Subhas Chandra Bose (Bengali: ‘—Š” x ‰‘—, Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) was an Indian revolutionary who led an Indian

national political and military force against Britain and the Western powers during World War II. Popularly known as Netaji (literally "Respected Leader"), Bose was one of the most prominent leaders in the Indian independence movement and is a legendary figure in India today. Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa to Janakinath Bose and Prabhabati Debi, and is presumed to have died 18 August 1945. However, no actual evidence of his death on that day has till date been authenticated and many committees were set up by Government of India to probe his death.

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1 Ideology & philosophy 2 Early life 3 National politics 4 Escape from British India to Germany & Japan 5 Taking over leadership of Azad Hind Fauj and later events 6 Disappearance and alleged death o 6.1 Mysterious monk 7 Personal life 8 Bose's Chair at Red Fort 9 Artistic depictions of Bose 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

[edit] Ideology & philosophy
Bose advocated complete unconditional independence for India, whereas the All-India Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through Dominion status. Finally at the historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted Purna Swaraj (complete independence) as its motto. Bhagat Singh's martyrdom and the inability of the Congress leaders to save his life infuriated Bose and he started a movement opposing the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. He was imprisoned and expelled from India. Defying the ban, he came back to India and was imprisoned again. Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, but had to resign from the post following ideological conflicts with Mohandas K. Gandhi and after openly attacking the Congress' foreign and internal policies. Bose believed that Gandhi's tactics of nonviolence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by

travelling to the Soviet Union. he left India. as the honours BA is known. political. and other parts of Southeast Asia.[3] His high score in the Civil Service examinations meant an almost automatic appointment. he was elected the President of All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary of Bengal State Congress. With Imperial Japanese assistance. against British forces. Returning to India. He studied in an Anglo school at Cuttack until the sixth standard and then shifted to Ravenshaw Collegiate School. He was also Editor . He was the ninth child of a total of fourteen siblings. formed with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaya. He was awarded a third class pass in the examinations for Part I of this tripos in 1921. Bose later topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province in 1911 and passed his B. with some accusing him of fascist sympathies. that is formally enrolled in the Cambridge University. though the evidence for his death in such an accident has not been universally accepted (see below). which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. With Japanese monetary. Indian nationalists were shocked and outraged because of the Amritsar massacre and the repressive Rowlatt legislation of 1919. He was a non-collegiate student. an advocate and Prabhavati Devi. seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India. [edit] Early life Subhas Chandra Bose was born in a Bengali Kayasth family on January 23. to Janakinath Bose. His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes at war with Britain have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians. In the year 1923. From there he went to the Presidency College where he studied briefly. Bose went to study in Fitzwilliam Hall of the University of Cambridge. He is presumed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash in Taiwan. His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for his anti-India comments. Orissa. and matriculated. he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile. His famous motto was " " (Give me blood and I will give you freedom). diplomatic and military assistance. His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War. At the time. in 1918 in philosophy from the Scottish Church College under University of Calcutta.A. . Singapore. 1897 in Cuttack. He graduated BA by proxy on 4 November 1922.the British authorities eleven times. He studied Philosophy for Moral Sciences Tripos. At the outset of the war. Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. he reorganised and later led the Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army (INA). His mentor was Chittaranjan Das who was a spokesman for aggressive nationalism in Bengal. on 19 November 1919. and regrouped and led the Indian National Army in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma. He then took his first step as a revolutionary and resigned the appointment on the premise that the "best way to end a government is to withdraw from it". while others in India have been more sympathetic towards the realpolitik that guided his social and political choices. Bose wrote for the newspaper Swaraj and took charge of publicity for the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee.

However. Again Bose was arrested and jailed for civil disobedience. but its main strength was in his home state. including the use of force against the British. Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose. where he contracted tuberculosis.S. he was deeply impressed by their methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastly disciplinarian outlook towards life. Bose worked as the CEO of the municipal corporation of Calcutta for Das when the latter was elected mayor of Calcutta in 1924. When Bose visited Madurai on September 6. he was influenced by the examples of Italian statesmen Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini. after being released from prison. aimed at consolidating the political left. this time he emerged to become Mayor of Calcutta in 1930. joined the Forward Bloc. His correspondence reveals that despite his clear dislike for British subjugation. Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress presidency. George Lansbury. who was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership which had not revoked the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA). During his sojourn in England.B. Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to meet Mr. Bose appeared at the 1939 Congress meeting on a stretcher. He observed party organization and saw communism and fascism in action. for at least two decades. He came to believe that a free India needed socialist authoritarianism. Bose became general secretary of the Congress party and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence.[4] By 1938 Bose had become as leader of national stature and agreed to accept nomination as Congress president. This meant a confrontation with Mohandas Gandhi. Bengal. Atatürk at Ankara for political reasons. visiting Indian students and European politicians. due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee. Clement Attlee. who in fact opposed Bose's presidency. Bose attempted to maintain unity. During the mid1930s Bose travelled in Europe. His uncompromising stand finally cut him off from the mainstream of Indian nationalism. G. In this. including Mussolini. Ivor Jennings. Jawaharlal Nehru and a section of the Congress leadership at the time). Arthur Greenwood.H. Gilbert Murray and Sir Stafford Cripps . Bose then organized the Forward Bloc on June 22. U. J. Bose was arrested and sent to prison in Mandalay. Haldane. on the lines of Turkey's Kemal Atatürk. Cole. Conservative Party officials refused to meet Bose or show him courtesy . but Gandhi advised Bose to form his own cabinet. Though he was elected president again. [edit] National politics In 1927. Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception. Bose advocated the approach that the political instability of war-time Britain should be taken advantage of²rather than simply wait for the British to grant independence after the end of the war (which was the view of Gandhi. founded by Deshabandhu. splitting the Indian National Congress party.D.of the newspaper "Forward". The rift also divided Bose and Nehru. he exchanged ideas on the future of India with British Labour Party leaders and political thinkers like Lord Halifax. Harold Laski. U Muthuramalingam Thevar. In a roundup of nationalists in 1925. He stood for unqualified Swaraj (self-dependence). over Gandhi's preferred candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya. Muthuramalingam Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute. In England. only the Labour Party and Liberal politicians agreed to meet with Bose when he tried to schedule appointments.

Bose began his journey to reach Russia through India's North West frontier with Afghanistan. Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's decision to declare war on India's behalf without consulting the Congress leadership. which then stood at the corner of Dalhousie Square. that India gained independence. accompanied by his nephew Sisir K. Bose in a car that is now at display at his Calcutta home. Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this.[6][7] He journeyed to Peshawar with the help of the Abwehr. He had Bose flown on to Berlin in a special courier aircraft at the beginning of April where he was to receive a more favorable hearing from Joachim von Ribbentrop and the Foreign Ministry officials at the Wilhelmstrasse. [edit] Escape from British India to Germany & Japan This set the scene for Bose's escape to Germany. Bose's guide Bhagat Ram Talwar. then a Forward Bloc leader in the North-West Frontier Province. he seeked solitude and on this pretext avoided meeting British guards and grew a beard and on the night of his escape he dressed as a Pathan to avoid being identified. In the 1930s leading figures in the Conservative Party had opposed even Dominion status for India. However. Shah had been out of India en route to the Soviet Union. he enlisted the help of Mian Akbar Shah. where he met by Akbar Shah. With two court cases pending. Bose organized mass protests in Calcutta calling for the 'Holwell Monument' commemorating the Black Hole of Calcutta. On 26 January 1941. Mohammed Shah and Bhagat Ram Talwar. Bose's house in Calcutta was kept under surveillance by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)[citation needed]. On January 19. it would make him an easy target of Pashto speakers working for the British. to be removed[5]. Bose escaped from under British surveillance at his house in Calcutta.[8][7][6] Supporters of the Aga Khan III helped him across the border into Afghanistan where he was met by an Abwehr unit posing as a party of road construction engineers from the Organization Todt who then aided his passage across Afghanistan via Kabul to the border with Soviet Russia. and suggested a novel disguise for Bose to assume. unknown to him. but was released following a seven-day hunger strike.[7][6][9] . but their vigilance left a good deal to be desired. On the outbreak of war. Bose found the Soviets' response disappointing and was rapidly passed over to the German Ambassador in Moscow. he felt the British would not let him leave the country before the end of the war. and let his beard grow to mimic those of the tribesmen. A few days before his escape. Once in Russia the NKVD transported Bose to Moscow where he hoped that Russia's traditional enmity to British rule in India would result in support for his plans for a popular rising in India. Count von der Schulenburg. It was during the Labour Party government of 1945±1951. Since Bose could not speak one word of Pashto. with Attlee as the Prime Minister. was a Soviet agent. For this reason. He was thrown in jail by the British. Bose was taken to the home of Abad Khan. via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.because he was a politician coming from a colony. 1941. a trusted friend of Akbar Shah's. Shah suggested that Bose act deaf and dumb. For this reason.

prepared to envisage an invasion of India via the USSR by Nazi troops. This left the men he had recruited leaderless and demoralized in Germany. This was the only civilian transfer across two submarines of two different Navies in World War II. whose leader is Subhash Chandra Bose". during which he married toEmilie Schenkl and a daughter Anita Bose Pfaff was born to them in 1942. he instituted the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz. Bose was worried. So. He was also.[7][6][10] At Germany. and later transferred to the Waffen SS. however.[10] In all 3. as it seems unlikely that the Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after such an invasion. But instead of being delighted. This was along the concept of²and . and from there he traveled to Germany. he was devastated when Hitler's tanks rolled across the Soviet border. The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht. many have questioned his judgment here. He founded the Free India Center in Berlin. Bose changed his guise and traveled to Moscow on the Italian passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta". Bose turned his back on his legionnaires and slipped secretly away aboard a submarine bound for Japan. Adolf Hitler. spearheaded by the Azad Hind Legion.[7][6] [edit] Taking over leadership of Azad Hind Fauj and later events Main articles: Azad Hind Fauj and Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind The Indian National Army (INA) was originally founded by Capt Mohan Singh in Singapore in September 1942 with Japan's Indian POWs in the Far East. A left-wing admirer of Russia. broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. as the commander of the German armed forces in the fight for India. After being disillusioned that Germany could be of any help in liberating India. He traveled by the German submarine U-180 around the Cape of Good Hope to Imperial Japan (via Japanese submarine I-29). When he met Hitler in May 1942 his suspicions were confirmed. From Moscow. Germany from 1941 until 1943. This oath clearly abrogates control of the Indian legion to the German armed forces whilst stating Bose's overall leadership of India. in 1943 he left for Japan. in February 1943. Matters were worsened by the fact that the now-retreating German army would be in no position to offer him help in driving the British from India.After assuming the guise of a Pashtun insurance agent ("Ziaudddin") to reach Afghanistan. and created the Indian Legion (consisting of some 4500 soldiers) out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces.[10][11] Bose spent almost three years in Berlin. Its members swore the following allegiance to Hitler and Bose: "I swear by God this holy oath that I will obey the leader of the German race and state. which might also have resulted in an Axis victory in the War. and he came to believe that the Nazi leader was more interested in using his men to win propaganda victories than military ones.000 Indian prisoners of war signed up for the Free India Legion. he reached Rome.

A. including a separate women's unit.D. along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw and Aung San. The first INA was however disbanded in December 1942 after disagreements between the Hikari Kikan and Mohan Singh. Bose's words are highly evocative. five were authorities established under Axis occupation. were extensively involved in operations behind enemy lines both during the diversionary attacks in Arakan.who . Rash Behari Bose handed over control of the organization to Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose was able to reorganize the fledgling army and organize massive support among the expatriate Indian population in south-east Asia. However. Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood. which is seen as a first of its kind in Asia. At its height it consisted of some 85. Further information: Battle of Kohima and Battle of Imphal Japanese also took possession of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1942 and a year later. the Rani of Jhansi Regiment (named after Rani Lakshmi Bai) headed by Capt.with support of²what was then known as the Indian Independence League. who lent their support by both enlisting in the Indian National Army. Diwan Singh. INA's special forces. The troops of the INA were under the aegis of a provisional government. China. In July. Of those countries. postage stamps. the Japanese Navy remained in essential control of the island's administration. who came to believe that the Japanese High Command was using the INA as a mere pawn and propaganda tool. and I shall give you freedom!" In this. the Independent State of Croatia. Japan. Spoken in Hindi. the Bahadur Group.[12][13] Further information: Rani of Jhansi Regiment Even when faced with military reverses. Dr. The INA's first commitment was in the Japanese thrust towards Eastern Indian frontiers of Manipur. During Bose's only visit to the islands in early 1944. he urged the people of India to join him in his fight against the British Raj. Manchukuo and Japanese-controlled Philippines. Recent researches have shown that the USSR too had recognised the "Provisional Government of Free India". and was recognised by nine Axis states² Germany.000[citation needed] regular troops. as well as the Japanese thrust towards Imphal and Kohima. Italy. who at that time were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League on the Islands. The islands were renamed Shaheed (Martyr) and Swaraj (Independence). when he was carefully screened from the local population by the Japanese authorities. 1944. Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on July 4. at a meeting in Singapore. Mohan Singh was taken into custody and the troops returned to the prisoner-of-war camp. which came to produce its own currency. headed by expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. the Provisional Government and the INA were established in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Lt Col. However. a provisional government of Burma. Wang Jingwei regime in Nanjing. the Azad Hind Government. as well as financially in response to Bose's calls for sacrifice for the national cause. Loganathan appointed its Governor General. the idea of a liberation army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose in the Far East in 1943. Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement. This government participated in the so-called Greater East Asia Conference as a observer in November 1943. Lakshmi Swaminathan. court and civil code.

the Provisional Government's aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever. modeled after that of the Indian National Congress. Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and asked for his blessings and good wishes for the war he was fighting. However. The INA was forced to pull back. along with the retreating Japanese army. The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese. Other slogan coined by him was Ittehad. and fought in key battles against the British Indian Army in its Burma campaign. Lt. "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces. However. Pegu. However. Qurbani. as the war situation worsened for the Japanese. 1944. Instead. this did not materialize on a sufficient scale. an Indian Tricolour. in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore on July 6. Bose had hoped that large numbers of soldiers would desert from the Indian Army when they would discover that INA soldiers were attacking British India from the outside. with the fall of Rangoon. Mandalay. A large proportion of the INA troops surrendered under Lt Col Loganathan when Rangoon fell. Commonwealth forces held both positions and then counterattacked.later died of his injuries. in Manipur. Nyangyu and Mount Popa. This was the first time that Mahatma Gandhi was referred to by this appellation. in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging forces. The islanders made several attempts to alert Bose to their plight. but apparently without success. sometimes extracting money by force. or. " (Give me blood and I will give you freedom). in the Cellular Jail. Etemad. The remaining troops retreated with Bose towards Malaya or made for Thailand. notable in Meiktilla. Col Loganathan later relinquished his authority and returned to the Government's head quarters in Rangoon. also known as Operation U-GO. Earlier. " (Delhi Chalo)".[16][17] His famous quote/slogan was " . " (Jai Hind)". Japan's surrender at the end of the war also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian National Army. which were then forced to retreat back into Burma.[14][15] On the Indian mainland. in north-eastern India. and Bose was forced to raise taxes on the Indian populations of Malaysia and Singapore. When the Japanese were defeated at the battles of Kohima and Imphal. Enraged with the lack of administrative control. INA also used the slogan Inquilab Zindabad. meaning "On to Delhi!" This was the call he used to give the INA armies to motivate them. His other famous quote were. when the troops of the British Indian Army were repatriated to India and some tried for treason. was raised for the first time in the town in Moirang. At the same time Japanese funding for the army diminished. Burmese and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of INA during the attempted invasion of India. troops began to desert from the INA. which was coined by Maulana Hasrat Mohani[18][19][20][21][22] [edit] Disappearance and alleged death Main article: Death of Subhash Chandra Bose . Bose's government ceased to be an effective political entity.

"[23] The lack of a body has led to many theories have been put forward concerning his possible survival. However. the reason cited being publication of these documents could sour India's relations with some other countries. which investigated the Bose disappearance mystery in the period 1999-2005. Several committees have been set up by the Government of India to probe into this matter. in fact. did approach the Taiwanese government. though no reasons were cited.[2] In May 1956. dying in a local hospital four hours later. Several documents which could perhaps provide lead to the disappearance of Bose have not been declassified by the Government of India. This version of events is supported by the testimonies of a Captain Yoshida Taneyoshi. The Japanese plane he was travelling on had engine trouble and when it crashed Bose was badly burned. 2005. One such claim is that Bose actually died later in Siberia. Taiwan.[2] However. The Award Committee could not give conclusive evidence on Bose's death and thus the "posthumous" award was invalidated. The probe said in its report that as Bose did not die in the plane crash. no plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945 as alleged.[26] Bose's portrait hangs in the Indian Parliament. citing their lack of diplomatic relations with Taiwan.[24] The Mukherjee Commission also received a report originating from the U. but it was later withdrawn in response to a Supreme Court directive following a Public Interest Litigation filed in the Court against the "posthumous" nature of the award. The report was tabled in Parliament on May 17. and that the ashes at the Renkoji Temple (said to be of Bose's) are not his. His body was then cremated. the Indian government did not then request assistance from the government of Taiwan in the matter. and obtained information from the Taiwan Government that no plane carrying Bose had ever crashed in Taipei. However.[25] The Justice Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry submitted its report to the Indian Government on November 8. India's highest civilian award in 1992. No headway was made on this issue however. [edit] Mysterious monk See also: Bhagwanji . and there was.S. the Inquiry Commission under Justice Mukherjee. the Indian Government rejected the findings of the Commission. Department of State supporting the claim of the Taiwan Government that no such air crash took place during that time frame. a four-man Indian team known as the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to probe the circumstances of Bose's alleged death.Bose is alleged to have died in a plane crash Taihoku (Taipei). on 18 August 1945 while an route to Tokyo and possibly then the Soviet Union. 2006. Bose was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna. and a British spy known as "Agent 1189. while in Soviet captivity. and a statue of him has been erected in front of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

These were later subjected to inspection by the Justice Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry. during the war (and possibly as early as the 1930s) Bose seems to have decided that no democratic system could be adequate to overcome India's poverty and social inequalities. Their only daughter.[32] Subhas who called himself a socialist. The commission came down against this belief. Uttar Pradesh at least until 1985.[27] The belongings of the sanyasi were taken into custody after his death.[28] The independent probe done by the Hindustan Times into the case however provided hints that the monk was Bose himself. though not a Nazi nor a Fascist. There had been at least four known occasions when Gumnami Baba reportedly claimed he was Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. at Faizabad's popular picnic spot. was Subhas Chandra Bose . [edit] Personal life Bose married his Austrian secretary Emilie Schenkl (1910±96) in 1937.[5] Bose had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best option for India.[35] However. who lived in the house Ram Bhawan in Faizabad.[citation needed] However. It is alleged that he was cremated in the dead of night. similar to that of Soviet Russia (which he had also seen and admired) would be needed for the process of national re-building.[36] The proBose thinkers believe that his authoritarian control of the Azad Hind was based on political pragmatism and a post-colonial recovery doctrine rather than any anti-democratic belief. and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany.[30] Swami Vivekananda's teachings on universalism. just under the light of a motorcycle's headlamp.[34] Bose's correspondence (prior to 1939) reflects his deep disapproval of the racist practices of. alternatively. on the bank of River Saraju. the life and activities of Bhagwanji remain a mystery even today.[37] Accordingly some suggest that Bose's alliance with the Axis during the war was based on more than just pragmatism. secularism and other democratic ideas.[31] Many scholars believe that Hindu spirituality formed the essential part of his political and social thought through his adult life. although there was no sense of bigotry or orthodoxy in it.[29] Some people believe that Gumnami Baba died on 16 September 1985. is an economist associated with the University of Augsburg. his face distorted by acid to protect his identity.Several people believed that the Hindu sanyasi named Bhagwanji or 'Gumnami Baba'. However.". following a court order. and that Bose was a militant nationalist. others consider he might have been using populist methods of mobilisation common to many post- . and he wrote that an authoritarian state. Faizabad's Bengali community still pays homage at the memorial built at his cremation site on the anniversary of his birth. Anita Bose Pfaff born in 1942. and thought they could be used in building an independent India. in the absence of any "clinching evidence".[33] As historian Leonard Gordan explains "Inner religious explorations continued to be a part of his adult life. Bose believed that the Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the struggle against the British. his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis on social service and reform had all inspired Subhas Chandra Bose from his very young days. believed that socialism in India owed its origins to Swami Vivekananda. This set him apart from the slowly growing number of atheistic socialists and communists who dotted the Indian landscape. The story of Gumnami Baba came to light on his death. he expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods (though not the racial ideologies) which he saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s. The fresh interpretation of the India's ancient scriptures had appealed immensely to him. for he supported empowerment of women. while some dispute this.

[40] [edit] Bose's Chair at Red Fort The following words are inscribed on a brass shield in front of the chair which is symbolic to the sovereignty of the Republic of India.[citation needed] On August 23. Netaji set up the Provisional Government of Independent India (Azad Hind) and transferred its headquarter at Rangoon on January 7."[39] However in India many believe.T. at the time of leaving Burma.A.Ahuja. the "Azad Hind Bank" was inaugurated at Rangoon. 1943. as also to the to add to enthusiasm of the Armed Forces of India. including Infosys Technologies founder-chairman NR Narayana Murthy.[38] Netaji is a much respected name in Japan. the Britishers handed over the chair to the family of Mr. that Netaji was not given due respect that he deserved. where the office of the Azad Hind ls also housed. Rangoon. It has now been ceremonially installed at the Red Fort on July 7. University Avenue. According to him.[38][39] Abe said to Bose's family "The Japanese are deeply moved by Bose's strong will to have led the Indian independence movement from British rule. It was brought to Calcutta on the 17th July. 1944. His comment was that if he had to shake hands with the devil for India's independence he would do that.[5] Bose never liked the Nazis but when he failed to contact the Russians for help in Afghanistan he approached the Germans and Italians for help. the well known business man of Rangoon. It was on this occasion that Netaji used this chair for the first time. 1981. 1944. Later the chair was kept at the residence of Netaji at 51. 1980.colonial leaders." . Afterwords. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited the Subhas Chandra Bose memorial hall in Kolkata. "Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in order to free India from the shackles of British imperialism organized the Azad Hind Government from outside the country on October 21. The chair was officially handed over to the Government of India in January 1979. On the 5th April. The chair rests in a glass case and is a symbol of pride as well as national heritage. 2007. India would have prospered as the second largest economy in the world by now had Netaji been a part of the post independence nation building.