FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING Man Forms the foundation of Nursing Four Components or Attributes of Man Capacity to think on an Abstract Level
Establish a family Establish a territory Ability to use verbal symbols as language Concept: Animals form a family by instinct Via hormonal scents Nursing Concepts of Man Biopsychosocial Spiritual Being By Sister Calista Roy Man interacts with the environment Open System By Martha Rogers Man interacts with the environment Exchanges matter with energy Exchanges energy with environment Unified Whole By Martha Rogers Man is composed of certain parts Total of those parts is more than the sum of all parts This is because man has attributes Vital Reparative Process By Florence Nightingale Man is passive in influencing the nurse or the environment Man is a whole. Man is complete By Virginia Henderson Man has fourteen (14) fundamental needs Human Needs Needs are physiologic and psychologic Both these needs must be met in order to maintain well-being.
Key Concept: Basic Human Needs are equivalent to COMMON NEEDS Characteristics of Human Needs Universal Interrelated One need is related to another need May be stimulated by internal or external factors May be deferred (but not indefinitely) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Why do we study this? In order to prioritize nursing actions 1. Physiologic needs Food, maintenance of homeostasis 2. Safety and security 3. Love and belongingness 4. Self-Esteem Feeling good about one’s self Two factors affecting Self-esteem o Yourself Sense of adequacy Accomplishment o Others Appreciation Recognition Admiration Belongingness 5. Self-Actualization Able to fulfill needs and ambitions Maximizing one’s full potential 6. Aesthetics Beauty Two Additional Needs by Maslow Need to know Need to understand Richard Kalish Man needs stimulation Needs to explore o Sex
o Activity o Novelty Stimulator Desire to come up with something of your own Characteristics of Self-Actualized Persons Judges people correctly Superior perception Decisive o Capable of making decisions Clear notion as to what is right and wrong Open to new ideas o Not adopts new ideas o Not one track mind Highly creative and flexible Does not need fame Problem-centered rather than self-centered Concept: Self-Actualization is very difficult to attain It is impossible to attain New needs come after getting one need Illness Highly subjective feeling of being sick or ill Two types of Illness: Acute Illness Sudden in onset (most of the time, but not always) Less than six (6) months Chronic Illness Gradual in onset (most of the time, but not always) Types of Chronic Illness o Exacerbation Period characterized by active signs and symptoms of the illness o Remission Periods where no signs and symptoms are present Disease Objective pathologic process Concepts:
social (totality) well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity A high-level wellness! Claude Barnard Ability to maintain internal milieu Walter Cannon Ability to maintain homeostasis A dynamic equilibrium A state of balance of the internal environment while external environment is changing Florence Nightingale Health is using one’s power to the fullest Being well Can be maintained by manipulating the environment
Illness without disease is possible Disease without illness is possible Illness may or may not be related to a disease One can have a disease without necessarily feeling ill
Deviance Any behavior that goes against social norms Shortens life span Results to disrupted family and community Concept: Deviant behavior can be considered a disease Rationale: Because it also shortens the life span like a disease Example: Alcoholism o A disease rather than a social problem Wellness Feeling of being well Definitions of Health World Health Organization Health is the complete physical.
Virginia Henderson Viewed in terms of ability to perform the fourteen (14) fundamental needs or components of nursing care UNAIDED Martha Rogers Positive health symbolizes wellness Health is a value term defined by a certain culture Sister Calista Roy A state and process of being and becoming an INTEGRATED PERSON Dorothea Orem Characterized by soundness and wholeness of DEVELOPED HUMAN STRUCTURES and FUNCTIONS Imogene King A dynamic state in the life cycle (contrasted with illness) Illness is interference in the life cycle Betty Neuman Wellness is that all parts and subparts are in harmony with each other and the whole system Dorothy Johnson Elusive dynamic state influenced by biologic. psychologic and social factors Models of Health and Illness Health-Illness Continuum Dunn’s High Level Wellness and Grid Model X-axis is HEALTH Y-axis is environment Quadrant 1 High-level wellness in favorable environment Quadrant 2 Protected poor health in favorable environment Quadrant 3 Poor health in unfavorable environment Quadrant 4 Emergent high-level wellness in unfavorable environment Health Belief Model By Rosentock Based on a motivational theory
Failure to adapt is disease 4. Therefore. Adaptive Model Health is viewed in terms of capacity to ADAPT. Role Performance Model As long as you are able to perform SOCIETAL functions and ROLES you are healthy 3.e. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Local Adaptation Syndrome (LAS)
. host and susceptible host Based on the interplay of three components of the model Concept of Health and Illness Stress By Hans Selye Is a non-specific response of the body to any demand placed upon it. goal of treatment is to restore capacity to adapt. cancer is a multi-factorial disease) Triad is composed of the agent. Clinical Model Man is viewed as a Physiologic Being If there are no signs and symptoms of a disease. Eudaemonistic Model This is the BROADEST concept of health Because health is viewed in terms of Actualization Leavell and Clark’s Agent. Environment Model Also known as the Ecologic Model Expands to the MULTI-CAUSATION of a DISEASE Definitions of a disease as to its cause is expanded to a multi-causation of a disease (i. It assumed that good health is an objective common to all people Consider perceptions (influences individuals motivation toward results) o Perceived susceptibility o Perceived seriousness o Perceived threat Likelihood of Action influenced by: o Perceived benefit out of the action o Perceived barriers
Smith’s Four Levels of Health 1. then you are healthy Against WHO definition of health This is the NARROWEST concept of health 2. Host.
Adrenal Medulla Releases adrenalins 2. Clammy Skin Adrenal Gland is composed of: 1. Cool. Adrenal Cortex Releases the following: Mineralocorticoids o Aldosterone Glucocorticoids Cortisol o A potent vasoconstrictor
.General Adaptation Syndrome Involves two (2) body systems: Nervous System Endocrine System Nervous System involves: Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous system Endocrine System involves: Adrenal Glands The Adrenal Gland is composed of: Adrenal Medulla Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Medulla releases Adrenalins or Fight or Flight Hormones: Epinephrine Norepinephrine Effects of Adrenalins Increases Cardiac Rate Response to increased metabolic rate and oxygen demand Increases Respiratory Rate Response to increased metabolic rate and oxygen demand Bronchodilation Vasoconstriction Increased Peripheral Resistance Increased Cardiac Workload Increased Blood Pressure Decreased Renal Perfusion Decreased Renal Output Pale.
Prostaglandin. Histamine. and Serotonin all increase swelling Key Concept! Hans Selye o Author of Physiologic Response to Stress Lazarus Stress is a transaction Stress resulted from interaction of man with his environment and fellowman
.Mineralocorticoids Increased Aldosterone levels Increases sodium retention and water retention Increases circulating blood volume Increases cardiac workload (due to vasoconstriction) Glucocorticoids Increased hyperglycemia (transient) Increased glycogenolysis Increased neogenesis Increases blood sugar Increases osmotic pressure Increases fluid retention (glucose is a colloid which attracts water and adheres to it) Increases cardiac workload Concept: Complications of Stress: Cerebrovascular Attack Increased Diabetic Ketoacidosis (if patient is diabetic) Hypertension leading to cardiac arrest Local Adaptation Syndrome Also known as non-specific inflammatory response Bradykinin o Activates inflammatory response o Activates histamine Histamine o Activates the following: Prostaglandin Serotonin Concept: Bradykinin.
Efficacy of treatment Assess sources of treatment Assess potential effectiveness of treatment 9
. Assessment of symptoms Purpose is to verify the veracity of the complaint 5. Sick-Role Assumption 6. whenever he encounters stress. Self-medication / Self-treatment (if not effective) 3. Communication to others 4. Lazarus describes the SOCIAL ASPECT OF STRESS Also an adopted PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE Key Concept! The most comprehensive concept of stress is the stress concept of LAZARUS as it combines Physiologic and Social aspects of stress. Therefore. Concern Stage 7. Symptom Experience Client realizes there is a problem Client responds emotionally 2. tends to adopt Are you going around all stress? ANSWER IS NO!!! because stress is not always to be avoided and stress is not always undesirable Stress may lead to another stress A single stress does not lead to a disease Concepts: Adaptation to stress comprises of adjustments made in order to cope with a stressor Man is holistic in his adaptation to stress It involves the totality of man: o Physiologic o Psychologic o Social Illness Behavior and Stages of Illness Illness Behavior Pertains to any activity undertaken by a person who feels ill in order to Define his state of health Discover a suitable remedy IGUN – Eleven stages of Illness and Health-seeking Behaviors 1. Statements about Stress Stress is NOT a nervous energy Man.
Recovery and Rehabilitation Compliance Adherence to professional’s advice Factors Affecting Compliance Client motivation Degree of required change in lifestyle Perceived severity of health problem Difficulty of understanding instructions Belief about the effectiveness of the therapy Nature of the therapy itself o Adverse effects o Cost Cultural influences Degree of satisfaction with the relationship with health care providers Suggested Nursing Actions in case of Non-compliance Assess the reasons Correct the misconception Demonstrate a caring attitude Encourage and provide positive reinforcement o Focusing on the positive rather than on the negative o Focus on things patient can still do and not on what the patient can no longer do Establish a therapeutic relationship of freedom and mutual responsibility o Make patient realize he is also responsible for his recovery o He is a partner with the health care team o He is an active participant Guidelines to Enhance Compliance Be sure patient understand procedure by giving information Make sure patient is capable of performing activity o Set realistic goals Ensure that he is a WILLING participant o Look for buying signals Looking at wound 10
. Assessment of Effectiveness of Treatment May go back to stage 7 (Efficacy of Treatment) if treatment is not effective May go to next stage if treatment is effective 11. Treatment Proper 10. Selection of Treatment Stage Availability Cost of Treatment 9.8.
prevention of illness and rehabilitation of the sick Sister Calista Roy Nursing is a THEORETICAL SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE that prescribes analysis and action related to the care of the sick or ill It is a set of knowledge Dorothea Orem Nursing is a helping service to any individual who is sick It comprises of wholly dependent or partly dependent care when the person is unable to do so. sick or well.
Looking at materials needed
Definitions of Nursing: American Nurses Association Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to illness (to actual and potential health problems) Canadian Nurses Association The same definition plus… … includes the supervision of functions and services in collaboration with others to promote health Florence Nightingale Nursing is the act of utilizing the ENVIRONMENT for the following purposes: o Recovery o Reparative process Virginia Henderson The unique function of the nurse is to assist individuals. with the activities towards health that he would do unaided. if with strength and knowledge. towards a PEACEFUL DEATH Martha Rogers Nursing is a HUMANISTIC SCIENCE dedicated to compassionate concern for the promotion of health. If that is not possible. Defines nursing in terms of a NEED! Imogene King Nursing is a helping profession that assists a person (same with Henderson) towards a DIGNIFIED DEATH Betty Neuman
in order to preserve his organization Example: o In a COPD patient who remains a smoker. NURSING THEORIES Concept: First Nursing School – Florence Nightingale 1. and EXTRAPERSONAL VARIABLES affecting a person’s response to stressors Dorothy Johnson Nursing is an EXTERNAL REGULATORY FORCE that regulates the ACTION or BEHAVIOR of a person when such behavior constitutes a threat. Florence Nightingale Environmental Nursing Theory 2. families… and therefore. Nursing is a profession that is concerned with INTRAPERSONAL. Dorothy Johnson Behavioral Systems Model Seven Subsystems o Attachment and Affiliative o Dependency o Ingestive o Eliminative o Sexual Achievement o Aggressive 3. INTERPERSONAL. to society Conceptualized nursing as an ART and SCIENCE of MOLDING THE INTELLECT. ATTITUDE and SKILLS of the nurse Nursing in terms of providing education Hildegard Peplau Nursing is the INTERPERSONAL process INTERACTION between the nurse and the patient. the nurse who encourages the patient not to smoke. serves as an external regulatory force Faye Abdella Nursing is a service to individuals. Virginia Henderson Fourteen (14) Fundamental Needs focusing on PHYSIOLOGIC SOCIAL RECREATION 12 of THERAPEUTIC
Conservation of Structural Integrity o Example: turn patient from side to side every two hours to avoid bed sores 3. Myra Levine Four (4) Conservation Principles of Nursing 1. Conservation of Energy o Example: complete bed rest without bathroom privileges 2. Madeleine Lehninger Transcultural Nursing Theory / Model Nursing is a HUMANISTIC and SCIENTIFIC mode of helping through CULTURE-SPECIFIC PROCESS 8. Marjorie Gordon Proposed the Human Functional Health Patterns used as a systematic framework for data collection Focus is on Eleven (11) Health Patterns Advantage to the nurse: o It enables the nurse to determine the client’s response as functional or dysfunctional Eleven Functional Health Patterns o Health perception o Nutritional / Metabolic o Elimination o Activity and Exercise Pattern o Cognitive Perceptual Pattern o Role Relationship Pattern o Sexuality / Reproductive o Coping-Stress-Tolerance o Value Belief Patterns 6.4. Faye Abdella Problem Solving Approach to Twenty-One (21) Nursing Problems Focus is on PROPER IDENTIFICATION of the problem Particularly about the proper nursing diagnosis 5. Conservation of Personal Integrity
. Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory Patient has three (3) interacting systems: o Individuals / Personal systems o Group systems / Interpersonal systems fraternity o Social systems 7.
Wholly Compensatory or Total Compensatory o For paralyzed patients. Conservation of Social Integrity o Example: maintenance of patient’s relationships 9. Resolution Phase or Termination Phase o Occurs when patient’s needs have been met Concepts: Various settings for application of: o Pre-Interaction Phase In psychiatric setting. this consists of a courtesy call 12.o Example: maintain patient’s privacy 4. Exploitation Phase o Nurse maximizes all the resources to benefit the patient 4. this consists of gathering data o Pre-Entry Phase In community health nursing. Orientation o Nurse and patient test the role each one assumes o Prepares patient for termination o Patient identifies areas of difficulty 2. for ICU patients 3. which are in constant interaction with the environment Concept: 14
. Identification Phase o Patient identifies with the personnel who can satisfy his needs 3. Martha Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings Man is composed of energy fields. Supportive-Educative o For up and about patient 11. Betty Neuman Health Care Systems Model The concern of nursing is to PREVENT STRESS INVASION 10. Hildegard Peplau Interpersonal Model Four (4) Phases of Nurse-Patient Interaction 1. Dorothea Orem Self-care and Self-care Deficit Theory Three (3) Nursing Systems based on Art of Care of Patient Needs 1. Partial Compensatory o Patient performs some of nursing care needs 2.
CORE. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse Theory of Human Becoming Emphasis is a FREE CHOICE (with personal meaning) Actions of patients may either be: o Revealing or concealing o Enabling or limiting Therefore. Lydia Hall CARE. Jean Watson Human Caring Model Nursing involves the application of ART and HUMAN SCIENCE through TRANSPERSONAL TRANSACTIONS in order to help the person achieve mind. This is better than the fingerprints as a person’s energy field is absolutely unique! 13. body and soul harmony 16. CURE Care o Comfort measures given by the nurse to a patient o Nurturance aspect of Nursing Core o Therapeutic use of self Cure o Activities in relation to doctors’ orders o Dependent orders 15. Sister Calista Roy Adaptation Model Man is a BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL BEING Four (4) modes of Adaptation o Physiologic Mode Compatible with Hans Selye o Self Consent o Role Function o Interdependence 14. The most reliable method of identification is the Energy Field. Josephine Patterson and Loretta Zderad Humanistic Nursing Practice Theory Nursing is an EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCE between the nurse and the patient (nagkataon-nagkatagpo!)
. there is a consequence o This pertains to behavior and action 17.
Nursing is a LIVE DIALOGUE between the patient who wants to be nursed and the nurse who has the skill to nurse 18. the relationship is not static If the patient’s condition improved. Joyce Travelbee Interpersonal Process Theory Nurse needs to go beyond nursing roles to establish therapeutic relationship TRANSPERSONAL COMMUNICATION as the means to establish therapeutic relationship This implies that the nurse should not be rigid in the nursing role 22. Ann Boykin and Savina Schoenhofer Grand Theory of Nursing as Caring Theory Nursing is NOT BASED on a DEFICIT but rather it is an EGALITARIAN MODE of helping This theory is against the theory of OREM Nursing is an obligation towards humanity. Helen Tomlin. Margaret Newman Health as Expanding Consciousness Humans are Unitary Human Beings The nurse is a NOT A GOAL-SETTER or an OUTCOME PREDICTOR. whether there is a need or NOT! 20. then the intervention is effective and the patient moves on to new problems 23. Nola Pender Health Promotion Model Motivation to participate in health care activities is influenced by COGNITIVE and PERCEPTUAL FACTORS. Ida Jean Orlando Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship Model There is movement. Evelyn Tomlyn and Mary Ann Swain Modeling and Remodeling Theory Focus is on the PERSON Emphasis is on the UNCONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE of the PATIENT 19. rather is a PARTNER OF THE PATIENT 21. which are: o Importance of health to the person o Perceived control of health o Self-efficiency o Perceived health status
Barker and Phil Barker Tidal Model (Psychiatric Nursing) Helping patients recall their own personal stories of DISTRESS is the FIRST STEP in helping them regain control of their lives again! 25. Acute Phase o Patient is in a state of active illness 5. Trajectory Onset Phase o Patient now has signs and symptoms of illness 3. Pre-Trajectory Phase o Patient shows no signs and symptoms of illness o No sickness
2. the peers and colleagues
.o Definition of health o Perceived barriers to action 24. Death 26. Bonnie Weaver and Duldt Battey Humanistic Nursing Communication Theory Emphasis is on the interpersonal relationship between the nurse. Corbin and Strauss Trajectory Model The patient moves in a TRAJECTION of Eight (8) Phases Nurse needs to follow the patient along the eight phases of trajection: 1. Unstable Phase o Patient is on a critical period o Signs and symptoms are present o Patient is NOT in the hospital o Patient is NOT under control o Patient is OUT of the hospital 7. Crisis Phase o Patient is unstable o Patient is in a life-threatening situation o Patient is critical 4. Poppy Buchanan. Downward Phase o Patient is in a deteriorating phase 8. the patient. Stable Phase o Patient’s illness is controlled o Patient may still be in the hospital 6.
27. Primary Prevention Emphasis on: o Generalized health promotion and specific protection o Recipients are GENERALLY HEALTHY PEOPLE When given: o Before onset of illness or before onset of disease Examples: o Generalized health education Prevention of accidents Standards of nutrition o Immunizations Specific preventions o Risk Assessment for specific disease o Family Planning Services and Marriage Counseling o Environmental Sanitation o Recreation and Housing 2. McGill Model of Nursing Emphasis is to encourage and engage the patient and the family to actively participate in learning about health 28. the baby’s need should be ADDRESSED AT ONCE! Application: Bonding 29. Kathryn Barnard Parent-Child Interaction Model (Pediatric Nursing) In order to produce a healthy person. Gladys Husted and James Husted Symphonological Bioethical Theory Symphono. LEVELS OF PREVENTION: 1. Alfred Adler The personality of an individual is affected by the BIRTH ORDER 30. which influence nursing actions.means harmony and agreement Governed by ethical standards. Secondary Prevention Emphasis placed on: o Early detection / diagnosis o Prompt treatment o Health maintenance of persons already having health problems o Prevention of complications When given:
the purpose is more of REHABILITATION When given: o Begins after the illness or when a defect or disability is fixed or irreversible Examples: o Referring a client to support groups o Teaching a diabetic client how to inject insulin ROLES OF A NURSE 1. Counselor Involves helping patient identify and avoid stressful and psychological problems Focuses on:
. Caregiver / Care Provider To convey understanding and support Activities: o Support and comfort measures (mothering aspect of nursing / nurturance aspect of nursing)
2. community and the home 3. Tertiary Prevention Emphasis placed on: o Support of the client to achieve the following: Successful re-adaptation Optimal reconstitution Regain high-level wellness Therefore.o During illness Examples: o Screening survey o Encouraging regular check-ups o Complying with regular check-ups o Teaching Breast-self-examination o Teaching Testicular-self-examination Concept: o Most effective method of teaching is DEMONSTRATION Additional Examples of Secondary Prevention o Assessment of growth and development o General nursing assessment and care at the hospital.
Manager Decision-making Planning Giving directions Monitoring operations Facilitating staff development Therefore.A. Researcher After graduation. this is done on the supervisory level of organization 8. Client Advocate Protects rights of patients Activity: o Speaking on behalf of the patient 4. Teacher Teaching Imparting of knowledge 6. Leader Application of interpersonal influence to bring out desired behavior (leadership) 7. Change Agent Brings change or adjustments Nurse only influences a patient Nurse does not change the patient 5.N) degree TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Basic Guidelines Develop a well-defined objective 20
.o Helping client establish capacity for successful interpersonal relations o Helping the patient develop new coping skills Concept: Do not give advice! o This is meant to facilitate decision-making on the part of the client o This is observed so that the client would not develop DEPENDENCY 3. nurse cannot yet be a researcher He can only be a researcher after he receives his Master of Arts in Nursing (M.
Discovery Cognitive and Affective Concept: Learning is more effective if the learner discovers the content for himself. (That is. One-to-one Discussion Addresses affective and cognitive learning 3. Group Discussion Affective and Cognitive Sharing feelings during group dynamics 7. Assess client’s readiness to learn Start with what the client is concerned about Assess and start with what the client already knows. Practice Motor 8. proceed from the known to the unknown Start with the simple proceeding to the complex Schedule a review of the content Concept: Areas of Learning Domain o Knowledge – cognitive o Skills – motor o Attitude – emotional TEACHING STRATEGIES 1. through experience!) 6.Printed and Audiovisual Material 9. Demonstration Motor 5. Role-playing For pediatric and psychiatric nursing settings 21
. Answering Questions Cognitive 4. Explanation and Description Address cognitive aspect of learning 2.
flexible.10. open to new information 10. Goal-oriented and client-centered 2. Follows a logical sequence 6. Problem-oriented. dynamic (moving) rather than static 3. Computer Assisted Learning Programs Online review THE NURSING PROCESS Concept: The Nursing Process was introduced by LYDIA HALL! Definition: The Nursing Process is a systematic. Basis of prioritizing nursing activities would be the problems and not the goals 5. Universally applicable (to any type of patient) 7. Modeling What you say is what you do 11. Cyclical (no absolute beginning and end). humanistic nursing care Purposes of the Nursing Process: To identify health status o Actual health problems o Potential health problems To establish plans To deliver specific nursing care Characteristics of Nursing Process (MEMORIZE THIS!!!) 1. Interpersonal and collaborative Work with patients and relatives Work with colleagues and other members of the health team 8. Adaptation of problem-solving techniques and principles 9. organized. Plan of care organized according to client problems rather than nursing goals 4. Allows creativity of nurse and patient BENEFITS DERIVED FROM THE NURSING PROCESS Concepts: Both the nurse and the patient benefit from the nursing process Patient obtains greater benefit
. rational method of planning and providing individualized.
Remember: Nursing process is CLIENT-CENTERED or PATIENT-CENTERED and NOT NURSE-CENTERED Benefits from Nursing Process: Improves quality of care Ensures continuity and appropriate level of care Facilitates client participation through planning with patient Enables nurse to maximize resources Feedback allows nurse to evaluate care Serves as a framework for accountability through documentation Promotes a positive working atmosphere through collaboration Helps the nurse define roles to those outside the profession For job satisfaction Facilitates professional growth Avoidance of legal action Meeting standards of accredited hospitals
PARTS OR COMPONENTS OF THE NURSING PROCESS ASSESSMENT PHASE OF THE NURSING PROCESS Nursing Activities in the Assessment Phase Data collection Data Organization Data Validation Data Recording IMPORTANT CONCEPT! No conclusion is developed in the assessment phase Purposes of the Assessment Phase To create a data base of the client’s response to health and illness To determine the nursing care needs of the patient Four (4) types of Assessment: 1. Initial Assessment When performed: o At specified time after admission Where done: 23
Focus Assessment or On-going Assessment When performed: o Integrated throughout the nursing process Purpose of On-going Assessment: o To identify problems overlooked earlier o To determine the status of a health problem (i. Emergency Assessment When done: o During acute physiologic and psychologic crisis Where done: o Emergency Room o Comfort Room o Anywhere!!! o On site!!! Purpose of Emergency Assessment o To identify life-threatening condition Framework or Principle in Emergency Assessment o A – Airway o B – Breathing o C – Circulation o Utilize either Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs or ABC principle 4. hydration status every fifteen minutes) 3.e.o Done at the ward Where Admitted: o At the ward Purpose of Initial Assessment: o To create a data base for problem identification o For reference and future comparison
2. Time-Lapsed Assessment When done: o Several months after initial assessment Purpose of Time-Lapsed Assessment o To compare current status of patient with base line data (initial assessment) ASSESSMENT PROCESS Concepts:
Primary Source Patient himself except when: o He is unconscious o Patient is a baby o Patient is insane 2. Data is equivalent to information What is the initial output of the Assessment Phase? Data or Recorded Data Never validated data!!! Types of Data: 1. smell. Objective or Overt Data Capable of being observed by use of senses – sight. Subjective or Covert Data Felt by the patient During the recording of data. taste. this should be stated using the patient’s own words These are the symptoms felt by the patient 2. Environment of the Patient Example: o Patient with diabetes mellitus exhibits acetone breath Assess for diabetic ketoacidosis Methods of Data Collection Observing Interviewing Examining 25
. Secondary Source Patient’s record Health care members Related literature or journals Significant others (they become primary source when patient is unconscious Family or relatives The person who brought the patient to the hospital 3. hearing These are the signs which are observable Sources of Data: 1. touch.
Open-Ended Questions Questions not answerable by “yes” or “no” Questions that elicit information or explanation 2. Neutral Questions Phrasing allows patient to answer with least pressure Usually NOT addressed to patient personally (i. Observing It should be deliberate Exert effort Two (2) aspects of observation process: Noticing the stimuli Do an interpretation of the stimuli 2. Interviewing Two (2) types of Interview: Directive Type of Interview Structured Uses closed-ended questions calling for specific data When used: o When you need to elicit specific data o When there is little time available Concept: Characteristics of Closed-ended questions: Yes or No questions Asks when or asks for the time when event happened Asks how many Point with finger when asking to provide clarity Therefore. Closed-Ended Questions Questions answerable by “yes” or “no” Leading Questions Phrasing of question suggests what answer the interviewer is expecting 3.1. what is your opinion about…) 26
. they call for highly specific answers Non-Directive Type or Rapport-Building Interview Uses more open-ended questions Advantage is that it allows the patient to volunteer information Types of Interview Questions: 1.e.
Closing Stage How to close the interview: o Summarizing Technique Validation of Data Act of double-checking the data Purposes of Data Validation o To ensure the: Correctness Completeness Accuracy of the data Guidelines in Validating Data Compare subjective and objective data Be familiar with word usage (particularly if the patient is a child) Reassess / double-check data which are extremely abnormal 27
. Stages of the Interview 1. Raised as a general topic Planning the Interview Setting Concepts: Before the interview. Body of the Interview Occurs when patient responds to questioning 3. determine what information you already know or what information is available An interview is a planned conversation with a purpose An interview is a two-way process When is it done? o When patient is available o When patient is comfortable Recommended distance from the patient is three (3) to four (4) feet. Opening Stage Key Concept!!! This is the most important part of the interview Rationale What was said and done during the opening stage sets the tone all throughout the interview 2.
High-Risk Nursing Diagnosis A diagnosis that a patient is more vulnerable or susceptible compared with others in the same situation 3. analyzing and interpreting data Concept: The final output in the Diagnosing Phase is a NURSING DIAGNOSIS!!! Different Types of Nursing Diagnoses: 1. Wellness Nursing Diagnosis A positive statement Indicates a healthy response Examples: o Potential for increased compliance related to increased level of knowledge o Potential for enhanced body image related to regular exercise o Potential for effective coping related to adequate support systems Domains of Nursing Diagnosis Key Concept! It only includes health problems that a nurse is capable and licensed to treat Parts of a Nursing Diagnosis
. Possible Nursing Diagnosis There is an evidence of a health problem but the causes are NOT fully understood 4. Be sure that your data contains CUES and not INFERENCES Be sure that your data is FREE OF BIASES Avoid jumping to conclusions Data Recording Concepts: Data Recording COMPLETES the Assessment Phase Initial Output of the Assessment Phase is DATA Final Output of the Assessment Phase is RECORDED DATA DIAGNOSING PHASE OF THE NURSING PROCESS Activities during the Diagnosing Phase: This involves sorting. clustering. Actual Nursing Diagnosis Problem present at the time the statement was made 2.
the NURSE Purposes of On-going Planning 29
. Problem Statement Example: o Fluid Volume Deficit 2.1. involve the patient and the family IMPORTANT CONCEPT!!! Final output of the Planning Phase is a NURSING CARE PLAN or a WRITTEN CARE PLAN Types of Planning 1. Defining Characteristics Example: o …as manifested by decreased skin turgor Advantages of Using Standardized Diagnostic Terminology Provides professional accountability and autonomy by defining and describing the independent areas of practice Provides effective vehicle of communication Provides an organizing principle for meaningful research Facilitates continuity and individualized care PLANNING PHASE OF THE NURSING PROCESS Concept: Planning means: Determining ahead of time Forecasting a course of action Key Concept!!! For your plans to be effective. Presumed Etiology Example: o …related to frequent loss of bowel movement 3. On-going Planning Who are involved: o Done by all nurses who worked with the patient o The patient himself o The family o But primarily. Initial Planning Done by the nurse When done: o At specified time upon or after admission of the patient 2.
it should be stated in BEHAVIORAL TERMS IMPLEMENTING PHASE OF THE NURSING PROCESS Implementation Putting the care plan into action Purpose of Implementation
. Discharge Planning Purpose of Discharge Planning o To ensure continuity of care Characteristics or the Planning Process S – Specific M – Measurable A – Attainable R – Realistic T – Time bound Activities during Planning Process Set priorities Set goals Identify alternatives of nursing care Select nursing measures Write nursing orders (supervisors do this) Write the nursing care plan Purposes of Goal-setting To set direction To provide a time span To have a criteria for evaluation To enable the nurse and the patient to determine whether the problem has been resolved or not To help motivate the client and the patient by providing a sense of accomplishment Key Concept!!! For your goal to be useful during evaluation.o o o o
To determine if the client’s health status has changed To decide which problems to focus on during the shift To set priorities for client care during the shift To coordinate the patient care and activities so that more than one problem can be addressed at the same time
To carry out planned activities To help the client Concept!!! The implementation phase ends upon recording of the care given and the response of the patient to that procedure Requirements for Implementation Adequate knowledge Technical Skills Communication skills Therapeutic use of self Right attitude as a requirement Nursing Activities during the Implementation Phase Reassess the patient o Rationale To determine if the procedure is still needed Determine the need for nursing assistance Implement the nursing strategies Communicate the procedure performed by documenting the procedure Understand orders o Clarify / verify doctors’ orders Encourage patient to participate actively Guidelines for Implementation of the Nursing Strategies Key Concept!!! It should be based on scientific knowledge. professional standards of practice (care) o Rationale: This is done to ensure safe nursing care It should be adapted to the individual patient It should always be safe. research. comfort and teaching
EVALUATION PHASE OF THE NURSING PROCESS Purpose of the Evaluation Phase To determine client’s progress To determine the effectiveness of the care plan
. Do not compromise It should be holistic It should be accompanied by support.
On-going Evaluation When done: o During or immediately after the intervention Importance: o Allows the nurse to decide and make on-the-spot modification/s in an intervention
2. To determine as to what extent the nursing goals have been met Importance of doing an Evaluation It determines if the care plan will be: o Continued o Modified o Discontinued Activities during the Evaluation Phase Identify the OUTCOME CRITERIA to be used as measurement Gather information (data) relevant to the outcome criteria Compare outcome (data) with the criteria Assess the reasons for the outcome Revise the nursing care plan as needed Types of Evaluation 1.Terminal Evaluation When done: o At or immediately before discharge Importance: States the status of a health problem at the time of discharge It determines whether the goals are: o Met o Partially met o Unmet
. Intermittent Evaluation When done: o At a specified time Purpose: o It shows the extent of progress of the patient Importance: o Enables the nurse to correct deficiencies and modify the nursing care plan 3.
reporting. variative notations that are difficult to follow because they are not assembled into an orderly or scientific manner Classification of information is based on SOURCE 33
.N. licensing Guidelines on Documentation Timing o Document patient care as soon as possible Observe confidentiality Observe permanence o Use non-erasable ink o Do not use sign pen Signature o Sign full name and append R.DOCUMENTATION It is a written. formal document A record of client’s progress Purposes of Documentation Planning Care Communication For legal documentation purposes For research For education Reimbursements For statistics. Accuracy o Ensure that data is correct o Avoid biases o Avoid ambiguous terms Appropriateness o Write only appropriate information Completeness Use standard terminology Brevity o Make it concise yet meaningful Legal Awareness o Cross out erroneous entry o Write “Error” o Countersign TYPES OF RECORDS Source Oriented Clinical Record Accumulation of chronological. epidemiology Accreditation.
Progress Notes Includes: o Nurses’ narrative notes (SOAPIE) o Flow sheets o Discharge Notes and Referral Summaries Formats:
. Initial list of orders or Care Plans 4. Problem List 3. Baseline Data All information gathered from a patient when he first entered the agency 2. 1: constipation Increase fluid intake: doctor Diatabs: pharmacist NPO: Includes observations about the patient Example: o Radiologist’s notes are with doctor’s notes under one problem Problem List Contains only ACTIVE problems (and relevant information about the problem) No potential problems (these are contained only in the progress notes) Four (4) Basic Components of Problem Oriented Clinical Record 1. Each person or department maintains a different section on chart Components of a Source Oriented Clinical Record Admission Sheet Face Sheet Medical History and Physical Examination Sheet Diagnostic Findings Sheet TPR Graphic Sheet Doctor’s Treatment and Order Sheet Therapeutic Sheet Problem Oriented Clinical Record Same as Problem Oriented Medical Record Entry of data is based on CLIENT’S PROBLEM Example: o Problem No.
. feelings. information. it is not!!! It is just a bulletin board Purpose of the Kardex To make valuable information readily available Allergies are written in red ink It is a reminder It is not a record Concept: A Nursing Care Plan is not a record COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES IN NURSING Communication Exchange of communicators ideas. Receiver Decoder 4. Confer Verifying information 3. Referring To endorse patient’s special concern to a higher authority or a specialized department or personnel 2. Reporting Giving information to a concerned person KARDEX Is the Kardex a part of the patient’s record? No. SOAPIE – for revisions COMMON METHODS OF COMMUNICATION AMONG NURSES 1. Sender Encoder 3. Message Data 2. data between two
Concept: Communication is the basic component of Human Relationships Elements of Communication 1.
Verbal Oral Spoken Written communication Texted communication Cable communication Telex communication Facsimile communication 2.5 feet to 4 feet • 3 feet to 4 feet for interview Social Distance • 4 feet to 12 feet Public Distance • 12 feet and beyond Territoriality o One person believes that the space and all the things in that space belongs to him o Do not enter abruptly.5. Non-verbal communication Facial expression Grimacing Posture Gait Adornment Make-up Gestures Factors Affecting Communication Ability of the communicator Perceptions Proxemics o Distances between communicators Intimate Distance • Actual physical contact to 1. this may result in breach of privacy Roles and relationships Therapeutic Communication in Nursing 36
. Context Setting Overall environment where the communication takes place Modes of Communication 1.5 feet Personal Distance • 1.
touch the patient on the shoulder Offering yourself o For autistic child Stay nearby or stay beside the patient Presenting Reality o Example: “You are in the hospital” Reflecting o Example: “What do you think will make you happy” o Never agree nor disagree o Reflect it back or throw it back Non-therapeutic Communication Stumbling blocks to effective communication Stereotyping Generalizing Agreeing and Disagreeing No confrontation No argument Being defensive Moralizing or Passing Judgment Giving Common Advise Examples: “If I were you…” “You should have done it…” PROMOTING REST AND SLEEP Circadian Rhythm A biological rhythm A biological clock 37
. Using Silence o Supplement with non-verbal communication Provide General Leads o Examples: “…go on” “…tell me more” Open-ended questions Use Touch o But assess the culture of the patient o If the patient is a child. touch the patient on the hand o If the patient is of the same age level. touch the patient on the top of the head o If the patient is an elderly.
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM sleep) Increased brain metabolism and activity Also called PARADOXICAL SLEEP Characterized by: o Vivid dreams o Easily recalled upon awakening Concepts! REM sleep is NOT AS RESTFUL as NON-REM sleep However. Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (Non-REM Sleep) Deep restful sleep Benefit is that it restores the body physically and psychologically (especially for post-operative patients) Concept! Deprivation of Non-REM sleep causes: o Physical exhaustion o Decreased resistance against infection Wellness Teachings to Enhance or Promote Sleep Establish a regular routine Have adequate exercise at daytime o Avoid stimulating activity by bedtime Avoid all types of stimulants o Caffeine-containing foods Coffee Cocoa Chocolate Tea Cola o Nicotine o Alcohol
. Regulated from outside the person’s body Types of Sleep 1. REM sleep is NEEDED Dreaming is a psychological outlet of pent up emotions Nursing Alert! Deprivation of REM sleep results to: o Irritability o Restlessness o Poor concentration 2.
Prolongs the REM stage of sleep It excites the patient like an anesthetic Not a stimulant Avoid shabu Use the bed mainly for sleep If unable to sleep. get up and pursue satisfying activity Drink something warm or hot (except stimulants) o Milk contains L-tryptophan o L-tryptophan is an amino acid with a natural sedative effect that induces one to sleep Do something HOT! o Twice-a-week masturbation is ideal o Facilitates release of tension of the day Side-to-side turning every two hours with back tapping Support bedtime rituals Remove all music in order to sleep
PROMOTING NUTRITION Proteins Macromolecules composed of o Carbon o Hydrogen o Oxygen o Nitrogen Basic Body Needs: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Concepts: Glucose is a ready source of energy for metabolic processes Carbohydrates When eaten are metabolized to glucose for energy Excess carbohydrates are converted to glycogen and stored in the liver Other excess carbohydrates go to the fat cells Key Concept! During starvation. stored glycogen is converted to glucose via a process called glycogenolysis
Essential Proteins Proteins that cannot be produced by the body itself 40
. If glycogen is used up. Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) Very bad cholesterol Functions of Fats Insulation Heat Conservation Source of Energy Proteins Two (2) types in terms of needs of the body: 1. fat resources are converted to glucose via a process called gluconeogenesis Nursing Alert! Fat conversion to glucose produces waste products called KETONE BODIES These give rise to metabolic acidosis as in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Additional concepts! During starvation protein reserves are converted to glucose via process called gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis Production of glucose out of non-carbohydrate products Lipoproteins Substances composed of fats and proteins Types of Lipoproteins 1. High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) High-grade lipoprotein Good grade lipoprotein Good cholesterol Function of HDLs o Transports the bad cholesterol from systemic circulation to the liver for metabolism and eventual elimination 2. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) Low-grade lipoprotein Bad cholesterol Function of LDLs They clog the blood vessels 3.
Vitamin D Source is food Precursor is in the skin Sunlight is needed for Vitamin D to be converted to its active form Function: o Influences calcium metabolism o To metabolize calcium
. sodium and glucose will not be enough to hold plasma inside blood vessel resulting into edema In liver cirrhosis. o Building blocks of the cells are proteins Resistance against infection o Formation of Immunoglobulins (globular proteins) Maintenance of normal intravascular fluid volume o Works with glucose and sodium o Albumin Main protein of blood Acts as a colloid Attracts water around it Concepts!!! If protein levels are decreased. Vitamin A Essential for normal vision For transmission of light stimulus via the optic nerve 2. hypoalbuminemia results to edema VITAMINS Two (2) types of Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins 1. Non-essential Proteins Proteins that can be produced by the body Functions of Protein Main element of our cells. To be sourced out from food eaten Animal protein is complete protein Plant protein is considered as incomplete protein 2.
there would be decreased calcium levels Increased levels of Vitamin D leads to increased calcium levels Vitamin E Anti-oxidant Promotes cell membrane integrity (like Vitamin C) Vitamin for the heart and skin Sources are meats and in vegetables Deficiency results to Vitamin E deficiency hemolytic anemia Vitamin K Synthesis of clotting factors Synthesis of prothrombin Concept! Decreased levels of Vitamin K leads to prothrombin deficiency Deficiency in prothrombin leads to bleeding MICRONUTRIENTS Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) Forms: o Tablet o Liquid o Injectable Oral (tablet and liquid forms) o Take on an empty stomach o If there is GI distress (i. diarrhea).e.Concept! Without Vitamin D. take on an empty stomach Toxic effects: o Constipation (first option) Oral Liquid Iron o Use dropper and apply at the back of the tongue or use a straw o Rationale: To avoid staining the teeth Health Teaching!!! o To enhance iron absorption. advice taking orange juice o Vitamin C in orange juice enhances iron absorption o Do not take milk o Milk inhibits absorption of iron
. take with food o If GI distress subsides.
Light Diet Given for post-operative patients Plainly cooked No spices Large amounts of FAT omitted Avoid bran and high fiber 2.5” to 2. guava.
o Too much fiber prevents absorption of iron o Thus.0” o Site of administration is the GLUTEAL MUSCLE ONLY!!! o Rationale: To avoid staining the skin Concept: o Use an airlock o Place 0.M. o Use Z-track technique o Gauge of Needle is at least 18 o Length of Needle is 1. Full Liquid Diet Foods that melt or liquefy at body temperature
. Injectable Iron o Route is deep I. Soft Diet For people with difficulty with swallowing and chewing Generally low residue diet Nursing Alert! o Avoid the following: Nuts Seeds (tomato. do not take oats when taking iron.5 ml of air in syringe so that medication would not leak into the subcutaneous tissues Nursing Alert! o Apply firm pressure for at least five (5) minutes after injection Do NOT massage
SPECIAL DIETS 1. berry) Raw fruits and vegetables Fried Foods Whole grains and cereals 3. Pureed Diet Osteorized diet 4.
Low Residue Diet Reduced fiber To decrease GI irritation For patients with bowel inflammatory diseases: o Chron’s disease o Ulcerative colitis Acid-Ash Diet To alkalinize urine To soothe an irritated bladder and urethra Give citrus fruits Give vegetables Exceptions are: o Prune Juice o Cranberry Juice o Both produce ACIDIC URINE Ash-Acid Diet Given to acidify urine To minimize or help control Urinary Tract Infections Give the following: 44
. Clear Liquid Diet Given to surgical patients Limited to: o Water o Coffee o Tea o Cola o Clear stained broth o Gelatin o Hard candies Nursing Alert! o Dairy products are avoided 6. High Fiber Diet For patients at risk for constipation 7. Candidiasis Diet Free of the following: o Fruits o Sugar o Yeast o Fermented foods 8.5.
epiglottis are approached Flex the head o Rationale: To prevent entry of the tube into the trachea Nursing Alert! o Watch for signs and symptoms of RESPIRATORY DIFFICULTY o If there are signs. WITHDRAW TUBE o While inserting tube. observe for coughing or difficulty of breathing
. NASOGASTRIC TUBE FEEDING (NGT) Purpose of NGT insertion o For gastric gavage and lavage o For administration of food and medication o To keep the stomach empty o To prevent aspiration from regurgitation of gastric contents o For gastric decompression How to Insert NGT o Depth of Insertion Measure length from the tip of the nose to the ears to the tip of the xiphoid process Insertion: o Position the patient in semi-Fowler’s or Fowler’s position o While inserting to NASOPHARYNX Position the head in a hyperextended manner o When glottis.o Protein o Meat o Poultry ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS Anthropometric Measurements Skin Fold Test Derived from reserved fat of the body Mid-upper arm Circumference Measurement Obtains the muscle mass of the body This reflects the protein reserves of the body Laboratory diagnostic procedure for albumin SUPPORTING NUTRITION OF PATIENT: ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL FEEDING ENTERAL FEEDING 1.
ascertain proper placement on the stomach Concept! o Most accurate method to test for proper placement of the NGT is via X-RAY Other ways to test proper placement: o 1. o If same occurs after 2 – 3 hours. from stomach contents Change of color from RED to BLUE indicates that the aspirate is basic and. tube is in the trachea Nursing Alert! o Small-bore tube allows patient to hum o Therefore. CHECK THE FOLLOWING: Placement of the tube • For patient safety • To prevent LUNG aspiration of food Patency of the tube • To insure successful introduction or administration of food o 3. Determine the pH of the aspirate Use litmus paper Change of color from BLUE to RED indicates that the aspirate is acidic and. NOTIFY DOCTOR. therefore. tube is in the esophagus and stomach If negative for humming. this method is NOT RELIABLE o 2. therefore. it will suck the water and lead to pulmonary aspiration Position during feeding: o Fowler’s Position Measure gastric residual volume o Subtract this from total feeding to introduce o If aspirate is greater than 50 ml for adult or 10 ml for infant. Let patient hum If positive for humming. After inserting. then WITHHOLD FEEDING for 2 – 3 hours. from lung contents IMPORTANT CONCEPTS!!! o To insure safety of the patient prior to feeding. o Rationale: Patient is not yet ready for next feeding. There is a problem with gastric emptying 46
. By auscultating the epigastric region while insufflating 50 ml of air Hear gurgling sound TUBE FEEDING Never try to submerge the free end of the NGT to water o This is potentially dangerous o If in trachea and submerging of free end to water coincides with inspiration.
2. Watch out for COUGHING o Leakage to trachea If with DIFFICULTY OF BREATHING o Stop the procedure Flush with water after feeding to avoid clogging of the tube After the procedure o Do not place the patient on bed before 30 minutes have lapsed o Rationale: To prevent aspiration and regurgitation Average volume of feeding: o 300 ml to 400 ml TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION Introduced directly to the bloodstream Tube is inserted via the: o Subclavian vein o Internal jugular vein of the neck o External jugular vein of the neck Important Concept!!! o Tube must reach two (2) centimeters before or above the RIGHT ATRIUM Nursing Responsibilities: o Watch out for signs and symptoms of embolism Care of Insertion Site o Application of sterile dressing with anti-bacterial ointment as ordered by doctor (prn) GASTROSTOMY TUBE FEEDING (Enteral) No auscultation needed Assess for the patency of the tube Use water to do this PROMOTING OXYGENATION DEEP BREATHING Two (2) types of Deep Breathing: 126.96.36.199 Therefore. expiration is longer than inspiration Rationale: 47
. APICAL DEEP BREATHING Done to expand the upper portion of the lungs Let the patient place palms on the upper chest Concentrate on that area Take a slow deep breath at a count of 1.3 Release it slowly through the nose or a pursed lip at a count of 4.
it would be difficult for patient to follow When done: o Done q2 hours together with turning COUGHING EXERCISES Purpose o To expand the lungs o To facilitate expectoration of secretions How often done: o At least every two (2) hours Procedure o Teach the patient to inhale and exhale o Tell the patient to inhale and exhale a second time o Tell the patient to inhale and cough out NURSING ALERT!!! o Coughing is contraindicated in the following patients: With increased intracranial pressure (ICP) With increased intraoptical pressure (IOP) With cardiac arrhythmias (but are allowed to do deep breathing) Concepts!!! Deep Breathing and Coughing o Purpose is to stimulate surfactant production Yawning and sneezing also stimulate surfactant production OXYGEN INHALATION AND ADMINISTRATION
. BASAL DEEP BREATHING Same procedure Area of concentration is the lower ribcage When to teach patient: o Before surgery o Before pain is present Rationale: o If pain is already present.o To prevent respiratory alkalosis Taught to patients who will undergo: o Upper abdominal surgery o Cholecystectomy Incision site on diaphragm Patient does not want to breathe Predisposed to hypostatic pneumonia 2.
Be certain that the valve on the regulator is closed so that the flow meter would not break! Concept! Humidifier moistens the oxygen administered Purpose o To avoid drying and irritation of the mucosal lining o Also traps particulates from the tank Iron oxide may be present in the tank (iron plus oxygen produces iron oxide or rust) Concept! Fire Precaution o Place ‘NO SMOKING’ sign at the door or at the head part of the patient Tank and oxygen do not explode They merely support combustion Other Concepts! Do not use volatile substances Acetone and alcohol can react with oxygen and lead to toxicity of patient Do not use oil based or grease on any part of the oxygen set Do not allow the patient to use an electric razor as sparks may trigger combustion Nursing Alert! Retrolental Fibroplasia occurs if there is excess oxygen administration in infants. Excess oxygen leads to destruction of the retina and blindness Modes of Administration 1. be sure to open the valve of the oxygen tank first. Low Flow Administration Utilizes nasal cannula or nasal prongs or nasal catheters Given to COPD patients 2.Practical Application Concept! When administering oxygen. High Flow Administration Uses a venturi mask NEBULIZATION With sodium chloride and salbutamol A physiologic solution Water liquefies secretions 49
fully rising the ball Upon inhalation. the ball rises CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY This is a dependent procedure There are no absolute contraindications to this procedure Contraindicated for the following patients with: o Pacemakers o Lung abscess o Hemoptysis o Dangerous Arrhythmias o Active PTB (which goes to the other lobe) o Lung CA (malignancy goes to other lung) Three components of Chest Physiotherapy Vibration Percussion Postural Drainage Vibration Palms of your hand are placed on chest or back of patient giving quivering motions Palms remain in contact with the chest or back Percussion Use cupped hands 50
. Sodium chloride stimulates coughing Salbutamol is a bronchodilator Purpose: o For expectoration of secretions Nursing Pre-therapy Assessment Prior to Nebulization Have baseline data of patient’s breath sounds Assess again after nebulization to assess effectiveness of the procedure SPIROMETRY Purpose is to expand the lungs Done when inhaling Instruction to the patient: o Inhale from the spirometer and NOT blow to the spirometer Procedure: o Inhale – exhale o Inhale – exhale fully o Place mouthpiece between teeth o Hold breath for four (4) seconds o Then inhale.
respiratory rate. the following baseline data are needed: o Breath sounds o Vital signs o Continuous ECG monitoring During the procedure: o Ensure the comfort of the patient o Provide a kidney basin and tissue paper Nursing Alert! o Watch out for signs of symptoms which may require stopping of the procedure: Sudden dyspnea Cyanosis Extreme diaphoresis Sudden alteration of blood pressure. pulse rate Appearance of arrhythmias Hemoptysis General intolerance of the procedure Important Concept!
. Hands alternate in rising and coming into contact with chest or back of patient Postural Drainage Drain secretions by gravity Change positions IMPORTANT CONCEPT!!! o Rule out contraindications before performing chest physiotherapy Pre-therapy Assessment for Vibration and Percussion Assess breath sounds to know which lung fields have secretions Then assess again after procedure to check effectiveness of the procedure. Concepts!!! Vibration and percussion are done to mechanically dislodge secretions Nebulization is done to liquefy secretions Suctioning is done to clear secretions Postural Drainage is done to drain secretions using gravity Postural Drainage When done: o Before meals o Two (2) hours after meals Before doing the procedure.
STOP THE PROCEDURE and inform the physician Concepts! After the procedure assess the following: o Breath sounds o Vital signs o Quantity and quality of sputum o Overall response of the patient to the procedure Give oral hygiene o Rationale: To eliminate phlegm from the mouth Important Concept!!! Patients with cystic fibrosis benefit much from postural drainage SUCTIONING Purpose is to seek out secretions Concepts!!! Question: o If you have only one (1) suction catheter. then proceed to the nose Rationale: o This is done for aesthetic reasons
TYPES OF SUCTIONING Type of Position of Suctioning the Patient while Suctioning
Interval with each Pass of
. suction the mouth first. If any of the above occurs. which will you suction first. you will trigger the sneezing reflex and this would result into aspiration Answer: o If the patient is an adult. the nose or the mouth? Answer: o If the patient is an infant or a newborn: Start on the mouth then proceed to the nose Rationale: o If you start on the nose.
centimeters Head turned to one side (towards the nurse) Not more 20 – 30 than 10 – seconds 15 seconds Not more than 5 minutes
If the patient is Place on one 10 – 15 unconscious side (facing the centimeters nurse).Suction Oropharyngeal Suctioning If patient conscious is Fowler’s (high 10 – 15 or moderate). Fowler’s position If the patient is Flat on bed unconscious with head turned to the nurse Lateral position may be assumed TYPES OF SUCTIONING Type of Position of Suctioning the Patient while Suctioning From tip of the nose to tip of the earlobe From tip of the nose to the tip of the earlobe
Not more 20 – 30 than 10 – seconds 15 seconds
Not more than 5 minutes
Not more 20 – 30 than 10 – seconds 15 seconds Not more 20 – 30 than 10 – seconds 15 seconds
Not more than 5 minutes Not more than 5 minutes
Interval with each Pass of Suction
. Tilt neck to move head slightly forward towards the basin to avoid aspiration during suctioning Nasopharyngeal Suctioning If the patient is Neck should be conscious hyperextended.
seconds minutes position sternum If the patient Flat on Measure Not more 20 – 30 Not more is bed.seconds minutes trachea sternum through the mouth Nasotracheal Suctioning If the patient Low to From tip of Not more 20 – 30 Not more is conscious semithe nose to than 10 seconds than 5 fowler’s earlobe to seconds minutes position dominating side of neck to the thyroid cartilage If the patient Flat on From tip of is bed. the nose to unconscious Suction earlobe to trachea dominating through the side of nose neck to the thyroid cartilage Not more 20 – 30 Not more than 10 – seconds than 5 15 minutes seconds
TYPES OF SUCTIONING
.Orotracheal Suctioning If patient is Low to Measure Not more 20 – 30 Not more conscious semifrom mouth than 10 seconds than 5 fowler’s to mid. from mouth than 10 seconds than 5 unconscious Suction to mid.
Type of Suctioning
Endotracheal Tube Suctioning
Interval Total with Time each Pass of Suction Semi-Fowler’s 12. than 5 Insert as minutes far as it goes until you meet resistance or until patient coughs Semi-Fowler’s Insert as 5 – 10 2 – 3 if not far as it seconds minutes contraindicated gets until you meet resistance or until the patient coughs Not more than 5 minutes
Position of the Patient while Suctioning
Tracheostomy Tube Suctioning
.5 5 – 10 2 – 3 Not if not centimeters seconds minutes more contraindicated or 6 inches.
5 ml to 5.Important Concepts!!! For Endotracheal Suctioning o NO TUBE IS USED HERE o This is suctioning of the trachea through the mouth or through the nose Two (2) types of Endotracheal Suctioning o Orotracheal Suctioning Oral approach o Nasotracheal Suctioning Nasal approach General Conditions for Suctioning For Endotracheal and Tracheostomy (Naso and Oral and Tube) o Before suctioning. ET Tube o Nursing Alert! During insertion. the other lumen brings out secretions from the patient) In the event of encrustations. HYPEROXYGENATE the patient o During intervals. PERFORM TRACHEAL LAVAGE o Instill 2.e. Tracheostomy. tenacious secretions.0 ml Normal Saline Solution for adults to liquefy the mucous plug o Instill 2. DO NOT USE AN AMBUBAG o Use an OXYGEN INSUFFLATION SUCTION CATHETER instead!!! o This is a two-lumen catheter (one lumen brings oxygen to the patient. if you encounter resistance. HYPEROXYGENATE the patient For ET. keep finger away from suction port if you are still not ready) How to Hyperoxygenate the Patient Give two (2) to three (3) blows by ambubag Increase flow rate and concentration of oxygen Nursing Alert! o If the patient has thick. withdraw the catheter about one centimeter (1 cm) before applying suction o Rationale: To avoid trauma on the mucous membrane o Do suctioning intermittently o Suctioning should not be continuous o Rotate the catheter (between the thumb and the index finger) as you withdraw o Apply suction only when you are ready to withdraw (i.0 ml Normal Saline Solution for children to liquefy the mucous plug
5 ml to 1.0 ml Normal Saline Solution for infants to liquefy the mucous plug VITAL SIGNS TEMPERATURE Oral Axillary Rectal Oral Method Most convenient Most accessible Nursing Alert! o Applicability is for children aged six (6) years and above o Not applicable for children below six (6) years old Contraindicated in patients with: o Oral surgery o Mouth breathers o History of convulsive seizures o Unconscious o Incoherent o Irrational o Mentally disrupted o Insane Procedure o Nothing Per Orem for about thirty (30) minutes before taking temperature o No food intake o No drinks o No smoking o No chewing gum o No whistling o No gargling Rationale: o Any of the above would alter the result Placement: o Under the tongue. beside the frenulum (right or left) Total Time: o Two (2) to three (3) minutes Axillary Method Least realiable Safest method 57
. Instill 0.
valsalva maneuver leads to arrhythmias Position of Patient when taking the reading: o Sim’s left position o Sim’s right position o For Newborn. the rectal method is only second most reliable and second most accurate Disadvantage: o Placement on a different site yields a different reading o Therefore. be sure that axilla is dry o Dry using a patting motion Nursing Alert! o Do NOT RUB!!! Rationale: o This increases heat due to friction o Rubbing increases blood supply to the area o Therefore. lift up ankles to keep buttocks up o In Toddlers. ensure that the bulb of the rectal thermometer rests on the mucous membrane Contraindications: o Hemorrhoids o Rectal Surgery o Certain Cardiac ailments due to stimulation of the vagus nerve. set on prone position on adult’s lap Duration: o Two (2) minutes Conversion of Centigrade to Fahrenheit Centigrade = (5/9)F – 32 Centigrade = (F/1. there will be increase in temperature reading o Rubbing provides a false-positive elevation of temperature reading Duration: o In adults – nine (9) minutes o In children – five (5) minutes Rectal Method Most reliable (except for tympanic thermometer) Most accurate (except for tympanic thermometer) Concept! o If tympanic method is used using a tympanic thermometer. Nursing Alert! o During application.8) – 32 Conversion of Fahrenheit to Centigrade Fahrenheit = (9/5)C + 32 58
8)C + 32 Concepts!!! Peak body temperature occurs at 12NN to 3PM or 4PM Lowest body temperature occurs in the early morning hours of the day FEVER Normally. making a person enter the FIRST STAGE OF FEVER First Stage of Fever Typical signs and symptoms indicate the body’s compliance mechanism to increase and conserve heat: o Chills o Shivering o Gooseflesh Contraction of arectores pilorum or pilo arecti muscles o Vasoconstriction Decreases blood supply to the skin Pallid Skin o Cyanotic nail beds Key Concept!!! o Patient complains of feeling cold o Sweating will stop because body will minimizes heat loss Also called: o Onset Stage o Chill Stage o Cold Stage This stage is characterized by low febrile temperatures Nursing Management o Key Concept Aim is to minimize heat loss o Key Concept Do NOT apply TEPID SPONGE BATH because this would make patient progress to SHOCK Provide additional clothing as necessary Provide additional blankets as necessary 59
. Fahrenheit = (1. the hypothalamus is able to adjust body temperatures between 37°C to 40°C But due to the presence of pyrogenic materials like the following: o Pathogenic microorganisms o Toxins o Foreign substances o Any substance capable of increasing body temperature Creates a deficiency of -3°C.
which increases temperature 60
. there is a corresponding increase in pulse rate Rationale: o Increase in temperature results in an increase in pulse rate due to increased metabolic rate o Increased metabolic rate increases oxygen demand o Due to increased oxygen demand of susceptible brain cells. Provide something warm to drink These measures would result to a gradual increase in body temperature Question: o When will you start application of TSB? Answer: o If there is a 1°C to 2°C increase in body temperature Second Stage of Fever Also called: o Coarse Stage of Fever o Peak Stage of Fever Key Concept! o Patient does not feel hot or cold o Skin is warm to touch o Skin is flushed o Fever blisters are present Herpetic lesions o Absence of shivering o Possible dehydration Important Concept!!! o For every increase of temperature. These may also be due to irritation of nerve cells – FEBRILE CONVULSIONS Increased oxygen demand also leads to an increase in respiratory rate Patient complains of: o Loss of appetite o Myalgia or muscle pains due to increased catabolism Nursing Management o Tepid Sponge Bath o Cooling Bed Bath Tepid Sponge Bath Temperature of water is 32°C o This temperature is maintained throughout the procedure How to apply: o Done by patting Rationale: o To avoid friction. CONVULSIVE SEIZURES may occur.
Constant Fever Minimal fluctuations of temperature. This is legal! If pulse is irregular. Duration is within a 24-hour period 3. utilize ice Same procedure of application as in Tepid Sponge Bath Types of Fever 1. Staircase or Spiking Fever Common in patients with TYPHOID FEVER PULSE ASSESSMENT Concepts! If pulse is regular. Intermittent Fever A fever that is alternated at regular intervals by periods of normal and subnormal temperature 2. count or monitor pulse for thirty (30) seconds and multiply by two (2). TSB will stimulate shivering o Shivering would lead to increased muscle activity o Increased muscle activity would lead to increased temperature Cooling Bed Bath Water temperature will start at 32°C Procedure will go on with gradual decrease in water temperature until it is maintained at 18°C Therefore. Important Concept! o Do NOT use ALCOHOL when applying TSB Rationale: o Alcohol dries the skin and leads to irritation Key Concept! o TSB should not be done hurriedly Rationale: o When done hurriedly. count or monitor the pulse for one (1) FULL minute
. Relapsing Fever Short periods of febrile episodes alternated by one (1) to two (2) days of normal temperature 4. Remittent Fever Fever alternated by wide range of fluctuations in temperature. all of which are ABOVE NORMAL 5. all of them are ABOVE NORMAL. to achieve this drop in temperature.
Assessment of the Pulse Deficit This is the most accurate method Involves two nurses using one watch Starts at the same time Ends at the same time Comparison of results ensues Count is done for one (1) full minute Scale in Pulse Assessment 0 . o Deflate gradually – rate is approximately 2 – 3 mmHg per second Alternative auscultatory method
.Grounding BLOOD PRESURE Systolic Produced by ventricular contraction Pressure on blood vessels during depolarization or ventricular contraction Diastolic Pressure that remains in the walls of the blood vessels during relaxation or repolarization or resting Broadly two (2) types: Direct o By insertion of a catheter Indirect Method o Auscultatory method o Palpatory method o Flush Method Auscultatory Method Uses Korotkoff sound o A popping sound o NOT the heart beat o It is a phenomenon – an unknown phenomenon! Determining Amount of Inflation Using auscultatory method o Ask patient what is his last BP reading and then add 30 – 40 mmHg from last systolic reading.Absent or cannot be felt 1+ .Weak or thready 2+ .Normal 3+ .
Example: 140 mmHg systolic – first loudest sound 100 mmHg 1st diastolic – muffling 70 mmHg 2nd diastolic – last sound o Therefore. the tripartite blood pressure is 140 / 100 / 70 If there is no muffling.o Auscultate for the last sound as you go up. whether it is faint or loud If. an example would be: o 160 / no muffling / 110 Concepts!!! Take systolic on loudest sound if patient is an adult If patient is pediatric or up to ten (10) years old. Then add 30 – 40 mmHg o Then deflate Tripartite Blood Pressure Done if patient is an adult. proceed using the auscultatory method Flush Method Represents the mean blood pressure Represents the average of the systolic and diastolic pressures When done: o When you have a BP apparatus without a stethoscope o Used for pediatric patients How done: o Inflate up to the point where extremity becomes pale
. first sound is at 190 mmHg and there is silence up to 140 mmHg and then there is a sound at 130 mmHg down to 80 mmHg then… Use the PALPATORY METHOD in combination with the AUSCULTATORY METHOD because there is an auscultatory gap Repeat using: Auscultatory method Palpatory method How to do the Palpatory Method Inflate o Determine up to what point to inflate o Palpate pulse o If pulse is absent. for example. add 30 – 40 mmHg Deflate o First palpable pulse is true systolic pressure For diastolic pressure. take the first sound.
sustained pressure o Localized ischemia o Shearing force o Pressure plus friction Predisposing Factors: o Unconsciousness o Incontinence o Loss of Sensation o Hypoproteinemia Decreased lean muscle mass Increase in fluid shifting leads to edema Dependent position is the skin attached to or facing the bed o Emaciation Stages of Decubitus Ulcer Formation Stage 1 Involves the epidermis Manifestation o Non-blanchable erythema of INTACT SKIN o This is the first heralding sign of decubitus ulceration Stage 2 Partial Thickness Skin Loss Involves epidermis and dermis Manifestation o Blister formation o Shallow craters o Shallow abrasion and ulceration Stage 3 Full Thickness Skin Loss Ulceration There is skin loss already Involves necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues EXTENDING TO but NOT THROUGH the underlying fascia Stage 4
.o Deflate slowly and look for a REBOUND FLUSH – when extremity becomes red again This is the true reading!! Note that there is only ONE reading!!! SKIN INTEGRITY Decubitus ulcers are caused by: o Unrelieved.
Formations and manifestations of Stage 3 plus… o Involvement of bones, supporting structures (tendons), joint capsules o Massive damage Tools to Assess Risk of Ulceration Norton’s Pressure Area Risk Assessment Form Shannon’s Scoring System Branden Scale of Predicting Ulceration Waterlow Risk Assessment Cards o Most important tool o Most common tool o Most often used tool EDEMA Caused by shifting of fluid into the interstitial tissues Management of Edema 1. Elevation of the edematous part Nursing Alert! If edema is due to Congestive Heart Failure (Right Sided), NEVER ELEVATE THE LOWER EXTREMITIES Rationale: This increases the workload of the right side of the heart Concept! If edema is due to prolonged standing, DO THE ELEVATION 2. Wear elastic stockings 3. Use warm compress alternated with cold compress Rationale: Vasoconstriction and vasodilation causes re-circulation of fluid Concept! This is contraindicated if there is inflammation Assessment of Edema Induration 1+ 1 cm induration 2+ 2 cm induration 3+ 3 cm induration 4+ 4 cm induration 5+ 5 cm induration
PAIN MANAGEMENT Pain A noxious stimulation of actual or threatened / potential tissue damage Categories of Pain according to Origin Cutaneous o Skin Deep Somatic o Tendons, ligaments o Bones o Blood Vessels Visceral Pain o Organs of the body Categories of Pain based on Cause Acute o Due to trauma or surgery o Persists for less than six (6) months Chronic Malignant Pain o Related to cancer o On and off o Persists for more than six (6) months Chronic Non-malignant Pain o Persists for more than six (6) months Categories of Pain according to Where It Is Experienced Radiating Pain o Felt on the source and is extending to nearby tissues Referred Pain o Felt on other parts detached from the source o Example: o Pain on a lacerated liver may be felt on the right shoulder and not on the right upper quadrant Intractable Pain o Highly resistant to pain-relief methods Phantom Pain o Pain that is felt on a MISSING BODY PART or a PART THAT IS PARALYZED by SPINAL CORD INJURY. Pain Threshold Amount of pain stimulation that is required in order to feel pain Pain Tolerance
Maximum amount of pain and duration that a person is willing to endure Gate Control Theory Concept! This is the most widely used theory in pain management Concepts! At the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a gate. This gate is called the SUBSTANCIA GELATINOSA A series of nerves pass through this gate Small diameter nerve fibers pass through the substancia gelatinosa o Pain signals are carried to the spinal cord by the small diameter nerve fibers Large diameter nerve fibers also pass through the substancia gelatinosa o Large diameter nerve fibers close the gate – prevents the transmission of impulses through the spinal cord o Therefore, when LARGE DIAMETER NERVE FIBERS ARE STIMULATED, THE GATE IS CLOSED Pain management operates on the principle of how to stimulate the Large Diameter Nerve Fibers to close the gate. Pain Management Strategies Pharmacologic Methods Narcotics NSAIDs Adjuvants or Co-analgesics Non-Pharmacologic Methods Physical Interventions Cognitive / Behavioral Interventions Non-Pharmacologic Physical Interventions 1. Cutaneous Stimulation Massage o Effleurage o Soft massage o Gentle stroking Petrissage o Hard massage o Large and quick pinches o Also done by striking Application of Counter-Irritant o Bengay
Administration of a Placebo Relieves pain because of its intent and not because of physical or chemical properties 68
.Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Composed of electrodes Operated by battery Electrodes are applied on painful site or over the spinal cord 4. which have natural analgesic effects o This started in Ancient China Accupuncture o Insertion of long slender needles on certain chemical pathways o Origin is also Ancient china Contralateral Stimulation o Example: Injury on left side and massage is done on the right side o Useful when patient cannot be accessed: For patients in a cast For patients with burns For patients with phantom pain
2. Immobilization Application of splints 3. there is vasodilation (skin becomes reddish) o This is the inherent defense mechanism from being frozen Accupressure o Pressure on certain points of the body o Stimulates release of endorphins.
o Menthol o Omega Pain Killer o Flax Seeds o Poultices Heat and Cold Application o Nursing Alert! o Rebound Phenomenon When you apply heat (usually done for 20 minutes). vasodilation is produced If heat is applied for more than 20 minutes. there is vasoconstriction This is an inherent defense mechanism from burning of tissues Cold Application o Maximum vasoconstriction is reached when skin reaches 15°C o If there is further drom in temperature.
Distraction Purpose is to divert attention from pain Slow Rhythmic Breathing o Stare at a certain object o Take deep breath slowly o Release or exhale slowly o Concentrate on breathing o Picture a peaceful scene o Establish a rhythmic pattern 2.Massage and Slow Rhythmic Breathing 3.Guided Imagery Imagine that you are walking along a peaceful shore Eyes are closed and suggestions are given 5.Cognitive or Behavioral Non-Pharmacologic Interventions Purpose: o To alter pain perception o To alter pain behavior o To provide client with a greater sense of control over the pain Specific Interventions 1.Hypnosis The success of hypnosis depends on the ability of the patient to concentrate and the capacity of the hypnotist to suggest Based on suggestion Progressive relaxation URINARY ELIMINATION Oliguria Renal output of less than 500 ml per day Anuria Renal output of less than 100 ml per day Retention Positive for distended bladder May also occur in the absence of bladder distention 69
.Rhythmic Singing and Tapping Key Concept! o Faster beat music is more preferable 4.
Stress Incontinence Loss of urine is less than 50 ml occurring with increased intra-abdominal pressure o Occurs when laughing o Occurs when sneezing o Occurs when smiling Total Incontinence Continuous flow of urine No bladder distention No bladder spasm No awareness of bladder filling Urge Incontinence
. bladder control is present for at least one year o Then. enuresis comes back o Urinating could NOT be controlled again Incontinence Involuntary passage of urine Types of Incontinence 1.Altered Urinary Elimination Enuresis Common among pediatric patients Age 4 – 5 years old child has adequate bladder control Primary Enuresis o Never had a dry period Secondary Enuresis o Acquired enuresis o At age 7.Functional Incontinence Involuntary passage Unpredictable time 2.Reflex Incontinence Occurs at somewhat predictable times when specific bladder volume is reached No awareness of bladder filling No urge to void It may be related to neurologic impairment 3.
Crede’s Maneuver Application of a steady but gentle pressure on the supra-pubic region to force urine out of the bladder Nursing Alert! o Do not use if there is OBSTRUCTION (i.Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization Applicable for Reflex Incontinence How done: o Use a mirror for: Obese male patients Female patients Concept! o Possible Board Question: Is your Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization procedure a sterile procedure? o Answer: No. Urine flows as soon as a strong sense of feeling to void occurs Strong bladder spasm Management of Incontinence 1. Therefore.e. 3. try to stop in the middle of flow or try to stop diarrhea from flowing o Advantage of Kegel’s Exercises o Increases muscle tone of the pelvis o Increases muscle control 2. you can just wash the catheter for the next use. it is just a clean procedure.Kegel’s Exercises Also called: o Pubococcygeal Muscle Exercises o Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercises Applicable for: o Functional Incontinence o Stress Incontinence How done: o Advise patient to stand with legs slightly apart o Concentrate on perineum o Draw perineum upward slowly Alternative way: o When urinating. renal obstruction in the form of renal stones)
Catheterization MIDSTREAM CLEAN CATCH URINE SPECIMEN How is this done? If patient is a Male… o Clean the penis o Do this from the meatus down to the shaft o Let the patient urinate o Discard the first or the initial urine o Collect midstream urine o Purpose is to attain sterile specimen for urine culture and sensitivity testing If patient is a Female… o Let patient wash genitals o Dry the genitals o Get to bed Place patient in semi-Fowler’s position when she is ready to void Clean and spread labia with two fingers Remain holding labia Then let patient urinate Let go of first flow Collect next flow CATHETERIZATION Coude Catheter o Elbowed catheter for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy patients Robinson Catheter o Straight catheter Multi-Lumen Retention Catheter o Foley catheter One lumen is for inflation One lumen is for drainage of urine One lumen is for irrigation A three-way catheter
.Application of Adult Catheter and External Condom Catheter For elderly with Total Incontinence 6.o This is done only for patients who are no longer expected to regain control (Reflex incontinence and retention) 4.Prompted Voiding or Scheduled Toileting For Reflex Incontinence 5.
Aspirate using syringe and needle This is made with a self-sealing rubber Concepts!!! See to it that penis is perpendicular to body to straighten up the urethra to bladder While inserting the catheter. the point at which urine starts to flow. insert further by five (5) centimeter before inflating balloon GIT – FECAL ELIMINATION Wellness Teachings Fluid intake of at least 2. ask the patient to breathe through the mouth Cleanse the penis before insertion Grasp penis firmly to avoid stimulating erections Where to tape catheter o Tape it upward on the abdomen Rationale: o To avoid scrotal excoriation o Tape on the inner thigh (with penis sideways either on left or right and follow the normal contour of the penis Length of Catheter o 40 centimeters Depth of Insertion o While inserting. insert further by five (5) centimeters and then inflate the balloon – KOZIER o Insert up to a the Y-point. retract after inflating (this method is more prone to infection For females o Insert at female Urethra Length of Catheter o 22 centimeters Depth of Insertion o Point at which urine starts to flow.000 ml per day Regular exercise High fiber diet Avoid ignoring the urge to defecate Do not abuse laxatives Concepts! For Flatulence o Avoid carbonated drinks o Do not use straw o Avoid chewing gum
Guiac Test To determine the presence of occult blood Concepts!!! o Have a meat-less diet three (3) days before examination o Withhold oral iron supplements o Injectible iron is allowed o Avoid any food that discolors the stool.o Avoid gas-forming foods: Camote Cabbage Cauliflower Onions For Constipation: Increase fluid intake Prune juice Papaya Increase fiber in the diet Use METAMUCIL (natural fiber) instead of laxatives Special Laboratory Procedures 1. Cleansing Enema
.GI SERIES Upper GI Series – Barium Swallow Nursing Considerations: o Elimination of contrast medium How: o Increase fluid intake o Increase fiber in the diet Rationale: o To offset the risk of constipation o Inform patient that the color of the stool will be WHITE Lower GI Series – Barium Enema Done at the radiology department Nursing Concern: o Elimination of Barium How: o Cleansing enema may be needed after barium enema Different Types of Enema 1. 2.
use lemon juice or dilute vinegar instead!!! Nursing Alert! o Also contraindicated in possible appendicitis or appendicitis patients Rationale: o Can lead to rupture of the appendix 2. Oil Retention Enema Purpose: o To lubricate the colon and to soften the feces o Retention time is one (1) to three (3) hours 4. Soap suds enema Alkaline solution Nursing Alert! o Contraindicated in patients with liver cirrhosis and with increased ammonia in the blood Rationale: o Alkaline solution facilitates transfer of ammonia from the GI tract to the bloodstream Therefore. Sim’s Left position facilitates flow of enema to sigmoid colon o Then. assume Dorsal Recumbent position to facilitate flow of enema to transverse colon o Then. Positions in Enema Cleansing Enema High Cleansing Enema o Clean as much of the colon as possible o On introduction. Right Side-Lying position to facilitate flow of enema to the descending colon Low Cleansing Enema o For cleaning of rectum and colon only SEXUALITY
. Carminative Enema Used to expel out flatus Burned sugar Now commercially available 3. Retention Flow Enema Also called Harish Flush Enema Solution is continually administered until what comes out of the body is clear.
typhoid fever may be obtained from anningulus Male and Female oral sex is called SOIXANTE NEUF Physiological Sexual Stimulation Stimulation by: o Smell o Sight o Hearing o Fantasy o Spoken words o Mental imagery During stimulation or Period of Excitement Males o Erection of the penis Females o Redness near the ear o Nipples. the cervix rises Plateau Stage Lasts thirty (30) seconds to three (3) minutes In males:
. breasts move up o Fourchette retracts o Clitoris becomes visible o Increased vaginal secretion o If female is unaroused.Human Sexual Response Excitement / Physical Stimulation Erotic stimuli causes sexual stimulation Lasts for a few minutes to several hours Types of Stimulation Physical Stimulation Oral stimulation o Fellatio Oral stimulation of the penis using the mouth o Cunningulus Oral stimulation of the vagina o Anningulus Oral stimulation of the anus In homosexual male. there is backpain as penis hits the cervix If the female is well-stimulated.
o Scrotum rises upward o Shaft of penis increases in length and width In females: o Cervix rises In both sexes: o There is increased muscle tone o Myotonia Orgasmic Phase or Orgasmic Stage Climax of sexual tension Peak of sexual experience Lasts three (3) to ten (10) seconds Resolution Stage Key Concepts! o Females have longer resolution phase o Males have shorter resolution phase PERIOPERATIVE NURSING Stages of Perioperative Nursing Pre-operative Phase Intra-operative Phase Post-operative Phase Pre-operative Phase Begins upon decision of patient to undergo the operation Ends when patient is placed on the operating table Intra-operative Phase Begins when patient is placed on the operating table Ends when client is admitted to the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit or PACU Post-operative Phase Begins upon admission to the PACU Ends upon the discharge of the patient Skin Preparation Purpose: o To reduce post-operative infection by: Removing soil and transient microbes Reducing microbial count to subpathological level in a short period of time with minimal skin irritation. Concepts!
Clean Wound Uninfected No inflammation Respiratory. Urinary tracts are entered
3. Contaminated Wound Involves large spillage of content from the GI. the best method would be through the use of: o Clippers o Depilatory cream Shaving is NOT ADVISED. gangrenous wound Modes of Applying Gauze Dressing 1. Alimentary and Urinary tracts are not entered 2. Wet to Dry Inner layer is saturated with NSS or anti-microbial agent On top is a moist absorbent material 3. Urinary and Respiratory tracts Positive for inflammation Positive for infection Dirty Infected Wound Old wounds Necrotic. Hair on the skin should not be shaved if it does not interfere with the procedure If hair needs to be removed. Wet to Damp A variation of wet to dry
. GI. Dry to Dry A wide mesh of cotton applied to the surface of the wound A second layer is applied over it 2. Clean Contaminated Wound A surgical wound No evidence of infection Respiratory. This is the last choice Where is shaving done? o Not at the Operating Room! TYPES OF WOUNDS 1.
It is removed before it is completely dried 4. Wet to Wet Inner layer is saturated with NSS or anti-microbial solution Second layer is a wide mesh It is kept moist with a wetting agent