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Discover My Talents
Handbook of the Intelli Quest Dermatoglyphic Test
for Congenital Intelligences
伯乐多元智能教育中心 Intelli Quest Enrichment Centre (JM0409332-T)
Website: www.bole.com.my/derma Facebook: www.facebook.com/boleclub
Tel: 07-3573933, 016-7165805 Fax: 07-3578958 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In 1983, Howard Gardner, a professor of Harvard University,
proposed the theory of “multiple intelligences” which divided
human intellectual abilities into eight categories. In his view,
we are endowed with all kinds of intelligence which determine
our performance in different activities. As everyone’s superior
intellectual abilities are not alike, we all have different modes of
thinking, behaving, and learning.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
When l ear ni ng hi st or y, a chi l d wi t h st r ong “l ogi cal -
mathematical intelligence” pays more attention to the causal
relationship among different events. His main interest and strong
points are obviously different from children with good “linguistic
intelligence” and who love listening to stories. Therefore, if a
teacher can use different approaches to teach her students
according to their aptitudes, they can definitely learn better.
However, in reality, the Confucius’s first major educational
principle, “teaching without discrimination”, is easy to be
achieved but the second, “teaching by considering everyone’
s needs and characteristics”, is the opposite. There is an
initial problem we need to tackle in order to realize the second
ideal-in what way we can identify every child’s needs and
Our educational system is not flexible and prone to turning all
of us into conformists. As most jobs in our society emphasise
linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities, those children with
other aptitudes but not these two are marginalised. Even now,
talents such as art, music, and sport are not appreciated and
considered as “extraordinary skills” by most parents. In our
mind, the definition of “talent” is rigid, narrow, and materialistic.
Most school s, whi ch onl y manufacture “standardi zed
pr oduct s” whose qual i t y ar e measur ed by numer ous
examinations, overlook everyone’s infinite potential. Without
visionary educational concepts, our hope to build a vibrant
society will always be “mission impossible”. In schools, children’
s chance of developing their multiple intelligences is obliterated.
In real life, many intellectuals are not sitting on the “right seat”.
Hence, the mission of Intelli Quest Enrichment Centre is
to extricate all parents or even the whole society from the
bondage of limited educational notions. To achieve our mission,
we introduce “Dermatoglyphic Test for Congenital Multiple
From Multiple Intelligences
to Dermatoglyphic Test
From Multiple Intelligences to Dermatoglyphic Test .... 2
Guide to the Report.................................................. 4
Case Studies........................................................... 8
Frequently Asked Questions................................... 10
Edited by: 伯乐多元智能教育中心
Intelli Quest Enrichment Centre
11, Jalan Harmonium 23/13,
Taman Desa Tebrau,
81100 Johor Bahru. Johor.
Tel: 07 3573933 /012 7185805
Fax: 357 8972
CEO: Chen Jia Rong
Editors: Zhang Ying Jie
Cover Designer: Chen Yan Ni
Photographer: Zenge Xiong Wei
Illustrator & Typesetter: Zhang Ying Jie
translator: Yang Jia Wen
This is a complimentary handbook for the Intelli Quest
Dermatoglyphic Test for Congenital Multiple Intelligences.
copyright © 2005 by Intelli Quest Enrichment Centre
The negative effects of narrow
educational concepts and
monotonous social values:
Instead of embracing areas which
they are passionate about, most
members of the society choose
“stable jobs” which secure their
livelihood and set their parents’
mind at rest. That’s why many
brilliant talents are stifled!
Intelligences” into Malaysia from Taiwan.
Discover our “Talents” with Dermatoglyphic Test
This test uncovers a person’s innate learning style, strength of
different congenital intellectual ability, learning potential and other
characteristics about learning accurately and efficiently.
Long ago, the Chinese have discovered that the course of a
person’s life is related to the pattern of his fingerprints vaguely.
They composed a song called “Ten Spirals Song” and handed
it down to express this belief. This can be regarded as our
ancestors’ initial attempt to find out facts disclosed by ridges on
the skin of our fingers.
Modern scientific research on the link between dermal ridges
and congenital intellectual ability started with medical studies of
the relation between fingerprint patterns and genetics. In 1926,
Harold Cummins, the Father of Dermatoglyphics, pulled together
the diverse work of his predecessors, added original research,
and set the standards of the field. Since then, dermatoglyphics,
as a specialized field of study, is chiefly used for population
studies, personal identification, morphological and genetic
research. Useful instruments for dermatoglyphic research were
Since last fifty years, scientists have gradually identified the
correlation between dermal ridges and intellectual abilities.
Based on genetics, embryology, and neuroscience, scientists
who had carried out observation, comparison, induction,
and clinical experiment proved that the number of brain cells
distributed over different cerebral cortices can be measured by
ridges on the skin of fingers.
From Multiple Intelligences
to Dermatoglyphic Test
As different cerebral cortex controls a specific intellectual
ability, the distribution of brain cells will decide how superior or
inferior a person’s congenital multiple intelligences.
Duri ng 1980s, sci enti sts i n Tai wan began to devel op
technology for assessing congenital intellectual abilities based
on dermatoglyphic research. Over the past twenty years,
plenty of case studies have been accumulated. In recent
years, Dermatoglyphic Test for Congenital Multiple Intelligences
has become even more widespread with the aid of high-tech
computer software and examination tools. Currently, this test is
an important tool for educating children and helping adults to
plan their life in Taiwan.
Along with the acceleration of globalization, Dermatoglyphic
Test for Congenital Multiple Intelligences has been introduced
into China, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and other
areas. According to brief surveys, this test, which exerts great
influence on children and parents, is most welcomed in areas
where students are oppressed by stiff educational system and
heavy burden caused by piles of homework.
With one spiral, a person is destined to
be poor. Two spirals, rich.
Three and four spirals, the owner of a
Five and six spirals, the tofu seller.
Seven and eight spirals, white horse
rider with power.
Nine and ten spirals, the great achiever.
Various versions of “Ten Spirals
Song”: Our ancestors did not carry
out scientific research to prove that
the course of a person’s life is related
to patterns of fingerprints. However,
based on real life observation,
they composed interesting song to
express their assumption that we
could predict someone’s future by
reading our fingerprints. There
are many versions of “Ten Spiral
Songs” in different dialect. Which
is the version in your mind?
Our brain and hands are
correlated: Ridges on the
skin of our fingers are
visible genetic signs of the
brain embryo. They reflect
a person’s inborn features.
The test examines our congenital intellectual abilities from
seven aspects, including learning potential, the agility of learning,
the strength of congenital intellectual abilities, learning mode,
ways of absorbing and processing information, innate learning
style, behavioural manner, and the development potential of
1. Explore Learning Potential with TRC
“Total Ridge Count (TRC)” is the value we use for examining a
person’s learning potential and it is directly linked to the number
of neurons in the brain. Our brain is primarily composed of
neurons. The key to the growth of intelligence lies with how
well fibres of different brain cells (dendrites and axons) are
connected. There are more chances for these neurotransmitters
to be connected if neurons are dense. Better connection means
higher leaning potential.
The number of neurons affects the pace of learning. We
need external stimuli in order to acquire learning experience and
the gain will result in connections of dendrites and axons. With
more neurons, the speed of connection will be faster and make
a person a quick learner. Learners with less neuron can also
reach a certain level via repeated practice.
TRC Learning pace Suggest
< 60 Rather slow
To learn better, these learners
need stable and familiar learning
environment and they should
employ appropriate learning
methods and practise regularly.
60 - 90 Slow
90 - 150 Normal
These learners’ performance
depends on adequate external
stimuli and guidance.
150 - 190 Fast
These learners’ attention is easily
diverted. To arouse their interest,
it would be better to teach them
with multiple approaches.
> 190 Very fast
These learners should lead a
full life in order to exploit their
Guide to the Report
Rich learning experience changes the appearance of
brain cells: The picture above shows the look of brain cells
of four different stages. The number of neurons remains
unchanged but the network of dendrites expands along
with a person’s growth and increasing external stimuli.
Newly-born 1 Month Old
6 Month Old 2 Years old
Useful learning experience can only be obtained from positive
learning environment which is secure, relaxing, liberal, and full of
novelties and challenges. Hence, if we want to be “smarter”, we
are required not only to maintain original connections between
brain cells but also to nourish our brain constantly with new
learning experience which expands the network of dendrites.
2. Examine the Agility of Learning with ATD Angle
atd angle The Agility of Learning
< 35° Very Good
35° - 42° Good
42° - 45° Moderate
45° - 56° Poor
> 56° Very Poor
The value of ATD angle reflects the smoothness of body
movement and coordination (e.g. the dexterity of fingers). This
value is more important to athletes.
Generally speaking, this value is not directly related to
congenital intellectual abilities. Besides, ATD angle will reduce
slightly after long-term training of your palms.
3. Distribution and Strength of Congenital Intellectual Abilities
The computer system will generate a table showing the order
of the strength of every intellectual ability, to which different
finger corresponds. It also provide a general picture of how well
different brain lobe functions and the development potential of
each intellectual ability.
Strength Level Suggestion
> 13% Great
If the learner is guided properly, it
is very probable for him to achieve
high level in this area with his
potential if compared to others.
11% - 13% Superior
If the learner is guided properly,
he is able to grasp skills and
knowledge of this area quickly and
7% - 11% Average
The learner can learn well without
much difficulty in this area.
The learner do not have inborn
advantage in this area but he is
able to make a breakthrough if
cultivated properly since young.
The learner’s performance in
this area, which may turn out
to be extremely good or bad,
depends greatly on his learning
environment and education.
“Ranking”, an item which is found in the table of “Distribution
and Strength of Congenital Intellectual Abilities”, shows the
order of the strength of different intellectual ability. The value of
“Strength” is obtained from the comparison of the “Total Ridge
Count” with our statistical database. “Strength” is divided into
five levels, with “10%” as the median.
4. Innate Learning Modes: Ways of Absorbing and
There are three l earni ng modes: vi sual , audi tory, and
kinaesthetic. When learning something new, some learners
learn by doing but some other learners, who rely on seeing or
listening, can only apply new knowledge in their daily life after
going through a digestive process of classification, analysis, and
By understanding our preferred learning mode, we are able to
learn better and even get twice the result with half the effort.
5. Identify Innate Learning Style with Patterns of Fingerprint
The pattern of each fingerprint reveals many features of
the corresponding brain lobe. Our centre’s categorization
of fi ngerpri nts i s based on “Henry System of Fi ngerpri nt
Classification” proposed by E.R. Henry, a British scholar.
Learnig style Symbol Characteristics
These learners prefer
individual work. They learn
by analysing, reordering, and
These learners prefer group
work and they always care
about others’ feelings. They
learn by discussing issues or
sharing ideas with others.
These learners are creative.
They learn through
exploratory and inspiring
These learners prefer concrete
and realistic objects. They
learn well with clear step-by-
To understand a person’s maj or i nnate l earni ng styl e,
we mainly look at fingerprints of four fingers—thumb and
forefinger of both hands. An analysis of all fingers is required for
knowing the “learning style of the whole brain.” Each pattern of
fingerprint corresponds to a type of learning style. According to
educational theory, by understanding how we learn, we are able
to learn more effectively.
The 11 patterns of fingerprint classified by E.R. Henry: Ridges
on the skin of our palms and soles begin to take shape after the
13th week embryos grow in maternal body. The formation of
those fine dermal lines will be completed during the 24th week
and they will stay unchanged for the whole life. The formation of
dermal ridges is correlated with the development of our brain.
spiral whorl concentric whorl press whorl
6. Distinguish Innate Behavioural Manner with Patterns
By understanding his behavioural manner, a person can
know the way he treats people, conduct himself in a group,
and communicate with others. With these insights, his career
performance will be enhanced as he will know how to better his
interaction with others.
Multiple Intelligences Basic Definition Symbol Explanation
reading, and writing
Able to master languages and communicate with people
Understand the causal relationship among different things,
able to think independently and critically.
Sense of direction,
Have a good sense of admiring beautiful things in life
Living things, natural
Show interest and respect to natural world.
Sensitivity to rhythm,
pitch, and melody
Mould temperament through singing, listening to music,
playing musical instrument, or composing music
Bodily-Kinesthetic Sense of balance
Able to control body movements smoothly, handle things
skilfully, and carry out task efficiently.
Relate to and
Capable of discerning others’ moods and feelings, showing
respect to people.
Know own abilities and needs, able to adjust to the
Behavioural Manner Characteristics Way of Communication Suitable Type of Occupation
Smart, rigorous, polite, pragmatic,
Persuade with sense Creative job with autonomy
Observant, thoughtful, understanding,
Lead people to express their
Works to do with coordinating and
integrating ideas and efforts
Amiable, kind, sensitive, care about the
ambience, able to influence others
Persuade with empathy
Service industry, jobs require
Probing challenger, humorous, idiosyn-
cratic, good at creating atmosphere
Guide with inspiring methods
or goad with ridicule
Specialised jobs to do with research and
Introvert, conservative, well-disciplined,
State objectives and steps
Regular and repetitive jobs
7. Analyse the Development Potential of Eight Multiple
Howar d Gar dner pr oposed t he t heor y of “ mul t i pl e
intelligences” in year 1983. Instead of judging a person’s
intelligence by his IQ (Intelligence Quotient), a criterion which
was traditionally used, he divided our intellectual abilities into
Our actions and decisions are determined by different regions
of our brain and their collaboration. Dermatoglyphic test helps us
to understand the distribution of congenital multiple intelligences
in a systematic and reliable way. As a result, we can adjust
ourselves to learn better and lead a more pleasurable life.
A tutor brings her student, Wong, to our centre for the test.
Wong is an 8-year-old boy whose academic results are poor.
Intellectual Abilities Ranking Strength
Creative/Interpersonal 10 7.0%
Spatial/Mental-imaging 2 11.1%
Logical/Reasoning 1 12.1%
Handling/Coordinating 9 8.2%
According to the report, Wong’s TRC value is 206, which
means his learning potential is high. Besides, the strength of
Wong’s different intellectual abilities is quite even.
Obviously, Wong’s high learning ability is the reason for his
lack of motivation to learn. As most subjects are not interesting
and challenging to him, he does not pay much attention to
After talking with the tutor in detail, we understand that Wong’
s parents have divorced. That is why he lacks a sense of
security and cannot concentrate on his study.
Stable environment is crucial children’s learning. Children
will only open their minds and hearts in an environment without
threat and disturbance. Those with high TRC value can absorb
both good and bad things quickly. Hence, if they encounter
negati ve experi ence i n thei r process of growi ng up, the
emotional damage will be more severe to them.
Therefore, in order to prevent Wong from being helpless and
to assist him to get through this period, his family members and
teachers should provide sufficient love and support.
Alex, an 8-year-old boy, hates doing homework. As his writing
is always crabbed, his teacher and mother think that he should
be more patient and focused when he writes. While lack of
concentration is one of the reasons for children’s writing illegibly,
we must not neglect the fact that some of them are having
learning disorder about writing.
Intellectual Abilities Ranking Strength
Handling/Coordinating 10 6.5%
From Alex’s report, we find that his ATD angle is quite wide
and his palm muscles are not well-developed. Thus, he is
not good at executing tasks that requires dexterity of fingers,
for example, handicraft. To help him overcome this problem,
we advise Alex to use “triangular pencil”. The stick of this
kind of pencil is triangle in shape and thicker if compared
to other penci l s. Learners wi th wi de ATD angl e can hol d
them comfortably and write smoothly. Parents should bear in
mind that attractive handwriting is not the ultimate objective
for l earni ng. They shoul d not care too much about thi s.
Furthermore, as they move up, more tasks are to be done with
Wayne is a fifth-grade primary school student. According to
his mother, his academic results were good and consistent from
grade one to grade three. However, his mathematics results
dropped suddenly last year.
Intellectual Abilities Ranking Strength
Logical/Reasoning 1 12.6%
Linguistic/Memory 10 6.5%
Wayne’s “superior intellectual ability” is “Logical/Reasoning”
but his “Linguistic/Memory” ranks tenth. In theory, he should
have no problem with the calculation. It is just that he does not
excel in language.
As we know, there are more practical questions in maths
exerci ses of grade four and above. Wayne’s i nabi l i ty to
answer those questions is originated from his poor reading
comprehension. Instead of improving his arithmetical ability, he
should pay more efforts in language in order to get rid of the
Sue, who is 18 years old, has just completed her secondary-
school education. Her parents plan to send her abroad and ask
her to major in accountancy. However, she shows no interest
in her parents’ arrangement. Her wish, which is not meeting her
parents’ expectation, is to further her study in art. Whenever her
parents mention issues about choosing university or handling
relevant procedure, she always reacts passively.
Intellectual Abilities Ranking Strength
Spatial/Mental-imaging 4 10.7%
Kinesthetic/Artistic 2 11.1%
Visual/Cognitive 2 11.1%
Observing/Reading 1 11.4%
Jenny’s mother thinks that she is a smart kid. However,
she often loses her focus during lessons. Whenever people
talk to her, it seems that she does not fully understand them.
From Jenny’s report, we know that she is a visual learner. That
means she learns best by seeing images, observing, imitating,
and reading. Her parents should provide adequate training to
improve her listening skill.
Learning Modes Strength
Excerpt of “Advice on Career or Personal Development”
Suitable Career Paths arranged according to their ranking
Sue’s “superior intellectual abilities” are “Spatial/Mental-
i magi ng”, “Ki nestheti c/Arti sti c”, “Vi sual /Cogni ti ve”, and
“Observing/Reading”. Apparently, she possesses aptitude for
art. Majoring in art fits not only her interest but also her flair.
Before being shown the results of the test, her parents try to
persuade her to choose “promising courses” which may enable
her to earn more money in the future. They ask her, “Why didn’
t we see any excellent performance of yours in fine art?” She
responds, “You have never looked at my textbooks. I’ve drawn
many beautiful illustrations in them.”
If parents and the child seldom communicate in depth with
each other, this report can serve as a helpful reference for
making important decisions about the child’s future, for example,
choosing major. As this report is scientific and objective, it can
clear parent’s doubts, resolve disagreement, and help parents
and the child to make the best choice together.
Listening alone is never enough for Jenny to fully grasp the
meaning of a piece of information. She needs something, for
example, a picture or a book, to look at or read.
We advise her to prepare a notebook and bring it along with
her. When she learns something new, she can draw picture
or jot down notes with symbols that she understands. When
reading a book, she can mark those important points with a
highlighter. Colours will enhance her pleasure of learning. In
addition, we suggest her to use table, graph, and flowchart to
sort out pieces of information when she grows older as these
methods will help her to learn more effectively.
On the other hand, children need to be praised when they
are learning. For visual learners, verbal praises would not really
motivate them. They need tangible rewards. A practical way is
to prepare a “Reward Book” which is used to compliment their
good behaviours, for example, waking up punctually, completing
homework on time, and picking up toys. Parents can reward
them with little stars or stickers.
1. What is “Dermatoglyphic Test for Congenital Multiple
This is a scientific test for congenital intellectual abilities which
is based on our physiological features.
First of all, we take fingerprints of all fingers. After that, we
calculate the “Total Ridge Count” and compare the value with
our large database. With the comparison, we are able to carry
out statistical analysis of a person’s learning potential, strength
of different intellectual ability (altogether 10 abilities, including
interpersonal, managerial, logical, linguistic, and artistic), learning
style, and many more.
Hence, dermatoglyphic test can prevent mistakes which may
be caused by cultural differences or verbal misunderstanding
in IQ test which only reveals a person’s linguistic and logical-
2. What is the difference between dermatoglyphic test
Dermatoglyphic test and palm reading are based on dermal
lines on palms and both of them are people’s attempts to
uncover a person’s “destiny”. Naturally, people may have the
misunderstanding that two of them are in the same category.
In fact, dermatoglyphic test, which analyse people’s congenital
features, is completely different from fortune-telling or palm
reading, which predicts people’s future.
Dermatogl yphi c test i s grounded on sol i d theoreti cal
framework and large database of samples. Hence, you should
not treat the test as a kind of fortune-telling. You should hold
positive attitude toward the test and accept the result with an
3. Dermatoglyphic test reveals a child’s congenital
intellectual abilities. Does the test imply that his or
her life is predetermined?
Of course not. On the contrary, a child’s future development
is totally determined by himself and his parents. If a child’s
logical-reasoning ability is weak but his parents give up nurturing
his skill in this area considering the difficulty for him to improve,
we might well say that it is his fate regretfully. However, if his
parents are positive and make up strategy to help him overcome
his disadvantage, we will regard him as a success delightfully.
Frequently Asked Questions
4. Is the test accurate?
Generally, the accuracy of the test is about 80%. Factors
which may cause error are as follows:
1) The test is based on statistical database. Therefore, inductive
error is inevitable.
2) Human brain is a complex structure. If compared to it, dermal
ridges on our skin are just simple shapes. As fingerprints
cannot reflect all features of our brain, there must be some
gaps in the test.
5. What positive ideas should people have for the test?
No doubt, thi s test i s a hi gh-qual i ty tool for exami ni ng
congenital intellectual ability. However, with the right spirit, we
must admit that the test has its boundaries. We hope that the
public will not have any unrealistic expectation for the test.
1) Sci enti fi c research on congeni tal i ntel l ectual abi l i ty i s
based on the brain map. At the moment, we still have not
fully understood all functions of the brain and scientists
are striving to investigate those details. Along with the
latest development, we will amend and improve the test
2) Most results are within the normal range. This explains that
most of us are ordinary people.
3) No matter a person’s congenital intellectual abilities are
strong or weak, learning environment and education that
he obtains are more important to his future development.
Some scholars hold the view that 65% of a person’s life is
decided by his after-born experience. Hence, this test can
never replace roles played by parents, teachers, physicians,
psychoanalysts, and coaches.
6. When should a child do the test?
There is no age limit for doing the test. In principle, the earlier
a child does the test, the better his parents can make plans for
overcoming his weakness.
According to the development of a child’s brain, we suggest
that parents should focus on tasks that help children improve
their weaker intellectual ability before they are 12 years old. As
this is their golden period for learning, it is easier for them to turn
their weakness into strength effectively.
7. Why may adults find that the test is inaccurate?
While our “superior intellectual ability” may be suppressed
due to social value or our parents’ expectation, our “inferior
intellectual ability” may be improved because of continuous
practice. Hence, if a person is not educated according to his
nature and aptitude, it is normal for him to find that the result
of the report, which analyses his congenital features, does not
match his current abilities and position in life.
The difference between the result and reality highlights the
value of Dermatoglyphic Test of Congenital Multiple Intelligences.
We should be more open-minded and consider the test as a
way to know more about ourselves.
8. Then, is it still meaningful for adults to do the test?
The value for adults to do the test is different from children’s.
People who lose their direction in life may need an objective
and reliable report telling them what their inborn advantages are.
In real life, some people only unlock and fulfil their full potential
(most in the arts) after their retirement. Hence, it is never too late
to start a whole new life.
On the other hand, those who have planned their life nicely
and lived accordingly can obtain more convincing confirmation
of their success from the report. “Marvellous! I’ve reached my
potential and I’m leading a full life now.”
9. Dermal ridges on the skin of our soles are not
examined. Is the test incomplete?
No, it is not. The test is complete because we only need to
take fingerprints in order to understand a person’s congenital
intellectual abilities. However, that does not mean dermal lines
on our soles are useless. We can identify some hereditary
diseases by examining ridges on the skin of both our palms
and soles. As we are unable to diagnose people’s illness and
provide treatment, we do not examine soles. We only do what
we can do and do our best.
10. Why is the Intelli-Quest Dermatoglyphic Test for
Congenital Multiple Intelligences different from other
1) Most Objective and Trustworthy Statistical Database
Our test is based on a large database with more than 60,000
samples from worldwide sources. All the data are objective
2) Reader-friendly Report and Handbook
The 8-page report is comprehensive and formatted for your
convenience of reading. We enclose a 12-page handbook
with the report. Besides listening to the consultant’s analysis,
you can al so read the report on your own by maki ng
reference to the handbook, which lets you know more about
the test. In addition, suggestions for career and personal
development are also included in the report.
3) Personalised Suggestions
Besi des t he report and handbook, we al so provi de
practical suggestions according to individual needs. These
suggestions will be given in written form for your future
4) Professional Consultation
We pay extra attention to the quality of consultation in order
to make sure your full understanding of the test results and
provide consumers with value-added service.
5) Family Package
We understand that this test is not only useful for individual
but also valuable to the whole family. Hence, we provide
family value package which includes additional analysis and
6) Reasonable Price
Besi des cari ng about the qual i ty of our ser vi ce, we
also endeavour to enable everyone to benefit from this
outstanding examination tool. After making comparison with
other centres in the region and foreign countries, we fix the
cost at a reasonable level to make sure that everyone can
To achieve full potential, one must be in position. To learn effectively, one must adopt the right method.
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