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8.02

**Review A: Vector Analysis
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A...................................................................................................................................... A-0 A.1 Vectors A.1.1 A.1.2 A.1.3 A.2 A.2.1 A.2.2 A.2.3 A.2.4 A.3 A.3.1 A.3.2 A.3.3 A.3.4 Introduction Properties of a Vector Application of Vectors Dot Product Introduction Definition Properties of Dot Product Vector Decomposition and the Dot Product Cross Product Definition: Cross Product Right-hand Rule for the Direction of Cross Product Properties of the Cross Product Vector Decomposition and the Cross Product A-2 A-2 A-2 A-6 A-10 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-12 A-14 A-14 A-15 A-16 A-17

A-1

The magnitude of A is | A |≡ A . C = A + B .1 Introduction Certain physical quantities such as mass or the absolute temperature at some point only have magnitude.Vector Analysis A. Let A and B be two vectors. and they are called scalars. the magnitude can stretch or shrink. We can represent vectors as geometric objects using arrows. however. A. other physical quantities which have both magnitude and direction. acceleration. These quantities can be added in such a way that takes into account both direction and magnitude. velocity.1.1.1 Vectors A. Place the A-2 . When two forces act on an object.1 Vectors as arrows. We define a new vector.1. Draw the arrow that represents A .2 Properties of a Vector A vector is a quantity that has both direction and magnitude.1). Let a vector be denoted by the symbol A . force.1. The arrow points in the direction of the vector (Figure A. We shall begin by defining precisely what we mean by a vector. The length of the arrow corresponds to the magnitude of the vector. displacement. the sum of the forces depends on both the direction and magnitude of the two forces. These quantities can be represented by numbers alone. Position. and the direction can reverse. There are two defining operations for vectors: (1) Vector Addition: Vectors can be added. the “vector addition” of A and B . Figure A. with the appropriate units. by a geometric construction. There are. Force is an example of a quantity that acts in a certain direction with some magnitude that we measure in newtons. momentum and torque are all physical quantities that can be represented mathematically by vectors.

it doesn’t matter which side you start with as seen in Figure A. Figure A. A+B =B+A (A.1) Our geometric definition for vector addition satisfies the commutivity property (i) since in the parallelogram representation for the addition of vectors.2) In Figure A.3 Commutative property of vector addition (ii) Associativity: When adding three vectors.1.tail of the arrow that represents B at the tip of the arrow for A as shown in Figure A. we add ( A + B ) + C .4(a).2 Geometric sum of vectors.1.4(b) we add A + (B + C) . We arrive at the same vector sum in either case. Figure A.1. The vectors A and B can be drawn with their tails at the same point. There is an equivalent construction for the law of vector addition.1.1. while in Figure A.1.2(a).3.1. Vector addition satisfies the following four properties: (i) Commutivity: The order of adding vectors does not matter.1. it doesn’t matter which two you start with ( A + B ) + C = A + ( B + C) (A. The two vectors form the sides of a parallelogram. as shown in Figure A. The arrow that starts at the tail of A and goes to the tip of B is defined to be the “vector addition” C = A + B .2(b). A-3 . The diagonal of the parallelogram corresponds to the vector C = A + B .1.

(2) Scalar Multiplication of Vectors: Vectors can be multiplied by real numbers.1. | A |=| − A |= A .4) ( ) This means that the vector − A has the same magnitude as A .5 additive inverse.1. there is a unique inverse vector ( −1) A ≡ − A such that A + −A = 0 (A. A-4 .3) (iv) Inverse element for Vector Addition: For every vector A . Figure A. This means that for all vectors A .1.5). A+0 = 0+ A = A (A. but they point in opposite directions (Figure A. 0 .1.Figure A.4 Associative law. (iii) Identity Element for Vector Addition: There is a unique vector. that acts as an identity element for vector addition.1.

6a).1.6) (ii) Distributive Law for Vector Addition: Vector addition satisfies a distributive law for multiplication by a number.Let A be a vector. Then b(cA ) = (bc ) A = (cbA ) = c (bA ) (A. Scalar multiplication of vectors satisfies the following properties: (i) Associative Law for Scalar Multiplication: The order of multiplying numbers is doesn’t matter.6b).1.6 Multiplication of vector A by (a) c > 0 .5) Since c > 0 . Let c be a real number. the direction of −cA is opposite of A (Figure A. the direction of cA is the same as the direction of A . Then the multiplication of A by c is a new vector which we denote by the symbol cA .7 illustrates this property. The magnitude of cA is c times the magnitude of A (Figure A. and (b) −c < 0 . Let b and c be real numbers.1. cA = Ac (A. Let c be a real positive number. A-5 .1. Figure A. However.7) Figure A.1.1. Then c ( A + B) = cA + cB (A.1.

8) Our geometric definition of vector addition satisfies this condition as seen in Figure A. 1A = A (A. Let b and c be real numbers.1. momentum. velocity. (iii) Distributive Law for Scalar Addition: The multiplication operation also satisfies a distributive law for the addition of numbers.8.1. Then (b + c ) A = b A + cA (A. force. However from the physicist’s point of view. instead of approaching vectors as formal A-6 .8 Distributive law for scalar multiplication (iv) Identity Element for Scalar Multiplication: The number 1 acts as an identity element for multiplication.7 Distributive Law for vector addition.1. we are interested in representing physical quantities such as displacement. acceleration. Thus.Figure A. and angular momentum as vectors.1.3 Application of Vectors When we apply vectors to physical quantities it’s nice to keep in the back of our minds all these formal properties. impulse.1.9) A. We can’t add force to velocity or subtract momentum from torque. Figure A. We must always understand the physical context for the vector quantity. torque.1.

and i ˆ i ˆ i | k |= 1 . and A y is the y -component vector pointing in the positive or negative y -direction (Figure A. (4) Vector Decomposition: Choose a coordinate system with an origin and axes.1.1. We associate to each point P in space.1. (1) Vectors can exist at any point P in space. (2) Vectors have direction and magnitude. In Figure A. We can decompose a vector into component vectors along each coordinate axis. A unit vector means that the magnitude is one: |ˆ |= 1 . Figure A.1. | ˆj |= 1 .1.ˆj.9 we choose Cartesian coordinates for the x-y plane (we ignore the z -direction for simplicity but we can extend our results when we need to). A vector A at P can be decomposed into the vector sum.10) where A x is the x -component vector pointing in the positive or negative x -direction.9 Vector decomposition (5) Unit vectors: The idea of multiplication by real numbers allows us to define a set of unit vectors at each point in space.9). A = Ax + A y (A. (3) Vector Equality: Any two vectors that have the same direction and magnitude are equal no matter where in space they are located.10). ˆ Unit vectors A-7 .mathematical objects we shall instead consider the following essential properties that enable us to represent physical quantities as vectors. We assign the direction of ˆ to point in the direction of the increasing x i coordinate at the point P . We call ˆ the unit vector at P pointing in the + x -direction. a set of three unit vectors (ˆ .k ) . ˆj and k can be defined in a similar manner (Figure A.

1. Az ) . We can also write the vector as ˆ A = Axˆ + Ayˆj + Az k i (A. 2 A = Ax2 + Ay + Az2 (A. Since the z -component is zero. or negative. We can write the x-component vector. Ay . Az ) . A = A x + A y . In a similar fashion we define the y -component. (6) Vector Components: Once we have defined unit vectors. we can then define the x component and y -component of a vector.13) (7) Magnitude: In Figure A. Using the Pythagorean theorem. and the x -component vector. the magnitude of the A is.10 Choice of unit vectors in Cartesian coordinates. we also show the vector components A = ( Ax . The x -component Ax can be positive. the vector A lies in the x-y plane. Ax .11) In this expression the term Ax . It is not the magnitude of A x which is given by ( Ax 2 )1/ 2 . as A x = Axˆ i (A. ˆ A z = Az k (A. Ay .1. A x . component.1.Figure A. Ay . of the vector A A y = Ayˆj.1.10.12) Note the difference between the x - A vector A can be represented by its three components A = ( Ax .14) (8) Direction: Let’s consider a vector A = ( Ax . and the z -component. Ay . Recall our vector decomposition. Let θ denote the angle that the vector A makes in the A-8 . A x . zero. (without the arrow above) is called the x-component of the vector A .1. 0) .1. Az .

12). then −π / 2 < θ < 0 . Let θA and θB denote the angles that the vectors A and B make (in the counterclockwise direction) with the positive x-axis. Ax > 0 and Ay < 0 . the tangent of the angle θ can be determined by Ay Ax which yields = Asinθ = tanθ Acosθ (A.1. then 0 < θ < π / 2 .1.1.1. Then the x component and y -components are Ax = A cosθ . If.16) Once the components of a vector are known. however.17) θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ Ay ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ Ax ⎠ (A.12 Components of a vector in the x-y plane. and the vector lies in the fourth quadrant.15) Figure A.18) Clearly. Ay = A sinθ (A.counterclockwise direction with the positive x -axis (Figure A. the direction of the vector depends on the sign of Ax and Ay . We can now write a vector in the x -y plane as A = A cos θ ˆ + A sin θ ˆ i j (A. and the vector lies in the first quadrant. For example. Then A-9 . if both Ax > 0 and Ay > 0 . (9) Vector Addition: Let A and B be two vectors in the x-y plane.1.1.

Let θC denote the angle that the vector C makes with the positive x-axis.22) (A.1. Figure A.13 Vector addition with components Then the components of C are C x = Ax + Bx .19) (A.13.1. A-10 .1. We shall see that the physical concept of work can be mathematically described by the dot product between the force and the displacement vectors.1.1. called the “dot product” or “scalar product” that takes any two vectors and generates a scalar quantity (a number). the vector addition C = A + B is shown.21) In terms of magnitudes and angles.2 Dot Product A.2.1.1 Introduction We shall now introduce a new vector operation.1.A = A cosθ A ˆ + A sinθ A ˆj i B = B cosθ B ˆ + B sinθ B ˆj i (A. C y = Ay + By (A. we have Cx = C cosθC = A cosθ A + B cosθ B C y = C sinθC = A sinθ A + B sinθ B We can write the vector C as C = ( Ax + Bx )ˆ + ( Ay + By )ˆj = C (cosθ Cˆ + sinθ C )ˆj i i (A.23) A.20) In Figure A.

A.2) In this formulation. The dot product is always a scalar quantity.1) Where A =| A | and B =| B | represent the magnitude of A and B respectively. We can give a geometric interpretation to the dot product by writing the definition as A ⋅ B = ( A cos θ ) B (A.2. the term Acosθ is the projection of the vector A in the direction of the vector B .Let A and B be two vectors. So the dot product is the product of the projection of the length of A in the direction of B with the length of B . depending on the value of cosθ .1.2.From this perspective.3) Now the term B cos θ is the projection of the vector B in the direction of the vector A as shown in Figure A.2.2. Note that θ can vary from 0 to π .2. zero.2a. The dot product can be positive. A-11 .2.1 Dot product geometry.2.2b. This projection is shown in Figure A. or negative. the dot product is the product of the projection of the length of B in the direction of A with the length of A . we define the angle θ to be the angle between the vectors A and B as shown in Figure A. Since any two non-collinear vectors form a plane. Note that we could also write the dot product as A ⋅ B = A( B cos θ ) (A. Figure A.2 Definition The dot product A ⋅ B of the vectors A and B is defined to be product of the magnitude of the vectors A and B with the cosine of the angle θ between the two vectors: A ⋅ B = AB cos θ (A.2.

3 Properties of Dot Product The first property involves the dot product between a vector cA where c is a scalar and a vector B .2.Figure A.4) The second involves the dot product between the sum of two vectors A and B with a vector C .6) the similar definitions hold (1b) (2b) A ⋅ cB = c ( A ⋅ B ) C ⋅ ( A + B) = C ⋅ A + C ⋅ B (A.2.5) Since the dot product is a commutative operation A ⋅B = B⋅ A (A.2b Projection of vectors and the dot product. (2a) ( A + B) ⋅ C = A ⋅ C + B ⋅ C (A.8) A.2a and A.2.2.2.2.2. A.2. (1a) cA ⋅ B = c ( A ⋅ B ) (A.4 Vector Decomposition and the Dot Product With these properties in mind we can now develop an algebraic expression for the dot product in terms of components. Let’s choose a Cartesian coordinate system with the A-12 .2. From our definition of the dot product we see that the dot product of two vectors that are perpendicular to each other is zero since the angle between the vectors is π / 2 and cos(π / 2) = 0 .7) (A.

14) A-13 . property (2a) ˆ i = Ax Bx (ˆ ⋅ ˆ) + Ay Bx (ˆ ⋅ ˆ) + Az Bx (k ⋅ ˆ) property (1a) and (1b) i i j i (A. B = Bx ˆ . The vector A can be written as ˆ A = Ax ˆ + Ay ˆ + Az k i j We first calculate that the dot product of the unit vector ˆ with itself is unity: i ˆ ⋅ ˆ =| ˆ || ˆ | cos(0) = 1 i i i i (A.e. In Figure A.9) (A.10) since the unit vector has magnitude |ˆ |= 1 and cos(0) = 1 .12) ˆ Similarly.11) The dot product of the unit vector ˆ with the unit vector ˆj is zero because the two unit i vectors are perpendicular to each other: ˆ ⋅ˆj =|ˆ || ˆj | cos(π /2) = 0 i i (A. We note that the same rule i applies for the unit vectors in the y and z directions: ˆ ⋅ˆ = k ⋅k = 1 j j ˆ ˆ (A. Since we assumed that the vector B points along the positive x -axis with positive x component Bx . and the unit vector i ˆj with the unit vector k are also zero: ˆ ˆ ⋅ k = ˆj ⋅ k = 0 ˆ i ˆ (A.2.2.. we show the three different cases.2. our answer can be zero.3. the dot product of the unit vector ˆ with the unit vector k .2.2. i.2. or negative depending on the x component of the vector A .2.i vector B pointing along the positive x -axis with positive x -component Bx . positive.13) The dot product of the two vectors now becomes ˆ A ⋅ B = ( Ax ˆ + Ay ˆ + Az k ) ⋅ Bx ˆ i j i ˆ = Ax ˆ ⋅ Bx ˆ + Ay ˆ ⋅ Bx ˆ + Az k ⋅ Bx ˆ i i j i i = Ax Bx This third step is the crucial one because it shows that it is only the unit vectors that undergo the dot product operation.

2. called the “cross product” that takes any two vectors and generates a new vector.17) (A.16) (A.15) A-14 .3 Dot product that is (a) positive.2.1 Definition: Cross Product Let A and B be two vectors.3. A. The result for the dot product can be generalized easily for arbitrary vectors ˆ A = Axˆ + Ayˆj + Az k i and ˆ B = Bxˆ + Byˆj + Bz k i to yield A ⋅ B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz A.Figure A. (b) zero or (c) negative.3.1) (A.3 Cross Product We shall now introduce our second vector operation. we define the angle θ to be the angle between the vectors A and B as shown in Figure A. The magnitude of the cross product A × B of the vectors A and B is defined to be product of the magnitude of the vectors A and B with the sine of the angle θ between the two vectors.2.1. A × B = AB sin θ (A.2. and the force vector. Since any two vectors form a plane.2. The cross product is a type of “multiplication” law that turns our vector space (law for addition of vectors) into a vector algebra (laws for addition and multiplication of vectors).3. The first application of the cross product will be the physical concept of torque about a point P which can be described mathematically by the cross product of a vector from P to where the force acts.

Then draw an arc starting from the vector A and finishing on the vector B .3. The angle θ between the vectors is limited to the values 0 ≤ θ ≤ π insuring that sinθ ≥ 0 . A.where A and B denote the magnitudes of A and B . Consider the direction perpendicular to this plane. The vectors A and B form a plane.2 Right-hand Rule for the Direction of Cross Product The first step is to redraw the vectors A and B so that their tails are touching. as shown in Figure A.3.1 Cross product geometry.2 Right-Hand Rule. We can give a geometric interpretation to the magnitude of the cross product by writing the definition as A-15 . respectively.3.2).1. Curl your right fingers the same way as the arc. We shall choose one of these two for the direction of the cross product A × B using a convention that is commonly called the “right-hand rule”. Your right thumb points in the direction of the cross product A × B (Figure A. The direction of the cross product is defined as follows. Figure A. Figure A.3. There are two possibilities.3. You should remember that the direction of the cross product A × B is perpendicular to the plane formed by A and B .

5) Similarly.3(a). We could also write the magnitude of the cross product as A × B = ( A sin θ ) B (A.3. Figure A. Geometrically.3.3.A × B = A ( B sin θ ) (A.3. the term B sin θ is the projection of the vector B in the direction perpendicular to the vector A .3 Projection of vectors and the cross product The cross product of two vectors that are parallel (or anti-parallel) to each other is zero since the angle between the vectors is 0 (or π ) and sin(0) = 0 (or sin(π ) = 0 ). As depicted in Figure A.3.3.3(b).3.4) (2) The cross product between a vector cA where c is a scalar and a vector B is cA × B = c( A × B) (A. The area of the parallelogram equals the height times the base.2) The vectors A and B form a parallelogram. A.3. two parallel vectors do not have any component perpendicular to their common direction.3.3) Now the term A sin θ is the projection of the vector A in the direction perpendicular to the vector B as shown in Figure A. two different representations of the height and base of a parallelogram are illustrated.6) A-16 . which is the magnitude of the cross product. A × cB = c ( A × B ) (A.3.3 Properties of the Cross Product (1) The cross product is anti-commutative since changing the order of the vectors cross product changes the direction of the cross product vector by the right hand rule: A × B = −B × A (A. In Figure A.3.

7) Similarly. i j ˆ ˆ the direction of ˆ × ˆj is in the +k as shown in Figure A.4 Cross product of ˆ × ˆj i We note that the same rule applies for the unit vectors in the y and z directions. ˆj × k = ˆ . A × ( B + C) = A × B + A × C (A. ˆj ×ˆ = −k . k ×ˆ = ˆj ˆ i ˆ i (A.3. A-17 .3.3.4 Vector Decomposition and the Cross Product We first calculate that the magnitude of cross product of the unit vector ˆ with ˆj : i ⎛π ⎞ | ˆ × ˆ |=| ˆ || ˆ | sin ⎜ ⎟ = 1 i j i j ⎝2⎠ (A.9) since the unit vector has magnitude | ˆ |=| ˆ |= 1 and sin(π / 2) = 1 . ˆ × k = −ˆj ˆ i ˆ i (A.8) A.3. i i Figure A.(3) The cross product between the sum of two vectors A and B with a vector C is ( A + B) × C = A × C + B × C (A.3.11) The cross product of the unit vector ˆ with itself is zero because the two unit vectors are i parallel to each other.4.10) Note that by the anti-commutatively property (1) of the cross product. By the right hand rule. ( sin(0) = 0 ).3.3.3. Thus ˆ × ˆj = k .

Then the vectors A and B can be written as ˆ A = Axˆ + Ayˆj + Az k i and (A.3.18) A-18 . The cross product in vector components is ˆ A × B = ( Axˆ + Ayˆj + Az k ) × Bxˆ i i This becomes. ˆ A × B = ( Ax ˆ × Bx ˆ) + ( Ay ˆ × Bx ˆ) + ( Az k × Bx ˆ) i i j i i ˆ i = Ax Bx (ˆ × ˆ) + Ay Bx (ˆ × ˆ) + Az Bx (k × ˆ) i i j i ˆ = − Ay Bx k + Az Bx ˆ j (A. k × k = 0 ˆ ˆ (A.3.3.3.3. using properties (3) and (2).i i i i | ˆ × ˆ |=| ˆ || ˆ | sin(0) = 0 (A.3.14) (A.13) With these properties in mind we can now develop an algebraic expression for the cross product in terms of components.12) ˆ The cross product of the unit vector ˆj with itself and the unit vector k with itself. i j (A.3.19) (A. ˆj × ˆj = 0.15) B = Bxˆ i respectively.17) The vector component expression for the cross product easily generalizes for arbitrary vectors ˆ A = Axˆ + Ayˆj + Az k i and ˆ B = Bxˆ + Byˆj + Bz k i to yield ˆ A × B = ( Ay Bz − Az By )ˆ + ( Az Bx − Ax Bz )ˆ + ( Ax By − Ay Bx )k .20) (A.16) (A.3. Let’s choose a Cartesian coordinate system with the vector B pointing along the positive x-axis with positive x-component Bx . are also zero for the same reason.3.

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