AUSTENITIC STEEL Austenitic stainless steels have high ductility, low yield stress and relatively high ultimate
tensile strength, when compare to a typical carbon steel. A carbon steel on cooling transforms from Austenite to a mixture of ferrite and cementite. With austenitic stainless steel, the high chrome and nickel content suppress this transformation keeping the material fully austenite on cooling (The Nickel maintains the austenite phase on cooling and the Chrome slows the transformation down so that a fully austenitic structure can be achieved with only 8% Nickel). Heat treatment and the thermal cycle caused by welding, have little influence on mechanical properties. However strength and hardness can be increased by cold working, which will also reduce ductility. A full solution anneal (heating to around 1045°C followed by quenching or rapid cooling) will restore the material to its original condition, removing alloy segregation, sensitisation, sigma phase and restoring ductility after cold working. Unfortunately the rapid cooling will re-introduce residual stresses, which could be as high as the yield point. Distortion can also occur if the object is not properly supported during the annealing process. Austenitic steels are not susceptible to hydrogen cracking, therefore pre-heating is seldom required, except to reduce the risk of shrinkage stresses in thick sections. Post weld heat treatment is seldom required as this material as a high resistance to brittle fracture; occasionally stress relief is carried out to reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking, however this is likely to cause sensitisation unless a stabilised grade is used (limited stress relief can be achieved with a low temperature of around 450°C ). Austenitic steels have a F.C.C atomic structure which provides more planes for the flow of dislocations, combined with the low level of interstitial elements (elements that lock the dislocation chain), gives this material its good ductility. This also explains why this material has no clearly defined yield point, which is why its yield stress is always expressed as a proof stress. Austenitic steels have excellent toughness down to true absolute (-273°C), with no steep ductile to brittle transition. This material has good corrosion resistance, but quite severe corrosion can occur in certain environments. The right choice of welding consumable and welding technique can be crucial as the weld metal can corrode more than the parent material. Probably the biggest cause of failure in pressure plant made of stainless steel is stress corrosion cracking (S.C.C). This type of corrosion forms deep cracks in the material and is caused by the presence of
This film reforms rapidly by reaction with the atmosphere if damaged. Carbon steel tools. Therefore it is recommended that stainless steel fabrication be carried out in a separate designated area and special stainless steel tools used where possible. at a temperature above 50°C. Both the oxide film and depleted layer must be removed. can embed fragments into the surface of the stainless steel. will have a chrome depleted layer under it. when the material is subjected to a tensile stress (this stress includes residual stress. which will impair corrosion resistance. although sensitisation of modern low carbon grades is unlikely unless heated for prolonged periods. also supports or even sparks from grinding carbon steel. which can be severe. This is often referred to as sensitisation. which could be up to yield point in magnitude). Therefore it is advisable when welding stainless steel to use low heat input and restrict the maximum interpass temperature to around 175°. wire brushing and shot blasting will have less effect). (passivation reduces the anodic reaction involved in the corrosion process). a very thick oxide layer will form. These fragments can then rust if moistened. distinguished by its blue tint. Once cleaned. Stainless steel has a very thin and stable oxide film rich in chrome. or chemically (acid pickle with a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acid). Small quantities of either titanium (321) or niobium (347) added to stabilise the material will inhibit the formation of chrome carbides. This thick oxide layer. This reduces the chrome available to provide the passive film and leads to preferential corrosion. either mechanically (grinding with a fine grit is recommended. Significant increases in Nickel and also Molybdenum will reduce the risk.
. If any part of stainless-steel is heated in the range 500 degrees to 800 degrees for any reasonable time there is a risk that the chrome will form chrome carbides (a compound formed with carbon) with any carbon present in the steel. the surface can be chemically passivated to enhance corrosion resistance. If stainless steel is not adequately protected from the atmosphere during welding or is subject to very heavy grinding operations.chlorides in the process fluid or heating water/steam (Good water treatment is essential ).
there may be a risk of corrosion during plant shut downs. depending on chrome level. therefore lower welding current is required (typically 25% less than carbon steel) and narrower joint preparations can be tolerated. Because the higher carbon content inevitably leads to sensitisation. if heated above 550°C for very prolonged periods (Could take several thousand hours. All common welding processes can
. Their improved creep resistance relates to the presence of carbides and the slightly coarser grain size associated with higher annealing temperatures. This creates an austenitic material containing tiny patches of residual delta ferrite. Thermal stress is another major problem associated with stainless steel. premature failure can occur on pressure plant heated by a jacket or coils attached to a cold veesel. This material has poor thermal conductivity. I have seen thick ring flanges on pressure vessel twist after welding to such an extent that a fluid seal is impossible. therefore not a true austenitic in the strict sense of the word. this coupled with the materials high coefficient of expansion can cause serious solidification cracking problems. transforming to austenite upon further cooling. A duplex stainless steel can form sigma phase after only a few minutes at this temperature) The very high coefficient of expansion associated with this material means that welding distortion can be quite savage. Filler metal often contains further additions of delta ferrite to ensure crack free welds. The delta ferrite can transform to a very brittle phase called sigma. Most 304 type alloys are designed to solidify initially as delta ferrite.To resist oxidation and creep high carbon grades such as 304H or 316H are often used. for this reason stabilised grades may be preferred such as 347H. which has a high solubility for sulphur. The solidification strength of austenitic stainless steel can be seriously impaired by small additions of impurities such as sulphur and phosphorous.
To ensure good corrosion resistance of the weld root it must be protected from the atmosphere by an inert gas shield during welding and subsequent cooling. Carbon content: 304 L grade Low Carbon. If good corrosion resistance of the root is required the oxygen level in the dam should not exceed 0. such as large stainless steel ducting. 9-12Ni + Titanium) (17-19Cr. which must permit a continuous gas flow through the area. Welding should not commence until sufficient time has elapsed to allow the volume of purging gas flowing through the dam to equal at least the 6 times the volume contained in the dam (EN1011 Part 3 Recommends 10). 10-14Ni + 2-3Mo) (Same as 316Ti) (17-19Cr.be used successfully. Backing gasses are typically argon or helium. (Hence the stength advantage in using stabilised grades) Typical Alloy Content 304 316 320 321 347 308 309 (18-20Cr. for extreme corrosion resistance this should be reduced to 0. sufficient to exclude air.08% Max 304H grade High Carbon. unless adequate precautions are taken. The gas shield should be contained around the root of the weld by a suitable dam. no gas backing is used.1% The higher the carbon content the greater the yield strength. however high deposition rates associated with SAW could cause solidification cracking and possibly sensitisation. Nitrogen Is often used as an economic alternative where corrosion resistance is not critical.015% (150 ppm). typically Up to 0.1%(1000 ppm). 8-12Ni) (16-18Cr. Nitrogrn + 10% Helium is better. A wide variety of proprietary pastes and backing materials are available than can be use to protect the root instead of a gas shield. typically 0.03% Max 304 grade Medium Carbon. 12-15Ni) 304 + Molybdenum 304 + Moly + Titanium 304 + Titanium 304 + Niobium 304 + Extra 2%Cr 304 + Extra 4%Cr + 4% Ni
316 Ti (316 with Titanium Added)
. 9-11Ni) (22-24Cr. 9-13Ni + Niobium) (19-22Cr. Once purging is complete the purge flow rate should be reduced so that it only exerts a small positive pressure. In some applications where corrosion and oxide coking of the weld root is not important. typically 0.
This strengthening occurs because of dislocationmovements within the crystal structure of the material. Molybdenum has the same effect on the microstructure as chrome. Hot working refers to processes where metals are plastically deformed above their recrystallization temperature. causing damage to the cutter during the later passes. An example of desirable work hardening is that which occurs in metalworking processes that intentionally induce plastic deformation to exact a shape change.4. This material does not transform to ferrite on cooling and therefore does not contain delta ferrite. drawing. It will not suffer sigma phase 904L embrittlement but can be tricky to weld. except for a 304 which is welded with a 308 or 316. Some materials cannot be work-hardened at normal ambient temperatures. including lowcarbon steel. Superior corrosion resistance providing they are welded carefully with low heat input (less than 1 kJ/mm recommended) and fast travel speeds with no weaving.All the above stainless steel grades are basic variations of a 304. Being above the recrystallization temperature allows the material to
. Each run of weld should not be started until the metal temperature falls below 100°C. are often work-hardened. also known as strain hardening or cold working. Work hardening. such asindium. bending. An example of undesirable work hardening is during machining when early passes of a cutter inadvertently work-harden the workpiece surface. All are readily weldable and all have matching consumables. Alloys not amenable to heat treatment. (20Cr.5Mo) Super Austenitic Or Nickel alloy. They are characterized by shaping the workpiece at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature.19-22Ni) True Austenitic. therefore this material should either be welded with an over-alloyed consumable such as a 625 or solution annealed after welding. is the strengthening of a metal by plastic deformation. and shearing. Therefore a 316 needs less chrome than a 304. if maximum corrosion resistance is required. Any material with a reasonably high melting point such as metals and alloys can be strengthened in this fashion. except that it gives better resistance to pitting corrosion. 310 (24-26Cr. These processes are known as cold working or cold forming processes. Work hardening may be desirable or undesirable depending on the context. 321 is welded with a 347 (Titanium is not easily transferred across the arc) and a 316Ti is normally welded with a 318. usually at the ambient temperature. however others can only be strengthened via work hardening. It is unlikely that a uniform distribution of alloy will be achieved throughout the weld (segregation). Cold forming techniques are usually classified into four major groups: squeezing. such as pure copper and aluminum.25Ni.
Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 580 metric tons. If the temperature is above the material's recrystallization temperature it is deemed hot forging. Thus.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. This is important because recrystallization keeps the materials from strain hardening. The main advantage of hot forging is that as the metal is deformed work hardening effects are negated by the recrystallization process. the process may be introduced as a deliberate step in metals processing or may be an undesirable byproduct of another processing step. and the control of the grain structure in the final product." or "hot" forging. and improve cold working properties
. The most important industrial uses are the softening of metalspreviously hardened by cold work. Cold forging typically results in work hardening of the piece Recrystallization is a process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of undeformed grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed. soften material. relieve internal stresses.
This contrasts with cold working. and then cooling. is a heat treatment wherein a material is altered. refine the structure by making it homogeneous. in metallurgy and materials science. Annealing is used to induce ductility. Recrystallization is usually accompanied by a reduction in the strength andhardness of a material and a simultaneous increase in the ductility. which ultimately keeps the yield strength and hardness low and ductility high. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: '"cold. It is a process that produces conditions by heating to above the recrystallization temperature and maintaining a suitable temperature. however they are generally classified by whether the metal temperature is above or below the recrystallization temperature.recrystallize during deformation. if below 3/10ths of the recrystallization temperature (usually room temperature) then it is deemed cold forging.(READ FROM NET) Annealing. which have lost their ductility. Forged parts usually require further processing to achieve a finished part. if the temperature is below the material's recrystallization temperature but above 3/10ths of the recrystallization temperature (on an absolute scale) it is deemed warm forging." "warm. All of the following forging processes can be performed at various temperatures. causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness.