for the task. explosive devices or explosives that were involved in the Accident / Incident. Any known mine laying techniques or patterns. Part five – EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES USED To Include: 1. types and numbers of items found and any problems encountered with the task. 6. such as common names. demolition equipment. the planned use of the land after clearance. surface or buried and if buried depth and attitude in the ground) and whether item was Page 3 of 6 Part 1. For electronic detection equipment provide details of on site testing requirements. communication equipment. time worked on the task. 4. Provide details of the task to include the survey work carried out (general and technical). Procedures used. 2. progress in terms of area cleared as a percentage of the total area to be cleared. briefings etc. Edition 9. Provide details of the work routines being followed on the task at the time of the Accident / Incident and the number of hours worked by personnel (including those involved in the Accident / Incident) on the day prior to it occurring. Task Documentation. Work routines. Equipment used. Implementation / Clearance plans. Original Statements of personnel directly involved in the Accident / Incident. deminers toolkits.
For property and infrastructure provide details of the owner(s). Part seven – DETAILS OF INJURIES To Include: 1. property deeds. Describe any damage to the PPE and provide comment as to the effectiveness or otherwise of the PPE in preventing injury (or more serious injury) to personnel involved in the Accident / Incident. 4.ANNEX B to Chapter 15 trip wired. should be shown on the Accident / Incident detailed site plan. Details of any PPE involved in the Accident Incident by type/function. The location of the injured personnel. c. Photographs of damaged equipment. For incidents involving a detonation provide details of blast holes (size and depth). Photographs for any items located or photographs of blast holes and debris. Part eight – EQUIPMENT/PROPERTY/INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE To Include 1. serial numbers (where applicable). property or infrastructure and copies of any other supporting evidence (ownership papers. All injured personnel no matter how minor the injuries they received are to be included. current value (if known). Details of all equipment. 2. insurance held by the owner(s) and if known the cost of restitution or repair. command detonated or booby trapped. damage incurred. d. For equipment include detailed descriptions to include owner. details of injuries and cross reference the names to the activities that the personnel were carrying out at the time of the incident. details of damage. occupation. Details of the medical and emergency support (communications and Page 4 of 6 Part 1. immediately after the Accident / Incident occurred. model. age. Edition 9. model or any other identifying details. make. property or infrastructure damaged as a result of the incident: a. insurance held by the owner/organisation and if possible an assessment of the cost of repair/replacement. b. repair quotes etc). mine/UXO or other debris located and any known or suspected items involved. insurance details. make. Part nine – MEDICAL AND EMERGENCY SUPPORT To Include: 1. Details of all personnel (including non demining workers) injured as a result of the Accident / Incident. 3. Version 1 . Include names.
ANNEX B to Chapter 15 evacuation transport) available at the incident site prior to the Accident / Incident occurring. This may be cross referenced to SOPs. Also if applicable to the Accident / Incident, include details of the frequency of demining Accident response plan practices and the date the last practice was carried out. 2. Provide timings for key activities during the casualty evacuation for example the evacuation of the casualty(ies) off the Accident / Incident site, the arrival at the initial medical facility, departure from the initial medical facility and arrival at the final medical facility. 3. Comment on the effectiveness or otherwise of the medical and emergency support in terms of planning and preparation, medical equipment and supplies, communications, evacuation transport, medical treatment facilities and external support (from other mine action organisations) to the casualty evacuation. Where deficiencies were identified provide details and recommendations for improvements. Part ten – REPORTING PROCEDURES 1. Comment on the effectiveness or otherwise of the initial Accident / Incident reporting procedures carried out. Part eleven – SEQUENCE OF EVENTS. 1. Provide a sequential list of events (timings and dates), from the initial time of the Accident / Incident through to and including the casualty evacuation procedures; also to include actions of the Investigating Officer. Part twelve – CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Based on the Accident / Incident findings, sequentially detail full and detailed conclusive comments on all salient findings. 2. Based on the Accident / Incident conclusions, sequentially detail full and detailed recommendations on all conclusions.
Signature of Investigating Officer Name of Investigating Officer Position of Investigating Officer Annexes: To Include: A. Copy of the initial Accident / Incident Contact Report. B. Witness statements.
Page 5 of 6 Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX B to Chapter 15 C. Accident / Incident map location and detailed site plans. D. Site photographs. E. Training records, QA monitoring reports, survey reports, Implementation / Clearance plans, task progress reports or any other demining organisation or demining worksite administration documentation required. F. Photographs and technical details of items located, blast holes or mine/UXO debris. G. Medical records or injury data sheets. H. Photographs of damaged equipment, property or infrastructure. I. Copies of equipment/property ownership documentation (ownership papers, property deeds, insurance details etc). J. Damage repair quotes/estimates. K. IMSMA Demining Accident / Incident Report and Casualty Report.
Page 6 of 6 Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX C to Chapter 15
MINE / UXO ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT FORMAL INVESTIGATION CONVENING ORDER AND TERMS OF REFERENCE
EXAMPLE OF A FORMAL INVESTIGATION CONVENING ORDER AND TERMS OF REFERENCE
CONVENING ORDER FOR ACCIDENT / INCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD OF INQUIRY. File reference (incident serial number): Date: References: A. B. C. Demining Organisation Accident / Incident Detailed Investigation Report. National Technical and Safety Guidelines (NTSG). Demining Organisation Accredited SOP’s
The Programme Manager of the National Mine Action Office hereby appoints the following members to form a BOI / Independent Investigation Team to investigate the Accident / Incident that occurred on the DATE. a. b. c. d. Chairman Member Member Member - NAME AND POSITION HELD - NAME AND POSITION HELD - NAME AND POSITION HELD - NAME AND POSITION HELD
The BOI / Independent Investigation Team is to carry out a full investigation and provide a written report to the undersigned by DATE. In the event that the completed report is not able to be submitted on the date indicated, an interim report outlining progress with the investigation and the reason for the delay is to be submitted on that date and further interim reports provided every day until the completed investigation report is submitted. The report is to be written in the English language. The Report of the BOI / Independent Investigation Team is to consider the details as detailed at Annex A and those annotated at Appendix 1 to this Convening Order; it should be noted that these details however are by no means exhaustive and are not intended to limit your investigation. The Report is also review Reference B and C as they relate to this incident, in particular as they may relate to the actions taken leading up to the incident. The BOI / Independent Investigation Team is to comment on the adequacy and effectiveness of Reference B and C, where appropriate make recommendations for amendments.
Page 1 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX C to Chapter 15
The BOI / Independent Investigation Team is to comment on the adequacy of the relevant IMAS and make recommendations for review as appropriate. Following the distribution of the final detailed report, the BOI / Independent Investigation Team is to issue those relevant report recommendations to members of the mine/UXO clearance community in the Sudan, to inform them of relevant information and any actions that should be taken by them.
NAME POSITION DATE
Page 2 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX C to Chapter 15
Appendix 1 to Convening Order DATED
CONTENTS OF REPORT FOR ACCIDENT / INCIDENT INVESTIGATION
The Report of the Board of Inquiry is to consider the details below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Introduction. Documentation, Sequence and Procedures of Tasking. Geography and Weather. Priority and Type of Task. Site Layout and Marking. Management, Supervision and Discipline on site. Quality Assurance and Quality Control. Communications and Reporting. Medical, including injuries sustained. Personalities, Team Identity No’s and Interviews. Training and experience of personnel involved. Equipment and Tools. Details of the Mine/UXO involved. Evidence of re-mining. Dress and Personal Protective Equipment. Use of Dogs. Use of Machines. Particulars of Deminers Insurance. Detailed chronological account of the activities on the day of the Incident. Summary. Conclusion.
Page 3 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
ANNEX C to Chapter 15
The following documents should also be included with the report: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A copy of this Convening Order. A copy of the Demining Organisations Detailed Investigation Report. Witness statements. Sketches, diagrams, location and site plans as appropriate. Photographs highlighting important aspects of the incident for example site conditions; mines, UXO, explosive devices or explosives involved; blast holes and blast debris; injuries to personnel; and equipment, property or infrastructure damage. Task documentation, which may include survey reports, clearance plans, demining worksite plans or demining worksite documentation. Extracts from Reference B and C where applicable. Medical records or coroner’s reports. Any further documentary evidence gathered during the investigation.
6. 7. 8. 9.
Page 4 of 4 NTSG, Part 1, Edition 9, Version 1
adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and protective clothing. Verify the implementation and application of the EH&S system and periodically conduct systematic. SCOPE 2. detailed and comprehensive audits of the EH&S system. machinery and equipment.1 This standard describes the requirements for EH&S management systems in mine action in Sudan and the key elements of those systems. adequate health care and emergency medical support in case of accidents. Part 1. 3. Page 1 of 7 NTSG. comprehensive and suitable EH&S management system prior to receiving accreditation to conduct mine action in Sudan. the level of risk to personnel and the environment can be greatly minimised. Provide a written policy covering EH&S detailing the key responsibilities. 3. is charged with the responsibility for establishing the requirements for Environment.Chapter 16 ENVIRONMENT. INTRODUCTION 1.2 The UNMAO as the authority for mine action within Sudan. HEALTH AND SAFETY 1. Set out the EH&S system in writing and ensure this information is delivered to all staff in a language or medium each individual readily understands. by ensuring that mine action personnel are well prepared.1 Several of the components of mine action are inherently dangerous and pose threats to the environment as well as personnel. that safe work practices are applied and that due consideration is given to environmental impact. including development and refresher training where appropriate. 2. g. Provide adequate supervision and training. f. and adopt safe work practices and procedures with a view to eliminating hazards or minimising them as much as practicable.2 The organisation is to: a. at no cost to the individual. Version 1 . EH&S RESPONSIBILITIES OF MINE ACTION ORGANISATIONS 3. Provide. b. b. 1.1 Each mine action organisation is to develop a detailed. Provide. at no cost to the individual. c. Health and Safety (EH&S) management systems for mine action and for ensuring that mine action organisations correctly apply them. e. Appoint a designated EH&S officer and ensure that all staff have access to this person. However. Provide and maintain safe work places. Edition 9. d. commitments and procedures.
and that the findings of such investigations are promulgated to all staff and acted upon. Take all reasonable care for their own safety and that of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work. Each individual is to: a. however they must not be allowed to override the controls and monitoring necessary to ensure humanitarian demining is conducted as safely as possible. Daily Work Routines: Personnel employed on humanitarian demining activities are not to ‘work’ more than a total of 10 hours in any work day of which no more than 6 hours. Edition 9. disablement and injury is provided for all staff. is to be physical demining. Immediately report to their supervisor or superior any situation which they have reason to believe could present a hazard and which they cannot themselves correct.2 In recognition of this need. organized breaks. m. Notify the UNMAO. Ensure that all accidents and incidents concerning EH&S are reported. briefings/debriefings. For the purposes of this standard.3 Each mine action organisation is to conduct an annual review of it’s EH&S policy to ensure it remains valid for their particular operating environment. WORK ROUTINES 5. Version 1 .1 Along with the mine action organisation. 4. a. These routines apply equally to humanitarian and development demining. 5. EH&S RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL 4. Ensure that adequate insurance cover against death. movement to and from the control-point to/from the place of work and any other activity prior to the commencement of works signal/order or cessation of works signal/order. Part 1. 5. through the relevant UNRMAO of all demining incidents in accordance with Chapter 15. d. and amend as necessary. recorded and investigated by the EH&S officer. Additionally. the organisation must review. Page 2 of 7 NTSG. b. all mine action organisations are to conform to the work routines described below. c. the term ‘work’ does not include travel times to and from the task-site.1 The urgency of humanitarian demining places strong pressures on mine action organisations and individuals to achieve results quickly.Chapter 16 h. it’s EH&S system each time it introduces new methodologies or technologies. Personnel employed on demining. including supervisors. l. excluding breaks. Develop and implement work practices that minimise unnecessary detrimental impact on the environment. set-up/pack-up processes. Such pressures are understandable. Use safety devices and PPE consistently. each individual staff member has a responsibility for their own health and safety. correctly and as directed and take all due care of these items. Comply with instructions given for their own conduct and safety. k. 3.
where practicable.1 All national staff employed by mine action organisations in Sudan are to be provided. Breaks should be applied on a minimum ratio of 1-day off for every 6-days worked. STAFF INSURANCE COVER 6. with insurance cover. wastewater soak pits and rubbish pits. Rest Days: Personnel employed on demining operations are not to work more than 21-days without a break. d. Toilets are to be provided at a minimum of one for every 20 persons and they are to be located at least 20m from any demining worksite control point. Personnel are not to deposit human waste on the soil surface or in water courses. c. that: a. Edition 9. watercourses or wells. h. b. including supervisors. 7. g. b. accommodation or food preparation areas.5m of earth cover over the toilet pit when it is filled in. Where toilets are dug into the ground. Previously hazardous areas are left in a state in which they are suitable for their intended use. They are to comply with all national or local regulations concerning the construction of temporary facilities. e. Non-hazardous areas affected by demining operations are left in a similar condition to that before demining operations commenced.Chapter 16 are to be given a minimum break of 10 minutes for every 60 minutes of demining work. the depth of the hole is to be sufficient to allow 0. The establishment and operation of temporary accommodation facilities is to be carried out in a manner that avoids or minimises erosion and the discharge of silt into any watercourse.1 General: Humanitarian demining activities are to be carried out in a manner that ensures. Version 1 .2 Worksites and Accommodation Facilities: The following should be considered and wherever practicable be implemented: a. Toilets are to be properly constructed and are to be used on all demining worksites and temporary accommodation facilities. 6. c. Preservation of the environment is to be considered in the site selection and layout for worksites and accommodation facilities. b. Long-Term Routines: All personnel employed on demining. f. have sufficient soil depth to permit the digging of toilets. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 7. if necessary. Page 3 of 7 NTSG. at no cost to the individual. are to have a break of at least 7 consecutive days for each four month period worked. Part 1. Temporary accommodation facilities are to be located in consultation with local communities to ensure that they do not affect local economic activities or social and cultural values. Temporary accommodation sites are to be well drained and. 7.
rubble and wire and any other remains of obstacles removed from a demining worksite are to be dumped in a cleared area adjacent to the worksite. Rubbish pits are to be properly located away from accommodation and food preparation areas. and are to be located and constructed so as not to contaminate groundwater. fire fighting equipment is provided and adequate precautions are taken to ensure that fire does not spread. If it is necessary to divert or dam a watercourse. As far as is practicable. n. the landowner or local community is to be consulted and their agreement obtained before the dam is constructed. . When applicable. m. all disturbed areas are to be restored to their original condition. rubbish in pits is to be burned or covered over on a regular basis. Edition 9. local communities are to be consulted when locating this dump site. Page 4 of 7 NTSG. The supply of domestic water is to be carried out in a manner that does not affect the supply of water to the local communities. domestic heating and for rubbish disposal is only to be carried out provided the burning is supervised. Any rubbish spilled during the removal process is to be cleaned up. r. t. w. watercourses and wells. y.Chapter 16 i. Containers used for storing domestic rubbish are to be vermin proof and constructed to contain spilled liquids. Waste water from washing. j. p. x. Waste water is not to be released so that it will enter watercourses. As a minimum. Part 1. Burning for cooking. Debris. covered with soil and the surface stabilised to prevent erosion and to allow natural regeneration of vegetation. bathing or kitchen areas is to be drained into properly constructed soak pits constructed large enough to take the amount of waste water generated. k. When applicable. fire fighting equipment is to be a serviceable and should comprise of a suitable fire extinguisher. fencing (except that marking hazardous areas) and other such items are to be completely removed. mine action organisations are to implement preventive measures for the control of vermin and disease carrying insects. On completion of operations all buildings. Version 1 . u. Rubbish is only to be buried with the approval of the local communities and then in locations agreed to by them. Toilets soak pits and rubbish pits are to be filled in. unless the local communities have been properly consulted on this matter and have agreed to any arrangements made. Rubbish pits are to be deep enough to allow at least 1m of earth cover over the rubbish when they are filled in and are to be constructed large enough to take all the rubbish from the sit q. Solid waste and ash left over from burning is to be either removed from the site or buried. buried or burned on a daily basis. All domestic rubbish is to be removed from the site. surplus materials. equipment. Rubbish removed from the site is to be appropriately disposed of. Where possible. Watercourses are not to have the flow of water obstructed during operations unless it is necessary to divert or dam the watercourse to allow demining to be conducted. o. v. l. s.
consideration is to be given to the contamination of the surrounding area by toxic or hazardous substances. and if necessary. If. kk. there is still a risk of damage to property or infrastructure. white phosphorus. even with protective works. the refurbishment is to include the recovering and disposal of all large items of scrap. The dumping of oil or other materials onto the ground or into any watercourse is prohibited. they are to remain aware of the location of local communities. Where vegetation is removed from ground that is subject to erosion. Mines. When mechanical assets are serviced or repaired in the field. When EOD operations cease. Edition 9. property or infrastructure. any used parts or by-products from the work are to be collected and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable location and manner. the area used is to be refurbished in accordance with the requirements of the local communities. measures are taken to stabilise the ground on completion of mechanical operations. ff. the land formally handed over. Page 5 of 7 NTSG. aa. When mine action organisations are conducting operations. the filling in of any pits and craters made by bulk disposal operations. the UNRMAO is to be informed and local communities or authorities consulted about the operation. Drained oil or other materials is to be contained using a drip pan or other suitable receptacle and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Any fuel or oil leaks that occur are to be promptly repaired. and the fencing of and marking of any areas where there may be residual non-explosive hazardous material left in the ground. scale and duration of any likely air degradation and the long-term benefits to be achieved as a result of this short-term inconvenience. the ground over which the operations were conducted is to be left as close as possible to its original state such that it is suitable for its intended use. bb. Mechanical assets are to be properly maintained. If mines. ii. the prevailing wind conditions in the area and the ability of these prevailing winds to carry smoke. Any toxic waste products of demining operations are not to be buried.Chapter 16 z. Part 1. within the boundaries of any temporary accommodation facilities or any other areas approved by the UNRMAO for training or testing purposes. When carrying out EOD operations involving potentially toxic or hazardous components. Version 1 . dd. As a minimum. gg. When mechanical operations are conducted. Mechanical assets are only to be operated within the designated demining worksite. They are to be collected and removed to an approved disposal area. UXO and AXO must be disposed of without creating any danger to people. UXO or AXO must be destroyed in-situ and there is a risk to property or infrastructure. ee. hh. ll. for example. They are to ensure that the impact on local communities of any degradation of air quality is minimised. cc. jj. protective works must be used. Mine action organisations are to liaise with local communities and authorities to explain the scope. dust and toxic fumes to local communities.
Edition 9. fff. vv. repair or washing of vehicles and equipment is required on worksites. and comply with. The dumping of oil on the ground is prohibited. If necessary. Thoroughly check the immediate environs of all mechanical clearance or disposal worksites to ensure that no of mines or UXO have been ‘thrown’ into these areas. ddd. the prohibition on the movement of mines and UXO from work sites unless as part of a disposal activity. No fuel storage facilities are to be positioned closer than 30m to a watercourse. Vehicle and equipment fuelling should be undertaken on a hard surface or over drip pans to ensure that any spilled FOL is contained. this is to be a serviceable CO2 fire extinguisher. the precautions that must be taken to ensure that risk is minimised include: bbb. mine action organisations are to investigate the immediate vicinity of the worksite to identify any areas of cultural or historical significance. tt. take an accurate count of the items moved and confirm that they have all been destroyed in the new location. oil and lubricants are stored safely and does not contaminate the soil or groundwater. rr. soak pits are to be constructed. Version 1 . Vehicles carrying hazardous material are to be driven in a safe and careful manner. pp. Any used parts. ww. specific areas are to be designated for this activity. ss. Page 6 of 7 NTSG. aaa. When moving mines or UXO as part of a disposal activity. oo. nn. Waste water from vehicle washing is not to be released so that it will enter watercourses.Chapter 16 mm. ccc. They are also to liaise with local communities and authorities to aid in the identification of such sites. Conduct thorough ‘Free From Explosives’ (FFE) inspection of any packaging material moved from a worksite or any mines or UXO that are to be used for training aids. Mine action organisations are to ensure that previously safe areas are not contaminated through the unauthorised or unplanned movement of mines or UXO. Appropriate fire precautions are to be taken relevant to the materials being transported. toxic or flammable materials with the potential to damage the environment. Adequate fire fighting equipment is to be positioned at the fuel storage facility. Mine action organisations are to ensure all personnel are aware of. All materials must be transported in containers that will minimise or prevent spills or leakage. When maintenance. Drained oil is to be contained using a drip pan or other suitable receptacle and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. During the transportation of any hazardous. Materials are to be securely loaded in the transport. Prior to commencing operations. All storage tanks. containers and fuel dispensing equipment are to be regularly maintained to ensure that there are no leaks. yy. Where it is necessary to establish fuel storage facilities. by-products of the maintenance or other rubbish (except waste oils) are to be disposed of as for domestic rubbish. Part 1. zz. eee. proper precautions must be taken to ensure that fuel. qq. uu. xx. As a minimum.
At each worksite. Page 7 of 7 NTSG. kkk. Version 1 . All significant environmental incidents are to be reported to the UNMAO along with details of results and action taken. the likely lasting results of the incident and the liaison carried out with the local communities or authorities in relation to the incident. mine action organisations are to take all possible steps to prevent damage to these sites. as soon as practicable after the incident. 8. 8. the mine action organisation will be given a suitable period to remedy them.Chapter 16 ggg. If any article is located during mine action operations and is suspected of being of cultural or historical significance. mine action organisations are to maintain an ‘Environmental Incident Register’. Edition 9. protective works are to be used. Part 1.1 The EH&S management systems of individual mine action organisations will be reviewed by during the accreditation process. If these items are unsafe to move and in-situ demolitions are necessary. mmm. the action taken to remedy the situation. work in that area is to cease and the matter is to be immediately reported to the UNRMAO. Such action may dictate that any mines or UXO found at the work site are removed to another area for destruction.2 The UNMAO reserves the right to review the current EH&S system of any mine action organisation at any time to ensure it remains valid for current conditions. lll. Should deficiencies be found. This register is to record the details of any environmental incident that may occur. Having identified any areas of cultural or historical significance. The register is to be made available to the UNMAO on request. REVIEWS 8.
exploratory lanes can be established into the minefield in order to carryout the requirements of the survey. 4. 4. by using MDD’s.1 To ensure that all activities during technical survey are carried out with the minimum exposure to risk. survey drills for manual clearance and marking. This may include but not be restricted to information from UNRMAO. information from other mine action organisations concerning previous relevant activities. 2. procedures and processes as outlined elsewhere in this NTSG are where applicable to be fully adhered to. to ensure that all specific technical survey procedures and associated procedures are implemented in accordance with this Chapter. information from the GMAA team. and all other procedures associated with survey activities. Part 1. by using mechanical means or any combination of these assets.4 Once the boundary lane has been established. This can be done manually.1 It is the responsibility of the mine action organisation. GENERAL SAFETY 4. To ensure that the technical levels are of a standard that shall enhance the safety. INTRODUCTION 1. effectiveness. SOPs and other plans shall reflect and add to these minimum requirements but any deviation must be approved by the UNMAO. Edition 9.5 The following are the minimum requirements: Page 1 of 6 NSTG. with delegated authority through supervisors. 3. 4. efficiency and quality of all clearance operations.Chapter 17 TECHNICAL SURVEY 1.1 The detail of this Chapter provides the minimum requirements to mine action organisations charged with conducting a technical survey. 4.2 During technical survey. with MDD’s or with mechanical means or any combination of these assetts.3 When carrying out technical survey in a minefield that has not previously been marked the first action is to establish a boundary lane around the hazardous area perimeter. RESPONSIBILITY 3. These lanes can also be established manually. MRE team and possibly the LIS team.1 Prior to conducting a technical survey utilising any accredited assets it is the responsibility of the mine action organisation to compile and assimilate all of the available information concerning their task in order to draft their implementation plan. OBJECTIVE 2. team leaders and section leaders. Version 1 . 4.
All marking and fences are to be constructed on cleared ground. INFORMATION GATHERING 5. Overlaps of 10cm and base-stick drills as described elsewhere in this NTSG apply. Before carrying out any digging for marking and concreting a ‘detector’ check shall be carried out. Priority of future clearance operations Hindrance factors – vegetation. The boundary lane is to be at least 2 metres width. Before driving any pickets into the ground a ‘detector’ check shall be carried out. Steel pickets. No digging or excavating is to be carried out in uncleared areas. b. Clearance of an individual exploratory lane shall stop once the other side of the suspected area has been reached or if mines are found. Safety distances and ‘actions on’ as detailed elsewhere in this NTSG and in the mine action organisations own SOP shall be applied during all activities of the technical survey. It is recommended that the lane is widened to 2 metres as soon as possible but prior to the lane exceeding 30 metres in length. This includes: a. Intermediate lanes are cleared applying all techniques. No pickets shall be driven into the ground in uncleared areas. Part 1. c. Edition 9. j. logistics. k. i. BOUNDARY LANE 2m min INTERMEDIATE LANE 50m EXPLORATORY LANES 50m BOUNDARY LANE BOUNDARY LANE e. Exploratory lanes should not exceed 50 metres in length before being connected to the exploratory lane to the right and/or left of it and/or boundary lane by intermediate lanes as per the diagram below: . h. processes and procedures as for the boundary and/or exploratory lanes. Version 1 . g. c. 5.Chapter 17 a.1 The primary aim of a technical survey is to collect sufficient information to enable any future clearance requirements to be more accurately defined. barbwire or any other fencing equipment made from steel shall not be used any closer than 10 meters from ongoing clearance operations where mine detectors are being used. communications etc Area(s) to be cleared in future clearance operations Page 2 of 6 NSTG. Exploratory lanes are to be at right angles to the boundary lane at safe distances according to the threat but at a minimum of 25 metres separation. b. f.
e. Version 1 . positions etc g. experienced and competent enough to carry out survey operations alongside. e. Site preparations and setting up of site. b. 7. Part 1.1 In general the following overall survey sequence shall be covered by the following activities: a. firmness etc f. Fragmentation and general metallic contamination levels h. Areas suitable for different means of clearance i. i. site supervisors. manual assets and/or mechanical assets j. UNMAO QA visit j. Preparations of exploratory lanes. Suitable means of clearance for the task i. c. h. Estimated time required for completion of future clearance operations 6. Edition 9. Tasking. team leaders. If area reduction is to be carried out at the site this can be done as concurrent activity during the clearance of the boundary lane. Task preparations including MRE for the local population (MRE should be done before. mine action organisation rep(s) i. Gathering of documentation to include but not restricted to accident and incident reports. UNMAO rep. density. mechanical/MDD organisation reps and reps from the organisation that conducted the GMAA. mechanical and/or MDD assets) to establish if there is a mine/UXO threat and if so the extent of the hazardous area.e. MDD and/or mechanical and the survey team must be suitably and adequately trained. Completion report to be submitted to the UNMAO. MRE activity reports. Local soil conditions – type. The site visit team should comprise of all interested and/or involved parties including but not restricted to. Clearance of the boundary lane. minefield record(s). Page 3 of 6 NSTG. SPECIFIC TECHNICAL SURVEY REQUIREMENTS 7. MDD.Chapter 17 d. MRE rep. Required depth of clearance e. OVERALL SEQUENCE OF WORK FOR TECHNICAL SURVEY 6. f. g. local community rep. Site visit to the hazardous area. 7. d. all or any combination of manual clearance methods.2 The survey may involve any.1 Technical survey involves probing suspected areas (using manual. Mine patterns and types of mines to include fusing. during and after the technical survey). GMAA report. in conjunction with and/or coordinating with these assets and in whatever relevant capacity. Marking and/or fencing of the task.
7. 7. 7.11 Tests of the soil's composition and mechanics shall be made. which is the preferred method. 7. which shall affect the choice of detectors for the clearance operation (if several are available). but it shall mainly be as a consequence of collecting more reliable information on the extent of the hazardous area. which represent an immediate and unacceptable risk. erosion or vertical movement of the Page 4 of 6 NSTG. after receiving the priority of the minefield but generally if clearance does not immediately follow a technical survey then the area shall be marked by semi-permanent or permanent fencing depending on the estimated duration before clearance commences. This shall ensure all mines have been captured inside the minefield. Area reduction may involve some limited clearance.4 Sometimes it may be appropriate to conduct a technical survey when there is no immediate need to clear all the land. 7. The objective in such circumstances is to accurately identify. 7.14 Likely depths of mines and UXO’s shall require an understanding of the mine laying tactics and weapon systems used. 7. 7. record.10 The soil in the area should be analysed to determine mineral and scrap metal contamination.6 The remaining hazardous area(s) should normally be marked/fenced with permanent or semi permanent marking systems until cleared by a demining team. and an assessment of whether there has been any soil slippage. such as the opening of access routes and the destruction of mines and UXO. Part 1. Version 1 . to establish the potential use of mechanical equipment. Area reduction is a concurrent activity and should be an ongoing process during the whole task as more information becomes available. flooding. along the base line or exploratory lanes.5 The process through which the initial area indicated as contaminated (during the GMAA) is reduced to a smaller area is known as 'area reduction'. This may be tasked later. mark and fence the extent of the hazardous area in order to reduce the risk of mine accidents or incidents occurring.3 Technical survey tasking may require the mine action organisation to erect hazardous area fencing/marking to reduce the risk of unintentional entry into the hazardous area. The level of marking shall be determined in the tasking order.Chapter 17 7. Edition 9.8 If mines are being found when doing area reduction MDD’s or/and machines are to be withdrawn and to work no closer than 10 meters to the area that is suspected to be mined.7 Area reduction using MDD’s can be done using a panel search method. Access of routes leading to the clearance site should also be examined especially where the use of heavy mechanical equipment is considered.9 Where a mine is found on the boundary lane during the process the perimeter shall be extended outwards a further 10 metere. Information on this is also to be passed on to the community through the MRE team. 7. or using the box method – where boxes have to be prepared by the survey team.
why a analysis of the area must be done. Part 1. lengths etc are to be recorded o.15 The survey team shall be equipped with sufficient field equipment so that it can operate fully autonomous from other operations. Scale h. If this is unavailable then other suitable and available means aimed at ensuring the greatest possible degree of accuracy should be utilised. Edition 9. Exploratory lanes details of locations. It may also involve the clearance of one or more sample areas/exploratory lanes. Areas suitable for manual clearance and areas that will require a full excavation t. All turning points shall be given a number that shall be recorded on the survey sketch showing distance and bearings. All mines/UXO locations m. Description and location of the admin area used j. 8. e. with ground prep.Chapter 17 mines within the soil. Date – the sketch was completed i.1 A technical survey report is to be drafted by the mine action organisation and submitted to UNRMAO once the survey has been completed. d. TECHNICAL SURVEY REPORTING 8. Legs (straight run of the contaminated area boundary lane between intermediate points) are to be recorded in metres and the bearing to the next turning or intermediate point is recorded in degrees (360degrees azimuth). Start point position. Turning points shall be on the inside of the boundary lane. This is to include a sketch which is to be clear and to as large a scale as is practicable and shall have the following information recorded on it: a. 7. Details of possible areas suitable for future mechanical clearance/ground preparation r. p. c. Areas cleared using MDD’s are to be recorded which should include all indications given by the MDD’s. Page 5 of 6 NSTG. Areas cleared using mechanical means of clearance/ground preparation including detonations are also to be recorded on the sketch q. Version 1 1 . Mines and UXO’s destroyed or removed n. Benchmark details including details and the grid reference. Turning points positions using a DGPS. North indicator g. Any steep areas u. Areas with dense vegetation Whenever practicable and possible all positional recordings should be taken using a DGPS. Mined area – areas found to be mined during the survey shall be indicated on the sketch and this shall include patterns l. Name – the name of the person who made the sketch shall be indicated k. Details of areas suitable for future MDD ops – suitable without ground prep. f. Landmark details including description and grid reference1 b. s.
mine patterns bb. Areas where flooding and/or erosion have occurred. Signature from the verifying supervisor dd. evidence of removed mines. Areas with high fragmentation or non cooperative soil x. Other information such as but not restricted to visual remains. The fencing shall conform to other details elsewhere in this NTSG. Access routes for mechanical means of clearance ground/preparation y. Version 1 .Chapter 17 v. Marking/Fencing that has been done in the minefield w. Page 6 of 6 NSTG. Location of accidents in the area aa. z. Part 1.1 Mine action organisations are to carryout the marking of the hazardous area in conformance with their tasking order. MARKING AND FENCING 9. craters. Any other relevant information cc. Edition 9. Type of mine detector used 9.
UXO and other ERW. infrastructure and local support facilities. that form part of the demining process are not detailed other than making a reference to them when applicable. DEMINING PROCESS 1. soil characteristics. The processes. To assess the scale and impact of the landmine problem on the country and individual communities. e. procedures. with assistance as necessary. Planning Preparation Clearance Post-clearance 1. 2.2 A national mine action programme will generally commence with the GMAA. to establish priorities and develop a coherent national mine action programme. In summary the aim of the general mine action assessment is: a. and subsequent formulation of the detailed method by which a task is to be carried out. d. To survey all reported and/or suspected locations of mine or UXO contamination. and c. To provide an indication of the size and scope of the problem. the national capabilities and potential to address the problem. To collect general information such as the security situation. b. mine action clearance. to assist the planning of future mine action projects. routes. climate. terrain. assessment and processing of information. scale and impact of the threat posed by mines. EOD. material and information. human skills. Version 1 . selection of an appropriate way to proceed. MDD operations etc. This requires accurate and timely information on the form. requirements and standards for a GMAA are detailed elsewhere in this NTSG and should be applied accordingly.e. the process may not be linear and the activities may not always be consecutive however there will always be a general sequence and logical progression involving the four stages of the demining management process: a. requirements and standards the relevant Chapter in this NTAG should be referred to. quantities and types of explosive hazards. technical survey.2 Specific mine action activities i. In practice. and the need for external assistance including financial. the resources needed to meet it. b.Chapter 18 MANAGEMENT OF DEMINING OPERATIONS 1. procedures. c.1 The demining management process is shown in outline in Annex A. Page 1 of 6 NSTG. 2. The information collected should be sufficient to enable the national authority. For further detail concerning the conduct. processes. Part 1. Edition 9. PLANNING 2.1 Planning is the collection. d.
tasking order or other such formal agreement. b. Edition 9. Links with other sectors. The contract should give details of the risk and quality management processes to be adopted during the clearance work. 3. c. Page 2 of 6 NSTG. EOD/UXO activities.1 Preparation includes all enabling activities that help to clarify the clearance requirement and develop the capacity of a mine action organisation and its sub-units to carry out a clearance task.Chapter 18 3. CONTRACT PREPARATION 6. the United Nations or other international organisations. quality assurance and other. benefactors. BAC. and should be consistent with the clearance requirements being applied to similar categories and uses of land. d. render safe. The management of the general mine action assessment. Equipment preparation.1 The funding of demining programmes may be provided by the government of the mine-affected country.2 At the national level preparation should also include: a.3 Clearance covers and/or includes many phases. together with the donor agency. equipment and training. The preparation of a contract or tasking order enables the national government of the mineaffected country. 4. e. 6.2 The clearance requirements should be achievable and affordable. and for EOD may also involve access. CLEARANCE 4. and f. 4. and the progress and financial milestones to be achieved. philanthropists or from many other sources. aspects and activities including but not restricted to manual clearance. PREPARATION 3. 5.2 It is important that the funds match the true cost of demining and that a long term commitment is provided by the donors in order for major projects that require the mine action organisations to make major investments in staff. from donor governments. identification.1 The definition of the work to be undertaken should ideally be in the form of a contract. diagnosis.1 Clearance when referred to in the context of humanitarian demining is the location. Coordination activities. FUNDING 5. Establishing a network of community volunteers. to specify the clearance requirement in detail. or linking with existing community volunteer networks. 4. Part 1. It also should outline the reporting requirements. removal and/or destruction of mines and UXO. use of MDD and/or mechanical means. Establish methods of victim reporting. Version 1 . final disposal and (where appropriate) protective works. 5.
Those technologies that may have an application to demining but have yet to mature and have not yet been formally demonstrated.1 The effective management of demining programmes requires accurate. removing or destroying mines and UXO. effectively and efficiently. Although some centralised training for senior national managers and technical advisors may be appropriate. b. the majority of training should be conducted in the mine-affected country. collate and distribute relevant information at field and headquarters levels in a timely manner. Part 1. 9. 9.1 Mine action organisations shall employ appropriately trained and qualified managers.4 Mine action organisations should focus their equipment procurement on the first category. but whenever possible should assist in the development and fielding of those technologies in the second category.1 It is the responsibility of the national mine action authority to allocate the proper tools in the most effective manner to ensure that priorities can be achieved depending on the clearance situation. appropriate and timely information. Some new technologies have the potential to generate major improvements in safety and costeffectiveness. Equipment that has been fully developed. procedures and drills and in many cases these methods will be the most appropriate and effective means of detecting. The UN's Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) has been developed to provide the facility to collect.Chapter 18 7. deminers and other required personnel as appropriate. but also for access to details of the mine and UXO threat. and their T&E. 9. Version 1 . National mine action authorities and mine action organisations should establish and maintain effective management information systems. 9. not only for cultural and linguistic reasons.2 Demining programmes have traditionally relied on manual practices. donors should provide assistance and encouragement to those demining organisations fielding new technologies. Those technologies that have been proved to work but require further development and formal T&E c. and can be introduced into demining programmes without any major modification or changes.3 Demining technologies can be grouped in three general categories according to their technical maturity and availability: a. tested and evaluated (T&E). INFORMATION 8. Edition 9. IMSMA is available to all mine action programmes. 8. TRAINING 7. However. in some programmes the greater use of equipment may enable clearance (and other elements of demining) to be conducted more safely. Page 3 of 6 NSTG. EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS 9.
An important aspect of this procedure is to clarify the ownership of any residual risk and to ensure that the local community have been fully briefed. by providing appropriate training throughout the structure and by making available effective personal protective equipment (PPE). manage and carry out relevant mine action activities safely. cleared land). The general requirements of the community liaison function may be filled by specialist members of the demining team. by selecting equipment with inherently safe design. or the capacity may be subcontracted to a specialist MRE agency. 13. evaluated and reduced in a systematic and timely manner for each demining task and for each demining worksite. Version 1 . including a formal handover certificate. COMMUNITY LIAISON 11.1 All mine action organisations will be required to undergo the full accreditation process in order to be formally recognised ion as being competent and able to plan. and as such forms an essential part of the overall clearance process. 11. 11. and all necessary documentation shall be prepared. effectively and efficiently. Edition 9. and b. the area shall be surveyed and marked.2 This should also be addressed at a national level. Ensuring a high level of confidence from the community in the quality of the finished product (i. Page 4 of 6 NSTG. SAFETY AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 12.1 The inspection of cleared land aims to provide confidence that the clearance requirements have been met.1 Community liaison a specialist function of the mine action organisation and plays a major part in: a. POST-CLEARANCE 13.e. by developing work practices that contribute to risk reduction.2 They are to develop and maintain management procedures and processes that will enable safety and occupational health (S&OH) risks to be identified. 12.2 Prior to the handover of cleared land.1 Mine action organisations shall achieve a safe working environment by providing effective management and supervision. 12. Part 1.Chapter 18 10.. 13. ACCREDITATION AND LICENSING 10. Confirming the correct area for clearance.
14. Page 5 of 6 NSTG. In such circumstances. requirements and guidance.3 Wherever possible. Part 1. including this Guide. 14. by establishing and continuously improving the competency of mine action organisation personnel. and to donors or sponsors. The PPR should include a report on the suitability of the equipment.3 A quality management system shall be developed. Version 1 . 15. Edition 9.Chapter 18 13.2 The process and procedures that aim to achieve this continuous improvement to an organisation's management system and operational practices is commonly referred to as quality management. preparation and clearance phases of the operation. when one or more IMAS is not appropriate. 13. and incorporating changes to international regulations and requirements such as those produced by the International Organisation for Standardisation and the International Labour Organisation. and solutions proposed. the purpose of which is to ensure that the 'products' or 'services' delivered meet the agreed needs. AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY 15. QUALITY MANAGEMENT 14. specifications.4 PPRs should be distributed to national mine action authorities. and by using appropriate and efficient equipment.4 Mine action organisations shall apply the principles of quality management. procedures. Issues of concern should be identified and prioritised.1 The effective management of demining operations aims to clear land in a safe and efficient manner achieved by developing and applying appropriate management processes. by obtaining accurate and timely information on the mine and UXO threat. the UN provides alternative. by applying safe and effective operational procedures. to the United Nations (UNMAS. 14. Where PPRs highlight shortcomings in established equipment or procedures. training and support. particularly issues involving safety. they should be more widely distributed. The United Nations applies IMAS to its mine action programmes. UNMAS is the office within the United Nations Secretariat responsible to the international community for the development and maintenance of IMAS. activities and contracts unless the local situation precludes their effective use. 14.1 United Nations: The United Nations has a general responsibility for the effective management of mine action programmes by continuously refining IMAS to reflect developing mine action norms and practices. mine action organisations should conduct a formal post project review (PPR) to identify lessons-learned during the planning. UNDP and UNOPS).
it is the mine action organisation which is required to establish an appropriate and effective management system. the accreditation and licensing of demining organisations.4 Mine Action Organisation: Ultimately. Page 6 of 6 NSTG. 15. is responsible for ensuring the national and local conditions that enable the effective management of demining projects and for establishing and maintaining national regulations and procedures for the management of demining operations in accordance with IMAS. the mine action organisation is also responsible for assisting the formation process.Chapter 18 15. or their agents. are also partly responsible for ensuring that the standards and guidelines for quality management are applied. Part 1.2 National Mine Action Authority: The national mine action authority. and has not had the opportunity to gain experience. The national mine action authority is ultimately responsible for all phases of a demining project within its national boundaries. This involves strict attention to the writing of contract documents. Donors.3 Donors: Donor agencies are part of the management process. by giving advice and assistance including the framing of national standards. and apply it throughout the project. and post-clearance inspections prior to accepting full responsibility for the cleared land. and ensuring that demining organisations chosen to carry out such contracts meet the accreditation and licensing criteria. 15. This responsibility and accountability is even greater when the national mine action authority is in the process of formation. or the organisation acting on its behalf. demonstrate it to the national mine authority. Edition 9. Version 1 . and in accordance with international standards. Where the national mine action authority is in the process of formation. including defining the clearance requirement. the monitoring of demining organisations during clearance. and as such have a responsibility to ensure that the projects they are funding are managed effectively.
ANNEX A to Chapter 18 DEMINING PROCESS START Determine International mine action requirements Commercial or general mine action assessment Collect & collate info to enable planning. economic & environmental impact of landmines and UXO Planning Programme planning Prioritise & select the area(s) to be cleared of mines & UXO Technical Survey Collect sufficient info to enable the clearance requirement to be defined. development and/or refinement of a NMA programme Develop a NMA programme which aims to reduce the social. removal or destruction of all mine & UXO hazards Monitoring & inspections (quality assurance) Inspection of cleared land by sampling (quality control) Post Clearance Prepare handover documentation. Version 1 . Conduct post-project review FINISH Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Part 1. Edition 9. including the area(s) to be cleared & the depth of clearance Preparation Contractual arrangements Specify the clearance requirements & responsibilities Authorise desk (provisional) assessment – accreditation & license(s) Enabling activities Develop appropriate capabilities & establish funding arrangements On-site inspections to confirm accreditation & license(s) Clearance Detection.
the UNMAO must be informed and. 3. Page 1 Page 1 NTSG. the organisation must ensure that appropriate actions are taken. INTRODUCTION 1.Chapter 19 HUMAN REMAINS AND GRAVES LOCATED DURING MINE ACTION OPERATIONS 1. Version 1 . Part 1. appropriate authorisation obtained prior to commencing any such operations. Edition 9. in such situations.1 Human remains encountered during mine action operations must not be touched or moved.1 Human remains and graves are sometimes reported or found during mine action operations and. 2. GRAVES 3. The location of graves and cemeteries must be recorded during mine action operations and no demining operations shall be conducted within close proximity without prior authorisation from the UNMAO and relevant authorities. 2. UNMIS and relevant authorities. as soon as possible.2 In circumstances where mine action organisations are requested to conduct clearance to enable safe access to the human remains. The description of the remains and their location should be recorded and the information relayed to the UNMAO. HUMAN REMAINS 2.
especially for use during the verification of roads. such as field logistics.1 Remote Explosive Sent Tracing (REST) has proven itself to be an effective tool for area reduction in humanitarian mine clearance. 3. 1. GENERAL 1. 2. Part 1. The term ‘breaching’ is in the context of this IMAS used to describe the provision of safe access lanes for people involved in scent trapping. Mine action organisations are to refer to these where appropriate for further guidance. The scent trapping element – the systematic collection of air by suction through filters. The breaching and rescue element – the provision of safe access b.1 DEFINITIONS The following common terms and definitions apply: a.3 This Chapter has been written taking into consideration and in accordance with IMAS 09. preparation. the analysis process and the follow-up of mine suspected areas subsequent to the completion of the analysis process. Version 2 . d. rescue services. 2. Where appropriate the standards detailed in other applicable Chapters of this NTSG are to be applied. The term ‘scent trapping’ is used to refer to the process of collecting target odour in filters. The terms ‘indication’ or ‘indicated’ are used to describe the trained response given by a sniffer animal which is used to return a filter as suspect positive.43 and other applicable IMAS.1 OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS The system has four principal elements: a. The term 'target odour' is used to describe the scent from the target item.2 This chapter provides specifications and guidelines for the planning. e. Edition 8. The analysis element – the analysis of the filter cartridges.Chapter 20 REMOTE EXPLOSIVE SCENT TRACING 1. medical back-up and communications. c. Page 1 of 10 NTSG. c. 3. It also describes the sampling process. The term comprises the breaching and scent trapping functions as well as other related activities. The term ‘sampling operation’ is used to describe the overall field operation established for the purpose of collecting scent on filters. accomplishment and management of vapour sampling and remote analysis operations. 1. b.
3.g. a ERW in the proximity but outside the area sampled. map readings or manual measurement and each filter cartridge representing that particular leg is to be appropriately marked/recorded. The tubes are typically placed in single or double-headed tube assemblies at the end of a long suction pipe.Chapter 20 d. there is continuous suction. Page 2 of 10 NTSG. The follow-up demining element – verify the presence of mines or UXO in the sectors that have been identified by the analysis element as potentially mined and to carry out the requisite clearance. 3. Part 1. and these sectors will be assessed as having no further need for mine clearance.5 When the filter cartridges have been analysed. The re-checking of "positive" sectors is normally undertaken using free-running dogs to pinpoint the exact location of mines/UXO.2 Sampling operations involves the scent trapping of air and/or dust containing explosive traces near the ground surface. The filter cartridges currently in use in REST are made from coiled polyvinyl chloride (PVC) netting. e. which is then carried over a "leg" of 100 – 300 m at steady walking or driving pace. 3. s/l³air). a follow-up clearance will be required of all the sectors indicated as possibly contaminated. using known quantities (e. This does not guarantee the presence of mines/UXO as some false indication may occur or scent/odour may have been picked up outside the perimeters of the sampled area. Manual deminers or other suitable and accredited demining methods shall be used to finally be used to uncover and deal with the finds. 4. Version 1 . 3. They are therefore to be referred to as ‘probable positives’ when they are taken in the field around a confirmed item of explosive ordnance. which is attached to the sampling mechanism. ‘True positives’ can only be made in a controlled environment.3 Positional recording of the start/end of legs is to be done using DGPS. with the pipe being systematically moved from side to side in a 2-4 meter wide pattern. Filter cartridges with no explosive trace represent mine/UXO free sectors. These samples can sometimes be referred to as ‘known positives’ a.g. Edition 9. SAMPLES 4.1 Samples taken are always unknown until they have been tested. An area declared as negative has had filters tested with no indications. and the used cartridges are systematically marked and stored in plastic containers. typically undertaken using vehicle mounted or portable sampling machines capable of sucking air through filter cartridges fitted to the end of plastic tubes. the filter cartridges are changed. An area declared as positive has been tested and indications have been made in the test facility and further investigation shall be done by using clearance assets. b. At the end of this "leg". The filter cartridges are placed in a sampling mechanism. which has the ability to attract TNT molecules. During this movement. tnt µg/l h2o.4 The filter cartridges are then to be checked for traces of the target odour.
5. Part 1. As such the following shall be applied appropriately and relevantly: a.1 The mine action organisation is responsible for appointing specifically trained and qualified personnel to plan and conduct all aspects of the sampling operation.Chapter 20 c. or where the edge of such a mined area might be.3 The REST system may be applied as a verification and elimination method when the objective is to check one or more houses for booby traps. 5. It is acknowledged that different organisations may be tasked to carryout the different elements of sampling operation that they may refer to appointments differently. When referring to it must be considered whether or not it contains the target substance (normally TNT). marking of the filter cartridges.2 The REST should not be used for general area elimination without prior testing to ensure its effectiveness and reliability. road condition etc) (9) Confirmation that prevailing procedures for the storage of blank and used filter cartridges are implemented and followed (10) Co-ordination of rescue operations in the event of accidents or vehicle breakdown. His/her responsibilities include but are not limited to: (1) Planning and management of the overall sampling operation (2) Co-ordination between the breaching and scent trapping team (3) Establishment of appropriate security and safety arrangements (4) Establishment of appropriate medical evacuation procedures (5) Establishment of appropriate communications procedures (6) Establishment of an appropriate rescue back-up procedures (7) Establishment of the appropriate logistic support elements (8) Establishment of appropriate procedures for the preparation and storage of records including the preparation of maps with plots and records of the exact location of each change of filter cartridge. Edition 9. it may have an application if the objective is to determine whether there is a potential mine/UXO threat in a particular area. SPECIFIC ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 6. 6.1 Whilst the REST system has no application is areas with regular or patterned minefields. container boxes and other relevant information (landmarks. Version 1 . 5. Page 3 of 10 NTSG. A project manager will be responsible for managing the implementation of all field activities and for co-ordinating the breaching and scent trapping elements of the REST operation. APPLICATIONS 5. Confined rooms with entrapped air may be ideal for the application of REST.
quality and operational aspects. The breaching operation is typically mechanised but breaching may also be manually undertaken or by means of mine dog detection. accessories and other needed tools/assets prior to the breaching (2) Ensuring that all personnel sitting inside the mine-proof vehicles are correctly strapped in during the breaching process (5) Inspection and evaluation of the situation of the road and. Edition 9.1 Mechanised breaching team: A mechanised breaching team may be put together in different ways. Breaching Team Leader – typically responsible for the management of the breaching team including all safety. the team shall be headed by a breaching team leader who is responsible for his/her team before.Chapter 20 b. This includes but is not limited to: (1) Inspection of vehicles. and their positions and responsibilities should be in line with the following principles: a. on the work area and the suitability of the mine proof vehicles to operate on such roads or areas (4) Inspection of the patterns created by the wheels of the vehicles during the operations with subsequent recommendations as to whether further marking of the vehicle track is required to ensure that the sampling staff can identify the right tracks to walk in. These include but are not limited to: (1) Inspection of sampling equipment and sampling staff before sampling operations start (2) Monitoring the sampling staff during sampling to ensure that sampling is undertaken at the correct speed and that the search pattern and change of filter cartridges are undertaken in accordance with the prevailing SOP (3) Ensuring that the filter cartridges are changed exactly at the spots marked by the marking staff (4) Ensuring that the sampling staff walk steady in the centre of their lanes and that the roles of the primary and secondary scent trappers are rotated frequently c. A typical breaching team however should compose of 9 – 14 people. due to the unique character of each operation. (5) The breaching team leader is normally located in the first mineproof vehicle during operations. during and after operations. during and after the sampling operation. Part 1. A team leader will be appointed to head the scent-trapping team. He/she is responsible for all activities undertaken by his/her team before. Version 1 . 7. including the maintenance of vehicles and equipment Page 4 of 10 NTSG. and its personnel may have different titles and roles and responsibilities to those suggested in this standard. if working off-road. Radio contact is to be maintained with the second mine proof vehicle (and the third if available) as well as the project manager and the scent trapping team leader. TEAM COMPOSITIONS & RESPONISBILITIES 7. When mechanised breaching is used.
plotting the exact location of change of filter cartridge and registration/storage f. repair of vehicles and planning/preparing the spare part requirements during the operation. Marker – typically responsible for the accurate marking and recording of the sectors that have been sampled. Page 5 of 10 NTSG. He/she marks the spots where filter cartridges are to be changed g. Mechanic – typically responsible for the establishment of maintenance routines. b. Their role is to monitor the sample pattern and the walking speed of the primary scent trappers and to change filter cartridges and decontaminate the cartridge assemblies at the long end of the flexible tube. Version 1 . measuring the driving distance. Logistic staff – typically responsible for logistic support during breaching and scent trapping. The scent trappers are normally responsible for the maintenance of the sampling equipment and they may also be responsible for the handling. Edition 9. The Team Leader will normally follow behind the sampling staff where he/she monitors their walking steadiness/speed. such a team may be composed in any form. and its basic functions are outlined. search pattern and change of filter cartridge as well as the marking of the safe lanes provided by the breaching team. Deminers – typically responsible for emergency manual demining in the event of accidents. c. In practice. A functional breakdown of positions and responsibilities should incorporate the following principles: a.Chapter 20 b. The medic is responsible for establishing adequate field routines for medical evacuation/treatment including management and the preparation of medical equipment. but the basic requirements remain. Part 1. marking and storage of the filter cartridges. The Marker typically walks behind the first mine-proof vehicle but in front of the sampling team. The marker may use a measuring tape or another measuring device to measure out the exact distance between each change of filter cartridge. Team Leader – typically responsible for the planning and accomplishment of the sampling process.2 Scent Trapping Team: A suggested manual scent trapping team is described below. Driver(s) – typically responsible for driving and for first order maintenance of the vehicles d. so its personnel may have different titles and roles due to the unique character of each operation. vehicle breakdowns or similar. The team leader normally has a supervisory and command role. including fuel supply for the scent trapping teams. other accidents or illness. They will normally walk in the safe lanes/tracks (one in each lane) where they will sweep the area with the flexible tube attached to the sampling machines c. placing and picking container boxes on/from the ground. Secondary scent trappers – will typically walk 2-3 m behind the primary scent trappers. Medic – responsible for emergency treatment in the event of mine/UXO accidents. including the spots where filters have been changed. Primary scent trappers – typically responsible for the manual scent trapping. 7. The mechanic may be one of the drivers e.
A medic is to be available at all times as per the details of Chapter 10. i. c. Version 1 . Tracks (safe lane) created by the vehicle should be at least 30 cm wide. Manual demining element – every sampling operation should have a manual demining element capable of demining wider safe lanes from a safe area to the wrecked vehicle. The rescue plan should at minimum take into account the following factors: a. f. The use of safe lanes – the mental and physical strains undergone by the people inside a detonation wrecked vehicle. k. to facilitate its repair or recovery Page 6 of 10 NTSG.1 A rescue strategy and plan shall be prepared prior to the start of sampling operations. Mine action organisations shall ensure people carrying sampling machines are provided safe walking access along mine suspected roads. g. RESCUE PLAN 9. At least two vehicles should be used in pair to support one sampling operation. Primary and secondary scent trappers are to be frequently rotated. these people should not be allowed to walk out of the area in safe lanes created by the wrecked vehicle.1 The mine action organisation tasked with conducting any element of the sampling operation is responsible for ensuring that the operations is safe at all times. b. The driver and other staff in the mine proof vehicle during breaching shall always be sufficiently strapped to prevent a throw-out whilst the vehicle is moving. over areas and/or into houses by taking appropriate actions. The shock pressure may have caused dizziness and inability to walk steadily b. roles and responsibilities are to be clearly detailed in the organisational SOP.Chapter 20 8. Scent trappers are to be given adequate rest periods appropriate to the current elements and in accordance with these NTSG. j. procedures. SAFETY 8. Team members with other primary functions may be used as deminers provided that they have been trained and operationally accredited for manual demining. Consideration must be taken during planning of the probable level of mine/UXO contamination as this will affect the effectiveness of the sampling operation. Tracks should where necessary be marked along the centre tape/paint or similar while driving to clearly distinguish them. 9. e. Edition 9. All equipment carried inside the cabin of vehicles must be adequately strapped and secured. h. Part 1. d. All processes. REST should not be applied if the safety of the people involved is at risk. The manual deminers may also have to demine a safety zone around the wrecked vehicle. The following minimum safety standards are to be implemented: a.
Chapter 20 c. MINE PROOF VEHICLE 10. Edition 9. d. which by far exceeds the pressure caused by walking sampling staff equipped with protective clothing and the sampling machines. The secondary vehicle’s main function is to provide rescue support.2 UNMAO shall implement an external quality management system to satisfy its own need to ensure that approved processes are followed. the following principles shall be applied: a.1 If mine proof vehicles are to be used.1 The purpose of a quality management system is to confirm that the sampling operation is functioning properly and that positive and negative areas are identified accurately. not drive all the way up to the wrecked vehicle without prior manual demining of tracks since it is likely that other mines may detonate in the same area. since it is responsible for recommending to the local authorities to accept Handover/Completion Certificates when they are submitted by mine action organisations. however. This rescue can sometimes be extremely difficult due to access limitations. The vehicle should be able to withstand antitank mine detonations with no substantial or irreparable damage inflicted to the vehicle itself. 11. The demining organisation should establish a rescue policy incorporating a series of different access and rescue alternatives dependent on potential situations on the ground. Secondary vehicle for rescue of the wrecked vehicle – the REST system normally relies on the use of a second mine proof vehicle to rescue a wrecked vehicle. EXTERNAL QA/QC 11. c. Mine action organisations are expected to implement their own internal quality management procedures to ensure that their systems and processes function in accordance with approved SOPs. Part 1. however. The second vehicle must therefore be sufficiently equipped in terms of towing hooks and cables. 11. The vehicle shall provide a ground pressure. Version 1 . Secondary vehicle for rescue of personnel – a secondary vehicle may assist by transporting rescue staff closer to the wrecked vehicle. spares and medical equipment. possible to demine safe lanes manually in support of the secondary vehicle d. crowbars. It is.3 The following is to be adhered to: Page 7 of 10 NTSG. 10. 11. The vehicles shall be designed to withstand antitank mine detonations without putting its personnel at intolerable risk b. It should. The primary vehicle’s main function is to provide safe access for the scent trapping staff.
The ‘probable positives’ shall be taken from an area where it is known that there are TNT or any other target substance present. If the result shows that an area previously declared as negative comes back as positive the QC is not considered to have failed the process until a mine/UXO is found in the area. Part 1. All operational work must cease until the reason for the failure is determined. Sampling: Sampling will be carried out in three ways: (1) Checking areas declared as negative by using another demining asset to process the ground. These test samples will then be processed through the organisations normal chain and the results will be compared with the origin of the filter. The purpose of this is to test the sniffer animals consistency of performance on samples from Sudan and its ability to accurately measure the correct discrimination between positive and negative filters at the same time. Areas declared as positives shall always be checked by other means and are therefore not subjected to sampling as described. This will be done on some areas that have been declared as negative. If any ERW containing explosives are found the organisation is considered to have failed the inspection and an investigation board shall be set up to determine reason for the non-conformance. Edition 9. an investigating board must determine the reason why. These test filters will be from areas proven to be negative (or considered to be negative) and an area containing mines/UXO. using form ‘Fact & Environmental factors’ (annex A). Version 1 . Action must be taken to ensure it won’t happen again before work can resume again. b. The areas will be identified at random by UNMAO and in the vicinity where the organisation is currently operating. (3) Prepare test filters using the organisations personnel and equipment. If this occurs on a regular basis. These samples shall be prepared in the same way as any other operational samples.Chapter 20 a. the QA Officer shall inform the organisations scent trapping and testing components. but supervised by UNMAO staff. more than 1 out 4 areas. If no items are found. including the handling and shipping of filters will be done in accordance with accredited SOP written by organisations charged with the REST function and that have been developed for this purpose. The areas will be identified by UNMAO at random or on suspicions. (2) Checking an area using REST. Monitoring of the scent trapping: Process. All results shall immediately be reported to both the sampling and testing components. If mine/UXO is found. Before this is done the QA Officer must collect information regarding environmental factors during sampling. The mine action organization will be informed of the results as soon as they have been compared. Areas declared as positive could also be checked if there are suspicions that too many positives have been recorded on negative areas during the initial process (reason being that too many false positives contradict the purpose of the system). Any corrective actions will be determined together with the sampling Page 8 of 10 NTSG. the QA is considered to have failed and all operational work must cease until the reason for failure is determent and action taken to make sure it won’t happen again before work can commence again.
As part of the Internal QC process the organisation shall send a minimum of 3 ‘probable positive’ with each group of samples leaving the country for testing. as per SOP. sweeping technique. A minimum of 10m² shall be sampled. Version 1 . Each tube must be used for the same amount of time as an operational tube would be e. but are not limited to. Medical requirements d. Roles and responsibilities b. The number of ‘probable positive’ prepared should be between 5-20% of the total numbers of test filters prepared and sent in. Not only in the air but make sure dust is sucked up. Operational processes and procedures – sampling pattern. General logistics requirements – storage of cartridges/filters. Edition 9. Follow organisations SOP ii. The number of ‘probable positives’ taken as well as position in the group of filters shall be unknown to the organization. never from only one spot and never directly on top of the target. maximum 5m away from the target. 12. iv. The result of this Internal QC shall be available during any External QA/QC. The ‘scent’ of explosive is not always on top of an mine/UXO but around it. Use correct equipment and methods iii. filter changing procedures e. on the bushes and/or on the grass and it is therefore very important to collect around the ERW at many different locations. on the ground.g. so that the filters get the same exposure as an operational sample would.1 Organisational SOPs are to clearly define and detail. If these numbers are not matched the QC is considered to have failed the process. General and specific safety c. a tube must be sampled for 5-20 minutes depending on technique. Following results are considered to be passed QC. normally the total number of test filter prepared should be between 24-100. management of filters Page 9 of 10 NTSG.1 The mine action organisation shall detail their internal QA/QC process in their SOP. The following will be taken into consideration when preparing these test filters: i. Part 1. This due to the way we believe vapour is moving and getting trapped in dust and the crust on the surface. v. INTERNAL QA/QC PROCESS 12. ORGANISATION SOPS 13. the following: a.Chapter 20 organization. 90% or more of the probably positives comes back as positives and maximum 25% of the probably negatives comes back as positives. vi. trapped in the dust. This should ensure that the organisation themselves can pick up any mistakes in handling and transport. 13.
MDD – refer to Chapter 9 of this NTSG and include details for all activities MDD are to be used for. Internal QA processes and procedures m. l. master trace. checks. maintenance. location. care. Details of Mechanical and Manual Mine Action follow up – must comply with relevant Chapters of this NTSG in all aspects k. testing. Recording and mapping procedures – planning map. repair process g.Chapter 20 f. master map. Version 1 . daily use. clearance maps i. back up filters. servicing. maintenance. Edition 9. storage of filters j. Analysis process – site. Reporting Page 10 of 10 NTSG. Breaching equipment to be used – type. servicing. care. checks. Part 1. Scent trapping equipment to be used – type. daily use. repair process h.
the board shall recommend whether or not the mine action organisation should be issued accreditation to conduct demining operations in Sudan. experience and competency to conduct humanitarian demining in accordance with the NTSG and IMAS in a safe.2 Each stage of the accreditation process is conducted on behalf of the UNMAO by an appointed accreditation board. 1. as appointed by the NMAC who represent the GoS and SSDC who represent the GoSS. The accreditation process is conducted by the UNMAO Sudan. Edition 9. 2. On completion of the accreditation process. This phase is further segmented into ‘organisational’ and ‘operational’’ assessments where specific documentation pertinent to each aspect is examined. a.1 Prior to any mine action organisation conducting demining operations in Sudan they must be accredited. The status of the applying organisation and specific circumstances surrounding the application will determine the documentation that is requested by UNMAO to be submitted.1 The accreditation circumstances: a. The board shall assess the mine action organisation’s ability to plan. Within the SudanMAP. On receipt of a written application from any national organisation. Part 1. effective and efficient manner. manage and conduct demining operations safely. Page 1 of 6 NTSG. effectively and efficiently in compliance to IMAS and the NTSG.Chapter 21 ACCREDITATION OF DEMINING ORGANISATIONS 1. Version 1 . INTRODUCTION 1. ACCREDITATION PROCESS process will only commence in the following 2. The three phases are as follows: .Desk Assessment: This initial phase is an examination of relevant and appropriate documentation submitted by the mine action organisation in order to assess and determine the organisational and individual capabilities. 2. b. accreditation shall be conducted by boards specifically formed for a particular phase of the accreditation process. Phase One .2 Accreditation will be completed over three phases (see Annex A) each phase only being undertaken on successful completion of the previous one. On receipt of a written application from an international organisation providing: (1) They can provide evidence of a relevant contract in Sudan and/or appropriate funding and (2) They can provide evidence of registration as a UNOPS vendor.
(2) Operational assessment will commence on request of the mine action organisation and on submission/receipt of Annex B. Version 1 . teams. Part 1.e. (4) In exceptional circumstances i. Phase Two . MDD. the unavailability of UNMAO QA resources. effective and efficient manner in accordance with the organisations own SOPs. may be granted ‘Operational (Provisional) Accreditation’ accompanied by written authority allowing it to deploy specified subunits/assets to UNRMAO designated tasks. the mine action organisation. The assessment will assess that relevant activities are performed in a safe. the receipt of the declaration by UNMAO may result in written authority from UNMAO to the mine action organisation allowing that mine action organisation to deploy specified subunits/assets to UNRMAO designated tasks. It will cover the competency of individuals. In such circumstances operational assessment will be conducted on-site as soon as is practically possible after deployment.e. managing.Pre-deployment Quality Assurance: All mine action organisations shall conduct pre-deployment operational training pertinent to their contracted activities as per the details of Chapter 13. All aspects of the mine action organisations’ capabilities will be assessed including but not restricted to planning. In such circumstances operational assessment will be conducted on-site as soon as is practically possible after deployment. administration.e. logistics. One copy of Annex B is required to be submitted for each sub-unit/asset requiring accreditation. In exceptional circumstances i. The following applies: (1) Whenever practical and possible operational assessment will be completed on completion of training and prior to deployment onto tasks (MDD & Medical Assets i. the unavailability of UNMAO accreditation resources. manual. Training will be routinely and regularly monitored throughout by the UNMAO regional and/or sub-office personalities and specialists as applicable (see Chapter 13 & 14). supervisory and managerial elements in all relevant facets of the pertinent activity. mechanical etc.e. (3) The assessment will cover ALL specific mine action and associated activities being undertaken by the sub-units/assets at the particular site/task and that the mine action organisation sub-unit/asset is seeking accreditation for. c. support. On completion of training programmes the organisation shall immediately submit the declaration at Annex B and the relevant accompanying records. conducting and/or performing humanitarian demining activities in an operational environment and capacity for which the organisation wishes said sub-units/assets to be accredited and licensed to perform. Edition 9. medical and relevant pertinent humanitarian demining activities i. Phase Three . upon submission of Annex B.Chapter 21 b. the NTSG and with IMAS.Operational Assessment: This is an assessment of the mine action organisations competency in practically planning. Page 2 of 6 NTSG. medics – will always be assessed prior to deployment and will only be allowed to deploy into an operational environment when accredited).
Individual Operational Asset Accreditation – On successful completion of Phase 3 the mine action organisation will be issued with an Operational Accreditation Certificate (see Annex E) indicating that the specific asset/subunit assessed is authorised to conduct those activities for which it has been assessed as competent. new/additional processes being employed etc. Operational Asset Accreditation – On successful completion of Phase 3 the mine action organisation will be issued with an Operational Accreditation Certificate (see Annex D) indicating that the specific asset/sub-unit assessed is authorised to conduct those activities for which it has been assessed as competent. changes to mine action organisation key personalities.e. d. some or all of the following appointments: a. c. This will be pertinent to the organisation as a whole and will authorise them to commence Phase Two of the accreditation process. amendments to NTSG.1 Depending on which phase of accreditation is being undertaken accreditation boards shall be formed that will comprise. Edition 9. to review/begin the accreditation process again. will take precedence and will be implemented on mine action organisations’ tasks for the remaining period that operational accreditation is in force. This certificate will apply to specific assets/teams i.e.1 CERTIFICATION The following applies: a. Version 1 . medics. as outlined in Chapter 14. Part 1. MMC.Chapter 21 3. ACCREDITATION BOARD COMPOSITION 4. 3.e. b. EOD. b. c. UNMAO National QA Coordinator UNMAO Regional QA Officers UNMAO Sub-office QA Officers UNMAO Regional Operations Coordinators Page 3 of 6 NTSG. This certificate will apply to specific individual assets i.2 Certificates will be in force for the duration of the demining season or until it is necessary due to extenuating circumstances i. 3.3 On the completion of the accreditation process the QM system and routine QA monitoring. Desk (Provisional) Accreditation Certificate: On successful completion of Phase One a Desk (Provisional) Accreditation certificate will be issued to the mine action organisation (see Annex C). BAC teams etc belonging to mine action organisations and detailing those specific mine action activities contained/detailed within SOP for which accreditation has been awarded and for which this asset has been operationally assessed and deemed competent. 4. but not be restricted to. 3. MDD etc belonging to mine action organisations and detailing those specific mine action activities contained/detailed within SOP for which accreditation has been awarded and for which this asset has been operationally assessed and deemed competent.
g. When accreditation is required for specialist activities i. the board may require input or assistance from some or all of the other appointments listed: a.1a-g. Version 1 1 . Page 4 of 6 NTSG. d. Edition 9. The board1 will comprise of appointments suitably qualified and experienced in the roles for which they are appointed and shall be able to apply the accreditation requirements in a fair and equitable manner. MRE etc then the accreditation body shall include the relevant UNMAO ‘specialist’ or in his absence an UNMAO representative with relevant qualifications and operational experience that will allow him/her to carryout the relevant role and responsibilities. 5. Desk (Provisional) Accreditation Board: The term ‘board’ when used throughout this chapter can mean a single appointment. medical.Chapter 21 e. c. Act with independence.e. f. Assess applications in a timely manner ensuring delays do not impact unnecessarily on the operational effectiveness of the applicants. BOARD RESPONSIBILITIES 5. Accredit mine action organisations and their sub-units.2 UNMAO Sub-office Operations Officers NMAO/SSDC Representative UNMAO Specialist The following applies: a. a number of appointments or all appointments from those detailed at paragraph 4. 4. Depending on the accreditation phase. on the practicalities and circumstances. Accreditation boards have the following general responsibilities: a. Respond and/or react in a timely fashion to queries and/or applications from prospective or currently operational mine action organisations concerning accreditation. impartiality and integrity during the accreditation process. g.2 Specific Responsibilities: Whenever possible and/or practicable boards shall comprise of those appointments detailed with ‘primary responsibilities’. Specify and provide national standards and guidelines for the accreditation of mine action organisations and operations. MDD. Gain accreditation to operate as an accreditation body b. Issue certificates authorising mine action organisations to conduct operational mine action activities/tasks. on the specific requirements and availability of appointments at the time. pre-deployment quality assurance and/or operational assessment of mine action organisations. f. e. b. 5.1 General Responsibilities: Each board will be responsible for conducting the desk assessment. Part 1.
Part 1. DURATION. (2) Regional Quality Assurance Officers – primary responsibility for recommending operational (provisional) accreditation and for coordinating pre-deployment quality assurance. Sub-office Operations Officers and specialists to support and assist as requested. Edition 9. (4) Sub-office Operations Officers and specialists to support and assist as requested. (5) Regional Quality Assurance Officers.Chapter 21 (1) Director of the NMAC – primary responsibility for authorising desk (provisional) accreditation (2) Executive Director of the SSDC – primary responsibility for authorising desk (provisional) accreditation (if the mine action organisation is required to conduct mine action activities in South Sudan) (3) UNMAO Director of Mine Action – primary responsibility for recommending the desk (provisional) accreditation (4) National Quality Assurance Coordinator – primary responsibility for conducting desk (provisional) assessment and for the production and issuing of the relevant certificates. Operational (Provisional) Accreditation Board: (1) National Quality Assurance Coordinator – primary responsibility for authorising operational (provisional) accreditation and for the production and issuing of the relevant certificates. b. Operational Accreditation Board: (1) Director of the NMAO – primary responsibility for authorising operational accreditation (2) Executive Director of the SSDC – primary responsibility for authorising operational accreditation (if the mine action organisation is required to conduct mine action activities in the South Sudan) (3) UNMAO Director of Mine Action – primary responsibility for recommending the operational accreditation (4) National Quality Assurance Coordinator – primary responsibility for the production and issuing of the relevant certificates and for coordinating effort to execute operational assessments (5) Regional Quality Assurance Officer – primary responsibility for conducting operational assessments (6) Sub-office Quality Assurance Officers/Specialists – primary responsibility for conducting operational assessments (7) Regional Operations Coordinator. SUSPENSION OPERATIONAL ACCREDITATION AND/OR TERMINATION OF Page 5 of 6 NTSG. c. 6. Sub-office Operations Officers and Specialists to support operational assessment process as requested. Sub-office Quality Assurance Officers. Version 1 . (3) Sub-office Quality Assurance Officers/Specialists – primary responsibility for conducting pre-deployment quality assurance assessments.
paragraph 8). b. Edition 9. If inadequate measures are taken following the suspension of an accreditation 6. Part 1. although not exhaustive. the UNMAO shall determine measures to be taken to re-clear land released prior to the cancellation of the accreditation agreement. although not exhaustive.1 Duration: The period of operational accreditation will last for the duration of the contract or for the duration of the demining season (Oct 01st – Sep 30th) whichever is the lesser. 6. If monitoring results in the suspension of a task (refer to Chapter 14.4 Before the termination of an accreditation agreement. If monitoring results in the suspension of a task (refer to Chapter 14. the termination of accreditation: a. If the accredited organisation does not wish to prolong the accreditation agreement d. Page 6 of 6 NTSG. If the accredited organisation goes out of business c. b. Version 1 .3 Termination: The following list. In the event of failure to disclose major and significant management or operational changes. In the case of improper use of the accreditation agreement c. details possible reasons when suspension of operational accreditation may be invoked against a mine action organisation.Chapter 21 6. a. If the requirements or provisions of standards or laws are changed and the accredited organisation cannot or will not ensure compliance with the new requirements or provisions e. paragraph 8). 6. The responsibilities should be specified in the contract of work. details possible reasons when the UNMAO may recommend to the national authority. The responsibility for re-clearing land and the cost of such re-clearing will either lie with the mine action organisation or another party.2 Suspension: The following list.
Version 1 . 16 If NO in Ser 15 Send appraisal form attached to email/letter Page 1 of 3 NTSG. changes to SOPs. If NO in Ser 8 By email or letter Must be by letter. Regional/Sub-office QA/Ops personalities & others as req’d) PHASE ONE – DESK ASSESSMENT 1 Submits enquiry to conduct mine action Receives and acknowledges receipt of enquiry Sends organisation the UNMAO introduction letter complete with annexes Submits documents as required in introduction letter Acknowledge receipt of documentation Conduct desk assessment based on documentation Inform organisation of decision Does application and supporting information meet the desk assessment requirements stage ? Notify applicant of additional information needed to process the application Applicant provides additional information Does application and supporting information meet the desk assessment requirements for this stage ? Send applicant a copy of the extant NTSG. Part 1. email or fax By email or letter National QA Coordinator Remarks 2 3 Within 10-working days 4 Preferably in e-format (CD-ROM etc) or as email attachment By email or letter 5 6 7 8 YES or NO If YES go to Ser 12. Edition 9. Applicant drafts organisational SOPs covering all proposed mine action activities that comply with NTSG and submits to Nat QA Coord for appraisal/review Appraisal/review of submitted SOPs Do SOPs meet the desk assessment requirements and comply with NTSG? Notify applicant of required amendments. 9 If NO in Ser 8 By email or letter 10 Preferably in e-format (CD-ROM etc) or as email attachment If NO continue process as in Ser’s 9/10 until process is exhausted or complete 11 YES or NO 12 13 Preferably in e-format (CD-ROM etc) or as email attachment that can be printed 14 15 YES or NO If YES go to Ser 19.ANNEX A to Chapter 21 ACCREDITATION PROCESS Ser Process description Mine Action Organisation Responsibility Accreditation/Monitoring Body (NA Coordinator.
PHASE TWO – PRE-DEPLOYMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE 18 YES or NO If NO continue process as in Ser’s 16/17 until process is exhausted or complete 19 In written format 20 21 Conducts training and prepares for deployment Submits post-training paperwork Notify organisation that pre-deployment quality assurance completed successfully UNMAO Sub & Regional office assets regularly and routinely monitors 22 23 In written format 24 Issue ‘Operational (Provisional) Accreditation’ certificate In exceptional circumstances this will be accompanied by written authority allowing the deployment of indicated assets to task prior to operational assessment in which cases operational assessment by UNMAO will take place on-site at the earliest opportunity PHASE THREE – OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENT This will generally be completed prior to deployment and on completion of training (see Ser 24) 25 Undergo operational assessments 26 Does mine action organisation meet the operational assessment requirements? Advise the applicant of corrective action required and timelines involved Carry out corrective action/training Undergo operational assessments Does mine action organisation meet the operational assessment requirements? If NO in Ser 26 If NO in Ser 26 YES or NO If YES go to Ser 31 27 If NO in Ser 26 In written report format 28 29 30 YES or NO If NO continue process as in Ser’s 27 .29 until process is exhausted or complete or go to Ser 33 Page 2 of 3 NTSG. Version 1 .17 Applicant actions recommendations in appraisal form and resubmits SOPs Do SOPs meet the desk (provisional) assessment requirements and comply with NTSG? Notify organisation that desk (provisional) assessment process completed successfully Issue ‘Desk (Provisional) Accreditation’ certificate. Part 1. Edition 9.
31 Notify organisation that operational assessmnet completed successfully Issue Operational Accreditation Certificate Terminate application for accreditation Contiuous monitoring of organisation for compliance with the accreditation. Version 1 . Part 1. Edition 9. In written format 32 33 Inform reasons in written/report format to NA Coordinator & organisation 34 Page 3 of 3 NTSG.
Page 1 of 1 NTSG. (print name) representative of:(print organisation name) - as the authorised confirm the details Organisation Stamp: of this declaration: Signature: Date: The following documentation is attached and submitted in support of this declaration: Course Outline/Programme Nominal Roll of Students Attendance Records Instructor Details Examiner Details Evaluation/Interim Test Results Final Test Results Pass/Fail Criteria Results Other Applicable Documentation □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ * A copy of this declaration is to be sent immediately upon completion of each training course to the National Quality Assurance Coordinator and Regional Quality Assurance Officer.ANNEX B to Chapter 21 TRAINING DECLARATION DECLARATION This document declares that:. *** In certain circumstances.(print asset(s)/resource(s)sub-units designation) of:. I. Part 1. ** On written acknowledgement from the National Quality Assurance Coordinator (in his absence the Regional Quality Assurance Officer) confirming receipt of this declaration. capable and competent to conduct those mine action activities for which it has/they have been contracted/employed. Version 2 . an ‘Operational (Provisional) Accreditation’ certificate will be issued and operational assessment can be arranged. the acknowledgement of receipt of this declaration may be accompanied by written authority to deploy the indicated assets/resources/sub-unit on to operational tasks authorised by UNRMAO. Edition 8.(print organisation name) has/have undergone suitable and sufficient internal training that has complied with accredited organisational SOPs and NTSGs and is considered by the signatory as fit for purpose.
NMAO DIRECTOR Signature: Date: NOTE: This certificate does not authorise the organisation or its sub-units to conduct ‘live’ mine action activities.Surface Battle Area Clearance Sub-surface Remote Explosive Scent Tracing Mine Risk Education 1. Edition 8. Part 1. □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ CERTIFICATE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: VALIDATION OF PROVISIONAL ACCREDITATION: Recommended by: JIM PANSEGROUW UNMAO DIRECTOR of MINE ACTION Signature: Date: Issued by: NIGEL WILKINSON UNMAO NATIONAL QA OFFICER Signature: Date: Authorised by: CDR JURKUCH BARAC SSDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Signature: Date: Authorised by: ELAWAD BASHEER. Version 2 . All sub-units must first complete relevant training in the mine action activities they are intended to be employed in and undergo operational accreditation. PERIOD OF PROVISIONAL ACCREDITATION: TO: FROM: 2. Page 1 of 1 NTSG. 3.ANNEX C to Chapter 21 UNMAO SUDAN DESK (PROVISIONAL) ACCREDITATION This certificate is presented to the indicate that XXXXX has completed the desk (provisional) assessment and is deemed competent to conduct the following mine action activities within the Sudan Mine Action Programme Landmine Impact Survey General Survey Technical Survey Manual Mine Clearance Road/Route Survey &/or Clearance Mechanical Demining Operations Mine Detection Dogs Explosive Ordnance Disposal Battle Area Clearance .
3.Surface Battle Area Clearance . . LICENCE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: VALIDATION OF ACCREDITATION LICENCE: Recommended by: REGIONAL QA OFFICER Signature: Date: Issued by: NIGEL WILKINSON UNMAO NATIONAL QA OFFICER Signature: Date: Authorised by: REGIONAL OPS COORDINATOR Signature: Date: NOTE: This certificate indicates that the sub-unit/asset of the organisation has undergone and successfully completed operational assessment and is authorised to conduct those mine action activities indicated. In order to be valid this certificate must be supported by an organisational operational accreditation certificate. FROM: TO: Level 2 Level 3 □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ PERIOD OF OPERATIONAL ACCREDITATION LICENSING: 2.Sub-surface Remote Explosive Scent Tracing Mine Risk Education 1.UNMAO SUDAN OPERATIONAL ACCREDITATION This certificate indicates that xxxx of xxxx has completed the operational assessment and is authorised to conduct the following mine action activities as part of the Sudan Mine Action Programme Landmine Impact Survey General Survey Technical Survey Manual Mine Clearance Road/Route Survey/Clearance/Verification Mechanical Demining Operations Mine Detection Dogs Level 1 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Battle Area Clearance .
3.UNMAO SUDAN OPERATIONAL ACCREDITATION This certificate indicates that ( medic name) of (organisational name) has completed the operational assessment and is authorised to be employed in the role of on-site Advanced Life Support medic providing cover during mine action activities conducted as part of the Sudan Mine Action Programme 1. PERIOD OF OPERATIONAL ACCREDITATION LICENSING: FROM: TO: 2. LICENCE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: VALIDATION OF ACCREDITATION LICENCE: Recommended by: REGIONAL MEDICAL OFFICER Signature: Date: Issued by: NIGEL WILKINSON UNMAO NATIONAL QA OFFICER Signature: Date: Authorised by: REGIONAL QA COORDINATOR Signature: Date: Authorised by: REGIONAL OPS COORDINATOR Signature: Date: NOTE: This certificate indicates that the sub-unit/asset of the organisation has undergone and successfully completed operational assessment and is authorised to conduct those duties/activities indicated. . In order to be valid this certificate must be supported by an organisational operational accreditation certificate.
The local populous in the area who know the area b. Some sources of information that should be covered in the survey are: a.Chapter 22 ROAD/ROUTE SURVEY/VERIFICATION AND/OR CLEARANCE 1. although the sequence may be altered to suite specific priorities: a.1 The three distinct phases for the Survey and Clearance of roads/routes in Sudan are listed below. Edition 9. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. Phase 2 Road/Route Clearance (8m and 26m wide). ROAD/ROUTE SURVEY REQUIREMENTS 4. full and detailed IMSMA documentation shall be handed over from one phase to the next through Regional UNMAO. aerial photographs. This is not a stand alone document and is to be read in conjunction with other relevant chapters within this NTSG. ROUTE PHASES 2. b. Part 1.1 Organisations conducting Road/Route Survey in Sudan should use a standard information collation form.1 During the planning phase of any Road/Route Survey all possible sources of information are to be considered. ROAD/ROUTE SURVEY PLANNING 3. c.2 Since it is usually different organisations involved in each phase or contract. 2. All possible creditable sources of information should be explored and analyzed to determine its authenticity and accuracy to enable adequate planning to achieve the greatest results. Version 1 . Knowledge of any previous mine UXO accidents / incidents along the route Page 1 of 8 NTSG. Phase 3 Road/Route Rehabilitation and Reconstruction. 2. Valuable information may also be obtained from 'technical' sources such as satellite images. military dossiers and hospital records 4.1 The purpose of this Road/Route Survey and Clearance Chapter is to define the minimum standards and procedures for Road/Route Survey and Clearance conducted in Sudan. 3. Phase 1 Road/Route Survey. All activities detailed within this Chapter will be conducted in accordance with approved and accredited SOP’s of the organisation conducting the Road/Route Survey and Clearance. Survey teams will provide the principal sources of information gathering from a multitude of sources.
In order to ensure that a sufficient quantity of credible data is made available a number of samples and resources should be acquired. Part 1. 5. 5. The current version of this form shall be utilised for all Road/Route Survey Operations. the Mined Area Indicators are divided into I km sections and 100 meter sub-sections. Version 1 . obstacles General intelligence in the area. is simple to utilise.4 The authenticity and accuracy of survey data shall be determined by analyzing the Type.2 Road/Route Survey should always be conducted by suitably qualified specialists. Security threat in the area History of conflict in the area Previous vehicle use of the route Weather and terrain – route conditions.1 The assessment of information obtained from the road/route survey shall involve the detailed examination and cross referencing of each item of information with as many creditable sources as possible. 4. f.4 This classification will allow Operation Managers to plan future clearance activities on or near the Roads/Routes where mined Roads/Routes or mined areas Page 2 of 8 NTSG. 4. leading ultimately to appropriate conclusions being made. The listed information sources are not exhaustive and should be expanded as and when required. d. Edition 9. an evaluation of these results and then the identification of significant facts of information concerning the road/route.3 Following the Road/Route Survey routes will then be classified into the following categories: a. c. Cleared – Annotated the colour GREEN on UNMAO maps. 5. d. e. each category is allocated a rating of accuracy (reliability) starting at one as the least accurate.5 Survey information gathering shall provide a source of continually updated data and not merely a 'single snap-shot' of the situation. ASSESSMENT OF INFORMATION 5. g.Chapter 22 c. 4.2 The standard IMSMA information collation form (Road/Route Survey Questionnaire). For example. 4. maintain. through to five being the most accurate. Source and Details.3 As an aid to its use. No Evidence of Mines/UXO – Annotated the colour AMBER on UNMAO maps. and requires the minimum staff effort. Mined – Annotated the colour RED on UNMAO maps.Annotated the colour GREY on UNMAO maps. The objective of assessing information is to ensure an accurate threat assessment and classification in order to prevent avoidable accidents/incidents from occurring. b. 5. Not Surveyed .
to confidently categorise the road as “No evidence of Mines/UXO” then its category must remain “Not Surveyed”. A recognised Road/Route Survey has taken place along the road/route with regards completing the Road/Route Questionnaire and: (1) Although the road/route is in use. 5. No recognised Road/Route Survey has taken place along the route with regards completing the Road/Route Questionnaire and obtaining a comprehensive inventory on: (1) All reported and/or suspected locations of mine/UXO contamination (2) The quantities and types of explosive hazards (3) Information on the local soil characteristics. A recognised Road/Route Survey has taken place along the road/route with regards completing the Road/Route Questionnaire and: (1) There is no information or suspicion of mines being laid or mine incidents / accidents on the road/route (2) The road/route has been frequently used by local population and large vehicles without incidents / accidents (3) The road/route is easily identifiable (4) There is no information regarding any military activity or cross line fighting having taken place (5) No defensive positions or ambush sites have been identified 5.8 The “Cleared” Category is defined as Page 3 of 8 NTSG. no recorded mine incidents / accidents (4) There is reliable information that mines have been laid and their have been a number of recent mine incidents / accidents (5) There is credible information that the road/route has been mined (6) The local population believes the road/route to be mined but can not give details of specific incidents. Note If insufficient information is collected during the conduct of the survey.6 The “No Evidence of Mines/UXO” Category is further defined within the following parameters: a. 5.7 The “Mined” Category is further defined within the following parameters: a. Part 1. although. Edition 9. there have been mine incidents / accidents in the past (2) There is information that mines were laid in the area and that there have been some mine incidents / accidents reported (3) There is information that hostilities took place in the area. Version 1 .Chapter 22 are identified and will allow mission and other agencies to include appropriate safety and security measures in planning for movement of assets and personnel. vegetation and climate.5 The “Not Surveyed” category is further defined within the following parameters: a. 5.
Version 1 . or cancellation of previously reported danger areas. updated at regular intervals that will show the current state of roads. All information should be made available to demining organisations. including the cancellation of “Danger Areas”. This information will be referred to during all internal and external quality assurance checks and future road/route enquiries. Whenever possible.3 The Road/Route Survey information will be used to justify the judgement and common sense used in the classifying of road/route portions. GPS tracking. and electronic media. 7. RESPONSIBILITIES 7. 6. In particular. This may include reports. such as IMSMA. and the implication of these changes examined fully. use should be made of standard and proven information management systems and GIS.3 The UNMAO will issue maps. 7. summaries.Chapter 22 “A road/route that has been physically and systematically processed by a demining organisation to ensure the removal and/or destruction of all mine and UXO hazards to a specified depth in accordance with NTSG’s”. 5. changes to assumptions and to the reliability of sources of information should be revisited on a regular basis. maps. 6. Page 4 of 8 NTSG. even if these hazards do not directly impinge on the Road/Route.2 Information should be made available in a form which is appropriate for its use and subsequent review. Any further clarification needed shall be directed through either the Chief of Operations at the UNMAO or the relevant Regional Operations Coordinators.9 Road/route classification is a continuous process which aims to accurately reflect the true threat. National. Regional and Sub Mine Action Offices and other organisations with a vested interest in the road/route. either ‘no evidence of mines’ or ‘mined areas’. 6. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 6.2 It is the responsibility of the mine action organisation to complete the relevant “Minefield” or “UXO” Reports for previously identified hazardous areas they encounter during the conduct of the survey.1 Records and information gathered during Road/Route Survey shall be retained and a copy of the survey result included in the task dossier for any future mine action process required on the route. Part 1.1 It is the responsibility of all mine action organisations that undertake Road/Route survey to conduct this process in accordance with this NTSG using only accredited assets and SOP. 7. Edition 9.
8. Task Dossiers shall not be issued for areas in access of 25 km's in length. villages as natural demarcation points. (2) Electronic (Magnetic) Readings and/or Measurements (3) Ground Penetrating Radar b. 8. taking the left hand side of the road/route as the marking line. c. location information in the form of DGPS/GPS readings shall also be taken along the road/route Page 5 of 8 NTSG. Part 1. Lengths: In order to ensure that the clearance of Roads/Routes is conducted in manageable sized areas and to allow for a more comprehensive picture to be built. this width allows for a workable twin lane trafficable road/route.Chapter 22 8. These clearance depths can only be varied by an amendment to the Implementation Plan. when this is the case integrated clearance assets will be tasked directly by the UNRMAO to clear those identified contaminated areas.3 Road/Route Clearance Concept of Operations: It may be that sufficient information was made available from the Road/Route Survey regarding specific hazardous areas to allow for clearance to take place without any further follow up assessment. Version 1 .2 General: During road/route clearance the following applies: a. consideration should always be given to using obvious landmarks such as river crossings.1 Following the Road/Route Survey. Likewise within the Task Dossiers. ROAD/ROUTE CLEARANCE 8. Depths: During Road/Route clearance operations the mine action organisation shall ensure the removal and/or destruction of all AT mines and UXO from the road/route to a depth of 30cm. In addition to the above assessment tools. Following this initial clearance the Road/Route may then be widened to 26m which will be a sufficient area for the Road/Route reconstruction to take place. When insufficient information is made available from the Road/Route Survey regarding specific hazardous areas. if a specific threat is identified that requires the distances to change and/or there is a specific clearance width requirement from a donor. the tasks themselves should not be in excess of 5 km’s each. b. all AP mines are to be removed and/or destroyed to a depth of 13cm. one or more of the following assessments tools will be utilised: (1) Explosive Vapour Samples. which requires appropriate authorisation from UNMAO. those areas that have been categorised as being “Mined”. Width: The stipulated clearance width will be initially 8m wide. In order to expedite the assessment and identification of specific hazardous areas and to allow for the subsequent clearance. Edition 9. These distances may however be amended at Regional level. The following applies: a. then a further assessment will be conducted to identify those specific hazardous areas. will initially require a further assessment and following this integrated clearance assets to systematically process and clear the area.
iii. f. Following this identification a mine action organisation will be requested to submit an Implementation Plan to the UNRMAO for approval. e. Both methods of operation are completed in much the same way as any linear feature is cleared such as a road. power line or other such linear feature. b. track. individual signals located within the specific identified hazardous areas shall be investigated to a minimum area of 4m diameter around the signal. only the setting of the clearance lanes is different. then the route is to be cleared using a Linear Feature Road/Route Clearance Method of Operation. Following the approval those previously identified hazardous areas will be cleared by integrated clearance assets. Edition 9.Chapter 22 c. d. as clearance teams are often spread out over a large distance and visual contact can be lost. e. The demining procedures and safety precautions are exactly the same as for any demining task. 8. This concept of operation will dramatically increase the speed of assessment by which actual mined areas of routes are identified and subsequently cleared. the first crossover lane can then cleared at the 26m point at right angles to the linear feature Page 6 of 8 NTSG. Part 1. In areas where the hazardous area cannot be detailed nor specified due to a high concentration (Lines of Disengagement). The following applies: a. A 2 wide metre access lane should then cleared parallel to and at the edge of the linear feature. provided the required and defined level of detection and clearance is still being achieved.4 Road/Route Clearance Method of Operation: The UNRMAO Regional Operations Coordinator may authorise a variation to these specific methods of operation to suit specific situations. particularly when there is vegetation present. The access lane should be cleared by clearing two 1metre wide adjacent lanes. As the access lane progresses and on reaching 50 m (or 75m for directional / fragmentation mines). ii. This distance shall be extended in accordance with the Implementation Plan. All information. pipeline. DGPS/GPS readings and any subsequent mapping will become the property of the UNMAO. During MDD and manual follow up clearance. The following applies during the conduct of clearance: (1) Follow On – i The task shall start from a baseline which is set out at the beginning of and at right angles to the linear feature. including but not limited to. Presently there are two Methods of Operation currently employed: (1) “Follow On” (2) “Arrow Head Formation” c. which vary from bush track to very poorly maintained roads. It should be noted that during linear type clearance tasks require a high degree of command and control. The assessment tools must be suitable to operate throughout the varying degrees of road/track terrain commonly found in Sudan. d. f. Version 1 . On completion of the assessment the information will then be analysed to verify identified hazardous areas.
iv. When a mine or item of UXO is found by the main clearance party the item is to be marked. Annex B to this NTSG Chapter details the “Arrow-Head Formation” Method of Operation. This will act as a physical and visual barrier to stop any possible movement of humans and/or livestock. Annex A to this NTSG Chapter details the “Follow On” Method of Operation. When a mine or item of UXO is found by the main clearance party the item is to be marked. The item will then be destroyed at the end of the working day. where contamination still exists to the flanks of the cleared route and it is not possible to conduct clearance operations in the immediate future. Part 1. a crossover lane can then cleared at right angles to the linear feature and past the opposite edge of the linear feature to the required clearance width requirement (8m or 26m). The item will then be destroyed at the end of the working day. iii. (2) 8. iv. a 10 x 6m search and clearance block has now been prepared for the MDD assets to clear.Chapter 22 and past the opposite edge of the linear feature to the required clearance width requirement (8m or 26m). ii. As the first clearance lane progresses and on reaching 25 m (or 50m for directional / fragmentation mines). v. Edition 9. vii. Version 1 . The following applies: Page 7 of 8 NTSG. the lane closed and another lane worked. Crossover lanes are then to be cleared at 10m spacing. Crossover lanes are to be at 25m or 50m spacing depending on the mine type hazard. Arrow Head Formation – i. the lane closed and another lane worked. The task is then simply cleared using the access lane as the base lane and progressively clearing the crossover lanes at right angles to the feature at 10m intervals to prepare and subsequently clear the 10m x 6m search and clearance blocks. If MDD assets are utilised to initially clear the area then the task should start again from a 2m baseline which is set out at the beginning of and at right angles to the linear feature. As the access lane progresses and on reaching 10 m.5 Post Road/Route Clearance Marking: In those highly hazardous concentrated areas (Lines of Disengagement). the second clearance lane can then started at again right angles to the base lane. The task should again start with a 2 metre wide baseline which is set out at the beginning of and at right angles to the linear feature. The task is then simply cleared by placing more clearance lanes at right angles to the base lane when the safety distance is achieved. Permanent Fencing should be erected as detailed at NTSG Chapter 1. The task is then simply cleared using the access lane as the base lane and progressively clearing the crossover lanes at right angles to the feature. once this is completed the first clearance lane can be started at right angles to the base lane. vi.
If however following clearance. Part 1. e. 8. 8. the rocks shall be painted red and when marking for a Completion Task the rocks shall be painted white. then this is to be clearly annotated on the IMSMA Completion Report. Edition 9. Start Point and each Turning Point shall be physically marked and situated in accordance with NTSG Chapter 2. residual contamination still exists on either flank of the road/route and DA’s have only been partially cleared then this is to be clearly annotated on the IMSMA Completion Report. Page 8 of 8 NTSG. d. with both sides of roads being fenced.7 Road/Route Rehabilitation and Reconstruction: Following the road/route clearance and prior to the actual route being reconstructed (Phase 3). Version 1 . perimeter coordinates for the whole area (polygon). b. are required. and associated map submitted. then a large rock / pile of rocks shall be placed. When marking for a Suspension Task. it is this marking line that is to be utilised for the turning points/perimeter coordinates with the information being recorded either with DGPS or GPS/Bearings and Distances. AAll turning points / perimeter coordinates.Chapter 22 a. the fencing itself should be placed 50cm inside the actual cleared area. The marking of any cleared area following clearance has to be unambiguous and permanent. The Permanent Fencing should extend at least 10m each side of the outer boundaries of the contaminated area.6 Post Route Clearance Documentation: When following road/route clearance that results in no residual contamination existing to the flanks of the road/route. The information is to be recorded again either with DGPS or GPS/Bearings and Distances. If following the assessment no specific hazardous areas are identified. all DA’s remaining to the flanks of road/route will be marked with permanent fencing so as to allow work to continue safely. c. Instances where the ground may be unsuitable for metal picket insertion. are to be indicated on either the IMSMA Completion or Suspension report (task dependant). then the left hand side of the road route is to be used as the marking line. For those areas where specific hazards are identified and subsequently cleared. The Bench Mark.
Edition 9. Version 1 . Part 1.ANNEX A to Chapter 22 FOLLOW ON CLEARANCE Uncleared Area Min 2m Crossover / Clearance Lanes Access / Base Lane 2m wide Min 26m Deminer Page 1 of 1 NTSG.
Version 1 . Part1.ANNEX B to Chapter 22 ARROW-HEAD FORMATION CLEARANCE Uncleared Area Clearance Lanes Min 25m 2m wide base lane Deminer Min 25m Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Edition 9.
Version 1 .ANNEX C to Chapter 22 PERMANENT FENCING REQUIREMENTS PERMANENT FENCING Cleared Route Permanent Fencing Residual Mine Rows 10m 10m Page 1 of 1 NTSG. Part1. Edition 9.
4 It is the responsibility of the mine action organisation to employ individuals in roles for which they have received sufficient training and/or are suitably qualified and/or experience. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2. effective and efficient demining operations. the quantity of personnel and the qualifications shall remain the same.Chapter 23 STRUCTURE FOR DEMINING OPERATIONS 1. TEAM COMPOSITIONS 3. INTRODUCTION 1.2 Additional personnel. 3. 1. vehicles and equipment may be required depending on specific operational needs. When working in hostile areas. Edition 9. 2.3 A qualified medic shall be attached to all demining units (including. GMAA. it is paramount that an adequate number of suitably trained and qualified personnel are employed within the mine action organisation and its sub-units. LIS. Version 1 1 . 2.1 To ensure safe. b. Part 1. Page 1 of 4 NTSG. MRE) on the following occasions: a. When working in the proximity of hazardous (mine / ERW) areas. 1. c.2 Where relevant and normally applying to positions that involve the supervision and/or management of personnel and/or assets the positions shall be filled by suitably experienced1 personnel. they may differ between organisations. 2. When any humanitarian demining activity involving clearance is to be carried out.1 Generic personnel titles have been used in this chapter and although.1 The minimum numbers of personnel required by mine action organisations or sub-units to conduct independent humanitarian demining operations in Sudan: The term ‘experienced’ when used within this chapter is applied to positions where it is recommended that there should be a verifiable history of either conducting the actual role or having served in a lower position within the overall role of the sub-unit where the individual would have had adequate exposure and/or responsibility to be able to make the step-up into the more senior role.3 Any amendment by the organisation to the quantity or quality of personnel within a demining unit must be authorised by the UNMAO: 2.
manual mine clearance and to the required level if conducting EOD) 1 x Survey Officer (experienced and qualified in survey. Technical Survey 1 x Commander (experienced and qualified in survey. Manual Mine Clearance 1 x Commander (experienced and qualified in manual mine clearance & EOD Level 2) 1 x Deminer (qualified in manual mine clearance and Level 1 EOD if required to assist with the procedure) 1 x Deminer (qualified in manual mine clearance) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) e. General Survey 1 x Commander (experienced and qualified in survey. EOD Level 2) 1 x Machine operator (for each working machine. Part 1. experienced and qualified machine operator & in mechanical mine clearance) Page 2 of 4 NTSG.3) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) c. Version 1 . Mechanical Demining 1 x Commander (experienced qualified in mechanical & manual mine clearance. Edition 9.3) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) b.3) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) d. manual mine clearance and to Level 3 EOD (if the team is conducting EOD) 1 x Survey Officer (experienced and qualified in survey and to Level 1 EOD (if the team is conducting EOD and/or required to assist with the procedure) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) – Task depending (see paragraph 2. manual mine clearance and to Level 1 EOD if required to assist with the procedure) 1 x Deminer (qualified in manual mine clearance) – required if marking or clearance is to be conducted 1 x Medic (qualified medic) – (see paragraph 2. Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) 1 x Survey Commander (experienced and qualified in survey and manual mine clearance) 1 x Survey Officer (experienced and qualified in survey and manual mine clearance) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) – task depending (see paragraph 2.Chapter 23 a.
Edition 9. Mine Risk Education (MRE) 2 x MRE Officers (experienced and qualified in MRE) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) – task depending 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) 3. Version 1 . MDD Level 1 EOD if required to assist with the procedure) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) g. manual mine clearance and EOD Level 3 or 4 depending on task requirement) 1 x Deminer (qualified in BAC. experienced and qualified in mechanical & manual mine clearance Level 1 EOD if required to assist with the procedure) 1 x Deminer (qualified in manual mine clearance) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) f. Mine Detection Dogs (MDD) 1 x Commander (experienced and qualified in MDD & manual mine clearance.Chapter 23 1 x Supervisor/Observor (for each working machine. This person shall be in country during all mine/UXO clearance operations conducted by the mine action organisation. Battle Area Clearance (BAC) 1 x BAC Commander (experienced and qualified in BAC. Part 1.2 Operational Management for mine/UXO clearance: At least one person shall be experienced and qualified in all mine/UXO clearance procedures conducted by the organisation including EOD to level 4. Page 3 of 4 NTSG. manual mine clearance and Level 1 EOD if required to assist with the procedure) 1 x Deminer (qualified in BAC and manual mine clearance) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) h. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) 1 x EOD Commander (experienced and qualified to EOD Level 3 or 4 depending on task requirement and in manual mine clearance) 1 x EOD Officer (qualified to EOD Level 1 to assist with the procedure) 1 x Medic (qualified medic) 1 x Driver (qualified to relevant vehicle category) i. EOD Level 2) 1 x MDD handler (qualified in MDD) 1 x Deminer (qualified in manual mine clearance.
Chapter 23 3. The organigram shall include the names/positions of senior staff from programme manager down to site supervisor level and a breakdown of its sub-units. indicating the number of personnel for each position.2 CV’s shall be required at the same time for all senior international personnel who are to conduct/be employed in supervisory or managerial positions. 4. Edition 9.1 As part of the Desk (provisional) Assessment. Page 4 of 4 NTSG.3 Support for Demining Operations: It is the responsibility of mine action organisations to ensure that they have a sufficient number of experienced and qualified personnel to support their demining operations. ACCREDITATION 4. qualifications and training requirements in their relevant SOP. mine action organisations shall submit an organigram detailing their in-country structure. This shall be amended and re-submitted to the UNMAO as changes are made. Version 1 .4 SOP: The mine action organisation is to clearly define the composition of teams including the relevant experience. 4. 3. Part 1.
GENERAL 1.3 This chapter does not cover specific daily routine administration that is the responsibility of the mine action organisation. It does however give guidance on particular aspects that the mine action organisation is to comply with and/or implement. 2. 1. However there is a requirement that the levels assessed as being applied during a successful accreditation are continued throughout operations.1 Routine efficient and effective administration is necessary at all stages of humanitarian demining.2 The ability of the mine action organisation to apply effective and efficient administration will be first assessed during the accreditation process by reviewing pertinent documentation. TASK CYCLE WITHIN SUDANMAP 2. Version 1 . This administration should reflect the mine action organisations ability to attend to detail and should cover all aspects. Part 1. Edition 9.Chapter 24 CLEARANCE TASK ADMINISTRATION 1. 1.1 Diagram 1 depicts the life-cycle of a task that will generally always be applied and implemented within SudanMAP: Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /review Diagram 1 Page 1 of 9 NTSG.
Task Dossier The initial production of this is the responsibility of the UNMAO sub-office. The UNRMAO along with the relevant UNMAO sub-office will be responsible for coordinating and implementing the tasking of mine action organisations. Version 1 .3 Joint Reconnaissance After the Task Dossier has been issued a joint reconnaissance should be planned and conducted by the mine action organisation representative(s) and the UNMAO sub-office Operations Officer (see diagram 3). If no survey report is available. All available information. the Operations Officer shall generate a survey report. the task dossier will be issued to the relevant mine action organisation. based on the findings of the reconnaissance and assessments. b.2 Tasking The tasking (see diagram 2) of mine action organisations shall begin once a relevant task is identified and will be dependant on but not restricted to the priorities applied to the task and the resources required to complete it. Post task identification and reconnaissance the following applies: a.Chapter 24 2. Edition 9. Part 1. The UNMAO sub-office is to then archive a copy of the complete task dossier along with the signed task order. An example tasking order can be seen at Annex C. An example of the front cover and documentation that could be inserted into the task dossier depending on the specific task can be seen at Annexes A and B respectively. 2. On acceptance the authorised mine action organisation representative shall sign the tasking order. detail and documentation pertaining to the task should be included in the dossier and should be appropriately indicated. Task Order Once ready. The dossier is a ‘living document’ throughout the life cycle of a task and therefore can and should be added to and appropriately updated by the relevant organisation as and when appropriate. Page 2 of 9 NTSG. Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /review Diagram 2 Wherever practicable a reconnaissance of the task should be conducted by UNMAO sub-office Operations Officer in order for them to familiarise themselves with the pertinent details and circumstances that have resulted in its identification and also to conduct a threat assessment and risk analysis. with a detailed sketch polygon.
2. A joint discussion and assessment will then take place culminating in the formulation and agreement to a proposed plan. This is the responsibility of the mine action organisation issued with the task. Edition 9.Chapter 24 Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /review Diagram 3 The latter will show the location of the task and discuss any pertinent reconnaissance findings and threat assessments. Version 1 . the survey report generated as a result of the reconnaissance and other supporting relevant documents. Page 3 of 9 NTSG.3 Implementation Plan All the details collated to date are to be utilised in order to produce an implementation plan (see diagram 4). It should contain details of the reconnaissance. Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /review Diagram 4 The implementation plan template shown at Annex D shall be used and adhered to whenever practicable and possible. Part 1.
UNMAO Regional Office Responsibility The Regional Operations Coordinator. Mine Action Organisation Responsibility The implementation plan is to be completed. It is to be submitted to the UNMAO sub-office that issued the task within 4 working days from the signing of the tasking order or 4 working days after the completion of the joint reconnaissance if one is conducted. storing or further action as appropriate. b.4 Implementation Plan Approval The implementation plan is to be submitted for approval. UNMAO Responsibility The implementation plan will then undergo final review and acceptance within 24 hours of receipt. On approval of the implementation plan at this level the mine action organisation can be informed they can commence the task. Once satisfied the Operation Officer is to sign-off on the implementation plan and then submit it to the Regional Operations Coordinator. prepared and signed by the authorised individual from the mine action organisation. 2. if satisfied with the implementation plan.g. The sub-office Operations Officer is to confirm and if necessary verify any relevant or appropriate detail e. Version 1 . If resolution is not achieved. This should be completed within 48 hours of receipt. The review shall consider and decide if any proposed deviations from accredited SOPs are necessary and/or acceptable. review and quality assurance is to be conducted (see diagram 5) by both the UNMAO sub-office QA Officer and the mine organisation as per chapter 14 of this NTSG. The review should include an assessment that the implementation plan is able to meet the aims of the task in a safe. pertinent issues shall be raised with the Regional Operations Coordinator. minefield polygon coordinates if established. the implementation plan shall become a mini-contract from a contractual point of view between the UN and the mine action organisation. Edition 9. d. When all the required signatures have been obtained. monitoring. Page 4 of 9 NTSG. The following approval process applies: a. The Operations Officer should refer all concerns with regards to the implementation plan to the mine action organisation in an attempt to resolve them at this level. The mine action organisation is to ensure it clearly identifies and details all pertinent information by following the template at Annex D. shall sign it off and forward it to the relevant authorised appointment(s) within 24 hours. processes and procedures detailed in the mine action organisations accredited SOPs. c. In particular any planned deviation from accredited SOPs shall be clearly highlighted.Chapter 24 2. Part 1.5 Task Monitoring and Review During the task implementation. Any deviation from accredited SOPs and any other critical issues are to be clearly annotated. The Contracts Officer will file the signed implementation plan and copies of the completed document as is at this stage will then be distributed for filing. effective and efficient manner. UNMAO Sub-office Responsibility The UNMAO sub-office Operations Officer will review the implementation plan to ensure it complies with any appropriate agreements and with the standards.
6 Amendments to Implementation Plans Any amendments to implementation plans will only be authorised by adopting the ‘sign-off’ process as for the original version. Page 5 of 9 NTSG. it will be entered into IMSMA. Version 1 . 2. Changes enforced by weather c. Progress Reports should be kept in all copies of the task dossier until completion/handover of the task and then filed/archived with the rest of the task documents. Changes enforced by security concerns b. Once the information from the Progress Report is verified. This should be completed within 1 working day. 2. Part 1. In general amendments will only be considered under the following circumstances: a. New information becomes available that was not available at the time of planning Each amendment should be numbered and appropriately filed and recorded in all copies of the task dossier. Edition 9.7 Task Completion Task implementation is only considered complete once the mine action organisation has submitted the Completion Report to the UNMAO sub-office (see diagram 6). No amendment or changes to signed-off processes and procedures will be allowed until the full ‘sign-off’ process is completed.Chapter 24 Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /Review/QA Diagram 5 In addition the mine action organisation shall submit a Weekly IMSMA Progress Report.
If and when the task recommences a joint reconnaissance shall be conducted by the UNMAO sub-office Operations Officer and the tasked mine action organisation. the UNMAO sub-office QA Officer shall conduct a QA handover evaluation preferably with representatives from both mine action organisations present.9 Formal Handover/Declaration After all documentation processes are complete a formal Handover and Declaration Certificate as at Annex E will be generated (see diagram 7) Page 6 of 9 NTSG. The completion report is to be used to verify that the task has been completed as per the tasking order and the implementation plan. Following this.8 Task Suspension When a task is suspended. the UNMAO sub-office QA Officer shall conduct a QA evaluation with the mine action organisation and generate an IMSMA Suspension Report. Version 1 . The completion report will then be entered into the IMSMA and appropriately filed and recorded in all copies of the task dossier. Attached to the completion report shall be 2 x A3 scale maps indicating the different assets that completed the task. 2. The following applies: a. If a different mine action organisation is employed. Part 1. the new mine action organisation will generate a new implementation plan and the complete process will recommence.Chapter 24 Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /Review/QA Diagram 6 The UNMAO sub-office QA Officer shall conduct a final QA and sign-off the appropriate section of the completion report indicating the task is ready for the formal handover. b. 2. All original documentation belonging to UNMAO shall be handed to UNMAO with the completion report. Edition 9. c.
TASK MAP 3. 2. which should be updated regularly in order to reflect the actual clearance on the ground. b. (3) Acceptance signature from UNMAO (usually the Regional Operations Coordinator). Page 7 of 9 NTSG. The following applies: a. 3. Edition 9.2 Mine action organisations shall ensure that all mine/UXO clearance supervisors are capable of producing an accurate map of the clearance conducted. This is to be signed as followed: (1) Authorised representative from the mine action organisation. The production of the map shall start when clearance commences and should be finished on completion of clearance. 3.9 Archiving Task Documentation (UNMAO) Once all documentation as per the contents sheet are compiled and recorded the task can be considered complete. sub-contractor. A copy of the completion survey report and a A3 scale map will be attached to the Formal Handover and Declaration Certificate. (4) Final receipt by responsible authority. Part 1. The final action shall be for the IMSMA Officer to verify all information against the database. b. Version 1 .e.1 Accurate mapping of mine and UXO clearance operations is extremely valuable for operational planning. (2) Authorised representative of any supporting mine action organisation i. conducting task briefings and as a testimony to the clearance conducted.Chapter 24 Tasking Reconnaissance Handover Implementation Plan Completion /Suspension Monitoring /Review/QA Diagram 7 The following applies: a. Thereafter the documentation shall be archived. Each separate clearance task shall have its own map which should depict all clearance activities conducted during the task duration.
c. record all perimeter coordinates (bearings and distance) to each turning point. The map should be drawn on graph paper and the scale used should be sufficient to ensure that the details are unambiguous. i. (3) Ensure that the information is gathered in one direction only. b. h. Map name (in Arabic and/or English) Task number and start date Team Leader’s Name BM and grid reference SP and grid reference North Pointer Scale Legend Control Point/administration area Mines/UXO located Cleared areas Page 8 of 9 NTSG. Edition 9. SS-50A. Non permanent markers (eg. record the bearing and distance to the Start Point. using a DGPS or compass and measuring tape. f. It is recommended that the minimum scale used is 1:1000 (1cm = 10m). j. g. plot all perimeter coordinates from the Start Point onto the map using a protractor and ruler. pencils) should be used to draw the map. b. d. Stage Two – (1) Select a point on the map for the Benchmark and the Start Point. A copy of the map and all coordinates should be submitted with the completion report. it maybe necessary to produce separate maps. e. SS-50B. therefore. g. ideally at the end of each working day. c. In situations where a task is divided into smaller tasks (eg. 3. Stage One – (1) From the Benchmark.Chapter 24 c. Version 1 . Part 1. Stage Three – (1) Draw/record all other relevant symbols and information Stage Four – (1) The map should be updated regularly. e. Ensure that the perimeter coordinates are plotted in one direction only. allowing for alterations if required.3 When drawing a task map the following sequence should be followed: a. d. the mine action organisation shall ensure that the map accurately reflects all clearance conducted and that it is included with the suspension report.4 The task map shall have the following information: a. (2) From the Start Point. SS-50C). In circumstances where a task is suspended. d. f. k. returning to the Start Point. 3.
4.6 List of perimeter coordinates (in sequence) Map symbols sheet (if not included on map) Mine/UXO information (type/quantity/depth) located Accidents / Incidents The following colours are recommended for use on task maps: a. in particularly. 4.g.5 In addition. c. Version 1 . Part 1. how? Map brief – marking. clear/unclear areas. b. The operations brief should include the following: (1) (2) (3) b. symbols and clearance. the task supervisor should have the following information available at the task: a. Wearing of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). Actions on uncontrolled explosion. The safety brief should include the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Organisation marking system. 3. Actions on controlled demolitions. Ground orientation History – what.1 All task visitors shall be given a brief by the task supervisor in a designated safe area (e. working lanes Black – other symbols. Edition 9. c. Conduct of visitors (do’s and do not’s).3 Annex F and G provide examples of an Operations Brief and examples of a Safety Brief.Chapter 24 3. Page 9 of 9 NTSG. d. where. when. control point or administration area) prior to being allowed into the worksite. why. The briefing shall be conducted in the pertinent language to ensure that all visitors understand the content of the brief. d. Casualty evacuation plan. Red – mines/UXO Blue – water features Green or yellow – cleared areas. who. 4 VISITORS BRIEF 4. b.2 The briefing shall include the following details: a.
Edition 9. Version 1 . XXXXXX SUB OFFICE TASK Number XXXX DA/MF Number XXXX Activity XXXX TASK DOSSIER Location XXXX An UNMAS Programme Executed with UNOPS Page 1 of 1 NTSG.ANNEX A to Chapter 24 XXXXXX REGION MINE ACTION OFFICE. Part 1.
10. 12. 4. 11. Edition 9. 5. Table of Contents Control Sheet (I) Tasking order Task Data Sheet (I) Minefield Report (I) Danger Area Report (I) Mine/UXO Incident/Accident Report (I) GMAA / Survey Reports (I) Village Reports (I) Minefield Assessment Map from IMSMA-GIS Implementation Plan / Amendments Progress Reports (I) QA Reports (I) Completion reports (I) Other Reports or Information if available Clearance Certificate (I) = IMSMA Forms – If available Page 1 of 1 NTSG. 8. 2.ANNEX B to Chapter 24 ______________________________________________________________________ ___ UNITED NATIONS MINE ACTION OFFICE XXXX REGION MINE ACTION OFFICE CONTENT 1. Version 1 . 14. 3. 6. Part 1. 9. 16. 7. 15. 13.
2. The task involves the Manual clearance of the Minefields as described in the Task Implementation Plan and within the provisions of this Order. Description of Task A comprehensive Reconnaissance Report is attached to this Document. 3. Version 1 . Objective of the Task The objective of this task is to conduct a mine clearance operation at XXXX in the listed Minefields as detailed in the accompanying DA Reports contained in this folder. Task requirement An UNMAS Programme Executed with UNOPS Page 1 of 3 NTSG. The suspected Dangerous areas were reported by the SPLA in Abyei and were recorded by the Ops Offr XXXX Sub Office. Edition 9. Part 1.XXXX Task ID: XX XXXX Issued by: XXXX Sub Office 1.ANNEX C to Chapter 24 TASKING ORDER Minefield Clearance Task .
(Obtain an Electronic copy of Template from this office). Conduct the clearance operation in conformity with the approved Implementation Plan. Submit Weekly Progress reports in accordance with IMSMA requirement and XXXX SOP. f. d. e. Clearly identify MF – Perimeter to be demarcated. Part 1. Benefits Page 2 of 3 NTSG. Report any additional new DA. NTSG and IMAS. prepare all the relevant completion documents and arrange with this office for the Handing over date of the cleared sites. – Attached Scale Map of Defined area. On completion of the Clearance operation. in accordance with XXXX SOP.MCT The following are XXXX Regional Office and XXXX Sub-Office requirements for this task: a. Point ID / Mark – bench mark for each DA reported. g. perimeters of suspected area / Dangerous area. Mark TP’s with Red painted Rocks / Mine Signs DGPS UXO – mark / record / report Report Ammo Bunkers Roads – Tracks Record additional DA’s Completion Survey report 4. Version 1 . 5. Operation Methodology The task will be carried out using the standard Manual Mine clearance procedures. b. On-Site Requirements • Daily Updated Operational Scale Map Survey • • • • • • • • • • • ID – Mine / UXO threat Suspected Mined Areas / BAC – Produced Polygon by def. Edition 9. Any changes to the operation methodology or organisations SOP are to be forwarded in writing and approved by the XXXX Regional Office before implementation. c. ID Ref. Prepare the Task Implementation Plan and submit for UNMAO-S approval prior to task commencement.
Date…………………………… Task Accepted/Rejected by: Name: Title: On behalf of [Organisation] Sign…………………………. Edition 9. 6.The completion of this task will allow for safe and secure resettlement/movement of village residents/returnees and promote the socioeconomic development in the locality.Date…………………………… Page 3 of 3 NTSG. Part 1. Signatures Prepared/Approved by: Name: XXXXXX Title: Operations Officer XXXXXi Sub Office Sign…………………………. Version 1 .
...........ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Implementation Plan [XXXX Organisation] Country: State: Sub District: Area: Task ID: 1.................................................................................................................................. Resources................................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... Risk Issues ............................................. Safety Issues.......................... Methodology... Page 1 of 13 NTSG. ......... CASEVAC/MEDIVAC plan.............. Time lines........ ....... Version 1 .................................................. Political and Social Factors ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Requirement.. .............................................. Internal Quality Control................................ Standard for Manual Mine Clearance .................................................. Priority of work .............................................................................. Task Start Date.................................................................................................................................................................................... Communication Plan............................................................................................... Contents Task start date: Task end date: Type of Task: UXO areas for demolition: Assets: Objective.............. Operational Concept...................................... Part 1......................................... Support Resources ............. Edition 9.......................................................................................................... Task End Date............................................ External Quality Control ... Reporting and Completion.......................................................................
Task requirement 1. 3.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Attachments: Attachment A: Task Order Attachment B: Contractor initial survey report Attachment C: Polygon A3 map AttachmentD: Contractor’s SOP Attachment E: Gantt Chart (Schedule) Attachment F: (Relevant docs to task) Attachment G: (Relevant docs to task) Attachment H: (Relevant docs to task) 2.XXXX.XXXX. Carry out site reconnaissance of all the DA’s described in task NR. the two MMCTs deployed for this task will: a. Produce an acceptable and feasible Implementation Plan (IP) to manage the task NR. 4. Clear the 9 mine fields described in the Task dossier using manual methods. Within this scope of the Implementation Plan. Report any additional new DA’s within the area. 2. b. 3. Conduct operations in accordance with the approved Implementation Plan. Concept of Operations Page 2 of 13 NTSG. Part 1. Edition 9. Objective The objective of this task is to conduct Manual Mine clearance and EOD Operations within the XXXX District of the 11 tasks described in Task Dossier NR-XXXX. 4. Version 1 .XXXX. Conduct controlled demolitions of the UXO described in the 2 EOD tasks within dossier Nr.
6. 2. internal QA will occur as follows: 1. Edition 9. Methodology Page 3 of 13 NTSG. Version 1 . 3. Part 1. To ensure the execution of this task as per the IP. Monitoring of internal XXXX weekly reports from the supervisors to the XXXX Operations Officer for consistency and content in relation to the requirements of the IP. Field check by the XXXX operations officer of the MMCTs during the task to insure that all work is being carried out as per the IP. MAT 1 and MAT 2 will be provided to complete these tasks – they are based in XXXX and will commute through their operational cycled to XXXX . 5. Standard for Clearance The standards for the Manual Mine Clearance will comply with the International Mine Action Standards as the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of XXXX are approved by UNMAO-Sudan. Monitoring of any IMSMA format report produced by the supervisor for consistency and content in relation to the requirements of the IP.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 XXXX will provide two Manual Mine Clearance Teams based in XXXX for the execution of this task.
NR-319 4. Mines discovered by the MMCT’s in the execution of their mine clearance tasks are to be destroyed in-situ using shaped charges. Conduct metal free clearance of the designated areas described within sub tasks: 1. and then clear to that depth.XXXX. • At each interval the mine is tested with at least three different detectors to see if it registers a reading. (This clearance depth is based on the Ebinger 421gc being able to locate a M14 minimum metal AP mine at 130mm). FSD proposes to achieve this using one of the three below described methods. (PMN type identified by SPLA engineer that laid mine field).XXXX and Nr. Part 1. a.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Manual Mine Clearance 1. These tasks are to be carried out in accordance with XXXX SOP’s. The method of total-excavation is implemented on these three sites to a depth of 300mm. 2. NR-316 3. c. NR-323 6. would now be buried at a depth deeper than the default clearance depth of 130mm with the Ebinger 421gc in the FSD SOP’s.XXXX and NR. Ascertain the safe-maximum depth that an Ebinger 421gc can locate a PMN type mine in that particular soil type (Black Cotton Soil). However due to the fact that sub task NR. then the NRMAO QA officer could. EOD 1. if necessary. b. be present at the site to verify the new clearance depth for each particular inundated site. This will provide the safest option in destroying any buried mines found. An armored excavator can be provided by an external organization to assist with the clearance so as to remove layers of soil. This would be very time consuming and inefficient. Version 1 . Edition 9. 2.XXXX are identified as EOD tasks. NR-324 to depth of 130mm using the Ebinger 421gc. Page 4 of 13 NTSG. Due to the inundation of these areas we would need to achieve a greater clearance depth for these three tasks. NR-315 2. • Once a safe maximum depth is ascertained. This can be done in the following manner: • A test pit is dug in the same soil type that is at the site and a PMN mine is placed at different intervals. NR-321 5. NR.XXXX are situated on water courses and the area is subject to ‘gentle’ inundation there is a large probability that the mines. Tasks NR.
Part 1. Activities Page 5 of 13 NTSG. Edition 9.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Ebinger 420gc 0 mm PMN mine 130mm 200mm 250mm 300mm 7. Version 1 .
Once a team has completed a task the supervisor will contact the XXXX Operations Officer and his team will be assigned a new task in accordance with the priority of work. NR.( Task NR XXXX) Relatively remote and distant. Due to their relevant proximity they will be cleared by one team. the teams will initially proceed to clear the sites in the following order: 1. Page 6 of 13 NTSG.XXXX. NR. (Task NR XXXX) Area adjacent to a major foot path and this suspected minefield is situated on a water course and will need to be cleared before the first rains commence. 2.XXXX and XXXX.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Activities Factors that will influence the priority of work for these tasks are the following: 1. NR. XXXX and XXXX. NR. NR. ( Task NR XXXX) Areas adjacent to Hooch village. ( Task NR XXXX) This suspected minefield is situated on a water course and will need to be cleared before the first rains commence. 5. Due to their relevant proximity to each other they will be cleared by one team. 3. 4.XXXX.(Task NR XXXX) Relatively remote and distant. Social economic considerations. Edition 9. 4.XXXX.XXXX. Task for one team. Due to their relevant proximity to each other they will be cleared by one team. Logistical issues. 5. 3.XXXX and XXXX. Location in relationship to human habitation. Location in relationship to flooding of watercourses. 2. Taking these factors into consideration and that priorities could change.XXXX. NR. (Task NR XXXX) Main bridge and settlement areas adjacent to the XXXX bridge. Task for one team. Task for one team. Version 1 . 6. NR. 7. Task for one team. Part 1. (Task NR XXXX) Church area earmarked for imminent resettlement. Accessibility.
If needed UNMIS will ensure a safe working environment and any escort/protection required by the MMCTs. 5. Each team will consist of: 1. Page 7 of 13 NTSG. 3. 3. Risk issues 1. 5. Logistical issues. 6. 3x Soft skinned vehicles (Landcruiser hardtop) – one will be compliant with the standards required for function of CASEVAC Transportation Vehicle. Internal QA capacity. (All equipment/consumables must be transported from Khartoum or XXXX) 2. 9. The MMCTs will be self catering and self sufficient as a unit for accommodation and catering needs. Edition 9. (Factors paired with the Rainy season and the extreme hard nature of the local soil will have impact task efficiency ) 3. Explosives supplied by UNMAO. Allocations of the block leave periods. 10x Deminers. • Delays and harassment is to be expected at the XXXX check point north of XXXX town. UNMAO administrative capabilities. Political/Social Factors • Due to the tense political status of XXXX it is to be expected that interference by local authorities could hamper operations. Unforeseen Breakdown. Physical conditions. 1x International Supervisor. Part 1. (Fuel in XXXX is known to be of bad quality) 11. 1x Trauma Medic. 4. Security issues. Support Resources 1. • The local population of the area is known to be suspicious of humanitarian work and opportunistic harassment is to be expected. Resources XXXX will provide two manual mine clearance teams. Version 1 . 4. (XXXX locality is situated within a politically sensitive zone and tension/conflicts could hamper humanitarian mine action). 2x drivers. 10. 2. Illness or injury. UNMIS Helicopter Medivac capacity.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 8. 2. 4.
At the completion of each task the Supervisor will contact the XRMAO and request a completion survey by the XRMAO for that specific task. Version 1 . A hard copy of all External QA reports will be handed in with the final task completion dossier compiled by the XXXX Op’s officer. the supervisor and the QA officer can liaise to meet at a certain pre-arranged safe area. Edition 9. The XRMAO QA officer must leave behind at the site a hand written and signed QA sheet with the supervisor for the QA assessment to be valid. Duration and Timings Page 8 of 13 NTSG. will be enforced by the XXXX Operations Officer who shall be responsible for the execution thereof. Internal Quality Control (QA/QC) A quality control management (QC) system as defined in the Standard Operating Procedures. Once on the ground the XRMAO QA officer can then decide on which areas he would like to conduct the external QA. External Quality Control (QA/QC) To facilitate external QA by the XRMAO. Part 1. 14. (SOP – Section 11). 13.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 12.
Edition 9. This could take one day in total for each 3 week deployment. A seven day stand down period will inter-space each deployment period. not suitable for harvesting for mine field marking pegs.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 The XXXX MMCTs will operate on the standard basis of a minimum of 21 working days per month out in the field and a 7 day stand down period back in XXXX The first day of deployment will commence when the MMCTs leave their duty station of XXXX and the last day of their deployment will be counted as the day that the teams return to XXXX. This means that Bamboo will have to be harvested and from an area to the north of XXXX on the teams’ transit from the duty station to XXXX. Part 1. Page 9 of 13 NTSG. There are few non Acacia trees in the area and harvesting of these trees could cause conflict with the local population. In area of XXXX is devoid of any suitable minefield marking material. There is one unusual physical circumstance that will effect the time line and needs to be taken into consideration: Lack of suitable local material for minefield marking. Their are also no rocks in the area for uses as minefield markers. The only trees in the area are of the “Acacia” type and due to their thorny nature. Version 1 .
Demolitions 16. • Helicopter Evacuation through UNMIS Sector 4 and 6 to a level 3 facility at the XXXX UNMIS base at XXXX. Version 1 . Page 10 of 13 NTSG. Physical conditions. Time-line adjustment If any unforeseen incident occurs in the field. (Rainy season) 4. 3. • Team Supervisor will liaise with UNMIS and AIROPS personnel.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Deployment Min. that delays actual clearance work . Casevac/Medevac Plan • Each team will be equipped with a CASEVAC transportation vehicle. • Team supervisor will be conversant with the UNMAO CASEVAC PLAN. Edition 9. 15. 5. Allocations of the block leave periods. Security issues. Illness or injury. • One team member is a qualified trauma medic. Part 1. 2.6 days 1-day rest Demining 1 day Bamboo Harvest Stand down Camp setup/ break 1 travel day Bear in mind that the task time line will alter due to the following factors: 1. it will be at the supervisors discretion to increase the amount of days spent on deployment to compensate. Logistical issues. during the deployment phase of the time line.
Op’s Officer (XXXX . Version 1 . Thuraya phone numbers: a. Op’s Officer (XXXX +882 1654 20XXXX) 4. HF/VHF communication with UNMIS Sector XXXX. A XXXX internal weekly report shall be submitted to the XXXX Op’s officer in Khartoum at the end of each week. Team Supervisor (XXXX – XXXX) c. This Progress Report will be sent to the XRMAO by each Friday 1600Hrs. One completion report will be submitted to the XRMAO at the end of each sub task. 3). XXXX Internal Weekly Report. Communication Plan 1. Completion Reports. Part 1. Others Page 11 of 13 NTSG. 2). 4).TBA) b. A progress report will be submitted to the XRMAO at the end of each week. Team Supervisor (XXXX) . 19. RBGAN email communication. 2. this report will include a detailed and accurate site map. Team Supervisor (XXXX – TBA) c.091517XXXX) 18. Team Supervisor (XXXX – XXXX) b. DA Reports. Mobile Phone: a.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 17. DA reports will be submitted to the XRMAO for every new DA encountered during deployment/operations. Progress Report. Reporting 1). Op’s Officer (XXXX – XXXX) 3. a. Edition 9.
it is not possible to furnish a start date. COMPLETION DATE: This tasking is expected to run through to at least the end of 2006.Date…………………………… Accepted by: Name: Title: UNMAO Sub Office: Sign………………………….Date…………………………… Verified by: Name: Title: UNMAO Regional Operations Coordinator Sign…………………………. MAT 1 will leave Khartoum immediately for deployment in XXXX and collect spare Tents from the RMAO office.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 COMMENCEMENT DATE: Due to the fact that the XXXX is still withholding vital equipment needed for the teams imminent deployment. MAT 2 will deploy as soon as the equipment is available. Part 1.Date…………………………… Page 12 of 13 NTSG. The teams will deploy for this task as soon as the XXXX releases this equipment. Signatures Prepared/Submitted by: Name: Title: Organisation: Sign…………………………. Version 1 .Date…………………………… Approved by: Jim Pansegrouw Director/Programme Manager Sign…………………………. Edition 9.
Version 1 . Edition 9. An up to date record of amendments is to be maintained in the table below. Part 1. Record of Amendments S/N 1 Date 01/07/06 Remarks/Comments Timeline adjustment due to weather Approved by UNMAO PM Page 13 of 13 NTSG. Any comments. suggestions or proposed amendments to this document should be addressed to Regional Operations Coordinator.ANNEX D to Chapter 24 Approval acknowledged by: Name: Title [Organisation] Sign………………………….Date…………………………… Amendments to this document will be published from time to time.
Part 1. NAME: POSITION: DATE: SIGNATURE: ACCEPTANCE BY THE NATIONAL AUTHORITY NAME: DATE: SIGNATURE: I ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY OF THIS AREA ON BEHALF OF THE PEOPLE OF SUDAN. 6. IS AREA METAL FREE? 13. 8. CLEARANCE METHODOLOGY USED: 16. NAME: POSITION: DATE: SIGNATURE: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND ACCEPTANCE BY THE UNMAO REGIONAL OPERATIONS COORDINATOR I ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS HANDOVER AND FORMAL DECLARATION CERTIFICATE IS CORRECT AND ACCEPTABLE. QUALITY ASSURANCE METHODOLOGY USED: 17. TASK ID: MINEFIELD IMSMA NAME: TASK DOSSIER NUMBER: MAP NAME: EDITION: SHEET NUMBER: MAP SCALE: MAP SERIES: LOCAL AREA NAME: 10. NAME: POSITION: DATE: SIGNATURE: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND ACCEPTANCE BY THE UNMAO SUB-OFFICE OPERATIONS OFFICER I ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS HANDOVER AND FORMAL DECLARATION CERTIFICATE IS CORRECT AND ACCEPTABLE. FINAL DISPOSAL METHOD OF RECOVERED MINES / UXO: 12. DECLARATIONS AND ACCEPTANCES HANDOVER AND DECLARATION ON BEHALF OF DEMINING ORGANISATION I CERTIFY THAT TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF THE AREA AND DEPTH SPECIFIED IN THIS HANDOVER AND FORMAL DECLARATION CERTIFICATE HAS BEEN CLEARED OF ALL MINE AND UXO HAZARDS. 9. LOCATION OF CLEARED AREA: DESCRIPTION AND UTM. Edition 9. DATE OF COMPLETION EVALUATION. DETAILS OF CLEARANCE OPERATIONS 11. Version 1 . I UNDERSTAND THAT THE SPECIFIED AREA HAS BEEN CLEARED OF MINES AND UXO TO THE DEPTH SPECIFIED IN THIS HANDOVER AND FORMAL DECLARATION CERTIFICATE.ANNEX E to Chapter 24 HANDOVER AND FORMAL DECLARATION CERTIFICATE GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Page 1 of 1 NTSG. 2. 4. ATTACHMENTS: MAP DETAILING CLEARED AREA. 5. 7. CLEARANCE DEPTH: 18. 3. DIAGRAM OF THE CLEARED AREA. QUALITY ASSURANCE INSPECTOR NAME: 14. DIAGRAM OF CLEARED AREA TO BE ATTACHED. NAME: POSITION: DATE: SIGNATURE: QUALITY ASSURANCE DECLARATION BY THE UNMAO QA OFFICER I CERTIFY THAT THE AREA AND DEPTH SPECIFIED IN THIS HANDOVER AND FORMAL DECLARATION CERTIFICATE HAS BEEN INDEPENDENTLY ASSESSED TO BE CLEAR OF ALL MINE AND UXO HAZARDS. NUMBER AND TYPE OF MINE / UXO CLEARED: 15. MAP DETAILING CLEARED AREA TO BE ATTACHED.
Part 1. 3. f. GROUND ORIENTATION a. explain the scale and key Location of all personnel and key locations on task site. g. e. d. distance and direction of towns. thick vegetation. INTRODUCTION a.Organisation accidents and casualties. b. Accurate direction of North. Point out areas which are peculiar to this minefield (for example heavy metal contamination. Minefield introduction. With map orientated to the ground. e. Task Supervisor’s introduction. MINEFIELD HISTORY a. flooding etc). b. MAP BRIEF a. 2. Who requested that the Organisation clear this task? Task start date: Estimated completion date: 4. Who laid the mines. Reason for task selection. Location of defensive positions or battles in relation to task site. c. Edition 9. Version 1 . when. Reason for clearance (what will happen with the land once it has been cleared). Location. b. for what reason. Point out the location of non .ANNEX F to Chapter 24 EXAMPLE: TASK OPERATIONS BRIEF 1. c. b. Accident/incident history (including human. d. animals and vehicles). where and what type. DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT THE BRIEF? Page 1 of 1 NTSG. villages and major geographical features.
Version 1 . STOP and STAND STILL and await further instructions. you will be escorted to a safe area prior to the demolition. If at any stage you are unsure whether you are in cleared or uncleared ground. Never throw anything in the minefield. Part 1. Never run in a minefield. control lanes). Edition 9. These mark the location where anti personnel mines. 3. These mark safe areas (eg. In the event of a controlled explosion. There are trained paramedics at the site who have a major trauma bag. Inspect yourself to make sure you have not been injured. In the event of an uncontrolled explosion STOP WHAT YOU ARE DOING and STAND STILL. 2. In the event of an accident the casualty will be transported to the nearest hospital. anti tank mines or UXO have been found and destroyed. Do not stray from your guide. Page 1 of 1 NTSG. THE MARKING SYSTEM: Red topped posts / rocks or red/white rocks: These mark the boundary between clear and unclear land. 5. If you have bring it to the attention of the Organisation staff otherwise await further instructions. White topped posts or rocks. 4. Do not pick any thing up without permission. Yellow topped post or rocks.ANNEX F to Chapter 24 EXAMPLE: TASK VISITORS SAFETY BRIEF For you own safety please pay attention to this brief. NEVER CROSS A LINE OF RED ROCKS/ POSTS or RED/WHITE ROCKS. Always follow the instructions given to you by Organisation staff. CONDUCT IN A MINEFIELD: 1. DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS ON THE SAFETY BRIEF? Now supervise the fitting of all visitor protective equipment. control point.
marking. UNMAS shall use Page 1 of 5 NTSG. Preparation and Office Establishment: (1) UN Assessment Mission The assessment mission shall determine the requirement and utility of a survey and will explicitly call for such a survey when it is needed. The data shall also provide a baseline against which to measure progress and inform policy-makers on the most effective allocation of resources to combat the problem. Version 1 .1 Outlined below are the phases of the survey process. 1. GENERAL 2. technical surveys.3 LIS protocols have been developed and shall be implemented to assure stakeholders that the LIS is conducted in accordance with the LIS methodology developed by the Survey Working Group (SWG).2 Through this process. which corresponds to the task/sub-task matrix of the certification guidelines. clearance and victim assistance. A number of tasks/sub-tasks will occur within each phase.1 Land Impact Survey (LIS) is an integral part of the SudanMAP. INTRODUCTION 1. a. These phases and their component activities are presented in a general chronological order. 2. permitting policy-makers to focus efforts in the most affected areas and enabling the targeting of interventions for mine risk education. 2. PHASE 1: Planning. 2. It is a specialized activity that is planned and executed by the Survey Action Centre (SAC) in close coordination with UNMAO and implemented by organisations that are appropriately trained and experienced in ensuring the requirements and standards are met and achieved at all times.. the impact of the mine/UXO problem can be categorized and mapped.2 This chapter does not go into finite detail or cover all facets of the LIS that will be carried out and/or implemented during its conduct in the SudanMAP but aims to provide the essential information necessary for all readers to have an insight into the conduct and requirements of the activity and to highlight pertinent requirements when conducting the activity. although in some cases a given task may continue throughout two or more phases. An assessment mission report calling for the conduct of a survey is the first step in the process. THE LIS PROCESS 3. Edition 9. Part 1.Chapter 25 LANDMINE IMPACT SURVEY 1.1 A completed LIS shall provide data for improved planning and prioritisation of the SudanMAP. 3.
especially as the actual survey teams move into new States.Chapter 25 these reports to determine in which countries a survey is appropriate and possible. which may be capable of supporting a survey. a training programme shall be developed. Edition 9. (5) Recruit Local & International Staff An open and transparent recruitment and selection process shall be undertaken designed to attract and retain competent local & international staff. b. (2) Conduct Pre. (4) Operational Set-up & Establishment of Country Presence An operational base(s) shall be prepared complete with temporary offices and a communications system to support the survey team. information management and technical mine expertise. Further development of this plan shall be an ongoing task conducted during the implementation of the survey and will include refinements based on the results of both pre. (2) Advance Survey Mission An Advance Survey Mission shall develop the contacts and information required to plan for the actual survey. Likewise a pilot test shall be conducted of the entire survey process to analyze management. (6) Preliminary Opinion Collection The survey team should begin the systematic collection of informed opinion of national “experts” familiar with the mine contamination problem in close coordination with the SudanMap. The survey team shall include members with a wide range of skills including socialscience methodology.and Pilot Tests Following the survey training stage. a pre-test of the survey instrument itself shall be conducted to determine its utility and cultural acceptability. This is an ongoing activity and will be repeated as needed throughout the survey. (3) Review A complete review and analysis of the pilot test results and adjustment of the survey process shall be completed before launching the Impact Survey. Version 1 . Page 2 of 5 NTSG. Part 1.and pilot-tests. (3) Survey Proposal & Outline Plan An initial survey proposal shall be prepared containing an outline plan based on operational data collected during the Advance Mission. The outline plan shall provide a basis to begin the survey project. Critical planning information shall be gathered and capacity assessment made of organizations and resources. and to assist in priority setting. Final selection of staff is the responsibility of the implementing survey team with due consideration of the National host. PHASE 2: Project Expansion and Survey Instrument Refinement Training: (1) Selection and Training Based on the selection process and the level of academic and professional skills of the survey staff recruited. logistics and administrative systems and planning assumptions. The aim of the training programme shall be to teach survey-related skills and knowledge to reinforce the survey process and upgrade any skill or knowledge shortfalls.
Presentation and Hand-Over (1) Data Analysis The objective analysis of data collected during the survey is vital to ensure acceptance of the survey results. but to illicit comments and input prior to publishing the final report and releasing data on the world-wide web.1 The Survey Team shall produce a Final Report as a product for the National Authorities in order to allow them to continue the mine action process.Chapter 25 (4) Develop Survey sampling methodology The refined survey process shall be used to develop methodologies for conducting both a sample survey as well as a sampling to check for false negative. These shall be used to build a predictive model of the survey results as well as to build a measure of confidence regarding survey findings. This will be done not only to share the knowledge gained. PHASE 3: Data Collection. (2) Handover As part of completing the survey. Page 3 of 5 NTSG. rigorous field supervision and extensive internal quality controls on data editing and entry. maps and a draft written report. (5) Revise Operational Plan Prior to actually conducting the survey. The survey team leader shall also produce a more subjective report providing commentary and recommendations for how future mine action programs should be conducted. Version 1 . 4. the Survey Team shall present its preliminary findings. There shall be a results-based management system established to track team assignments and outputs. PHASE 4: Data Analysis. This information shall include all relevant data. The survey is to be conducted in accordance with UN policy. Reports 4. This report is to focus on an objective presentation and analysis of the data gathered in the survey. logical and understandable. 3. collated and analyzed. (2) Administer and Manage Impact Mine /UXO Survey Data The conduct of the Impact Survey shall take place under contractual agreements and in close collaboration with the SudanMap. the survey team shall provide all information to the SudanMap. Edition 9. c.2 Prior to departing the country. The analysis of data must meet the informational needs of the National Authorities. information gained during the testing exercises shall be used to revise and update the final operations plan. d. Processing and Verification (1) Collect systematic Preliminary Opinion in each Area This is the focused qualitative interviewing of key informants starts at the beginning of survey process. The analysis of facts collected in quantitative study and impact weighting that is applied must be transparent. maps and data to the SudanMap and other stakeholders in the country. Documented and coded interview forms are recorded. Part 1. This shall be done in country and will involve input from the SudanMAP and other stakeholders as necessary.
complete manner to the SudanMAP. e.Chapter 25 5. 5. g. e. 5. b. d. Survey Information Transfer and Reporting: To ensure that information is conveyed and transferred in an accurate. b. i. the de-facto standards for the conduct of LIS. Edition 9. c. Version 1 1 . Survey Utility: To ensure that a survey will serve the practical information needs of the National Authorities and International community. Accuracy involves ensuring veracity of data. Using IMSMA. Suite 240. Part 1. MD 20912.org or by contacting SAC. social science and statistical analysis and provide the detail of how a LIS should be conducted. The main nine LIS operational protocols are currently as follows: a. 6930 Carroll Avenue. They are developed according to best practice in mine action. c.sac-na.1 Quality Assurance guideline General Areas of evaluation are as follows: a. ethically and with due regard for those involved with the survey and those who will be affected by the results and ensuring that the National Authority is part of the process. in effect. Advance Survey Mission Preliminary Opinion Collection Minimum Data Requirements Field Organisation Guidelines for Interviewers in the Community Visit Visual Inspection False Negative Sampling Impact Scoring and Community Classification Data Analysis The protocols1 shall be the prime references for the implementing organisation and shall provide the only basis on which the evaluation of the LIS can takes place. The survey must be practical in application and the results must meet expectations of stakeholders. Survey Accuracy: To ensure that a survey will reveal and convey technically correct information concerning the Mine/UXO problem and associated factors. objectivity of analysis and fair assessment of the survey process. USA Page 4 of 5 NTSG. These protocols are considered to be outside the scope of this document and are therefore not included. Survey Feasibility: To ensure that the survey will be realistic in it’s operational goal and timelines. f. If the reader wishes to make reference to them or find out more information concerning LIS not covered in this document then this can be done by visiting www. Takoma Park. Survey Ownership: To ensure that the survey will be conducted legally.2 LIS Operational Protocols These are developed by the Survey Working Group (SWG) and are. h. d. information transferred must be in a form useable to those who receive it.
They shall be assessed according to specific criteria relating to the following issues and activities: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The Advance Survey Mission The feasibility of the initial operational plan Staff recruitment Staff training Development of the survey instrument b. Part 1.Chapter 25 6. They will be assessed according to specific criteria relating to the following issues and activities: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Impact scoring and community classification Minimum data requirements Field organization Preliminary opinion collection (national and local) Community interviews Visual inspection False negative sampling Strategic planning activities General survey issues. EVALUATION CRITERIA 6. The following can apply: a. Page 5 of 5 NTSG. Organisational Preparedness The surveying organisation shall be assessed as to whether they are sufficiently prepared to implement a LIS in accordance with the SWG operational protocols. Edition 9. Operational Conduct The surveying organisation will be assessed on its ability to implement survey operations in accordance with the LIS operational protocols and the initial operational plan. Version 1 .1 The evaluation shall be based on criteria of organisational preparedness and operational conduct.