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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background As we know the most important in language, learning the four language skill, namely reading, speaking, writing, and listening, for final target to achieve this means that there is a process to achieve them that is the withing which language learners the language ingredient with work together to support the achievement of the skill. In other words the achievement of the four language skill is expect to be the result of the learning process. In English teaching and learning process vocabulary is the important aspect to support the English language component skills, namely: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. So learning vocabulary for learners is important because the ability of students to learn English is determine by vocabulary that they have. Through vocabulary, someone can communicate his/her idea, feeling, emotion, and desire. Sometimes a clever person who has good idea but he must stop to express him idea because he/she lacks vocabulary. It is very difficult for everyone to express his or her ideas in English to other people without word. Corder in Amiruddin (2004: 1) states that in order to master English, the elements of language skills such as grammatical structure, vocabulary, and sound system. Before I find a case in Madrasah Aliyah Muallimin Makassar, X class where the students cannot say something perfectly in English. They do not know what they

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must say and how to say, they look very confuse to express the ideas on their mind even not active enough on their vocabulary class because vocabulary limit. Base on the fact in Madrasah Aliyah Muallimin Makassar, X class then, I believe the students will get some difficulties, if they do not understand words and words meaning or have limit vocabulary. They have idea in their mind but they can not express their idea because they have not a lot of vocabulary. Teaching the students to improve their vocabulary is very important, as a teacher is important to focus in teaching English, especially to improve students vocabulary. The teacher can improve students vocabulary through crossword technique. Crossword improving vocabulary by making the exercise fun and enjoyable. In these exercises, students obtain meanings and are required to remember and associate the right words with the right meanings. words actually being said in context and where you are able to reply (McAndrews, 2008). This process involves your hearing the word, analyzing its meaning, understanding it, and generating a response to it, all assisting with comprehension and long-term retention.

B. Problem Statement Base on the background above I formulate the research problems as follows: 1. How does the use of crossword technique to improving students achievement of nouns at the first year students in Madrasah Aliyah Muallimin Makassar?

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2. How does the use of crossword technique to improving the students achievement of words meaning at the first year students in Madrasah Aliyah Muallimin Makassar?

C. Objective Of the Study The objectives of the research are as follows : 1. Explain the students¶ achievement in nouns after the implementation of crossword technique 2. Explain the students¶ achievement in words meaning after the implementation of crossword technique

D. Significance of the Study The result of this research is expect. I hope this technique can improving students vocabulary, through this technique students fun and enjoyable in learnng process. In use this technique, it can make the student¶s vocabulary improve when they try to apply this technique in their classroom.

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E. Scope of the Study This research covers of teaching English by using crossword technique to improving the student¶s vocabulary, it is limit and focus on nouns and word meaning. Teaching vocabulary the first year students of Madrasah Aliyah Muallimin Makassar, by using crossword technique, it very effective in teaching and learning vocabulary. This method improving the students special for nouns and word meaning of the X class in Madrasah Aliyah Muallimin Makassar.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Crossword Technique Sources to support this research, it is necessary to find some relate finding by reviewing some method or other related research. some of them are 1. Puzzlemaker (2010, online material) make your own crossword puzzle in a flash and then print for your students to enjoy. You can make the puzzles simple or complicated, so this site is good for teachers working at all levels. (http://www.varietygames.com/CW/). 2. Hougan (2008, online material) another way I have my students interact with vocabulary is creating crossword puzzles. This can be done by hand or computer-generated. Students write the definitions and construct their very own crossword puzzles. Typically, I ask students to include prior vocabulary to continually build their vocabulary comprehension. (http://roadtoteaching.com/2008/12/18/effective-vocabulary-strategystudents-develop-crossword-puzzles/).

From the research findings above, the writer concludes that in the teaching and learning vocabulary through crossword technique, it is very interest and most

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help the teacher and the students, the students¶ attention and involve them in learning actively by creating a good atmosphere variety of techniques in teaching English, particularly in teaching vocabulary. To catch this atmosphere, each technique can be apply when and where as long as it is suitable for the students need and ability. 1. Crossword This technique is supported from some relate finding, some of them are a. Vowel Tester In Vowel Tester, your job is to click on the vowels as quickly as you can. The quicker you are, the higher your score. Only click vowels, not consonants or numbers or symbols. b. Alphabetrax

In Alphabetrax, you move blocks of letters with your arrow keys. To score, match colours or letters or put letters in alphabetical order. Match 3 or more tiles vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. The more matches you make in a row. c. Alphabet Memory Game

The Alphabet Memory Game is a variation of the classic memory matching games. Match a capital letter with its small-letter counterpart as quickly as you can. For example, match the uppercase "U" with the

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lowercase "u". Continue until you've found all the matches. This game helps you to learn the alphabet and also tests your memory. d. Easy as ABC

Easy as ABC randomly generates 3 letters. Use your keyboard's left and right arrows to move the highlighted letter into alphabetical order or reverse alphabetical order. Press the space bar to lock in your answer before time runs out.

B. Vocabulary Sources to support this research, it is necessary to find some related finding by reviewing some about vocabulary or other related research. some of them are : 1. Bowker, R (1981, online material) English vocabulary level has been shown to be strongly related to educational success. In addition, it is related to the level of occupation attained. 2. Elley, W.B (1988, online material) a rich vocabulary is a valuable asset and an important attribute of success in any walk of life. 3. O¶Connor, J (1934, online material) an extensive knowledge of the exact meanings of English words accompanies outstanding success in this country more often than any other single characteristic we have been able to isolate and measure.

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4. Collins (1992) in Herlina Ramli (2004) pointed out that vocabulary is all the words in language. 5. Nurmiati (2004) suggested that in teaching English students must be given more activities in learning vocabulary that they will have time to receive and produce in words. Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that vocabulary is one of the most important language elements for mastering foreign language. The mastery of vocabulary becomes very essential in supporting other language as well as language skills. The more vocabularies we have know nouns and the words meaning. 1. Definition of Vocabulary There are many resources that explain obout some definition about vocabulary. Vocabulary is the word having meaning when heard and seen even though not produced by the individual itself to communicate one another (Good, 1959). Vocabulary is one of the language elements which is considered playing a central role. It facilitates other language elements as well as language skills. Gove (1996) defines vocabulary as set of words and sometimes phrase, usually arranged in alphabetical order.

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C. Nouns 1. Definition of Noun A noun is The part of speech (or word class) that is used to name or identify a person, place, thing, quality, or action. Adjective: nominal. Concrete Noun A noun (such as courage or freedom) that names an idea, event, quality, or concept (Andrew, Gold, Table, Iron). Abstract Noun An abstract nouns tend to be uncountable (courage, happiness, news, tennis, training), many are countable (an hour, a joke, a quantity). Compound Noun Compound nouns are written as separate words (grapefruit juice), as words linked by a hyphen (sister-in-law), or as one word (schoolteacher). Verbal Noun A noun that is derived from a verb (usually by adding the suffix -ing) and that exhibits the ordinary properties of a noun.

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CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH

A. Research design The method that use in this research is Classroom Action Research (CAR), improving the students¶ Vocabulary through crossword technique a Classroom action research. Classrooms action research consist of network four activities in every cycle that is planning, action, observation, reflection.

B. Research Variables and Indicators The following are the Variables and Indicators: 1. Research Variables The variable can be measuresed is students achievement of nouns and students achievement of word meaning. 2. Research Indicators

The students can improving their achievement of noun and achievement of word meaning with use crossword technique.

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C. Research Procedures In this Classroom Action Research (CAR), I use the CAR principle to collect the data, with one cycle in procedure planning, action, observation, and reflection. Cycle I Cycle I consist of planning, action, observation and reflection as follows: 1. Planning a. The teachers and researcher are discussion about action that we want to make in class. b. The lesson plan after getting the problem in the class by applying crossword. c. Making observation paper to observe the students activity. 2. Action a. The teacher before introduction and explain use crossword is a method in learning process. b. The teacher explain about nouns and words meaning that want to learn in learning process c. The teacher gives blocks of letters with arrow keys than students develop some nouns and analyze the words meaning. d. The teacher explain how to remember words and analyze the words meaning with crosswords.

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e. After the students have finished their assignment, the students give back to the teacher. f. The teacher with students discuss the nouns and words meaning and the teacher gives conclusion. 3. Observation In this phase, the observer observed: a. Students¶ participation and response during teaching and learning process b. Students¶ competence in use crossword. 4. Reflection After collecting the data, the observation in learning process researcher in this case evaluate learning process of vocabulary the teachers identification problems in cycle I, the teaching learning process of vocabulary using crossword technique reaches success criteria based on the test result. Cycle II This cycle will be usage if there is some problem on cycle I, then it will be improved on the cycle II.

D. Research Instrument 1. Observation sheet aims at finding out the students¶ data about their presence and activeness in teaching learning process.

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2. Facts test aims to get information about students¶ improvement after teaching learning process ends.

E. Procedure of Collecting Data The procedures of data collection are as follow: a. Observation, it aims at finding out the students¶ participation during the teaching and learning process. b. Technique of test analysis, In this part talking about analyze data where crossword is solution to solve difficulties problem in vocabulary program of learning process.

F. Data Analysis Scoring students¶ vocabulary test Classification Excellence Very good Good Fairly good Fair Poor Very poor Score 9.6 ± 10 8.6 ± 9.5 7.6 ± 8.5 6.6 ± 7.5 5.6 ± 6.5 3.6 ± 5.5 0.0 ± 3.5 Criteria None or one error of make a word Two errors of make a word Three errors of make a word Four errors of make a word Five errors of make a word Six-seven errors of make a word Almost all errors of make a word

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