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l-\ZZ ~tASTERS

Sonny Rollins
hv Charley.. Gerard ..

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Sydney. Cologne

New York, London,

Amsco Publications

- design by Barbara Hoffman - photograph by David Gahr -ight e 1980 by Consolidated Music Publishers -ook published 1988 by Amsco PUblications. .sion of Music Sales Corporation, New Yorlc. ""'Y. hts r~er\'ed. ~o pan of this book may be

uced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means ng information storage and retrie\'al systems. t permission in writing from the publisher. tionai Standard ve Distributors: >ales Corporation 22nd Street,New ales Limited York., SY 10010 USA Book ~umber; 0.8256.4086.5

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h Street, London WI\, 5TZ England ales Pry. Limited lschild Street, Rosebery. SYdney. ~S\\" :01 e, Aw.'.alia

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Contents

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Sonny Rollins 4_ Notes on the Solos 5. Symbols and Terms 6 You" Don't Know What Love Is Alfie's Theme II On Impulse 17 - Blessing in Disguise ~3 East Broadwav Run Down ~IJ The Everywhere Calypso - 31 Plavin ' in the Yard 35 Keep Hold of.Yourself 38 40 An Analysis of Sonny Rollins's Style .. H Chordal Improvisation: Arpeggios Scalar Improvisation 46 Sequences 47 49 Playing out of the Changes Thematic Improvisation 51 Rhythmic Devices: Syncopation and Delay Phrase Repetition 59 Anticipation 63 65 Delayed Resolution Chord Chart 66 God Bless the Child (annotated) 67 Discography 72

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A Note on the Transcr-iptions
In this edition, for all C instruments, the solos have been transcribed one octave above concert pitch to make them easily readable for any nontransposing instrument. such as piano, guitar, flute, violin, etc. A separate edition (Music for Millions Series 200/040200) is available, containing the same material transposed for B b tenor saxophone.

C p to the time of this recording. As with most saxophonists who began playing in the bebop era. blues. while studvinz music in hizh school. He is a legendary figure who has twice disappeared from the jazz scene. possibly Ly a natural maturation pr()('('~~ or because Rollins had had the opportunity to play with the most influential jazz musicians of his time. and 50011 after. I couldn't have done it without the invaluable aid of my wife. his music took on the distinctive sound for which it is now famous. one of the all-time great jazz albums. 1929 in XYC. By 1956. his performances han' demonstrated his ability• to brinz>:> a distinctive sound to many types of jazz. at the height of acclaim. In the mid-fifties he also performed and recorded with pianist/cornposer Thelonious '. His first recording was with singer Babs Gonzales in 19-1-8. CHARLEY GERARD Tampico.rs later. "-hi]. Rollins has 1I0t only survived three decades and several eras of jazz. Johnson-all highly influential bebop players. In 1959. modal jazz. the ~Leauty of the lower register had been greatly ignored. I hope you enjoy reading this book as much as I enjoyed writing it. pianist/ arranger Tadd Dameron. a virtuoso tenor saxophonist. In 1944. Sonny Rollins was born on September 9. although he can be heard on alto and soprano on some of his recent recordings.".SOlll1Y Rollins For three decades the music of Sonny Rollins has impressed audience. bebop. This began a series of avantgarde performances followed by his second disappearance from public life. Tamaulipas '\Iexico I I I I I I . After the release of this record his reputation Legan to grow internationally. free jazz. He stayed with the tenor sax. Judith Weinstock.. He i". addinz a whole new dimension to his playing.. st ill in hi. Rollins has put his personal stamp on ballads. he recorded with pianist Bud Powell.:. calypso. trumpeter Fats Xavarro. On returning.1. Rollins fronted a group of Ornette Coleman sidemen including trumpeter Don Cherry and played free form. During this period a few pa. and t rornhoiiist .dudl turned a generation of tenor players around. His playing is no longer confined to anyone tradition.1. but in a new form. and the leading exponent of thematic improvisation.-I I I I J I . Subsequently Rollins formed his OKn group.cr"L~ had the luck to hear him practicing early in the morning on the \\ illiamsburg Bridge in :\yc. an album . For this reason his first public appearance on returning to the scene was a surprise.lonk. Rollins's first recordings are reminiscent of Charlie Parker. but he has played an important role in all of them. At this time he revorded [a: : Colossus._ I I I May 1979 I I ~- I . Although revolutionary in this respect. he took up the alto sax: switchins to tenor two 'ye. using \lax Roach as a featured sideman on many of his recordings. and jazz-rot'k. including many jazz greats. Rollins's tenacious creativity was bound to resurface again and as the jazz scene changed it did just that. he began his famous collaboration with drummer Max Roach in 1956. and trumpeter 'liles Davis (with whom he recorded some records which are now collectors' items). the album basically held to the hard bop tradition of the late fifties. he recorded Sext Album on which he used electric instruments for the first time. Sinn' then. On this album Rollins concentrates on the difficult lower tones oftht> sax." teens he 'started working profc5"ionally in the :"cw York area. After working with drummer Art Blakey. he dropped out of the jazz scene. composer. Rollin" emerged from o bscuritv two years later with The Bridge.

Transcription: complete solo. The pianoless group is a favorite of Rollins. drums. de j ohnette replacing I_ I. Transcription in this book: complete first solo. guitar. large excerpts of which appear in this book. drums: Arthur Jenkins. Rollins starts up azain. On Impulse (1966) Same personnel as above. This is a good example of Rollins's ballad st~ le. Rollim is in a funky rock mood here. Doug Watkins. Keep Hold of Yourself (1962) Same personnel as above without blues. conga drums and percussion.. Blessing in Disguise (1966) With Jimmy Garrison. The most famous one is Rollins's "St. including solos bv pianist Roger Kellawav and guitarist Kenny Burrell. See the transcription tion. and I have transcribed several sections of the solo to show how it develops. whose heritage is West Indian." Transcription: complete first solo. which comes to a surprisingly abrupt end. This is one of Rollins's most avant-garde performances. piano. Rollins plays only on the mouthpIece. trumpet. Transcription: five blues choruses. Bob Cranshaw. In parts of this long piece.1I I I I Notes on-the Solos You Don't Know What LO"e Is (1956) \Vith Tommy Flanagan. I I I I . The piece concludes with a cadenza against held chords. the piece starts out as a blues and then becomes totally free. David Let'. 1 . East Broadway Run Down (1966) Same personnel as above with Freddie Hubbard. Arthur Jenkins. for more informs- . I I I I I This is a minor modal God Bless the Child (1962) With Jim Hall. piano. With a big band arrangement by Oliver \elson. Transcription: complete first solo. Rollins is featured here in a fast jazz waltz. bass: 'lax Roach. Alfie's Theme (1966) . Transcription: four choruses. This is one of rn anv calypso tunes recorded by Rollins. Thomas. Elvin Jones. It gives the feeling: of a run-down part of lower Manhattan. The Everywhere Calypso (1972) With George Cables. drums. bass. After a strange tune arranged for trumpet and tenor saxophone mostly in fourths. with drummer Jack David Lee. Parts of the second and third choruses are in double time. bass. The music was writt en for the film Alfie. Playin ' in the Yard (1972) Same personnel as above. Every time the listener thinks it's going to end. This piece is an excellent example of thematic improvisation. It contains one of Sonny Rollins's most famous 50105. and others.

Rollins uses these a lot. no E. A Clipped attack. orte of the main ingredi(~ntE of Rollin~'~ individ.augmented o . . Glissando: a rapidly played chrom_atic scale. -:-. -:-: minor seventh ¢7: half-diminished seventh sus: suspended .hed seventh dim.1 I I I I J ~ I I I I I I I .Symbols and Tenus . I I I I I I el Chord Symbols -'la. I'" Lip slurs or glides going up to or down from a note. -: diminished interval \1a:-: major seventh :-: dominant seventh m:-.-mLolused: major m. dim 7: dim ini:. T"ibra/o. . vib. gliss. -: mmor aug. uali-tic style.

.:8 Ebm p QI'ftfiD Ab-7 Db7 o =t· G7-S Gb6 5 p I Cl' ¥/ff F7 .I I I You Dou"t Know "'hat Love Is Don Raye Gene de Paul 6t#g! i Ji I JJ etf5F Slow ballad tempo introduction.C-r e a I ¥ : I p 1T!f 3 eFr fqft I &n) 3-' m Bb7 :. Used By Permission.~J1 J... p. ~fjII.ft~~A ill p Fb7 Bm ¥@ '--:J--' 3 A~7 1 p Cb6 j 12· iPBr. . Bb6 . @:fir ----. All Rights Reserved.. .. Inc..r--.---3 I 1 20 iJ J f? L1 I .] . Ebm Bb7 sali fJm 3 Ab7 AfJa frB Fb7 I Bb7 u Fh73 I E~m 3 cis Bb7 @lp_U========--C~7 t I ~.~! til E Gb6 © 1979 MeA. I I .

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in Disguise Sonny Rolli I I .~ ...... I ~~r = ¥~ -== C. ¥ mp to It~-= ===- g E in bass .. 25 It ~eTf lJ A7 07 A7 ~ II h@ - vib.... "1 ~~ (3) ... if ..-'. ~~ mf DI ~ (2) * 15 vib.- I I I &~~~ l 07 l'ib....- .. All Rights Reserved.....f l'ib. ~ 07 Ii 41 daW' mpc::::::mp 3 =-~ I - B I I A7 A7 I §@ j 07 It A7 gr-r' - 0I &#f 40 ¥ ~ ~ I '" e 1967 Theodore (Sonny) Rollins. . Ifi ::::=.~h f t1 r a Moderato wi th a blues feeling Emb~s-------------------------------------------- mf rubato = ......... 23 ...$I - (6) * 07 (7) I . Used By Permission..-... (4) * - (5) 20 ......

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.. ~ 1 C !~ --------------------------------------------------- B E7 E7 j~~ ..~ I :! ~ i H ~ .. ....:: j ~ elf I ~.. .. .... 1 V trumpet: sax· j - - rr:f - ' .._ ..t Broadway Hun 1I01£n Sonny Rollins Uptempo ~ F # in bass .. All Rights Reserved.... I ... ....... • H..vI }J • :..___...... I25• ......J.. I E ?I L *Trumpet sounds one octave lower than written..# B7 - I F1lfi§F ~3-J B7 "#r ...... e bE ff'f E~~ I sax:· ~ .I I -r ..- ~ ~1f11 n'.. ~ a ~" ~..J B B I E7 B B "l )) J IV 30 ~ r 35 §I B FI 29 I I &ti#l# ~ r l - - I1 IJ J..i& . .. I '~I' B F#7 I JiJ J)J)J... ~ C~-7 FP ~ r Pr E7 I l s ... Used By Permission... © 1967 Theodore (Sonny) Rollins....

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. t . •.J I • ! j l J F i j •R I ._.Ecergl£here Calypso Sonny Rollins .. t --30 J1 ~~ i~ Igr~'rfll G7 I C 1m J F II r mf All Rights C vib.) !• ~ r D-7 j J.. Used By Permission.-.'" ~:. tlJ 10 F I G7 ~:EnI r 7 G7 c A7 j" c F D-7 n tf Lr --===== c (If A7 - II Q - .r I F .f D-7 C l 25 II F 77!f A7 .. G7 ! 2lfj'rt 31 I © 1972 Son Rol Music Company.".. Reserved...J i . i •I• ~ l .. rr I ~: :::> (with the group) I I 'r. .=iI . f . t) mp .

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35

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. .~..-j~·k~... All Rights Reserved. I Sonny ROllinl K~ep Hold of I''''ourself I -::j_ 6 W~h¢C F mf C-~ Fast minor blues 9 C-6 • "!S . I_C: • ~:sF. .'''''~·' '~--.... 9 C-6 =-- _- g.~t-'·~"":~~""'~·-'''"-'- '~-_"'. i ! F-9 ..~·hP25t- © 1972 Son RoJ Music Company.' I ./ I nO . "! 11-:.~' F 6f F-9~. ) . ..~-. ~ r I f 9 C-6 E l6 :=Elb . I . used By Permission. '-.."_-"'.. ...II. ..h. r=f Ci I ~.rt ~f$F· . '.. ::> ::> ! V . E ~ . 38 . % ~= E: PF F-9 ~ 6 __ G 9 I I I15 F-9 --_ F~.--. . .._.---.L'~ >.'.'F'''''''."-----'" I j'.' I ~ - ======-- .

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In fact. Playing out of the changes almost automatically gives a solo an avant-garde quality since it rejects the harmonic limitations of the chord changes. Just when one thinks he's stopped. l'Iany of his cornpositions-v'St. Rollins's solo on "Alfie's Theme" contains largeout-of-the-changes passages. On the other hand. has less harmonic freedom than one working without this chordal background. provided him with a setting in which he could explore certain ideas freely. For this reason. Sonny Rollins's sound is instantly recognizable.} I --I 40 I I I I I . such as "You Don't Know What Love Is. he starts up again. In his solos he also plays melodies evocative of the twe nt ies and thirties. made with just bass and drums. providing an anticlimax. He is an inventive player and is just as creative at lightning fast speeds as at slow temnos. or terminate without warning.An Analysis of Sonny Rollins's Style As with all great jazz musicians. playing out of the changes. Its very common for Rollins to repeat the melody verbatim or in an altered but recognizable form. Another factor is the instrumentation of the group. as can be heard in the ballads he has recorded. The main features of his music are cello-like tone with little vibrato. he also has the ability to be highly romantic." and man~~ others. which Hollins might have chosen in order to suggest a traditional West Indian feeling.'" 'Til There Was You. the solo on "The Everywhere Calypso" is almost entirely a chordal im provisation. sarcastic wit. The approach he takes has a lot to do with the chord changes or mood of the tune. But no matter what he plays. or (to a lesser extent) guitar." and "Alfie's Theme" come to mind-are singable melodies with simple harmonies which allow him the freedom to improvise variations. The pieces either trail off. The endings of Sonny Rollins's pieces are very unpredictable. and an overriding sense of form. scalar. leaving us with the feeling that the music could continue forever. a soloist working in front of a pianist. big band. Although Hollinss propensity for anticlimax might be attributed to a sarcastic nature. For example. or a combination of these. rhythmic complexity. In general. harmonic sophistication. sometimes quoting old tunes. Thomas. he always sounds like Sonny Rollins-fabulous! I I _I I I I el . Rollins's earlier recordings. Rollins takes several approaches to chord changes: chordal.1 I I I I ." "Iroxv. he is so versatile a musician that lie i~a:' comfortable with avant-garde music as he is with something more standard.

The following are the kinds of arpeggios (broken chords) which Rollins plays: .. and C. Arpeggios containing tones from more complex (higher-number) chords.." li- 1. Arpeggios containing non-chord tones which clash with the indicated chord. -- . "On Impulse" Eb·7 I I I " t! "Blessing in Disguise" . In this section I have listed m-ajor. where there is a Dm7. and several miscellaneous ones. major seventh._B .. B • Fle a .## tJ 1r 07 r :7. vl . the arpeggios contain only chord tones . Run Down" • "East Broadway v "East Broadway B Run Down" B r Ip. Sonny Rollins frequently takes this approach.\Iajor This ED major arpeggio clashes with both Eb m 7 and A b 7.---. The most basic way of playing chord changes is restricting oneself to the chord tones alone. and minor seventh arpeggios._. The B major arpeggio clashes with E7 in the fifth measure. . the main notes are D.minor arpeggios with ninth added.. I .Chordal Improvisation: Arpeggios In a totally chordal improvisation each note is part of the chord which is indicated. In other words. 2. I . and all non-chord notes must resolve to them. A. and diminished seventh arpeggios. ie '. I I I I I . dorriinant seventh. minor. i . F.. Arpeggios containing only simple chord tones. ttFcF V rSl? C{FrIVF~U F B E7 "The Everywhere Calypso" 'I C J F C IT IJ 41 . 3. Where no explanation appear-s. dominant ninth.

.1 &WW# A t' Ab 7 to form Ab 13.. I I I I I . F\Ia7 arpeggio is used with Dm7 to form Dm9. F r} . both being chords that naturally occur in the key of C."The Everywhere Calypso" C I F c • The C arpeg::.. "You Don't Know What Love Is" B~ .Ma7 arpeggio.. ....=~ ""___3 3 I •• I I I I J 0-7 . . - i . Calypso" • 'Iajor Seventh I rJ C:i F !• I sf.--' I r 3 "Blessing in Disguise" --I I itV" g l .... I I I el A Drn7 arpeggio is followed by a B~ .. ~ !!_ " Amaj7 cEjEfE~rl 'Iinor An E minor arpeggio is followed by a D minor arpeggio. n ~. CD Ma? arpeggio is used with "On Impulse" • "On Impulse" ..rioextends "The Everywhere C an eighth note into the F measure.

r L~ d .- "Blessing in Disguise" '~'i H A . I . the An Em 7 arpeggio is used with e. I I I I "On Impulse" C i ~ I • n F F 3::J ~ r l An ~inor arpeggio combines with A to form A6 . I I . g. D This GI' m7 arpeggio is the minor seventh substitution "You Don't Know What Love Is" for C 7. em 7. 43 . and a Dm13 with the Dm7.- FE !• f E •I •I ~ J• I f ~ L 5 "The Everywhere Calypso" If J Om FJ • Calypso" Om J ~ V "The Everywhere ~! • "The Everywhere Calypso" - i • -. c J r ~ I r .. . It forms a C~la9 with "On Impulse" 'I C t r f J~ fir ~ r Ir1 Om7~ ~ I ~ I -. I I I I I I I • Minor Seventh J) ..'i le_ I. then with e chord..

· .1 D-7 G7 G7C: ). G7 I "On Impulse" ~g2~5C~2f~1 . i Dominant Ninth I I I I "The Everywhere Calypso" I c 44 ~ J I I . minor arpeggio with the ninth added combines with F b _ :.to form - I I I I I "You Don't Know What Love Is" el When this D minor arpeggio with the ninth added combines with G7 it forms .~f r i D7 A7 "Blessing in Disguise" .~PJ~~(~:r~i7~~~EJ~"'~I~r~v~gF~' ~I~~r§(~_~. Minor Arpeggios with the Ninth Added This C b Fb 7(i).--I An Am7 arpeggio combines "On Impulse" Dm7 with Dm7 to form Dmll.J J • J -a I "The Everywhere Calypso" ~ fiJ. J ~II ~~b Dominant Seventh I I .

! d This E!h augmented "You Don't arpeggio combines with F~ 7 to form F~ 7(-i·_lJ).rI b . I I. I Know What Love Is" F. on G 7. and diminished mmor. ~~ Know What Love Is" ES E ~.Diminished Seventh A C dim 7 arpeggio combines examples. minor.. # with A 7 to form A 7( -9) in the following "The Everywhere Calypso" A7 a J • J J "The Everywhere Calypso" A7 &1 ~E Miscellaneous This !If ·"e I- cb m9 (ma7) combines with C b 7 to form cb 7(+ H).7 _\f~jor. 9 "You Don't I I CJ? . m6 with the ninth added used dissonantly "Keep Hold of Yourself" &4¢ G7 P [EE li~ J JJ) ...b . arpeggios are consecutively I_ I I used against E b "You Don't Know What Love Is" iAN11 An E Ebm ~ _bb~ .

5edonB:' (1 minor).1 I e I I I I " ~g'i§-~l ~:J~C~J"'~. Whole-tUlle 51'aleLa. Phrygian scale on F (III) with E b m 7 (lIm 7) to "On Impulse" Ab 7 (\'7).r rut. scale with occasional "Playin' in the Yard" F (. minor Know What Love Is" Bb7 q~ . 2. II ~ rr I ~~' ' r . V sing this technique Sonny Rollins restricts himself to the notes in a particular scale. ~ J~lel --gi 'C7 . 1.". "You Don't (Y) on B:. The scales and Rollins's placement of them is worth analyzing._.-I '~' G7 G7 pJ J ? ~~ J? I £] lJ J C7 ~ C7 G7 r r G7 V r I ~--..-=Scalar Improvisation Since the late fifties jazz musicians have been interested in scalar improvisation. V)-with G7 (17) blues note-Db I I I I I . I have added Roman numeral chord symbols to facilitate transposition. gl I·~·~V~"'~i j§9 ~~I G7 C7 G7 i~€J~:Vg"'~V~1@F~r"'Ibg~. C7 .tgp I !J £J - I I I I I I . and plays them oyer one or several chords. Pentatonic to C7 (IY 7). C7 - i ~ I • r -I I J) J) J C7 C7 $~'i 46 G7 • Ct cfCf--'· Ii G7 2 CJ i) Ibrpl1r J.. . Epm7 r 3._. The scale notes may go nicely with the chords (consonant) or may be very jarring (dissonant). I I ru C. 7 (\7) preceding E:.

. like many other bebop and hard bop saxophonists..) "On Impulse" whole tone scale G7 a D-7 I Q.. although it is very similar to the original and the melodic contour and rhythms are maintained.. "Keep Hold of Yourself?" F r E"1 D7+9 m· F-9 c_9 6 "1 c_9 - L tt I i~ C· E I• C_9 6 ~ ~ 6 "1 Fg ~ ~ I...........4.... and tonal sequences...- I_ I I I I I I Sequences Sonny Rollins. plays a riff and then transposes it. Lut I Type 3: The phrase is not transposed note-for-note.. as a real sequence or a tonal sequence...''' I W· r "On Impulse" major scale G 13sus4 .... I I I I 5.... Type 2: The phrase is transposed with different rhythms.. Scales containing notes that are dissonant with the chords on which they are played. 47 .. often Type 1: The phrase is transposed with the same rhythms... This technique is called sequence.. Of this type there are real sequences. (Dissonant notes are circled. those where the intervals are slightly altered to stay within the key. Pentatonic E34 scale used with a minor blues... those that are unaltered..

j -----------..6 ~ I I ~ ... I "On Impulse" h."You Don't Know What Love Is" I I i'~~i~~p~e3~~~~~~q~~~~~~~~~·~~~1 "You Don't Know What Love Is" ~.. V k' .. type2 rrr r--3--.• c: J. "On Impulse" i.... I .'3 b. type3 _ M. ! "On Impulse" . I ..1 I 1 tt 'I I t) type2 3 1 r 3r t bh3--. . I c::u--:" Vi l ••I -I ~ I tl type 1 --I • J~ i liW~~2~""~1 ~E~I~~~V~E~j~~I~qD~~~I~~~~~~1 I I r' iI ~ .. I r!...L . At j i b. . I I I type2 "On Impulse" &2 tl i type2 J .. ~:..._ . L j 1 'I~ be ~ ~ ... .. bt bbAt 6J _'1 -- = SI ··Alfie·s Theme" L b. J At b~.. I 0'. ~3 L: .' . 'r~ F' IJ 48 I I I I .

This is called out of the changes.oJ ~ rr type 1 C . I "East Broadway Run Down" type 2 Il t "The Everywhere i i. &1 r E r t) Calypso" L . Free playing Example of ~ o. given changes: . Melodic devices such as repetition and sequence 3. The following passage consists of a motif which Rollins repeats or alters several times. When out of the changes. Rollins plays substitute diminished fifth higher than the original. Playing out of the Changes In any solo where the harmonic structure is limited. I I. 49 .2."On Impulse" J I ~J. 1. "On Impulse" changes a to leave play ing the two playing I e I I &~i 2 I OlzlJ I I I I I Eb-7 t) a I JQ fj liS I u-r. The passage is not related harmonically to the chords with which it is played. .J I J . I " . it is possible the chords behind for a while and then return to them.. Rollins may employ one of the following: 1. Sonny Rollins and John Coltrane are perhaps best-known saxophonists who have. mastered this technique. Substitute changes a fixed interval from the original 2.r 0= I ~ ftrtt eAb7 Eb-7 ~ Ab7 « bb-7 '---" substitute • changes: A-7 D7 Example of No.... In the excerpt below.

3. ...c. B~ minor.. I I I J . "XL J n ..." which is based on one chord... i ~ 1 ~ ~L L.r§. . br 3 Bl m .... . . !ij +j .· r i i 50 I I I I I .~ :t'* f J t~Jr 1 J ~ III Example of :\0. f .··~--~·You Don't Know What Love Is I Rollins abo uses sequences in his out-of-the-chanzes "Alfie's Theme" B~m sections...Wb\ t tJ . In these out-of-thechanges passages he leaves B b minor for a couple of measures and then returns . as in this excerpt. The following three passages are from Rollins's :'010 on "Alfies Theme. _I be .

not just its harmonics (as in regular jazz improvisations) is used as the basis of the solo. I II I I I &M U Et F " I IctLfE]EiIF II I 51 . R~llins uses a minimum of musical material for a sustained effect." "Blessing in Dj"guj"'t." Each theme is followed by several variations.C r r 3~ J b3 bJ ije F J I J 3 3 3 qJ • I I I I Thelllatic Improvisation In this type of improvisation. the variations on the theme are bracketed. the theme. The following are the themes from "Alfie's Theme." and "Keep Hold of YOH"f'If. I. Most of these variations are based on the last two measures of the tune. which demonstrate Rollins's incredible ability to sustain a mood bv using slightly altered repetitions of a theme. The last variation is on the entire theme. Thus. In these next excerpts. Rollins's solos are logically constructed and_ integrated rather than being a string: of unrelated choruses.

-r ~ J 1- Var.5 Var. "Blessing in Disguise" . You '11notice the notes are similar but the rhythms are totally different.. 1 .~~~f~r~V~C~~~) ~vII~bJ~9§E~3rmQ033~k~(~J~I~5tr~ 3-.4 I Var.. 1 •I slight pauses I .-I _I II• ~ti # I 0[1 B"1.Var.I· ~ Var.. Rollins uses a lot of rhythmic regrouping here: The same tones are used with different rhythmic values.3 Var.f~: -. 1:1: I I This next is an example of a rubato (out-of-tempo) theme.2 -~. 7· _I gJ.~r~fJ~r---~1 C~C~i~j~.j_ I· ..6 Var. r- I ii~Wif~'~~~3~. I Var.~F~r~F~'_biJ~' F~~t1~:--~F~~~~~V~' ~EJ~ ~C ~ ~.. F• I i'~~]f~b.. Ii• I J7C£f trW I! r E! (& I V F v~F 'ti I r ~)~ J )r· 52 3 3 I .: ft.. For example. .. compare the first few notes of the theme and the beginnings of several variations..

(Xot printed below are differences in articulation in otherwise identical reproductions of the theme...' ~ Var.--..... I I)· extension" I . 3 II t Var.. 53 . Variations 6 through 8 are four measures long instead of two..2 t 3 _ ......3 ! ~ r •I r r • I J r ... but the melodic contour and rhythmic quality of the original is the same.. _.. Variation 1 is the same as the original theme but with a slightly longer last note..) In variations 2 through 5.~~"J e I I I 3 ~[r-rl I • roJ1fj?li ~ J •i slight pause Var. and each successive variation shows more alterations. new pitches are often substituted.. I I• I I - I * An extension is the occasional lengthening or widening-out of a phrase.6 lJ I gJ r IF ¢C. I "Blessing in Disguise" is an "a tempo" theme....... 1 i II - Var.... "Blessing in Disguise" •! Var.. 'I - II I I~~# l I I I r ~ ~ II l ~~1 I J J ~ n ~ II Var...It I . S [J I F "t h..

:.-I Vir r "Keep Hold of Yourself' i - l I IT ~:. ~j b 1 p I tJ E • ~~ r---.J t?· ? ... - I • r.. I I 1 2 3 Ia:a .. 7 F F 11:E I ! • i" !i j . ~r .f I ... rr I 3 ~ i . F V F'1 [ Ia ~ I ~ 54 I I I I .. I - I ~ Var. ..1 I &~b C I tJ 5 3 I • c:1--------II 6 rrr IV F 7 # F c:r I I 8 .• 'j r F Ir 4 l - ... t: v ~ IF l - . .. .. I This twelve-measure blues is followed by o nlv one variation in which slight rhythmic and note changes are worth C'omparing measure by measure. I • "1 -------J IF • . • I 6 .

In music having a steady basic meter or ~.. Other rhythmic devices like displacement and regrouping can be found in the section on Repetitive Phrases. (! t> 'a. syncopated music gives the effect of a series of different meters. II I 61 5i . b •• I J) .J J t J II J accent on 2 and 4: z> ::> ::> J It j ::> ::> tI~ I ...----.. for example) syncopation is when a normally unaccented beat (2 and 4 in or a subdivision of the beat (an eizhth note or a sixteenth note) is accented./ « I 0 ::> ::> J It ::> Jt• I I .-----. r Ii i? r The following are examples of syncopation taken from Sonny Rollins's solos. and delay-playing behind the beat-is a device you're likely to hear on a lot of jazz albums..---Rhythmic Devices: I Syncopation and Delay I I I I Ii I I Syncopation is a cornerstone of jazz and popular music.. r J7P ::> F sounds like: ~ ~ I... ::> II a· :> 1 J accent on a subdivisions of the beat: I~~~~~~~~~~~ Often.-.. "You Don't Know What Love Is" jJJ roo- "Alfie's Theme" t "Alfie's Theme" .f:=:----------.. I "1 i' ::> . I II I I I I I r . 55 .. _-.-. I ~ b • i• I E1 I tr ..

...J "Blessing in Disguise" ~F "---I" I " :" ..--.-. ~II L I I I $F~ I ..'---" . I • .. .-. i II I • .i -I "Blessing in Disguise" • " n I ~ .&#rr rF ~~~~~~~~~~~~~l..t ~\ Jl r.---. I I I I I I ... .. ~ #v I I .. I ! • = I" -----...-I ~ ~ ... q '< • I I. q) ~i . I "On Impulse" .. . "East Broadway Run Down" J "East Broadway Run Down" I r . II ! ! • ....-I _I I I I 'The Everywhere Calypso" "The Everywhere Calypso" 56 .

Rollins often drags the tune behind the beat. to fall on F~ 7. and the last E ~ to fallon the first beat . f"-- "Keep Hold of Yourself" I I l sounds like: r "Keep Hold of Yourself' '7 i • V I : I' • v ~. pla~ing the notes after we expect to hear them.-------._ I. PiEAkh4p. " I haye written the delayed passage first. i :pm) Bb7 We expect the F b s to fall on the first beats of both measures. I I 6 ~\t. I I I I "Keep Hold of Yourself' • "Delay" is the term I use for playing behind the beat.1\' '. I . ~I 3 Urn 3 ~ FrO I J 1_) ~I Bb7 3 Ebm We expect the Bb on cb 7. In ballads. then rewritten it the way we expect to hear it due to our memory of the tune.$.. He usually slows down the tune by pla)ing a lot of grace notes and lip slurs. amply demonstrated in the following examples from "You Don't Know What Love Is.. We expect the Bb to fall on F~ 7 instead of an eighth note later. Both are delayed...

-_·1 We expect the final B~ to fall on G b 6. Since the triplets retain the standard jazz phrasing (I call it "reverse slurring") for sixteenth notes. . !J. .1 r [1 II In fast tempos Rollins sometimes slows -down his sixteenth notes to form triplets. qj] I el Here we expect the C ~ to fall on the third beat on Ab7 rb 7. instead of on the third beat.J)sfi 3 F~ 7 Ab 7 29 f!::_ ~ J • II !4_i- D§J) F 3 Fb7 ._.. ·j(j)"ffr1fr Fe _ "On Impulse" ·tt =ffJ tid V . V :~¥. ... not later.Jj MJ _I ._•• _.· . . • -they consequently sound like them. "On Impulse" l sounds like: . '~i Ab-7 -3 G7-5 B~7 b V I bt? II B~7 i$d . Gb6 Ab7 n:a~J . G7-5 I We expect the melody to begin with F on the first beat on E~ mmor._.-I I I I I I I I 58 I I .._. E~m Ebrn .

The tones.. note-far-note repetition. beginning on different parts of the beat with each repetition. Type 4: Alternation between two notes. sf aFt d . "You Don't Know What Love Is" j type 4 J. such as in "Blessing in Disguise. he repeats a phrase beginning off the beat if the phrase started on the beat. t 1 * beats 1 * I beats 1 7l beats 1 7l beats :r~is gives a polvrhythmic IS 4' feeling: suzzesting triple time. It has always been an important aspect of popular music and jazz. ! Phrase Repetitioll Repetition fixes the listener's attention on a melody and lodges it in his mind. but not the rhythms. That is. and often uses rhythmic displacement to syncopate his music. and on the beat if it started off the beat. are main- Type 5: Rhythmic regrouping." Type 2: Rollins is an expert juggler of rhythms. Sonny Rollins uses repetition in the following ways: I. tained in the repetition. I I I I I. . Many jazz and rock musicians playing in use repeated figures H2 beats long. although the meter Type 3: Repetition of one note. 1]. j 59 . '.~# ~1~"r Me = "Blessing in Disguise" • 3 3 3 sounds like: :-----.I I I I I I- '~ir1fr n t?F n ffi r?tr . I I· I I I I I I Type 1: Real..

Many jazz and rock musicians playing in j use repeated figures 1~~beats long. r} r1 [1fr ~ ~ rr m f~ sounds like: ~ ~~~ b~C~·q E£ FLit d I .~ Phrase Repetitioll Repetition fixes the listener's attention on a melody and lodges it in his mind. such as in "Blessing in Disguise. beginning on different parts of the beat with each repetition. J 1 59 . and often uses rhythmic displacement to syncopate his music. but not the rhythms. "You Don't Know What Love Is" type 4 f]. Type 4: Alternation between two notes. are main- Type 5: Rhythmic regrouping. I I· I I I I I 1 * I beats 1 ~ beats 1 ~ beats 1 1. That is. Type 1: Real." Type 2: Rollins is an expert juggler of rhvthrns. I.I I I I I I· I I I I "Blessing in Disguise" g~iE . although the meter Type 3: Repetition of one note. tained in the repetition. Sonny Rollins uses repetition in the following ways: I. he repeats a phrase beginning off the beat if the phrase started on the beat. and on the beat if it started off the beat. feeling sug!!esting triple time.6 beats !~is gives a polvrhythmic IS 4. The tones. note-for-note repetition. It has always been an important aspect of popular music and jazz.

. "". iF· . . I j ~ type 1 iiI! ~~y~pe I 3~i§~~ Jffl~!~' ~. ··1 ~.~----.-...*'.'-.'" ....'..-' '-~--''I t type 2 ~ )-\~~:~~1i. J ·····.:.. ''. jf I ....". iF el . .._... 4#14 i V l F ~ 2 I 11 ~ V h g I 0.!'i.. .-f...'"..:.'-' '2 I type 3 r F I "1 rr ~ I '1 I - .1 I type 4 "Alfie's Theme" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~·~o~~~~*~~~~~~§_~. . type 2 and 5 ~~W! - type 2 c: ~ -.:J .---..I ~8~rq~! b~p J~p~~nE· ~ ~r~~~j I "On Impulse" I ::! ...:...~~\~J~i~-.. '..~ .'I -I ~~ ..~: ~......~~. '.~.\'~~ . .'"'C''''"''' .... .__ ~.'i5i·.._.'':. ~_.~ type 5 '~'~7~' _ '...~I ... :. '_.~--.." .·._~ .

type 3 ~ ! -I ..r I I I I l- ... .. A..I ¥ V I I I : I~~~~~~~~~~~ type 4 •• 6'# 1 ~ Mn~i ! ~ r ..' :2... ! ~ r I ~ _......w'" I I -I 3----. type 4 Ie I I u type 2 "Blessing in Disguise" I~~t~~el§§~~~~~~~~~~~~~ • t##! .--.---. r---3 I r .Ii._ I ~ ~ r ~ i • r I •------------~ I I jI "-----r r ''F :)1>e 4 ~ leg q~ rJ I 1 e CJ ~ V A'" I Vr I I I type3 61 ..

I r r I • .. I I I . ~l ~4J2~iLJ~gl f!i~~~1 ...~~ t wit - type 3 F ~VII r ~Vj I~VIL • I IF I r V ~~If" II .. r I "1 "The Everywhere Calypso" &t t) j. 3 I I .~ ii ir r E [ Ere f r I j ~~.-I J I I I I "Playin ' in the Yard" ~Hi type I to I Jj n ~).-I I type 4 r -.~# r tape 4 .~f):JiJ7J~!fJED4~22L~J ~-~J r ""'62 -:":.#~~~FJ~J1~~...".. type 3 'ffi)] 42£) t j I JJ}J JS4JL) ~lla I I . UJ I n I J) n ~lID -I is I I I ~..

This device is most common in dominant to tonic (V to I) or subdominant to tonic (IV to I) progressions. E7 i~ J Run Down" - "East Broadway l F#7 I)J J J r-ANT-. ~ $!iQag "1ijJ J I c-I ~3 A7 "Blessing in Disguise" &#~# t) 1i 07 ""f q~ r ANT A7 I • - "East Broadway Run Down" -I I I I I &¥tu I. 1 (/ I I 63 . I Ii II _'. "On Impulse" '2 tJ ti t) C7 ~---A~~----~ t 07 "1 ANT 4t2J2jJ· A7 Fm~7 "Blessing in Disguise" &###1 t fl JE I ijJ J ""'""-A~ 'T - "Blessing in Disguise" r---'-'--- I I I I. The anticipating notes usually occur directly before the anticipated chord. 0-7 ~ t.Anticipation Anticipation (ANT) is the sounding of a note or notes before the chord to which it belongs.

2Ci ANT ----."The Everywhere Calypso" &1 6 r r G7 "Playin' in the Yard" ~ C7 r IT L rANT-. G7 .1 "East Broadway i "The Everywhere Calypso" F )2 qj rANT.<:::::::::::::_-----. ' '. at c •C L e j• 4~1' ~... . .. tg I i ? D-7 p--------- l::r ..-~~.-I . ' ": :. .-. I I I I I I ._ I I I I .... . tions which occur there. "On Impulse" ." .""...---- J..'. which occur in progressions other than and are more dissonant than anticipa- I I I I I 42 Dm7 j I 3 3 Run Down" ·1 .----ANT---.:' . rr G7 II • The following are three anticipations dominant or subdominant to tonic.

anticipating G 7. Although it is not a chord member of Ab 7 it is a common added tone to A~ 7 forming Ab 9. I I The E b on Drn T is a member of "On Impulse" ~~'i D Ab7 (. The Bb in the second measure belongs with Ap 7._..J_ .1bC. D-7 I_ I. ~ ~j 8 ?i r c: lr Ab . the fifth of Dm 7. It resolves down to A. ft 0/ 1f:r~ t Run Down" "@¥.I I I I I Delayed Resolution - Sometimes Rollins continues to play in a harmony after it has changed (DR).: C 1 q~ DR It is followed by G.:!£ I DR Here are some other delaved resolutions.#e I I I I I I B j ~ br F "The Everywhere r IV r E7 DR ~ J E7 ~ I I ~ t 'I Calypso" c j DR I 65 . "Blessing in Disguise" I Cr "East Broadway A7 ~----DR--------~ e. I L. "On Impulse" Ab7 *.

.o~ ~ B:.-_·_·_·1 . nm6 Fn . ~ B+ BO B6 ~ .70 00 00 --rro07 . EO .U~ Bsus4 . - . ~ffOI H Hm E~+ . E Em E+ . . t) H (D~) ~ E . E7 Em7 . t- D D Dm D+ 06 Dm6 D Ma 7 ..~ D~m7 ~ D ~Ma 7 -eDb sus-l D~ (0) Drm D~+ Dt-a DO 0° " t) . G G Gm . Esus4 Il -...-I I F Ma 7 Fsus4 v F 1\ F Fm F+ - FO - F6 Fm6 I F7 I Fm7 I t) .. V'-" (~ ..ro Dm7 . v~ . A~ (G#) A~ I A~m I A~+ III A~o Ab6 1 Abm6 I A~7 1 A~m7 I AbMa7 In A~sus4 I " t... ...0 F~sus4 .~ 1\ ~ DC. E Ma7 .'0 u .v ' '-" - t. .. Em6 .-I --I I A fl t.'0 0 v r.. .~ Di-m6 ~ D~7 . n G+ GO G6 Gm6 G7 l' fl - Gm7 GMa7 ~ Gsus4 It.. '-" u " 0 0 .. B Bm U .7 BbMa7 1it' B~sus4 I -"'" B h t) ...~ '~ ~ D~6 .... ... t) G~ (F.. A Am A+ u . E ~o H6 Hm6 H7 Hm7 EbMa 7 Hsus4 _.. . E6 ~ .I Y. ) H nm F~+ F=o F~6 .· Chord Chart Root C Major C Minor Cm !Augmented Diminishec C+ Co Sixth C6 Minor Sixth Cm6 Seventh C7 Minor Seventh em7 Major Seventh CMa 7 Sus 4 Csus4 " -.~ B~m6 _n l. 66 I I I I I .n b" h" .n ~ft ..) v~ vO .uft .~ Bm6 . .' F~m7 F~Ma 7 ...u ~ B~o AO uA6_ Am6 u A7 Am7 n AMa7 ~n Asus4 '" B~ (A#) fL t- A~ Bb rn Bb+ U B~6 .0 .~ B7 Bm7 U~ B Ma 7 . 0 Dsus4 I I I I I v .

12 GI I a tempo Dmaj7 : Db- : Gh7 IIi I &H##O· I P © Edward 9/~J D- B. Guitar enters at ®. © ® with rhythmic regrouping. for instance. laid-back feeling which can make an otherwise corny tune sound like sophisticated jazz.t t:: __~ .~ E-7 :PE?! I• mp A7 p :Ci. RCA Victor). Jim Hall's playing is particularly beautiful on this cut. added 67 . One of the things that makes this recording unique. He accomplishes this in a number of ways. and drums. His lack of sharp attacks gives the pieces a hip. The accompaniment on bass and guitar is carefully arranged and I have tried to transcribe the substitute changes as accurately as possible. All Rights Reserved. I. (Catch that wonderful tremolo he uses at the end.) Another special quality of Rollins's ballad playing is his tone. Herzog Sonny Rollins recorded Billy Holiday's "God Bless the Child" with guitarist Jim Hall in 1962 on his first record after rejoining the music scene (The Bridge. is the instrumentation: guitar. Used By Permission. some of his most beautiful recordings are old tunes that other jazz musicians wouldn't touch. In fact.Jfod I I I I Bless the. but rather slides lazily on and off them. This unusual arrangement alternates a tempo with outof-tempo sections. bass. Marks Music Corporation. Child (annotated) Billy Holiday and A. I I _Very slow ballad Out of tempo bass solo [!]@ Amaj7 A7 II D G7 E in bass EO _t-=J :1t:. and a different accompaniment. Notice that he rarely plays the notes directly on pitch. One of Rollins's talents is taking timeworn standards and revitalizing them. and it would be worthwhile to listen once just to his solos. I I I I IT] ® and are repetitions of notes.

I • r I. The that follows clashes with the Ab of the El\1a7/A~ with which it is played. E-7 A7 ~S· I') Db- . --=--~ 1 1 I I I I I 6 'w' . 23 guitar solo I< 6 I B-7 £7 I29 E in bass r. r.. clashes with the F of the F!\ta7/A. •• .. .~ I I I I I •I [gJ This passage contains many highly dissonant notes... Aq .e. ... t .. In essence. . This satisfies the expectation of A major while the guitar and bass play an elaborate chordal substitution. Rollins sticks to the notes of B major with which the first two chords conflict.-. The first note. §( ._ 7( I I ~.1 r Z r= I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~II :~~ . @ II'Amaj7 FF ~out i of tempo AZ_ 30 » r I mp ~ .1 3 r ~vib.-.. D G7 /. h I Gb7 0-9 G in bass Il 35 fl ke=======.-..p ~r' J:J@ 3 ·OOA little faster and Ioosely-» ®Amaj7 12 E-7 Ur A7 "!f A7-9 m I (j F a tempo - n G7 !}U 14r 3 15 G in bass ~ ~'" ~'~ IT r' =-#til AS p' mp G~7-9 B-7 £7-9 09 6 ~ 0~-7 It . • ::> I ~ zr r. r· F#- . F# .

I I B-7 I I t." Diminished seventh run.nd chours guitar solo II 17 I 41 I F:G F~Ebo D7 Eb0 Ab7 Ab-7 Db7 I gLtT1J~' Gb7 t 07 /~L ± 1 r rLr Lr :> ~~~ I i .. Sequence. ~ e1ft. (7-5 ~ B-7 E' ~ I t €II :. 69 .~M{ " I' I I I I . W m@ [II is Rollins's improvisation on the bridge of "God Bless the Child.. 65 ? E in bass I. 100 - E7 e lliJG1_fi1W A D - (#-7 .I B-7 I I I @~)tt) A ~~~r.

D Fmaj9 .f'U~#~t ..~~~t~p~·~[~~~9~r~l'lb·~~i~b~~~~~~ ~I II ~ ~ r Out of tempo D-7 ~ ~__ G7-9 .1 . ~ D- . Rhythm: repetition of one note. I I 1Up~ i B-7 I i . I [&J [1J A major scale run.J Ei 3 -- Bh7 • Gin bass)r ~ h> 2J I I . F t ...Q -I. mp azen· G-7 Cmaj7 C7 7'a rC7 F "7 .. Excellent voice-leading. This note is then.~~ • (sax accompaniment guitar solo 7 "7 omitted) Gmaj7/A I II 77 II!I_. » 71 [ ~ "if t . the flat thirteenth. Harmony: Rollins jumps up a major seventh from the third I)fDb minor to the ninth.~~~~~~~~~~_j• ~...' 3 vib. 70 I I I I I . .1 V . D-7 G7 84 l t -. briefly.'1--. the thirteenth of cb 7 before it descends stepwise to D q .

@] . -.--~--....... . most likely played by overblowing the notes an octave plus a fifth below each note. 3 repeat and fade 0-9 D~7+9 Dbmaj7 . ..._.. GI3 Cmaj9 .) The F# is the diminished fifth of C~Ia9.._.-.. __ . Here Rollins lets the upper octave sound occasionally...----. (See Improvising Jazz Sar by Charley Gerard._ ...f Cmaj9 !]] These are all multiphonics... Fmaj7 E-7 Eb9 IJ19 Jiib$ti rztZt . __ •.-..-.•. . The diminished fifth is frequently added to a major seventh or major ninth at the end of a jazz or pop arrangement..-... Consolidated Music Publishers. '" ·.... _--._ .

\Iost of the albums are still in print." "Keep Hold of Yourself" The Bridge I RCA Victor AFLI0859 "God Bless the Child" I I I .- I I I I I I .. _ ." "Playin ' in the Yard.:: -._ J~~R G::'->':.J . .-_'-- - - ...1 I .." "Blessing in Disguise" I I I I I el . or the selections have become available on other albums..+ .Milestone -'ISP9042 "The Everywhere Calypso.." "East Broadway Run Down. .-~ Discography These are the recordings of the solos I have transcribed in this book . Saxophone Colossus Prestige PR 7326 "You Don't Know What LO\-eIs" Reevaluation: The Impulse Years Impulse ABC A592362 "Alfie's Theme" "On Impulse.1 Next Album .

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