The Australian National University

National Institute of the Arts School of Art

Visual Arts Graduate Program MASTER OF VISUAL ARTS

Galen Chien-Chang Hsieh REPORT PRESENTED IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE MASTER OF VISUAL ARTS 2002

ABSTRACT

Research into aspects of the presentation and documentation of an Australian city / culture CODE LIGHT & MAGIC: A Virtual Canberran a body of studio work including both digital and traditional generated still images, web design and multimedia. These postgraduate studies take the form of two semesters of Photomedia studies and final digital works at the Canberra School of Art Gallery from February 22 to March 1, 2002. The pieces in the exhibition are the outcome of the studio practice project together with the report that documents the nature of course of the study undertaken presents the outcome of my research.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Over the course of the year there have come to be many people to whom I owe a great deal of thanks for so many reasons, especially to my supervisor, Denise Ferris. I think she is a real superwoman that I never ever met in Australia. Another special thanks for my lovely parents and my sister beside me in Canberra. Deputy Director & Postgraduate Convenor: Nigel Lendon Photomedia Workshop Acting Head: Denise Ferris Lecturer: Peter Fitzpatrick Technical Officer: Jason O’Brien IT Services John Mills Library Art All of the staff

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CONTENT
Abstract Acknowledgements Introduction Working Program Process The Challenge Start of year / Semester Two New Parts Final Works Method Conclusion Appendices Footnotes Study Program Curriculum Vitae Bibliography Project Art Works 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 18 19 20 22 26 31
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INTRODUCTION
This report discusses my studio practice with reference to my graduate project research and what I have come to refer to as my graduate level professional practice. This refers to several incredible opportunities offered by the Photomedia workshop during the year and my involvement with them. I have chosen to work with digital photography and multimedia as the best way for my understanding of VIRTUAL. I am interested in what digital technology can do, but more in how I can get it to work for me and express my thoughts that I have chosen to elucidate.

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WORKING PROGRAM
The idea to view Canberra through a foreigner’s eyes has been waiting for many years to come true.

In the past years, there were many friends who asked me to build a website to introduce Canberra to people in Taiwan. Even through I come from Taiwan, I call Canberra home. I arrived in Canberra on 2 January 1994. I have been home twice since I arrived, the last time on 25 June 1997. As a photography lover, I always travel around Canberra to take images. In addition, I care about this city much more than my hometown, Taipei. I have taken 64 weeks to study English and Australian slang only. Ever since I arrived in Canberra, I started to do something that I called “more than a degree”. I am not only undertaking academic studies, I use most of my free time for photography and understanding Canberra and Australia history. After the third year, I have the knowledge to educate new students about the history of Canberra, political activities, story of ANZAC biscuits and Australia festival. It does not matter which institute (I had been studying the Certificate at the Canberra Institute of Technology and ANUTECH, Bachelor at the University of Canberra and Graduate Diploma at The Australian National University), I always volunteer to be an orientation week leader. I do not know when I started to love this city. Then, I met William Hall, the ACT Portrait Photographer

of the year 1996-1999. We discussed a fantasy that could make this project come true. William visited Taiwan for many times and has many Asian clients. His wife is Australian, Chinese, and Singaporean. The plan was similar to this. We were trying to view each other’s national capital city and set up an exhibition in Australian and Taiwan. The plan was called off for reasons of sponsorship and family purposes. However, this fantasy stayed in my mind since that moment. That was 1997. I enrolled the first multimedia unit that University of Canberra could offer. The project of New Media was to introduce any suburbs of Canberra. Students can choose any suburbs, at first by taking images there. The following project is using this photographic material to develop a CD-ROM. It was the first time I had knowledge and developed skills of CD-ROM production and web design. In fact, I had many opportunities to create a website like this one. However, I never have enough time to process this idea and further realise the project. The second time I planned a similar project was last July, when undertaking a Graduate Diploma at the Australian Centre for the Arts and Technology. I had only three months from taking images to build a website and put it online. Therefore, I changed the topic soon after analysing that the project was not possible in the timeframe.

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PROCESS

The Challenge At the beginning of this project is the aim to introduce Canberra to Taiwan and introduce Taipei to Australia. This had been discussed with the graduate panel during the Master course interview. After a few months processing, I found it was hard for me to do role-play and as foreigner watch my hometown. Alternatively, to take images and travel between Taiwan and Australia it is easy to lose focus. In addition, the timeframe and budget are majority issues. Therefore, in May I decided not to include Taipei and Canberra’s surrounding regions. The other big change is to move focus from landscape and the urban environment to people. I accepted this challenge by my supervisor Denise Ferris. The original plan in Canberra region that I would like to introduce to Taiwan is more landscape and urban aspect than people of Canberra. The reason to choose landscape or urban it was my favourite part of photography. I have been interested in photography since I finished year six. I have this habit from my father. The year is marked 1980. Ever since that time, I took more landscape

and urban images than any others. This decision to concentrate on events and people was been made sometime in April after a postgraduate students group meeting. The urban shoots without feature landmark as Parliament House or National Museum of

Australia are no different as any parts of Australia. An image that had been taken in a farm in Cooma can pretend and look like somewhere in Canberra.

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Start of Year I attended many festivals in Canberra after I arrived in 1994. I have to admit that I had not concentrated on any public events since 1996. The Centenary of Federation in Canberra brought a great opportunity to see how Australian celebrates the national birthday. Additionally, because of this 100 years celebration, all events were bigger than ever before. I processed information and took images from the beginning. As an active person, I always go out with one of cameras on stand-by in my bag. You never know what is going on when you leave home, the ‘street photography’ genre requires constant searching for images. The summer and autumn in Canberra were very busy. I attended many large public events and performances during the time. Semester Two The review with postgraduate convenor Nigel Lendon and supervisor Denise Ferris at the first time in half year helped me to consider my work in progress. Furthermore, as the course I do is a Master degree in one year, the topic should not be too wide or collect too many sub-topics. I was always planning to do a huge project in a short time. The result really turned me to very negative way. I have been recommend by postgraduate convenor to track a kid to capture a series of images

with different angles. When the target cannot move, I should move camera target different images. I then went to the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) building official opening ceremony. I was using digital camera to shoot close images and a new 75-300mm lens to take Aboriginal cultural performances images. I am trying to take same goal with many different angles. There were two family groups on both sides when I was taking images at Aboriginal dancing performances. I was moving my body all the time to track kids movements changing places perspective. It was essential to get a different view. The photographs I took were no longer close-up portraits. The image zoomed and out to include certain kids’ relating and the prouder context of the situation. I had my third review in early October. The result was positive with my new series in sets. I was beginning to develop a formal strategy for my images, to see how I may connect them to communicate more fully place and time. I used these new skills to record “Tracking Kultja”, the first inaugural National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural Festival and the United Nation Day.

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New Parts At the same time, I was trying to find suitable interface to fit into this project. The Director style of interactive multimedia had been showing many times during group session for postgraduate students. This project is more concerned about ‘photography’ rather than ‘web graphics’. Therefore, I changed focus on Australia Photographer online. Obversely, nearly 99% websites are commercial. These commercial websites are selling images or business promotion. There are limited websites done by students’ project or none commercial purposes. The right-top image is the most popular web interfaces online; about two third websites I visited used frame design. The other popular icon of online photography is using ‘camera’ on the front page. It makes browser to think direct to either ‘camera’ or ‘photography’ business. The other interesting point of web design is using ‘dark colour’ background. The research found nearly all sites are using black colour, even it is showing ‘black + white’ photograph as the left image. I finally decided the project interface would have many space and white background. My favourite web graphics in typography is moved

out from this project. There are two fonts be used on website, CD-ROM and report to keep them in series.

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FINAL WORKS
The final artworks is creating to an interactive virtual reality CD-ROM with QTVR movie format.

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The idea of contents page is copied from “SmithKline Beecham International Hepatits B and Liver Cancer promotion campaign”. The SB campaign is using “Immigration Australia stamp” to warn travellers’. I used the idea of stamp to complex with ACT Reference map and features graphics that related with this project. The right image is final artwork. The stamps are scanned from my own passport on purpose. The right-hand side dated “2 JAN 1994” was when I first arrived Australia. The left-hand side is the third time I travelled overseas from Sydney Airport. The top one is the arrive date, the bottom one is departure date. The graphics on the left-top side is an Internet cable that illustrated this “web project”. The bottom graphics is Australia’s power cable with code bar that started with “9 3”. This number is arranged by international authority to represent Australia products code bar. The map guiding system is using digital numbers plus English letters that come from the reference map on ACT Yellow Page.

The area 145 on map is covered most CBD suburbs, Capital Hill and surrounding area. The letter ‘A to R’ comes from horizontal sides; number ‘1 to 20’ comes from vertical sides of map to guide users. For example, the “145-BCD-11” is where National Museum of Australia located. The “145-D-6” is meant ANU that provide link to index/welcome page. The reason to use this guiding system is to imagine events in locations, giving context. These guiding numbers are adding rollover effectives to show users where they will see. When mouse moved to “145-NPQ-56”, it would taking users to Australian War Memorial (AWM).

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Top image: there are ten movies from several events at the Australian War Memorial (AWM). Each movie is showing limited part rather than whole thing to make users to discover all the hidden parts of the ceremony. The interface of each movie is same. The movie (as the right-hand screen capture images)is in the central and titled with the event occurring there. The blue bar offers one option - the ‘<<<’ arrow will take back to AWM contents page. The feedback from assessment on 5 Dec 2001 shows the most successful part of project is QuickTime Virtual Reality. This interface suits the project ‘A Virtual Canberra’. The traditional photography is flat artwork, even on fast growing Internet industry it is still 2D. I do think that portraits and snapshots images are better to view on the desktop. However, landscape and panoramic images are better to display on 3D.

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The purposes to create QuickTime Virtual Reality at the beginning are: § Trying to simulate fields of events that happened § To display timing movement of particular targets § To simulate ‘fish-eye’ lens effectives in digital darkroom The feedback from the panel of assessment and most friends are: § About two third of viewers interested in QTVR more than panoramic collage images (2D flat). § The moving closer, twisting, up and down effectives that QTVR offered are interactive they could make the final exhibition attract particularly with sound. § The QTVR allows the viewer to feel immersed in the activity, it have a sense of being “in” the action, inside the sense. To add music on QTVR movie needs to through Director to produce. This method had been tested successfully. There are three ways to get royal-free music resource database. § To make sound effectives through SoundEditor 16 § To record music/audio from other public events § To use royal-free music resources

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METHOD

The methods used for creating the work outlined in this report were largely digital artworks. The equipment used included PC and MAC computers, digital still camera, 35mm SLR cameras, negative scanner, flat scanner and various digital printers. The software used for creating and manipulating images is known as image manipulation software. It allows the user to combine a number of photographic images into one. The software also allows the user to create surfaces and provide textural and lighting qualities for them. To produce a number of artworks I photographed people in public events, and manipulated them using this software. The artworks printed on different materials: photo glossy paper, and screen displaying based exhibition. This project is focusing on People of Canberra in public events. The photographs capture events and people in observation. The opportune time and location for many people to get together is during the events named as the “Celebrate the Centenary of Federation”. To be an unseen observer recording people at an event is difficult. I need all the skills for portraiture like compositional awareness and an understanding of lighting but also need

very quick reactions and excellent focusing skills. Photo Equipment The advantage of the digital still camera is that allows review screen to let the user to check competition. Moreover, if anything is wrong with the image, the user can simply delete and take another image. This option a traditional film camera cannot provide. The most disadvantage point is this high price product cannot satisfy professional photographers. The digital camera that I have is a Kodak DC4800. This model has 28-84mm zoom lens and 3.1 mega-pixels resolution. The shape of camera is similar to a 35mm SLR camera with changeable lens aperture and shutter speeds. Hitherto, I found traditional negative and positive films are offering better lighting and colour temperature than digital camera. Eventually, however, I did research a strategy to use digital camera to match Nikon F50 to capture best images. I put either 70-210mm or 75-300mm zoom lenses with F50 and carry the digital camera on my shoulder. It is offers me the focal distance from 28mm to 300mm. Therefore, I 14

multimedia
can always get close-up images using a digital camera and long-range images using F50. The films used are Kodak Elite Chrome 100 and E100 VS Ektachrome colour slide that to record maximise detail. I had been thinking for a long time whether to buy a digital still camera. The advantage of a digital camera is the image review and the save time in developing, printing and scanning. Web Design & Multimedia The method to create screen display as website and CD-ROM had been tested many times with many different software applications. The majority concern is to build a user-friendly environment. It is not a commercial website. Therefore, I do not need to make a marketing campaign to attract a generation group. I have to put forward this artwork should suitable for all ages and generation of Internet users. Since cutting-edge web multimedia had been created for all these different technologies, users have paid the price. Every time users stumbled across a new multimedia format, more likely than not, they had to download a new plug-in to see the thing. Consequently, not only did they have to suffer through the horrible download time, they also had to visit another site, grab the plug-in, and often refresh their browsers before they could do or see anything. Therefore, the final format of this website is using universal code, HTML. The plug-ins is reduced to two formats, Shockwave and QuickTime. These two are most popular plug-ins at this stage. The QuickTime is one standard application that included in Mac operation system. The Mac computer will used for exhibition. There are very limited number of pages will need to use Shockwave player. There are three steps to develop photography based multimedia website. Firstly, place final image files to Adobe Illustrator 9 to add graphics. To use Illustrator not Photoshop by majority reason of bitmap image format that Illustrator using. Bitmap images are made up of pixels, which are tiny squares that combine like the tiles of a mosaic to create an image. An example of a bitmap image is a scan of a colour photograph. In addition to vector drawing and editing tools, Illustrator 9 offers a wide range of tools for manipulating bitmap images. The effectives are very different to compare with Photoshop 6. (Insert Screenshots samples) Secondly, to export finish artworks to Macromedia Fireworks 4 for slice 15

QTVR
managing. The slice tool can divide a source image into functional areas. When the image be exported as a web page, each slice is saved as an independent file that contains its own settings, colour palette, links, rollover effectives, and animation. It can use slices to achieve faster download speeds. (Insert Screenshots samples)Thirdly, the slice arranged web pages are re-editing in Macromedia Dreamweaver UltraDev 4 for final layout. After that, the final HTML files will test on both Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator under Windows and Mac operation systems. Panorama Collage Images The second section of work detailed in this report is a series of images in Panorama. The images are intricate to make into a large size horizontal image. These images are chosen by reason of the same groups, same location or similar background. The effectiveness of these images is the presenting option of multicultural society, family and community, different generation, Aboriginal culture and the move to reconciliation. The Panorama images are produced through the ArcSoft Panorama Maker 2000. That comes with the Kodak DC4800 digital still camera package. This software application can make perfect Panorama images by clicking some buttons. The problems of lighting, colour, space and unsuccessful combinations will be fixed through Photoshop. QuickTime Virtual Reality The ArcSoft Panorama Maker 2000 can make both panorama images and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) at the same time. The QTVR supports 360-degree views called panoramic movies, as well as object movies that allow users to view an object from all sides. Both objects and panoramas can be fully interactive, with zooming, animation, and hot spots linked to other multimedia objects. Finished QTVR movies can be viewed on computers running Mac OS or Windows software through the QuickTime Plug-in for web browsers or any application that can play standard QuickTime movies. The QuickTime Plug-in for web browsers makes QTVR movies exciting additions to educational, entertainment, and commercial web sites. QTVR Authoring Studio is also ideal 16

software
for producing large, complex interactive experiences for CD-ROMs. The following is a list of software application for the manipulative images and screen exhibit artworks. § § § § § § § § § Digital Darkroom / Photography: Adobe Photoshop 6.0 with KPT 3.2 / 6.0 Computer Graphics: Adobe Illustrator 9.0 Web Design: Macromedia Fireworks 4.0 / Macromedia Dreamweaver UltraDev 4.0 Web Animation: Macromedia Flash 5.0 Interactive Multimedia: Macromedia Director 8.0 Panorama & QTVR: ArcSoft Panorama Maker 2000 Image Format Convert: ACDSee 3.0 Report Layout: QuarkXPress 4.0 / Adobe InDesign 1.0 Computer Audio: Macromedia SoundEditor 16 (Mac) / MusicMatch Jukebox (PC) / Shuffler Music Converter (PC)

aids
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CONCLUSION
This project is a sample of how art to occupy technology. I am interested in what digital technology can do as well as how technology can support art project. On the other hand, this project focused on multicultural movements and Aboriginal culture in the Australia national capital. Every photo I took is a reaction to an entirely different culture and society based on my education, society, custom, culture background and life experiences. During the academic period I have produced the “Code Light & Magic: A Virtual Canberra” project. This project has undergone some difficult times. The artwork I have submitted has been reduced from three parts to one part – A series of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) in people contents. The outcome is changed from a website to CD-ROM production. When I planned to produce QTVR on my early proposal it was a high-risk project - because of my poor knowledge and no skills. I had no idea about how to make it happen. Moreover, the School of Arts and the whole university does not have this application that I could use for free. A flat image is a noun. In the QTVR environment images are no longer nouns but verbs. The panoramic movies are dealing with a simulated field of events, which can view in 360-degree, zooming in and out. production methods to find a special way to perform this project. Concerned about how much time and amount to invest this project, the digital photography (art) is not necessary cheaper than traditional means. However, the exhibition work that I presented in 3D on screen cannot be done using traditional photography. New forms of creative arts provide new forms of communication. Hypothetical shifts require a rethinking of traditional definitions. This project searched for an approach to converse on two areas. The possible outcomes with multimedia and digital photography and what I can make with these technologies to present my ideas. As I mentioned, I have had many probabilities to develop similar project in early stage. However, time is always an important issue that many people may not think about. If I could develop it when I had the idea in 1997, it would be a classical black and white photography. The technology is update from time to time. As an e-generation person I am always learning software applications without the manuals in a short time and picking up features from many different applications to get best result. However I need time to be educated and self-trained.

The year of 2001 is an election year in Australia, a celebration year for the Centenary of Federation and a new landmark launched in Canberra – the National Museum of Australia. Those opportunities polished this project to a new interface. The supervisors I met brought me new ideas about Australian and art. If I missed these opportunities, I would not have spirit During the academic period I had taken photos in public events. I had to investigate the to wait for next the celebration for the Centenary of digital photography and interactive multimedia Federation

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APPENDICES

Footnotes 1. Page 9, top image, screen capture at www.misamartin.com 2. Page 9, bottom image, screen capture at www.vrview.com 3. Page 12 - SmithKline Beecham International Advertising, RALPH, December 2000, ACP, Australia, p168 4. Page 12 – Map 145, Big Colour Pages, Canberra version 2001 5. Page 14 – ACT Reference Map, Big Colour Pages, Canberra version 2001

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Studying Program

The Project 292 Code Light & Magic: A Virtual Canberra This interactive multimedia web project is a view of Canberra through a foreigner’s eyes. The title of project “Code Light & Magic” is a combination three features to create this website. The CODE means the foundation of the website as Hyper Text Media Language (HTML). The LIGHT refers to cameras that using optical technology to develop images. The MAGIC is a fantasy that created by software applications. The code name of project 292 is comes from the number of the division, in which I did service for two years. I was a radioman in the 292nd

Division, Army, National Military Services, Taiwan, 1991-1993. Aim The goal of this project is aimed to focus on the People of Canberra and certain events in I planned to take images at all public events including multicultural, Aboriginal culture and the celebration of the Centenary of Federation. Additionally, some sub-topics are targeting people contents in generation, regions and occupations. It is interesting to show the relationship between kids with parents, grandparents and other mature relatives. To stand as an outsider, there are some topics as to how parents treat children at public events. This appears at odds with Taiwanese social behaviours, customs, education, religions, races and life methods. Those points are at 20

the heart of this project and make the ultimate power of images have a cultural meaning. Process of the Project This project will include two parts: § Virtual Performance § Exhibition installation Virtual Performance This part will through a data projector to present finished artworks with web project on the wall. The artworks will include still photography in multimedia format, panoramic collage images and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies. The first two parts are 2D flat images and 3D movies in QuickTime format. Exhibition Installation There is several Panoramic Collage images will through colour laser printer to make large size

images to install for graduating exhibition. Some images will selected to make a B5 size (or less) photography book. The Source of Software There is several powerful software applications will be used to create this unique project. Applications are including Photoshop, Illustrator, Director, Dreamweaver and Fireworks. It may use SoundEditor 16, Flash and 3D modelling developing software packages. In Conclusion This project will illustrate my viewing of People of Canberra in public events to perform the different between a foreigner and local region.

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Curriculum Vitae
Galen C. Hsieh Born in Roster year & Scorpion month 17 November 1969 at Taipei / Taiwan Arrived Canberra on 2 January 1994 Education 2001 Certificate IV in Assessment & Workplace Training (BSZ40198) Vocational Education & Training Dept., ANUTECH (Registered Training Organisation No. 88020 with Australian National Training Authority) 2001-2001 Candidate for Master of visual Arts School of Arts, National Institute of The Arts, The Australian National University 2000 Graduate Diploma in Electronic Arts (Interactive Multimedia) Australian Centre for the Arts and Technology, National Institute of The Arts, The Australian National University 1996-1999 Bachelor of Graphic Design University of Canberra 1986-1991 Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Szi-Hai College of Technology, Taiwan

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Curriculum Vitae

Award FIRST 1999 Cover Image (black + white photography) New writing by the students of the University of Canberra Compaq International Advertising Award Competition 1999 Supporting Team in Web design & IT Assistant Faculty of Communication, University of Canberra Group Exhibition § 2000 CSIRO Discovery Centre, ACAT Performance Night, Multimedia § 1999 Checkout, University of Canberra Graphic Design Graduating Exhibition § 1998 Art Show, University of Canberra, Black & White Photography

Professional Conference & Seminar § 2001 IdN Fresh Conference, Sydney § 2000 New Media World, Sydney & AGIdeas (Australia Graphic International design conference), Melbourne § 1999 AGIdeas, Melbourne § 1997 New Media World, Sydney § 1996 AGIdeas, Melbourne Work Experience Freelance Graphic Designer since 1996 Freelance Web Designer since 1998 Freelance CD-ROM developer since 2000 August – November 1997 Chief Editor, Mercury Journal (3rd edition) University of Canberra Overseas Students' Organisation, University of Canberra 23

Curriculum Vitae
23 November 1998 - 12 February 1999 Web Designer Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Canberra, Australia February - November 1998 Graphic Editor Curio Journal University of Canberra Students' Association (UCSA), University of Canberra 1991 – 1993 Signal Officer (Corporal) Army, National Military Services, Taiwan 1991 Assistant Editor Newsletter at Szi-Hai College of Technology 1990 Chief Editor (10th edition) Mechanical Engineering Students’ Association Journal SziHai College of Technology 1988 – 1993 Graphic Designer Test Arts Studio, Taiwan Voluntary Experience 2001 Committee Member of the I-Ball § Designing all promotion kits § Organising events Big Brother/Sister – Welcome to new overseas students’ program with the International Education Office (IEO), The Australian National University 1997 – 1999 O-Week Leader Orientation Week Leader at University of Canberra (UC)

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Curriculum Vitae

1995 – 1996 Overseas Students Representative for Taiwan & Photographer Canberra Council for International Students (CCIS) 1990-1991 Education & Students Services Officer Mechanical Engineering Students’ Association Szi-Hai College of Technology 1987 Assistant of Visual Communication Students’ Association Szi-Hai College of Technology Industrial Membership Australian Graphic Design Association (AGDA) Professional Skills § Qualified trainer recognised within the Australian Qualification Framework in National Course Code: BSZ40198 § Digital Photography, Graphic Design, Interactive Multimedia, CD-ROM production, Marketing Communication Software Applications Skills Photoshop, Illustrator, QuarkXPress, InDesign, PageMaker, Fireworks, Dreamweaver, Director & Lingo, Poser, Language C and basic knowledge of UNIX code.

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Publishing Group Pty, Ltd, summer 1997, p23-30. 9. Editor. Interface Design with Logic, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Group Pty, Ltd, Spring 2000. 10. Editor. Nikon-Kodak Press Photo Awards, Maxwell Optical Industries Pty Ltd, Australia, summer-autumn, 1999, p15-17. 11. Editor. Photoshop skills: Paths, IT Graphics, DWR Publishing Pty Ltd, Australia, issue 5, March 2000, p32-36. 12. Editor. The Australian INfront: the people, the story, the site, Desktop issue 160, Niche Media Group, Australia, June 2001, p44-49. 13. Editor. Whatever Turns You On, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, winter 1999, p20-23. 14. Foxworthy, Stephen. Reduce paper: publish online, Desktop issue 130, Niche Media Group, Australia, November 1998, p48-49. 15. Johnstone, Andrew. Retrospect: Design is Kinky, Desktop issue 160, Niche Media Group, Australia, June 2001, p32-37. 16. Gower, Robyn. Style Masters, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, Spring 1995, p43-45. 17. Gower, Robyn. Talent to Burn, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, autumn 1999, p36-39. 18. Huntington, Patty. Blow-up, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, sprint 1997, p20-22. 19. Light Reading, Nikon Club Australia, Australia, Vol.13, No.2, 1999.

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20. Needham, Kirsty. Cheeseman Typeman, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, winter 1997, p10-12. 21. Muller, Shelton, The face of Egypt, Light Reading, Maxwell Optical Industries Pty Ltd, Australia, spring-summer, 1998, p16-19. 22. Norgate, Stephen. The digital miracle, Desktop issue 164, Niche Media Group, Australia, October 2001, p30-31. 23. Robinson, Lisa. Web words, Desktop issue 164, Niche Media Group, Australia, October 2001, p62-63.. 24. Packer, Steve. WWW Vintage Virtuality, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, winter 1999, p10. 25. Packer, Steve. Where ‘ digital’ is a dirty word, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, winter 1999, p32-33. 26. Wise, Amanda. Web-Vertising, Australian Creative, Yaffa Publishing Groups Pty, Ltd, Australia, Spring 1995, p32-34.

Reference CD-ROM 1. Belle Corporate Design, ACP Publishing Pty Ltd, Australia, 1996. 2. Nokia Connecting People, Nokia Corporation, Australia, 2000. 3. Omnirom v.1.1, University of NSW Press, Sydney, 2000. 4. Primer, Graphic Design Graduating Exhibition, University of Canberra, Australia, 2000. 5. What can you make? Showcase 7, Macromedia Inc, USA, 1998.

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Project Art Works

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ANZAC Day Ceremony Australian War Memorial 25 April 2001 3076mm X 1288mm

ANZAC Day Ceremony Australian War Memorial 25 April 2001 2822mm X 1341mm

Royal Canberra Show Exhibition Park in Canberra (EPIC) 25 February 2001 4008mm X 2088mm

Tango Festival Outdoor Promotion Canberra City 13 August 2001 5366mm X 2448mm

Canberra Day Ceremony Lakeside 12 March 2001 2685mm X 1291mm

United Nation Day Lakeside 28 October 2001 5345mm X 2335mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australia 13-14 October 2001 4244mm X 1950mm

National Museum of Australia Opening Ceremony 11 March 2001 3062mm X 1341mm

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) Building Official Opening Ceremony 17 September 2001 2826mm X 1245mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 2096mm X 1210mm

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) Building Official Opening Ceremony 17 September 2001 5179mm X 2171mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 3898mm X 1824mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 4258mm X 1926mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 6054mm X 1887mm

Sea of Hands Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 5898mm X 1944mm

Sea of Hands Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 5468mm X 1887mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 5659mm X 1866mm

Tracking Kultja Festival National Museum of Australian 13-14 October 2001 4230mm X 1947mm

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