Semester Jan-Apr 2011

Chapter 10
Sampling

Stephy-Yeoh Sok Foon Classroom No : C 207

Faculty of Management and IT UCSI University E mail: yeohsf@ucsi.edu.my
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Sampling
 Sampling: the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population, so that results from analyzing the sample are generalizable to the population.

© 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran

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 An element is a single member of the population. www.com/college/sekaran 3 . events. It comprises some members selected from it.  A sample is a subset of the population.Relevant Terms . or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate.wileyeurope. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.1  Population refers to the entire group of people.

Relevant Terms . www.  A subject is a single member of the sample.wileyeurope. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.2  Sampling unit: the element or set of elements that is available for selection in some stage of the sampling process.com/college/sekaran 4 . just as an element is a single member of the population.

Relevant Terms . The central tendencies.wileyeurope. the dispersions.com/college/sekaran 5 . and other statistics in the sample of interest to the research are treated as approximations of the central tendencies. www. σ (the population standard deviation). © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. dispersions. and σ2 (the population variance) are referred to as its parameters.3  The characteristics of the population such as µ (the population mean). and other parameters of the population.

wileyeurope.Statistics versus Parameters © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.com/college/sekaran 6 .

Advantages of Sampling     Less costs Less errors due to less fatigue Less time Destruction of elements avoided © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran 7 . www.

The Sampling Process  Major steps in sampling: – – – – – Define the population.com/college/sekaran 8 . www.wileyeurope. Determine the sample frame Determine the sampling design Determine the appropriate sample size Execute the sampling process © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

com/college/sekaran 9 .Sampling Techniques  Probability versus nonprobability sampling  Probability sampling: elements in the population have a known and non-zero chance of being chosen © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wileyeurope.

Sampling Techniques  Probability Sampling – – – – Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling  Nonprobability Sampling – Convenience Sampling – Judgment Sampling – Quota Sampling © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran 10 .

Simple Random Sampling  – Procedure Each element has a known and equal chance of being selected  – – – Characteristics Highly generalizable Easily understood Reliable population frame necessary © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.com/college/sekaran 11 .wileyeurope. www.

wileyeurope. starting with random choice of an element between 1 and n  – – – Characteristics Idem simple random sampling Easier than simple random sampling Systematic biases when elements are not randomly listed © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.com/college/sekaran 12 .Systematic Sampling  – Procedure Each nth element. www.

wileyeurope. www.com/college/sekaran 13 .Cluster Sampling  – – – Procedure Divide of population in clusters Random selection of clusters Include all elements from selected clusters  – – – – Characteristics Intercluster homogeneity Intracluster heterogeneity Easy and cost efficient Low correspondence with reality © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

com/college/sekaran 14 .Stratified Sampling  – – – Procedure Divide of population in strata Include all strata Random selection of elements from strata • • Proportionate Disproportionate  – – – Characteristics Interstrata heterogeneity Intrastratum homogeneity Includes all relevant subpopulations © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.wileyeurope. www.

not just relative sizes of strata © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.(Dis)proportionate Stratified Sampling  Number of subjects in total sample is allocated among the strata (dis)proportional to the relative number of elements in each stratum in the population  Disproportionate case: – strata exhibiting more variability are sampled more than proportional to their relative size – requires more knowledge of the population. www.wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran 15 .

Example © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.com/college/sekaran 16 .wileyeurope.

Overview © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran 17 .

Overview © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.com/college/sekaran 18 . www.wileyeurope.

Overview © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.wileyeurope. www.com/college/sekaran 19 .

Choice Points in Sampling Design © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.com/college/sekaran 20 .wileyeurope. www.

com/college/sekaran 21 . www.Tradeoff between precision and confidence  We can increase both confidence and precision by increasing the sample size © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.wileyeurope.

wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran 30 < n < 500 30 per subcategory 10 x number of var’s 15 to 20 per condition 22 . www.Sample size: guidelines  In general:  Categories:  Multivariate:  Experiments: © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

com/college/sekaran 23 . www.Sample Size for a Given Population Size © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.wileyeurope.

wileyeurope.com/college/sekaran 24 .Sample Size for a Given © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. www.

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