A disaster is a natural or man-made hazard that has come to fruition[citation needed], resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensively defined as any tragic event with great loss stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions WHO defines Disaster as "any occurrence, that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area" A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water.[2] In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries

Floods can also occur in rivers, when flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood plains of rivers. While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, since time out of mind, people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by being near water. That humans continue to inhabit areas threatened by flood damage is evidence that the perceived value of living near the water exceeds the cost of repeated periodic flooding.

Principal types and causes


Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall or rapid snow melt exceeding the capacity of a river's channel. Causes include heavy rains from monsoons, hurricanes and tropical depressions, foreign winds and warm rain affecting snow pack. Unexpected drainage obstructions such as landslides, ice, or debris can cause slow flooding upstream of the obstruction. Fast kinds: include flash floods resulting from convective precipitation (intense thunderstorms) or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier.


g. Dam-building beavers can flood low-lying urban and rural areas. A muddy flood is produced by an accumulation of runoff generated on cropland. A storm surge. from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone. Muddy floods are therefore a hill slope process. and canals. sewerage systems. falls within this category.g. . and confusion with mudflows produced by mass movements should be avoided.g. often causing significant damage EFFECTS Primary effects y Physical damage ± Can damage any type of structure.e. tsunami or hurricane). gentle orientation or low evaporation). cars. A storm surge. roadways. including bridges. Human-induced Accidental damage by workmen to tunnels or pipes. from rainfall) and cannot rapidly dissipate (i. Muddy y A muddy flood is generated by runoff on crop land. or as a result of another hazard (e. falls within this category.y Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by storm-force winds.g. buildings. Sediments are then detached by runoff and carried as suspended matter or bed load. or as a result of another hazard (e. from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone. Coastal y Caused by severe sea storms. earthquake or volcanic eruption). dam breakage. Other y y y Floods can occur if water accumulates across an impermeable surface (e. A series of storms moving over the same area. Muddy runoff is more likely detected when it reaches inhabited areas. Catastrophic y Caused by a significant and unexpected event e.

food shortage leading to price increase. and remove any animal carcasses in the vicinity by contacting MCD Flooding Preparedness Before a flood occurs. Diseases ± Unhygienic conditions. Animals are disoriented and displaced. and many domestic animals are also without homes after the flood.[4] However. Mosquitoes are most active at sunrise and sunset. Find out if you live in a flood prone area. lowlands near rivers depend upon river silt deposited by floods in order to add nutrients to the local soil. due to: temporary decline in tourism. sandbags.Secondary effects y y y y Water supplies ± Contamination of water. Regardless of ones ability to swim. Learn how your community would alert you if a flood was occurring or predicted. rebuilding costs. Spread of water-borne diseases. General public is exposed to rabies. Clean drinking water becomes scarce. Cars can be swept away or may break down in moving water.[5] Tertiary/long-term effects Economic ± Economic hardship. and even shallow standing water can be dangerous for small children. Flood losses are not covered under normal homeowner's insurance. too. Have check valves installed in building sewer traps to prevent flood waters from backing up in sewer drains. Many wild animals are forced from their natural habitats by flooding. Crops and food supplies ± Shortage of food crops can be caused due to loss of entire harvest. People are exposed to malaria. Swiftly moving shallow water can be deadly. lumber. Rats may be a problem during and after a flood. . dengu etc. Trees ± Non-tolerant species can die from suffocation. . If you are in a flood zone purchase sufficient flood insurance. etc Flood and health factors The large amount of pooled water remaining after the flood l leads to an increase in mosquito populations. You can check with your local building department to see the flood maps for your municipality. Take care to secure all food supplies. Pre-assemble flood-fighting supplies like plastic sheeting. . Cars or other vehicles do not provide adequate protection from flood waters.

As a last resort have large corks or stoppers to plug showers.infants. NOAA Weather radio or your Emergency Alerting Station for information Be prepared to evacuate to higher ground if ordered to do so by authorities Adhere to any emergency orders of authorities Bring possessions inside the house or secure them Do not touch any electrical appliances that are wet or standing in water Avoid walking or driving through flood waters Flood dangers do not end when the water begins to recede. A kit will have (at minimum): ‡ First aid supplies ‡ Flashlight with extra batteries ‡ Non-perishable food ‡ Drinking water ‡ Blanket(s) or sleeping bag(s) ‡ Rain gear or a change of clothing During the flood . . throw it out. After the flood . that may have come into your home with flood waters . like snakes. Stay out of buildings if flood waters remain around the building When entering buildings after a flood use extreme caution o Wear sturdy shoes and use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when examining buildings o Examine walls. . y y y If food or medicine has come in contact with flood waters. Listen to a radio or television and do not return home until authorities indicate it is safe to do so. . television. y y y y y y Monitor commercial radio. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance . tubs or basins from water rising up through the pipes. floors. . elderly people and people with disabilities. doors and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapse o Watch out for animals. Maintain a disaster supply kit at home.

dams and reservoirs can aid in drought relief. o Flood prevention y Numerous options exist for flood prevention.to avoid further structural damage. although some options such as damming a water source and/or restoring a wetlands area require government permission. In addition to flood control. Dams and Reservoirs y Dams impound water in a reservoir. These combat the damage wrought by the combination of deforestation and overcultivation that results in soil erosion. It's best to have a professional pump out a basement . Look for fire hazards o Broken or leaking gas lines o Flooded electrical circuits o Submerged furnaces or electrical appliances o Flammable or explosive materials coming from upstream Report potential emergencies to authorities. Each may be implemented in some form by an individual.both of the house and its contents for insurance claims. including agricultural. FEMA recommends pumping out about one-third of the water per day.y y y Take pictures of the damage . Levees may take the form of earth embankments or floodwalls. engineering and political techniques. impeding its regular flow. as well as by a community. A dam constructed on a . Reforestation and Soil Management y Reforestation. Levees y Some communities erect levees along a waterway to reduce flood damage by enhancing the control of water flow. contouring plowing and crop rotation provide the most common flood prevention techniques in agricultural areas.

At least 3. the federal government has bought out. such as recharging ground water. The community can then release this stored runoff water during dry periods. properties in the damaged areas and restored the areas to wetlands Great floods in India Assam. then demolished. Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi said in a letter of appeal for funds to the Central government. Limiting or Prohibiting Development y Limiting or prohibiting development within the 100-year floodplain via floodplain ordinance reduces the potential for flood damage. However. There may be further devastation in the coming days because floodmanagement structures throughout the state have been damaged by the two successive waves of floods this year. This is the biggest flood in 50 years.7 million people have been displaced in more than two weeks of devastating floods in Assam. There seems to be no respite with the river breaching mud embankments everywhere. according to Assam Flood Control Minister Nurzamal Sarkar. Benefits There are many disruptive effects of flooding on human settlements and economic activities.water body's headwaters retains heavy runoff during extreme wet periods. worst floods in 50yrs Wednesday. the letter warned. July 16 2003 17:00 Hrs (IST) Guwahati: A state of emergency was declared in the flood-hit Assam on July 16. with authorities describing the flooding as the worst in 50 years. Wetlands Restoration y In cases where building already took place in the floodplain and repeated flood disasters have occurred. making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. The Brahmaputra burst its banks at several places overnight. Flood waters provide much needed water resources in particular in arid and semi-arid . which have swamped more than 20 of the state's 24 districts. floods (in particular the more frequent/smaller floods) can bring many benefits. Prohibiting development ensures the wetlands associated with the floodplain remain capable of absorbing rainfall adequately. flooding fresh areas in the state.

[14] Flooding adds a lot of nutrients to lakes and rivers which leads to improved fisheries for a few years. Freshwater floods in particular play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity. Together with fish also birds profit from the boost in production caused by flooding .regions where precipitation events can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year. also because of the suitability of a floodplain for spawning (little predation and a lot of nutrients).[15] Fish like the weather fish make use of floods to reach new habitats.

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