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SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN

DANEYAL MIRZA - L1F09BBAM0240

SUBMITTED TO SIR . ASHRAF YOUSAFI

or any situation that invites resolution. Rather.2 What is a problem? A problem is an obstacle. unless at least a segment of society believes these conditions diminish the quality of human life. and that it should and can be changed. through the media. We see the homeless. among individuals and groups within a society. the resolution of which is recognized as a solution or contribution toward a known purpose or goal. we arrive at the following definition: a social problem is a social condition that a segment of society views as harmful to members of society and in need of remedy. they all share two important elements: an objective social condition and a subjective interpretation of that social condition. A problem implies a desired outcome coupled with an apparent deficiency. doubt or inconsistency that prevents the outcome from taking place. or to a segment of society. By combining these objective and subjective elements. impediment. We know that crime. We become aware of social conditions through our own life experiences. and see battered women in hospital emergency rooms. racism. The subjective element of a social problem refers to the belief that a particular social condition is harmful to society. . The objective element of a social problem refers to the existence of a social condition. constant. hear gunfire in the streets. drug addiction. or absolute definition of what constitutes a social problem.S Objective and subjective elements of social problems Although social problems take many forms. In television news reports we see the anguished faces of parents whose children have been killed by violent youth. and through education. What is a social problem? There is no universal. difficulty or challenge. poverty. and across historical time periods. social problems are defined by a combination of objective and subjective criteria that vary across societies. however. and pollution exist. violence. We read about employees losing their jobs as business downsize and factories close. These social conditions are not considered social problems.

A failure to do this risked losing Pakistan to the Islamists. The pages of history are littered with them. since the present administration has continued the Bush practice of letting generals set national policy in this theatre. With a population roughly half that of the United States in an area slightly less than the size of two California's. INTERNAL PROBLEMS War against terror The tragedy now unfolding in Pakistan is occurring due the pursuit of shortsighted policies by the United States as well as the Pakistan government and military. all serve to prevent Pakistan from attaining the progress it needs to advance. The Pakistani rulers (bedazzled by the glitter of all those promised billions) have meekly complied in waging war on parts of their own people. the great (and avoidable) tragedy is that the policies the US is pursuing in the region greatly increase the likelihood of the loss of Pakistan to the Islamists. and Pakistan figures only as an often-reluctant subordinate player in their operations. and an economy trapped in a cycle of debt. Whatever the actual chain of events that transpires. While projections indicate that the population growth rate of Pakistan may actually be decreasing. those same projections also predict that by the year 2050 Pakistan will have assumed its place as the third most populated nation in the world. A rapidly growing population. and economic problems. for both Pakistan and the US.3 SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN Introduction Pakistan suffers from a number of social. The generals are fixated on their war in Afghanistan. unfortunately. The main impact of this has been to the civilian population. and recommended what might be a rational policy for it to pursue. This was to first shore up Pakistan instead of waging a war in Afghanistan (with Pakistan forced to act in a supporting role). again with no thought to the likely outcome for them and their country. and perhaps to survive. The US has pressured Pakistan into engaging in brutal military operations in Bajaur and Swat. with no regard for how this would affect its own vital interests in the region. both internal and external. Solutions: 1) 2) Try to reconcile with our strayed brothers Try to employ forces into the danger areas . some million and a half of whom have been displaced (with many killed and maimed. Pakistan is experiencing unwanted growth. The likelihood of such a policy being adopted is nil. military campaigns divorced from the real needs of national policy usually end up as expensive failures. political. are easy to imagine. which would render pointless whatever the US could achieve in Afghanistan. Any successes the generals can achieve in their war in Afghanistan would be meaningless. although no figures for these are yet available). along with political tensions. Taliban are the real threat that the United States faces in this theatre. The frightening consequences of this.

Furthermore. . the Pakistani government spends roughly one fifth of its budget on its military. Literacy being defined as those over 15 who can read and write. further limiting potential spending on social improvements and programs. In terms of population. Pakistan remains overpopulated and poor. the possession of this region has been a source of contention between mostly Hindu India and mostly Muslim Pakistan. low literacy rates are often observed with high population growth. This prevents Pakistan from devoting significant resources to economic development and/or social improvements Solutions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Dig out your natural resources to fullest Make you country safe for foreign investment Utilize your own resources Don’t sell out your raw materials instead make industry and utilize it Be the debt giver not the taker Education Perhaps the greatest loss comes in the area of education. half of government expenditures are dedicated to fulfilling debt repayment obligations.8% (50% for men and 24. Musharraf's military dictatorship has understandably not placed great emphasis on education in Pakistan. In addition. Kashmir is a predominantly Muslim state within India. This is best illustrated by the fact that only 38 million of Pakistan's 141 million people make up the entire labor force. Without monetary resources with which to fight the numerous problems of the nation. educational improvements are given and inordinately low priority. With so many resources directed towards the aforementioned debt payment. a poorly educated populace makes Pakistan a poor choice for the foreign investors that it so desperately needs. Due to these hostilities.4%) lends itself to a society where most women never enter the labor force.4% for women). Due to all of these sources of debt. creating less incentives for them to limit the size of their families. it is undoubtedly connected. Secondarily. Primarily this debt has accumulated due to the continuing conflict with India over the Kashmir region. The debt accrued by Pakistan has come from several sources. This border conflict has been raging on and off for the last half of the twentieth century. the extremely low literacy rate among Pakistani women (24. additional grants and loans are required each year totaling approximately 25% of revenues.4 3) 4) Try to figure out the root of the terrorism Stop the nurturing of extreme islam Monstrous Debt Pakistan's chief problem is a monstrous debt. Whether or not this is a direct result of Pakistan's economic problems. In order to finance these payments. As such. This is evident upon examination of Pakistan's overall literacy rate of 37. A poorly educated population is unlikely to participate in family planning or any other form of population control.

Pakistan lacks the resources to bring about positive economic development.000 dollars of GDP per person (adjusted for purchasing power parity). any potential aid given is not guaranteed to reach its intended recipient.. the average citizen is forced to live off very limited resources. despite a mere 7% unemployment. Without positive economic development. This is reflected in the fact that 34% of the population lives below the poverty line. Solution: Make sure the poor gets equitable jobs Make sure loans are given so that the poor can utilize them Make sure the minimum wage is enough for the poor Help the poor start new ventures to earn their living Government Formerly a federal republic. Without foreign investors. you get the point. With an average of 2. and its parliament disbanded. With Pakistan's constitution suspended. General Musharraf's regime has yet to win the support of the international lending community. Pakistan is unable to attract foreign investors. Pakistan's now military controlled dictatorship is a large part of the problem. is the large portion of Pakistan's population that lives in poverty.. Without foreign investment. Pakistan's lack of fiscal resources is yet another barrier against foreign investment. Until democracy is restored in Pakistan it will be very difficult to affect any kind of positive change in other areas that so desperately need it. as the World Bank has refrained from issuing an endorsement of Pakistan. Solutions: 1) Make steps towards real democracy 2) Force the government to be fair towards election 3) Make sure the right person is selected by the people Excessive Population .5 Solution: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Build more schools Make education cheap Higher the standard Apply single education system Make sure the population is going to schools by awareness Poverty Deeply linked to the massive debt and poorly educated people.

6 Simply put. since the population will be nearly triple what it is now. To avoid this situation we need to begin working towards lower population growth rates in every country around the world. It is not desirable to reach this point. however. It is especially important. the world can only support so many people with the resources that we have available to us. Solution: 1) Make sure the awareness of less children is effectively spread 2) Make sure the poor rural people produce less off springs 3) Put bans on more children Energy Problems in Pakistan & solutions . and food that the earth provides. It is easy to see that the growth rate is expected to decline. where our resources limit us to a point where growth is impossible. This graph displays both the actual and projected growth rates for Pakistan over the next 50 years. No one knows exactly what the carrying capacity of the earth is. though. fossil fuels. however we do know that there is a finite number of people who can live on this planet. even a small growth rate produces a large increase in population. These scarce resources include fresh water. to limit those growth rates in countries where they are highest and have the greatest potential to reach these undesirable limits.

7 Pakistan is in big trouble due to less energy in the state so here are some new solutions to it:  Most of the new reactor designs are third-generation pressurized-water reactors (PWR). spiritual and the list goes on. It’s a world abound with countless problems. although companies in China. and safer. Most of the new reactor designs are third-generation pressurized-water reactors (PWR). Every country in the world has its own set of socio-economic problems. and the little human infant grows up to be an adult ready to face the challenges of the world he was born in. more powerful. based on domestic designs. Parents want to provide the newborn with the best of everything. although companies in China.  The new reactors are supposed to be inexpensive to build. I will discuss . Usually those social needs which persist in a society for long period of time without being fulfilled owing to restrained budgetary scenarios. He sees around him with a hope of finding the same perfection in everything which his parents had provided him with.  If the basic needs of man. which may lead to a larger order. and they can be operated for up to 60 years.social. The real issue is not the presence of these problems in society because. The major problems of a society are linked with the providence of basic necessities of life to the people making up the society. Japan is building five new power plants by 2010. legal. India has nine power plants under construction. and South Africa are looking to build a fourth-generation design called a gas-pebble-bed reactor (PBMR). Socio Economic Problems The most beautiful moment in the life of humans is when someone of their own blood calls them ‘mama’ or ‘papa’. and is building its second of four power plants for Pakistan. The main issue is the extent and intensity of the socioeconomic problems of Pakistan which have soared to alarming levels. France. and safer. according to nuclear . In no time. there is no wonder that it is engulfed with a number of social and economical problems. he realizes that the Utopian concept of a perfect world should be confined to the fictional Island created by Thomas More in his widely renowned novel only. In the context of Pakistan. there is no concept of an ideal society in the world. Certain social and economic conditions become a menace for the society when they start asserting negative influence on the society.power trade groups.  The new reactors are supposed to be inexpensive to build. more powerful. France. say industry analysts. including a fast-breeder reactor that generates its own fuel. according to nuclear .shelter. protected and taken care of. The blissful period of childhood soon gets over. Nuclear-industry officials have long said that the majority of growth would come in Asia  . and South Africa are looking to build a fourth-generation design called a gas-pebble-bed reactor (PBMR). as stated earlier. food and clothing are not fulfilled. and they can be operated for up to 60 years. they turn into socio-economic problems. political. by 2020. He is pampered. economic. owing to the fact that it is a developing nation. and China plans to build 30 nuclear reactors. China also sees nuclear technology as a major export opportunity. the deprivation of these needs gradually transform into different forms of social menaces.power trade groups. That Utopia was far from reality and had nothing to do with the world around us.

They live in miserable conditions. Private sector is doing commendable job for the promotion of educational culture in Pakistan. Schools and colleges are opened as a business prospect and thus many of them lack quality. but its main objective is money-making. clothing and shelter. Despite spending millions on it.you name it and the place is not safe any more. he could not eradicate these problems completely. 70% population of Pakistan lives in villages. rehabilitation of refugees. Quaid-e-Azam tried his best to solve these problems and get the state machinery working but due to his sudden death. Subsequent governments didn’t pay considerable attention towards solution of various social problems and thus they grew with the passage of time and became social evils. Bazars. educational institutes. Over the decades. Uneducated adults contribute negligibly to the national exchequer. unsafe and sometimes contaminated drinking water are just some of their many problems. They are struggling for bread and butter. In the start there were the problems of lack of funds. Most of them don’t have access to adequate basic needs of life. Lack of proper food. Terrorism has become a headache for federation and a nightmare for public. despite decreasing. A large chunk of population lives below poverty line. It deprives children of poor people to access education and healthcare. A sense of deprivation manifests itself in form of various crimes. illiteracy rate in Pakistan has shown an upward trend. Not only that but enrollment ratio of students at primary level has shown a decreasing trend. Terrorists have not spared any place. Social Problems Pakistan has been facing a lot of social problems since its inception in 1947. poor sanitation. Public seeks answer to the question that what is their fault for which they are being punished by the terrorists? People have become numerical figures. Poverty itself gives rise to various other social problems.8 some major social and economic problems that are of serious concern for social scientists and political economists. That is why every now and then we read crime stories in newspapers that are characterized by lower orders of society who adopt illegal channels to get the financial prosperity which they can not achieve otherwise. Solution: 1) More schools . mosques. At present the gravest problem that Pakistan is facing is its precarious law and order condition. poor infrastructure and widespread poverty of masses. government has failed to achieve literacy rates comparable to other countries in South Asia. The fact that 50 percent of children do not complete their primary education testifies this fact. Government has been helpless in eradicating terrorism despite beefing up security in metropolitan cities. The biggest of these problems is poverty. Illiteracy The literacy rate lingers on 56% and ironically it also includes those people who can read and write their name in Urdu. blown up in numbers every now and then. hotels. Besides terrorism there are other social problems which are older and more widespread. offices.

Solutions: 1) Easy jobs should be given 2) Equitable distrubtion 3) Unemployment aids Child labour Child labour is widespread in Pakistan. plumbers. Also. Many corrupt people don’t even bother to do that. we find innocent malnourished children employed in various forms of labour. So they keep on looting the national treasures and find ways to legalize their black-money. They are working as welders. Meager wages are paid to these children and no facilities for education are provided. Solutions: 1) Good and effective accountability bureau 2) Check and balance should be kept 3) Salaries and compensations should be increased Unemployment Unemployment is also regarded as a major social problem. There is a lack of accountability due to which wealthy people and those in power are sure that they can’t be held responsible for their deeds. From clerical staff to higher offices and bureaucrats. Media and NGOs have always condemned child labour. According to latest report of Transparency International. People who don’t find work here migrate to other countries with better prospects. people tired of making both ends meet due to unemployment indulge in nefarious activities and ratio of crimes increases. Corruption in government departments is so much deep-rooted that a common concept prevails that the system doesn’t let honest people to work peacefully.4% but according to some private estimates the arte of unemployment is 12%.9 2) Cheap education 3) Education awareness Corruption Corruption is another huge social problem. In past. mechanics. glass and football making. There are many reasons of unemployment like influx of machinery that has replaced manpower. all are involved in corruption of one kind or the other. electricians and in industries like carpet-weaving. Major portion of Pakistan’s population consists of youth and a large number of young people who have the ability and are willing to work are unemployed. Currently rate of unemployment as per official resources is 7. But the impacts of unemployment are more serious and dangerous. Pakistan has been ranked at 42nd number among the most corrupt nations of the world. lack of new industries and defective education system. Whether in bigger cities or in small villages. some countries .

due to growing inflation and poverty. dictatorship in its worse form and non-effective democracy badly affect the rates of stocks listed on the three stock exchanges of Pakistan. Apart from these there are several economic problems which have broken the backbone of national treasury.10 refused to import those goods from Pakistan in whose making children were employed. improvise healthcare. many times Karachi Stock Rate of inflation was never a two-digit figure in Pakistan. shimmering lakes and flowing waterfalls brought many a tourist . develop technologies that make life easy and much more. terrorism and declining exports. backward and out-dated technology were not enough. parents are bound to send their children to work to light their stoves. One thing is common in all developed nations. they divert their attention to more useful things. They focus on education. 2) Result is that all our important industries that once served as an important contributor to the national GDP have been closed down. power crises. These social problems directly affect the masses. Multinational Companies are reluctant to open their offices and franchises in Pakistan. 3) Stock Exchanges also depict a true picture of economic meltdown. Foreign investors are not ready to setup their businesses in Pakistan. With limited resources it is very difficult to cater to the needs of growing population. Solutions: 1) It should be banned 2) Its should be penalized 3) Centres should be made to treat the child labour with effectivness Population expansion has been a real issue of concern for all governments. Pakistan’s indulgence in war on terrorism served as a fatal blow to the already crumbling economic state. cement and shoe industry is on its downfall while textile industry is breathing its last.they are economically sound. The beautiful hills. but in recent years it has seen an unprecedented increase 4) Northern areas of Pakistan have been a place of great tourist attraction. During this year. There is a great economic disparity among the people. Pakistan’s economic conditions are pathetic. When citizens of a country are freed from the worries of earning a livelihood to sustain their lives. Unfortunately. the lush green valleys. More than 70 MNCs have already packed up their business from Pakistan. Poor are committing suicides out of hunger while rich are busy amassing more and more wealth. Sugar. Poor economic condition is the root cause of so many problems that exist in a society. Economic Problems 1) Economic prosperity serves as a backbone for the overall progress of a nation. lack of foreign investment for the development of industrial zones. As if power crises. Instable political system. They have their own set of problems which include painful and lengthy procedure of getting licenses and work permits in Pakistan. But despite all these factors.

rainfall and groundwater. 5) Due to war on terror.  Pakistan occupies the basin of three major rivers. Around 150 million people live in this country. deforestation. This is also due in part to inadequate distribution and the coercion of the water-tanker mafia. it would take a severe toll on the environment. The rate of population growth is one of the fastest and according to estimates it would double in just 25 years (UNDP 1997). infact perhaps the main contributor to their intensity is the explosive rate of population growth. local people of war-ridden areas are migrating to other areas of Pakistan.3% of the total arable land and surface water is mainly relied upon for irrigation. urban pollution. which leads to loss of water everywhere. Indus (70% of total land area). the most important being the Southwestern monsoon between June to September. The major constraint to overcoming these problems. The high temperatures mean that there is high evaporation. Water. making it the seventh most populous country in the world. if the population continues to grow at this rate. The main reason is poor management and sustainability of natural resources owing to it being a developing country. The rainfall is dependent on the two monsoon seasons. Also included in the constraints is the unsustainable use and management of these resources. On the other hand the dry areas receive less than 125 mm on an average. Country has seen the largest migration since independence in 1947. . water logging & salinity. This contributed to foreign exchange. Average rainfall is between 50 to 1000 mm but in the isolated northern mountains it may exceed 2000 mm. These people have left their homes.  Around 90% of the food and fibre production depend on irrigation. It mainly draws its water from snow melting and precipitation. Tourism Industry was one of the booming industries of Pakistan. freshwater pollution and marine water pollution just to name a few. which is very high in contrast to the natural resources that are available to the people. What is obvious from this is. which are of great ecological concern in terms of its sustainable economic future. Kharan closed basin (15% of the total land area) and the Makran coastal basin (15% of the total land area) are the three basins. is now facing further shortages. which is of considerable importance to the country. already a scarce commodity in most parts of the country. possessions and property back home Environmental Issues A number of serious environmental problems are present in Pakistan. The rainfall pattern is extreme due to the varied topography of the country. These include: Soil erosion. businesses. The surface waters of the rivers have not been used effectively. This shortage is hindering the country's potential to develop agriculture. glaciers. desertification. Irrigated land is 82.11 form all over the world to Pakistan. as they are seasonal and irregular. with the Indus basin representing the largest potential. Water The main water sources in Pakistan are rivers. Almost 75% of the country receives less than 250 mm annually. pesticide misuse.

 For example.12  Considering Pakistan's environmental scenario. and aquatic life. Acids and explosive materials used for destruction by atomic . rangelands. But these problems are so deep-rooted that they have not been successful in putting an end to these problems. water bodies. refineries. Extensive use of agricultural chemicals has already started affecting aquifers. it becomes increasingly obvious that water issues are the most pressing. The problem lies in the fact that government focuses on one factor and ignores the others related to it. forests. but its use for agriculture results in the contamination of the food chain. petrochemicals. However. A large number of industries discharge deadly and toxic waste into storm-drains. the truth of the matter is that most of the contaminated water entering the sea has a density different to that of the natural seawater. open nullahs or in the Lyari and Malir rivers.Chemical waste: Almost all chemical waste is dumped untreated into the river system from where it is taken out to sea. Freshwater Pollution . Agricultural run-off / pesticides: Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilisers ensure that agricultural run-off from fields also contributes to water pollution. Marine Pollution The seas have been used as dumps for ages. Pollution of water bodies by effluents from industries and the sewerage system have compounded the problem. much emphasis is laid on beefing up security in big cities in wake of terrorism. agriculture. chemical. As a result 50% of the crops are contaminated. which contaminates them with pathogens. In Pakistan. Human health. engineering works and thermal power plants Sewage: The discharge of sewage and contaminated water in rivers and water bodies not only affects marine production. textile. paper and pulp. Water borne diseases are the largest killers in the country and health problems resulting from polluted water cost a large amount of money. mainly due to the misconception that whatever is put into them gets diluted. These include leather tanning units. pharmaceuticals. This means that it does not mix and in fact settles down at the bottom of the ocean as Remedies and solutions as a whole Successive governments have taken steps to solve various socio-economic problems. But nothing serious has been done to seal the unlawful entrance of arms from across the border. Groundwater may also be contaminated by untreated sewage. sewage water is re-channelled to irrigate crops. in fact the whole ecosystem is affected by problems associated with water.

Cottage industry and self-business should be promoted. energy crises should be controlled. New dams should be built and new methods of producing electricity should be utilized. shopping centers. The institutions of NAB and FIA should be made more powerful to curb corruption. Free of cost educations should be provided to children in villages. Conclusion: As stated in the start of essay. Government as well as every single citizen of Pakistan has to play its own specific role to bring about a positive change. Culprits should not be allowed to escape out of country. government needs to stop fighting the proxy war on behalf of USA. The same is the need of hour. Not only they should be strictly dealt with. roads. poverty reduction should be top priority of government. Overall standard of living needs to be improved and inflation should be controlled.13 bombs are easily available in market at cheap prices. Nations face multifarious problems but together they work for towards the solution. Rather strict punishments should be imposed on them. Ministers and other government officials enjoy the facilities of squads of armed body guards while public places like markets. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. It should be strengthened by providing loans to farmers.  Thirdly. bus stands etc are not adequately protected.  Secondly. but the wealth looted by them should be recovered and employed for the welfare of people. . there is a sheer need to curb corruption at all levels. These problems are present in every country but the winners are those who overcome most if not all of them. for economic development. no country is free from socio-economic problems. Judiciary should be an independent institution.  Lastly. To control terrorism. Currently Pakistan has experienced a new era in the history of its judicial set-up. Though Pakistan is currently facing a lot of sociopolitical and socio-economic problems but it doesn’t mean that it is going towards its end. Judiciary is powerful but we have yet to wait and see the results of independence of judiciary in Pakistan.