Air Crew
at la t, after months of painstaking working out of detail that involv d juggling some 300 proposed designs all different, is the Am CREW INSIGNIA which makes it poasible for all eligible members of air combat teams to wear wings. The Am CREW lNSIGNlA is being received in naval aviation circles with warm response. It is, in Fact a real boost to morale for personnel in combat crews who do the sam job and experience the same risk as pilots; but who, because Nayy W'ings were not available to them, have not received recognition to the extent it was due. Army Air Forces have for some time given tangible recognition to members of air crews besides pilots, but


enlisted ratings in the flight crews of naval aircraft, but any commissioned or wan-ant officer (except pilots and naval aviation observers) may receive and wear the emblem if he measures up to the requirements indicated below. Those not eligible include commissioned and warrant officers who are naval aviators or naval aviation observer and enlisted ratings designated as naval aviation pilots. Ship' service stores are the only authorized outl ets for these IN SIGNlA, and they are sold only upon presentation of proper authorization. This authorization is to be- retained by the Ship's service officer and forwarded for accounting to the Bureau of Naval Personnel at the end of every month.

New Emblem, at Last a Reality, Honors All Members

of Navy's Flying Combat Crews
until now in the Navy, this custom=-except in the case of naval aviation ob erver-has not prevailed. The INSIGNIA, as described in an earlier issue of EWS LETTER (4/15/43), Is Intended primarily for

Air Crew Insignia. . Gram,paw Pettibone
Did You Know? .

1 4

Training. . . • . Army Air Forces 25 Years Ago _ . Shore Stations . Technically Speaking

10 12 24 26 29


hip's service stOTI::S may obtain these INSIGNIA from Hilborrs-Hatnburgee, Inc .• 1.~East 26th Street" ew

YOI'k City.

GREW" shall be int -rpreted literally, and shall be substantiated by the u~Htle stacion bill o[ the unit, under such instrucrions that may be approved and promulgated by the Bureau of Naval Personnel, b, Ha ing suffered injuries or other physical impairment, while e11gaged in cornbatan t operations since December 7, 1941, as a regularly assigned member of a

Requirements Requirements

(or Insignia

for award of the AIR which later may be modified in the Bureau of YeT anne) Mam,l1l, are as follows:

a, Haxing served, subsequent to December 7. 1941 for a total of three (;l) months as a regularly assigned rn mber of the AIR CREW of :3 combatant craft. (1) "Combatant aircraft" shall be considered a all operati11g aircraft of the FJeet on Frontier FQIce.~, and except utility aircraft whkh are neither designed nor fitted out for offcn ive lor defensive) operations. (2) The term .... regularly assigned member of the AIR

combatant aircraft, wlli h pr dude: the possibility of Iulfillment of she time requirements stated in subparagraph (Il) above, and is recommended by the Commanding Officer of the Unit ill which injury t1T' physical impairment was received, c. Individu<J1 combat stars will be authorized by Unit Commanders, in conformance with instructions issued by Commander-in-Chief U nited Sta tes Fleet, to those members of Am. CR.I4WS who: ( 7) Engage enemy aircraft, singly or in formation. (2) Engage armed enemy COmbatant vessel with bombs torpedoes, or machine' guns. (.1) Engage in bombing offensive operations against enemy fortified position . (4) , maximum of three (3)' COIn bat stars shall be awarded For display on th


bat action reports in excess of three will be credited onl,y iII the record of the individual concerned, d. Personnel qualified hy the provisions 01 subparagraphs (a) and (b) above niay wear th Am. CREW INSIGNIA permanently.

Exceptional Results Ach.ieved
With New Film
VD SQ ADRON Two.-.From frigid, rarified heights 5 miles above the earth, a Navy cameraman in heavy Hight ge.u adjusts his oxygen mask, looks down at his "target," clicks a shutter. '\VjthiJ1 minutes, where formerly it required days or even weeks, naval authorities have spread before them deal', brilliant phMograpbs of a mJ:D· mer Iandscap ~in clear color. Every 'tree, every building, every rnilitarv installation. stands out in its naturai color relati n. Objects which would be mere blurs in black and white photographs ate quickly, easily identified, Where L(')lo1' means beauty to the civilian, to the naval strategist and tactician, it means positive ideutification of enemy equipment, gun emplacements, bivouac areas, natcrial concentrati ns, and service facilities. 11 makes successful camouflage against th r- camera virtually impossiblo. Despite these advantages, color work until recentl vas considered irnpra ti .... able !or military lise. Pictun's taken at altitudes above 2,000 feet tended lO las!' "color balance' and mCl'g:e into 11 single color. Slow exposureswere nece~~ary. Processing equipment was so elaborate that exposed film had 0 be ent back to the

manufacturers d uplica res.




Color Film Rapid
Today the story is different, Test rc .ently completed by the Atlantic Fleet's aerial photographic squadron, using <1 new type of rolor rever: al film, indica tc tha t color work can nnw be done as rapidly and effid "utly as black and whit '-and with far better result . Where tho:' roloJ' "ceiling" was formerly ,omet11ing over 2,000 Ieet, perrect pi .tuTes were tall: n in the squadron's test llight at altitudes up to 25,f)U(i feet, with very positive indications that even much higher altitudes would not affect the quality of the work. Instead of special equipment, standard Navy aerial cameraa were used, and all dcvelopmen t was done on. the pot in the squadron laboratory, uffing,sta:r'ldard facilities. Instead







of slow exposures, pictures were taken at the same speeds ae<; blac-k and white. Use of a "positive transparency' restilts in rapid production of any required number of duplicate transparencies without .appreeiable loss of detail and very little los« In color grad;:t ti Oil. Exceptional results ~l re obtained even under adverse weather con eli tions and POOl'- lighting, and the. proce_£s worked equa Hy well in both remotecontrol and manually operated cameras. BUREAU COMMENT At the present Li~ne this film isdistribu ted on Iy to un its peTformjng 'photo reconnaissance work because of its limited availability, Duplicating film will be available fer use of these units in the near futurr;..

Speech on Teleph.one Is,NOT Secret!
agYJinst dis C UJSilIJ; matter: of a secret IUUU.re over the 1de jlhlJ7ll!. Not Tmly is there tIll; 1'isk Uwt




at eacli Mid, but in,"

be "()/J1!1hea:rd IhMC is alwfL)'.

the rl,rmf!,et of others "lisuming



es beillg


You heue often. 1:1),fum picking /1/1 till' teceiuer, /.rStJ/! an uiJill["ntional {hil'd l~(lrl')l an a telefJholi e wire. Remember.- th.or»

may be intentional third pa:rfies anxious to gf!1. in 0/1 your eonuersation, II it's secret, don't risk it-doll" Jay it en the leiajJhoTle! /lcsted
Nfatn should

Photo giraphe r'5 Mates as
The following extract is taken from the offidal Quarterly Photographic Report of a Carrier;
fllihp, past the jJho~o_g'/"tl.plwrs af Ibis unit havc nor been. jJl:trnitti!c/. to ft.')! durtllg action because tlie pilols do 1101 care to hove a './,Qflqualijied gUH/1CI· in the rear S~4t. It is, Ihe:/"I!jore, sug-


1"nLcd Photographer'»

ordered to duly aboard earners br sent: to a rl"f;!-l1iar gUJJltery £(;/1001 fm· /I COj/He of instruction. In view uf the great tactical, train-

ing, and intelligence value of combat aeria I photographs, it is recommended that all activities take steps to correct the deficiency referred to in this report, Training iii: ar-rial frrj:-' p;unnery of (,1,11 photographer's mates qualified for service in air Cf'CWS i~ strongly recommended tCr rernecly the ,it!l;]tion,

NAS, _Bll.RM_tJDA.-A recent incident with a J~F illustrated to this Station that notbing can be taken for gra_-nl;ed. It also was proof that things which andone asoften as four or five times a day tan he Jorgorten. The J2F had ju"t returned from the shop, where ;it had been given an overhaul. The photographic- hatch bad not been dogged down j-i~htly", and, though that hatch/is scnretimes opened liye times a day, particularly when the plane is being L6.. ed for towing, anclLS always secured tightlv, this plane captain and the pilot Iailed to cheek it. A CAP taxied off the ramp and into the water with no one -in the photographic.. compartment, Water beg-an to seep into the compartment through the hatch, but thrfir:lt indication the pilot had of it was when be noticed that the J 2F was sitting lower- ~n the water than it should have been. Although the plane might not have sunk. thanks to the Iour watertight compartments in the pontoon, the pilot had the embarrassment of being towrci back to the ramp by the crash boat. From now on you can be sure that the- photographic hatch will be dogged down properly, says the Station, remembering past performances,

Tak'e Nothing fo;r Granted

Two.-The as. a result of their training in "shooting" pictures from aircraft, make exceptionally good aerial -gUl1ner~. This is the conclusion reached bv the Atlantic Fleet's aerial photographic ,q uadron as a resu It of records made by its cameramen in aviation rree gunnery tra ining_ The photographers gain an inirial advantage-, it i~ ht'li.('ved, through experience obtained in. operating precision equipment, soquiring careful si~hting and considerable man11 A DR 0N


Navy's aerial photogr-aphers,

ual skill, under a wide variety of night conditions. Men accustomed to wurking in a slipstream, holding
and operating a heavy camera

.mcanwhile, find the machine gun little cliffe-rent from a new type

The one l11"2,JO)" difference, to which tht:y quickly bCl"OlUC adjusted, i-s the necessity of "leading" 01" the t<Jrgct to compensate for the slaw speed of math ine gun bullet as compared with '{peed Dt light. However, the follow through, one of the major requisites 'Of good

aeri a ! gunnery" COfJH:!> naturally 10 camer-amen trained to hold steadv on moving targcts and T;nOVe the camera with them. Unless this -i, done, pic-tures taken at normal ~huttuf speeds tend to. blur and, quickly show the photographer his error, a~REAU,: COM M,ENT Very true exc~jJt that rhe proper lead ta,kes iTilrining and much practice for 1111.)1(1111; crt is the most important factor 111 II free gtmnel":, training and cannot be sllghted even for men who have O\>C01Tlf" soadept in airrnanshi p and 111 n ipu la tion as ex peN cameramen. a



~ -ik.

sell rative 01 the power line t:CJII1paTly gives assuranue thaL it is 'dead'. "Every airport: should keep "Up a

__ ~..... .. .



~. 1f

chart of all adjacent power lines and
the telephone numbers to be called in case of accident Involving broken





F.at,Dumb-,And Lud<y
The pilot (785 hours) of an SNC-J made an approach fen: a landing with wheels retracted. Ail efforts to warn the pilot, hoHl by radio and visual signals, wen'! unsuccessful, and the wheels-up landing was completed. Esaminatkm of the wretked airplane revealed that both the laJlding gear and the radio' worked normally; also ~he check-off list was found to be in the "Take-Off" position.

Danger of Eledrocution
Civil A.:rC)1!flutics Board Satet,l Bulletin No. 149 is quoted herewith {Dr inf-ormati():/l and guidclnce: "Volunteer reSCLLBl'lS narrowly escaped electrecution while rCll'lOving airmen from a bu.rning aircraft which had crashed a power Iine at a southern airport recently. The broken wires were reenergized while the rescuers were at work and only the fact that they were out of contact at the moment saved their lives. "Investigation deve:Joped that it is standard practice for power line operators to n:enecg:me lines upon which overloads, shorts or grounds have tripped the automatic circuit breakers. Broken wires: .are made letha] at stated intervals by zobot control Of .at will by manual conrrol-s-and rhis procedure may continue until the location of the tro~bJe is feuacl, "Immediately any power line wires have been broken, Of' an aircraft is in contact with such wires, the power line. company should be notlfied of the nature and place of the accident. Tbey will at once cut the eurrent and render the wires harmless, All airmen and alt who might assist as crash crews 'should consider any broken power line wire as 'alive' and dangerous until a repre4

"Oceupants of au aircraft which is in contact with power wires should get Clear as BOOl] as pos-sible. Crash crews mould be equipped whh CL:y wood, ladders. Such ladders must be well varnished to prevent absorption. of moistum in order to prevent any person [TOm coming in contact with such plane and the ground at the same time. Heavy rubber overshoes and gloves should be available {or the use ef power line crash crews, "But the best way to avoid electrocuting ~e'f or others is to know in advance where such power lines are, and avoid them."

higher under these conditions, the airspeed mete!' will register the samt: as for a normal landing or take-off, because thj~ Instrument is actuated by the sante density' of air as that which is gjving the plane lift. Therefore, airspeed meter readings for 1lake-off and la.nding will be the same ;:I.); for normal conditio us, but remember, you will require a longer run to build up to take-off speed and also a lon'ger runway on coming in to land.

The Courage oi Ig'norance
While practicing air work, a student pilot of all N2S-3 drifted out cf his assigned area and got lost. He managed to effect a safe landing in a smarr pasture and proceeded to a telephone. Apparently ashamed to call his station field and report Jill predicament, he called "I.tUc>n,.tlatioll" and asked her advice concerning the location and destination of certain railroad tracks. After getting this information, he went back to his airplane and attempted to take off. The field was bordered by trees, wires, and buildings at the up-wiadend and was too small for an experienced pilot to attempt take-off, but the student was courageous in. his ignorance.. His take-off was far from successful and the airplane received major damage, as it crashed into the trees and wires. As the Trouble Board pointed out, this acciden t would not have happened had the student followed instruetibn.S contained in the Training Department Regulations which provide : "In case of a forced landing in any field by a student, he is' not to fly the ship out. He will call the Officer of the Day at the main base to .receive instructions."

Stunting At Low Altitude
The pilot of an SNI--4 attempted-a snap at 800 feet. The maneuver was poorly executed and ended in a split "8"_ Because of insufficient alti-


tude, the airplane crashed before recovery was accomplished, pilot and passenger. killing both


Grampa.w Pettibone says
Only Ihe en.emy a.ppredates 'his

ki.nd of an acc~dent.

To Clarify
Under the title "Crash Dl;Il'ing Alti· tude Takeoff;' i.n the May Ist .issue of NEWS LETTEtt.J the statement was made that the decreased air density at altitude and in hot weather necessitated a faster take-off and 1all ding speed. While this: statement ill true, it is open to misinterprctajion. Although the actual ground speed ~s

Piggy-Sack ,Ride
lIa,s pulled some good ones in his day,


COltPUS CflRISTL-Dilbert



but even he at his best couldn't beat this one--.a piggy-back Ianding, Ir happened when So flight of SNJ-4's was corning in and landing traffic was ·liea",y. One SNJ-4 landed directly OIl top of another wmr,h was taxiin,g :in; the upper plane's prop cut through the

fu~eJage and windshield of the lower plane; one of the wheels lOdged in its cockpit. Thus engaged, the t\'10 planes continued fbr about 75 yard.s before rhe upper plane fell forward in

an inverted position and the 10w(";1." plane came to a stop nose-down. No injuries. were reported, but the cadet in the plane underneath still ha.s his head only because he had "a fulUlY feeling" and duded just as the Pl'OP W1U cutting through his cockpit, Details of the unusual; crash are related in statements from the instruttan and cadets involved. Ensign John Doe, who piloted tho l.ower plane reported: "The 'iLccidcn~happened at the end of the seventh period, about 1730 on April 19,1943, I had made a normal approach to the runway and had landed. When I was about two-thirds of the way up the runway, T suddenly looked over my left shoulder and saw the other airplane right above me. Ir happened so fast J didn't have time to do anythiug but duck. "Mter all the noise had stopped 1 looked up and the other plane was riding along on top of mine. As: my plane rolled to a stop, the weight: of the nther plane threw me on my-nose and threw him deal' of me." His student, Aviation Cadet Affirm,

"I entered the traffic pattern a!; 500 Ieet, right nand traffic. I made a letdown to the runway and when ready to land haard the tower ordering an aircraft to take a wave-off. I entered well behind one plane and well ahead of another plane that was making a wide approach, I made a norrnal Iesdown and received no signal Irom the man at the flag truck, I was pn,"paring to land when I [elt the plane toueh something, I hit the throttle and attempted to pull the nose up but was too late. I remained on the other plane in a nose-down position well forward and rolled until the plane under :tne began to veer to the left. Then my plane fell over on it~back leaving the other plane in a nose-down position well against my plane. My student, Cadet Baker showed excellent presence mind in anemergency." Cadet Baker's statement concurs

They, 100, have a responsibil'ity in helpingavojd aircraft a·ccidenls. I,n fhis case the pilot should have been no·tifl·ed o·f the condition of the fuselage tank. Of course, nothing ever TeUeve,s the pilot of his respo.nsibilifyfor knoWing the amount of ga.5ol.ine in each ta:nk and for properly sl-lifting his gos selector valve.

iRou;gh Water landing Technique Ina rough sea, with waves 6 eo 8
Jeer in height, an inst:ructm (1,224,3 hours) attempted a "hot" power-on landing instead of a full-stall landing. Immediately after contacting thr: water, a wave bashed in' the' bow and the aircraft 'began to sink. Twelve of the fifteen persons aboard escaped and were picked lip by surface craft. One of tbe survivors made the following statement: "When we £ot j n the airplane at the base, the pilot made us wear life jackets. If it hadn't been for that, more of us probably wouldn't be here."


with Ensign 'Gish's.. He adds, "As


crawled out from beneath the plane, the remaining occupants called out that they were not injured. Then the crash truck, ambulance .. and officials arrived and took charge."



GlPmpaw Pettibone says


Grampaw PenihonlsG,Ys

Probably too ,mu'ch trouble for Pilot Joe Gish to look out and see for himself if he had aeleClr landin.g area.

Lucky This Time
A serious accident was- narrowly avoided when the pilot of an S03C-2 landplane experienced engine failure while on a fuuuliarizMion Hight. Luckily, he was over au outlying field and managed to make a successful forced landing. Tbe engine failure oeoureed shortly after take-off when the pilot switched the fuol selector valve to the fuselage tank which he thought was fun, but which was nearly empty. The tank had purposely been, Idt nearly. empt.y in preparation for iLs removal "hom the airplane, but the pilot had not been informed of this fact, ltJisis a good example '0 briin.g fa the attention of squadron' maint'e,nance personnel ..

this shows thai flight hours do not, necesscu;ily, indica_fenight experience .. No ex.perienced seaplane pilaf wouldotrempl a "hot" IOinding in rough water,. hi rough water you've got to stall them into get the slowest po.ssible landing speed and to keep the nose from _,lowing into the waves or swells. Anybody e·an "burn" it on, but if takes fedtnique to make 01 perfect fun~5tal·1 landing in a patrol plane. Thai's why I -claim that" ." order to keep y'our hand in.,. y'o'ushould ful.l-staU most of your landings, e)Jen, those made on smooth water .. Note the statement regardln.g life jackets. There is never any excUSe fo'r 'not wearing these' from ramp back to ramp again,on aU seaplane flights.

"We made our approach to the field; we landed and were moving along the runway. (I bad a funny feeul:Lg-I didn't, kno.w why; but things just didn't seem to be going right.) I "then looked. up to my left. A~ I turned I beard a noise and crash, I fell to the floor, getting as low as possible. Inn second I felt a bard jolt and glass started to fan around me. The next thing I knew, we were standing on our nose," Ensign Joe Gi~, pilot Qr the upper plane, made the following report:

I'nstrudor Trouble
Contrary' to the ow Flight Syllabus, an instructor seated his student ill the left scat and pezrnisted him to attempt the Irritial t-4ke-olr orl the student's first flight in a PV-l. The student was unable to correct a swerve to port and before take-off speed could he-gained, the airplane bounced into the air, The aircraft then entered an uncontrollable lr;oft tum, dragged a wing and crashed. The Trouble Board said: "The Syllabus, in part, states that on the 'first


open and my goggl'~ up away frorn the Least of my worries, I was havingmy eyes. 13}'this time T was down to ODe hell of a time wyihg to keep my 2,O()O feet. I tried to start my engine head above water and to stay away again but had no lurk, There was front the other coral that was all nothing 1. do but wait. I had time around m . e1lough to take otT my watch. and put "It took me about ten minutes to it in one oI my gloves which would be get through the coral and to shore. waterproof [or a few minutes. Wben All tills time th ere were at least two planes overhead keeping an eye on me. T saw I was not going to be able to 'I'eu minutes after I landed there were glide to a spot where the water was about 30 feet deep, I turned into what all kinds of help overhead and on the J though was the wind. LU,L\.,'r I water. lcarnud 1 was out of the wind about "1 was pickod up hy a );ampan and -flight of dual instruction in the PV-l. 50·, I wanted to gel as clos« to shore taken to the Army Headquarters where the instructor will demonstrate tak ,_ as I could, I never did open my flaps a plane picked me up and rr turm-d me ofl's and landings. The PV-l i~ not bccau e J "kJ1l~W T could glide farther to my home base." equipped with brake controls on the without them. \'Vhen 1 last looked at light side of the cockpit lind the airmy airspeed I was doing 70 knots about 60 Percent Tower Error plane- dot's develop high torque fOT'C:t"~ 20 feet above the water. An aircraft trouble report was yc011 take-off'. Normally these lorccs can ·'r waited until my tail was :in the ccntly received which gave the fQ1Jm~'ea ily be .onu-olled. However. if th water hciore' I put m)' left arm up in ing account of an 0 2N-l landing airplane Pt'COllli:.:S air-borne before rlvfront of the gLln~ight. 1 heard a noise arcident : The pilot approached and ing speed is reached, it il> almost irnwhich sound d like the. tail coming rnudt- a full stall landing OJ1 the desigpossible to control thr- torque. Thereoff': then 1 started forward. T aw a .nared runway, whi{~b was approxi[01'('. the characteristics of this airplane few sial'S and Iound myself upside rnatelv 50~ out of the wind. "Vind was should be thoroughly explained and down under war r. I tri d to get out 37 ~ots, with gu~t, llJ) to 47 knots, demonstrated before !lily student ;'s before T opened my ~Ctfely belt, then ailow -d to atternpra take-off roru the I opened my belt and came up at the left hand .>t'at." end of my left wing. I filhnl my life Pilot's handbook. Technical Orders jacket, zcinoved my new shoes, moved 25-43.86-42. 91-l2., and :May 1 N",ws my watch lip [0 the top 01 lily helmet, Lf.Tl"KR (p. ) are T{'[ erences f61' takethei swam back to the "hip to pick LlP oR' technique in PV airplanes. il. r ull }Jilck of cigarettes 1 saw floa ting Immediately upon J riding, a strong nearby, There was about four feet of A Dunking Experience g-u~t of wind caught under the right the plane's tail stick.ing up nut of the The tollowhlg is qUilted [rom thr water when I cam!" up. I didn't 1;1:)' wing: which caused the airplane to go '/Iilot's st at ement (:O"1lceruill{; all F4F to get llly Lifera ft all t o [ the plane, I into a left gro).lndloop and tum. over. farad lan ding: b -Iieve I could have grrttcn it out but After the accident, the runway was J W.lS only about a mile or so offshore changed to one directly into th . wind. "1 was at 8,000 feet at the time I so I stayed clear Eli th . plane. T left The Trouble Board assigned as the lost pOlver My RPM indi ator was my black socks 011 and pushed my new cans e of this a 'cident 40 percent pilot gradually decrca ·'ng. I at oner error and 60 percent weather. switched to manual control and "\~ hen- shoes along in front of me. After about 30 minute of this I deserted my that did not stop the decrease I tried 11e-W shoes. . to increase Iny RPM. All this time I ~~ Grampaw Pelfibon:e says ''When J got close to hore I tried was sure that I had plenty of gas, , lit to climb up on a coral reef to rest. Strikes me, the 60 percent ast~,make sure I worked with my wobble signed to weather should father pump and changed from one tank to About thi~ time I was knocked oft' the have been CIS signed to the rasponstcoral and it seemed like an ,hour bethe other. at least four time". My wobfore 1 carne Hp. On the ducking T ble tower pen;onnel for no' keeping ble pump was 110T building Ul) any the landing course as nearly as poslost my helmet and watch but this was "fuel pI" ssure. I had a hand wobble sible irnto the wind. Flight safety pum,p which was vel)' Nl$Y to pump. is one of fhe lOWer's main jobs. I kept working with my manual conPilots depend on the tower to proptrol, my gas tanks, and wobhle pump erly route traffic:,around the field and for ahout foul' minut '5. if this is not done, as was not dOhe in thi.5 case; it would be better for all "All this time I loV'ifR ina glide at 120 concerned if there were no tower. knots headed [01;· the. uthwcst corner Of course, this flight demonstrates of Lanai whlc·h was about 18 miles agoin ·that the ultimate safely of away. At 6,000 Ieer my engine went every flight rests directly with the dead and at ;'1,500feet I began to get pilot concerned. II is his neck that teady for the landing that was to is sticking out. Operating in cccerdTried To Stunt follow. once with a green light, or other "1 tnok oft" my chute and radie consignal, may p·rolecl you legally, but at Low Altitude nections. Then 1 lowered rnv eat not physically. Don', let it be said of you, "He was right, dead right." about 4 inches. My heed was Jacked



British Flat-Hatters Dismissed From Service
With Auto
"Buzzing" Pilot Collides
Four Br.itish offiGers and airmen pilot hay be n court-inartialed and dismissed from. the service for Hying their planes unnecessari If low over the countryside, the Royal Air Force J DUma, reports. In one case a pilot officer was COnvicted of improperly diving his plane below 2,000 feet over an airfield and crashing .ir to the ground. Another ~ilot officer Rew his plan only 100 feet above houses while the third· went so low in "buzzing" a residential area the plan hit a house. The fourth pilot officer was envicted of flying so low he collided with a root rear on a highway.

Plotting Board Cards
Durable matte finished plastic data cards for aircraft navigational plotting boards ar available for jmfnediate distribution. J nserted 1)etween the chart board and the grid of the plotting board, these data cards afford a convenient location for noting communication data, re . ognition signals, navigation data and other pertinent information which must be readily available to the pilot 0.1' navigator'. Data cards in two ize arc being procured. One .ard, F. . S. C. No. 88-C-290, is for use with th Mark 3- pl ttlng board. The other, Ii'. S. S. O. 88-. -233, is for use with the Mark ,5 chart- plotting board and the Mark 5-A plotting board. The cards are being placed in stock at the Aviation Supply Annex, Norfolk, AYiation.. Supply Annex, Oakland, and the Naval Aircraft Fact.ory, Philadelphia.

would become effective in less than a month or 6 we ks, Meantime she might be without funds. The above example .is typical of thousands of cases the Navy is. constantly meeting because fficers sent overseas have failed to make provisiam for their dependents by allotment, Officers are encouraged to register allotments for their dependents prior to their detachm nt from training commands. Married men ordered to the west coast 'have been discouraged hom taking tbeiP wives because often they are sent overseas at once,

Student Officers' Troubles
Student officers often run into financial troubles when they are transferred from station to station without sufficient time for ample pay to accurnulat on th book. The solution to this is found ill ~'egistermg an allotment to a checking account fGf' as much pay as _possible up to the full amount of the base pay, less insurance allotments. Experience bas indicated that, when an officer joins the fleet, subsistence, flight pay and in certain cases rental, is sufficient cash Ior all personal needs. Cash, If lost by fire or sinking of the ship, j - lost forever, A pTeviously regjstered allotment to a bank or to dependents would prevent this loss in praetically every case. IT an offi er- is captured 01' missing and he bas registered an allotment to his dependents or to his joint bank account such payments continue until his status is cleared. An such allotments not sp cifically designated for "dependency" imrn~diate1y are stopp d upon commencement oI such capture or mi ing status.

Carloaders For (V'S.I ACV's, AV's
Arrangements hav been completed with the Bureau of Ships to supply two power carloaders to CVs and one to ACV' and A V'. Ior use in handling stores. Allocation of this equipment


Registering an Allotment Important
Assures Prov;s;o.n Is
Made for Dependen's
A yO\tng naval officer walked into a disbursing office on the we toast and handed his transfer pay account through the barred window with the request that he be paid at on c. "I bave ITJ)' wife with me, and I am almost out of mon y. I'Ln being ordered to report immediately to the Commander at --, so I need .it at once," he said. The officer b <hind the window had 1:0 advise him ilia it would be impossible to put his. papers through official channels fast enough to permit immediate payment. He also told.him that b cause h was leaving on such short notice an allotment could not be registered for his wife1s support that

Chest Straps Valuable In
Preventing' Injuries
Combat Craft Now. Equipped With Belts, Suaer Says
The value of chest straps to ward off head injuries in crash landings is becoming increasingly apparent as reports from training school s and fighting Ironts come in. One air group has








is made by War Production Board and until BuShips can secure the necessary allocations Buaer is assisting in the supply of hese loaders. The small motor-driven cars are proving useful in shifting heav stores around in ships. 8

equipp d all planes with these straps, passed around tl e armor and 11pportiug struts behind the pilot's]; at. The traps are usually kept loose so the pilot can lean forward and usc the gun ~ight, hut tightened' ill the rvr'.nt of a crash ltmding. It i~ 'helieved that in at Ieast two crash landing~ in the water they saved the- pilots and radiomen [rom serious injury or death. All combat airplanes and trainer now being deliver d, with, the exception of patrol I embers, are equipped with the Iap and shoulder safet),· belt before leaving the contractor's plant. For the method of installing the bel t i.n a irplane already delivered ~('t' th(, f 01low il1g' airpla ne changes which have been issued:










Churchill Promises British Aid Against Japan
The Axi~ nations have shown their "first real mortal weakness' in their air war with the Allies and win be outnumbered and outfought by the .incre:ol~iJ;lg aerial men til of the United ations, Prime Minister Winston Churchill said in a speech t the Congres~ pf the United States. The Prime Minister promised England's fullest cooperation and aid in the defeat of J a[)an to recnver lust land,
in the Southwest Pacili«. "I n the

SBD-3P No.

SBD-3 No, 114.

SBD-4 No. 16. NA5-1 No. 24. BT~l No. 77. S~C-3 No. 133. SBC-4 No. 114. N3N-l No. 76. N3N-3 No. 36. TBF-l No. 83. SNC-l N,o, 66.

NP-l No. 16. OS2U-1 NQ. 56. OS2U-2 No. 68. OS2tJ-3 No. 52. OS2N-l No. 20. F4F-3 No. 115. F4F-3A No. 95. F4F-4 No. 64. F4F-7 No. 23, 503C-1 No. 11.

Additional Change instrurtjon-, in preparation.


Bond AUotments Booming
Admiral Kin g recently ernphasized the importance of War-bond allormen ts w J1 e n he told Navy personnel to 'L e t your dollars fight with you." Navy bond allotments are based not only on a patriotic motive. but also on a sound Common sense w'ge of peranal financial welfare. The simple mathematic. of investing three dollar to get four should be ample inducement for signing a bond allotment form. The bonds will provide their buyers an CCODOrrllC cushion after the war. A year ago only 7,500 had Signed bond allotment forms. ShX months ago 33,000 had signed, and today about 100 000 are listed. With the Navy building up to a strength of 190.000 officer. and 1.850,000 men by the end of 1943~ it isestimated that 1,250,000 will have signed War-hOl1d allotment forms by that time.

Malay Peninsula and at Singapore we ourselves suffered the largest military disaster itt British QistOIY. "Lor no one suggest thal we British have not at least as great an interest as the United ta tes in the lin Ainchlng and I' .lentless waging of war against japan." Mr. Churchill declared the air Iorces of the United .Na tions "a] ready vastl y outnumber the ain ~trt'l1gt!i of Japan. Cermany and Italy .)< * ,x, in this

Don't Tow by Tail
Bt'niling and wrink'lin, of the rail-wheel strut piston on PV-l and PV-3 airplane" is very likely to be the result of towing the a lrplane by the tail wheel, A ttenlion of all acti vi ties is ca 11ed to the fact that these airplanes must be towed from main landing-gear positions only. The tail-wheel steering bar must n be used for towing and the airplan must n t of" towed by the tail. Tow bar
to he attached to the main land-

air war it is that these guilty nation have alreadv begun to show their first real mortal weakness. The more continuous and severe the air fighting becomes, the better [Of us, because we 'an already replace casualties and rnachines far more rapidly than the enemy nd we can replace them on a scale which increase, month bv month." The Prime Minister declar d 'our killings of the U-bcats. as the e rotary of the avy will readily confirm, .have this year greatly exceeded all previous experience, While I rate the Ll-boat danger still the g'rea lc,t we have to face, I have a. good and sober confidence that it will not only be met and contained but 01.1' rcnme." Us of ail' power alone may not bring about the collapse of German or Italy but "th experinteut Is well worth trying so Jong a~ other measure. are not exclud 'eI," Churchill mid. The air war is forcing Germanv to withdraw a large pad ~f her air~t'aft Irom the fighting fronts to combat raiders over the homeland, thus aiding Russia which today ill bearing the brunt of the land war, the Prime Millister said. "It is al I agreed between us that we should at the arliest momenr similarly Qring our joint a.ir power LO bear upon the military targets in the homelands of 1 apan. The cold-blooded execu~ion of nited Stales airmen by the japanese Government is a proof not only of the barbarism hut of the dread in which the I regard tllh_ 'possihllity."

ing gt"ar are included in the ,gTouod handling equipment.


Marines Improve as

Ann-Sub Gunners

V. 1.-Stnimpressive

Gunnery classes are being taught the how and
of an

at this school's Free

why of gJJfl~ by means

equipment -and +raining de-

batch last month: 6,700 dozen» of egg", 2,500 pounds of butter, 4,500 galll'll1.s of milk, 25,000 pounds of beef, 15)000 pounds o( ham, pod; and bacon, :'35,000pounds of potatoes, and .'i,000 pounds of poultry. These, a~grnented by a hundred other staples, equal an 'unlimited food ration b;;!.;nk account for MAS, Dallas.

translucent plastic sheet, corresponding to the shape of the line pattern. produced jrly the projection) was placed pe.rpl!l1dicul<lr to the longitudinal axis of the gtl.!'r. On each shed was printed the Lype and caliber of the guP as well as the angles to which the f:,"U J1 may be pointed or trained, When
all of the

are so treated the vul-

Almost all of the. latest devices perfected by the Bureau have been in" stalled here. They include: the 3 A-2 trainer, a mechanical device for teach. ing lead and fOllow-through*; the Moeller turret. to give the student the feel of actual combat machinery in action: the Jones trainer for rangeestimation, and flashmetcrs for identifitaljon training,

~, r'

nerable spots and poorly protected areas of the aircraft are dearly visible, In addition, vital spots such as pilots, gunners, and vital mechanism, an' indicated by the U:lJ"or light paint.
1'1 Mill .,

Tn: I.

rio. ..


.... ~ill p



r e ...

f."i""'~ l, ',rod. j~


fl ,i: .....~

S • ....,+h

r.... ~~f,~

'iH'""" ..;,t~H blj, .'"







"'11[ IF


IIfIlt ...

i..& j


.... ~


Mile Swim Shows Off Endurance
Above NAS,

CJ ~


Proof that gunnery training is standing the-m In good stead is found in the anti-submarine pzacrice lirimg- given new pilots, The gl·eatest difficulty in these practices is to maintain a target, for a near miss is no hit in tIUlI league. Pilots insist on d~stroying the low, much to the di$gu~t of the surface crew. Photographic records bear out the exccJJcnt gunnery shown by the Hiers.
fS".c p. 13:, NL 5115/41



ri ~

31J.Je_ .......~~

l a.

loJlIiI ~






''''' ..... ,

Cedets' Record Far J 942 Mark






!.'\I;' .... a~.;If.!
u,..,.. ••

.... ,t






~1 Jri.

,pVy'r."I'!iO!: 41M'Yot~
~ ... ~




J~tr-til"'f 1""'fI_lt~d


+ ~,~~

~i"" ...... 1150."" h
t.!I' ........oI'~







~.J.p ~






Navy Chow Is Healthful
80,000 ~ggs Down the Hatch in Month
NAS. DALLAs.-FeediTJg more, than enlisted men, and cadets is no small task for the C0l11l1UgSafy departanent oS NAS, Dalla~. Menus are based on Naval traditions and customs, using the publisbed recipes of the Navy Cook Book. The Instant a man starts eating Navy chow,.he goes ('JR a diet-though not .in the popular sense. Each day, menus are planned to give the necessary Clll"rgy produCing- vitamins, A, B, C, D, E~ and ph.:nty of fresh vegetables, fruit salads, citrus jukes) cere aIs, pl'llU es, figs, eggs, and meat are provided, He GaIT eat all he wants but he must take no more than he eats. The following figl1re~ will give an idea or tho chow stowed down the


Commando Coune At


NAS, WEI>KSVILLE.-Marines and bluejackets attached to this statieu now have a ~"corl1.mand(l"course to pnwide physical recreation and toughen them up physically, The course is approxirnatcly 5UO feet long and cousistsof practically every type of obstacle usu;:"lIy Iound on such courses. A mud flat that TIlU5t be negotiated h.y going ha,nd-ovcr-hand 0]] a suspended rope has proved the downfall for filmy who have tried the course.

swimming test .given recently to a new class of cadets at this Training Center, 113 out of 116 were a ble to CO,Ll] plere lhe; task s,uccessfully. 1'W0 men managed to swim "<l half·m.iJc while the one renraining man Ypetered OQI!'" affer passing the quarter-mile mark. In covering the distance the group swam continuously for 40 minutes. This excellent Showing is a far cry hom re~ll1ts .in a test given last July when ouly J'2 percent of a class were able to iitay afloat for five minutes. Similar tests will he eontinued twice weekly for incoming classes.

Yellow Paint Identifies
Taw Planes


on gunllt'l·Y runs from a squadron, at

Mode.1 Planes Improved
In order to gj"o studerats a better lmowJ.eo,ge of the Jiring areas and vulnerable spots of enemy aircraf]; the Naval Air Station, Ow·pus Christi, has "added something new" to Its enemy model planes. The firing ~Qne of enemy armament was determined by projecting the complete angle range of each gun. A

the Naval Auxiliary All Statian, Bron" son Field, are able to l?ick out the tow plane <It a quick glane)! now that a distinctive paint job has been per" fanned. The nose cowling, the wings from the inboard edge of the ailerons to the wing tips, and the tail sections of all tow planes are I)ai.l)tcd a bright yellow. This color, seen against the camouflage hluc(')[ the rest of the plane, enables even the newest fledgling to identify his target in a split second.


Obst.acle Course Cracked
MCAS, CHERRY POINT, N_ C.Co·ndirioning QffiGer~ <It this Marine Air Station. thought their obstacle ceurse was pretty tough, but th at was

plenty pf jniC're~ted t:ye~. Constant visual association with the models makes the men recognition-censcieus. The tnodels are suspended from wire arranged to place them in various attitudes 5(1' that head-cu. angle, plan views and silhouettes lTlay be observed. There are two models of each aircraft. One has an attached paper disk nn which the letter designation, manufacturer, and missions are printed, The exact dHplicat(!of 'this model without a paper disk is placed somewhere else in the displav :;0 that the observer can, by comparison, .determine the identification of the models,

Fightlng French at Dallas
NAS, lJi\JjLAs.-Sevcnrceti representatives of the Figllting French-> th rce officers and 14 enlisted personnel-e-have reported aboard for Rignt n:ainjng, t1..1.18 marking another ~tep in this Station's expanding prQgral)J. Arrival of offit:ers and men from the combat zones has had a tendency to promote a 11.1.Q1:E' S~~riCItI~ attitude toward. the grimness of this war and an inclinatien on the part of all hands, to work harder to "get it pver with."





.. UN

before a private first class from the
Guard Detachmenteame along to take a crack at it. He sailed through the
near 7ITO-yard COUL,e in 3 minutes 50
TQ "'we ti me, N Il"wa LE"IT:E"R provides t.hi~ con vcnie Itt Io rm on which copies of rhe Bureau's attractive training 'bookfets can he ordered. Individuals should place orders with ~heit supply officer or commarrder who ill. turn will suhmit them, in theaggregate, to. the "Bureau.

seconds, twisting and squirming through the wires and culverts and taking the numerous jumps in stride. Prior to this' record run 5 minutes was considered good time in which to cover the course. Now, however, it has been toughened by the installation of many new obstacles and the alteration of those ahea:dy there.



The Chi,,! 01 I,he Bweau Gf Aeroncurics T'dinins booklets on.d manual!



Road To

1. It is requested that the following traming booklets and manuals be .sent to this command, at the address indicated bcJow, in the quantities Mated,
Indica Ie Qurmtifr Tiftr"of Booklet

Recognif.ion learned by Visual Association
NATTC, JAOH:.lSdNV1L;LE_-Am. idea to make aircraft recognition a pleasant study .instcad of just another duty was put into use by the Naval Air Technical Trainiqg Center here. when 11 hung miniature plane models from the cdb;lg of its heavily patronized ship's

Ice Form'ation on Aircraft Thu ndersto rms

FI'ight Quarters Parachute Sense Ox:vgen Sense Prisoner Sense (Restricted}
•• ~ oJ

(Restricted for CV'.s and ACV's)

Since several thousarrd enlisted men visit the place daily, the planes attract



Do.n" Killl Your Friends FOR A VIA nON CADETS Using Your Navy Wings


Foor Ensigl:l5 ,

Mon;ual, for Officer Studel:l's




! i




___________________________________________ . . .J


T ~IEdistributed ofamongArmy'sai r ann .str~ngth the separate

This Semi~Auto.nomous Aviation Body Functions Today as One of Army's Three Grea.t Combat A'rms


distinct categories, The AnJ1l' calls these: Air Power, Air Defense, Air Support, and Ail' Service, Each is a
mission of the gn::ltesl importance

the successful prosecurinn of the W<l1'. }\it' Power may be described briefly :I.~ the operation oj an independent ftJl'ce of long-n:mge bombers, sttikjl'lg
a6 far 3' several

the enemy's en!"lTIY'swar-ntaking facilities, his industries, airdromes, communications, and supply lines , A ir Defense en tai I~ the protection by Army Air Forces or our OW11 CCOHt\n1j(' Iaetories, railroacls, ·stOl'e~. homes-e-ns well as of military establishments, nt home and abroad. it is here that inte rcep tors perf 01'111 rhe irn portan t 111issicns attacks ol enemy bombers and fighters while ga.ining .alr of ~laviIJg

hurrdrcd, mile} behind lines, directly at; the

with ground forces, This aerial gUp· pert includes machine-gunning, bornlaing and strafing' the enemy's (OmIIHIJI!ca tion ~',troop concen trations, am m unition dumps and airdromes. It lurther includes carrying parachute tl'Ol1PS and landing .infantryat advanced points; delivery of food, MlppI-ies,anci ammunition for those iI'DOpS. Air Support also 1. evidenced when it is m:CeSSUTV s to lay down all aenial barrage ill frlln't of an atrack-c-thus delaying lh(' .enemy and permitting OLD' soldiers to retire in order. Air Support also .includes the work of combat photographers, who have become so important in taking photographs which make planning po,,· ::,jolt' a,~ well as interpreting the rr-s~dts
of a ruid,


Ami)' a[,r [orce /JaJ by leaps and bounds, and



to a total alfie/Jr" 0/

.>:lrf'u;:'111 vf 'riM1.





for ih» eir force Qlonv tops that (If the eusire NallY and J?il)e.r a «lear jJic/ uri' of the ad-fianceauiaiion h as made since Ih e prst />lmw flew nt Kitty Ha71Jk lOTly
)'ear.( filS! 'atf(i. IJlm:;tojJ


1/1.1' lad that th.e {U.r;hl aCTaH the At·
!I t


.1'8m:)· ago, it

made I lhMil),-fo is not .m'!' j!risin,l;.

Air Service
Air Service supplies equipme-nt, spare parts, and personnel required LO keep the- complex rnachinerv of Air P0Wt')'. Ail· Defense, and Air'Support in first-class working and fighting

rJlallylwlIdredc,a II0. t/it/

thu! of these crossings

are nuulr eocl: wuk.



suprrirwity over ba ttle area ,. J\ir Support means direct intervenlion by Army Ail' Forces on the battlefield, working- ill dose coordination








It call be see 11.from this brief description o-r the [our missions of Army AiL FOrce", that it is 'highly iT11~ portant for Ail" .PoW(,'p, Air Support, and Ail' SI'rvieeto corry out their jobs completely and ~uc~ cesslully ~f) that Air Defense - at 1.1f'a ~ t
over aul' own shcres=-will not be

b'/'in~ is i:<.'ell beyolld (h» rpmjJ'f6hf"U-1il)1!O_f iW)' mall today. 11 is reasonable 10 assume, however, ihu! il toon'i be far from man's !!'ildIlJI dreams m.ultiplied by .,.r." NIiWs Ll~T'I'ER introduce: .il"ml' Air Forces If! i~.f readers.



of bombs.

TOday, what




necessary, Although todav's ~tntlq,ry is based ~n pI anes in thc' thea tPT& oJ war, a. rpluervn· live estimate 0I what can be expected ill Ihe futuro:' .is both i justified and essen.. hal. In World Wal" J. :'10 miles out and 50 miles back was a long trip for the most advanced airplane of the day. Yet it carried only a Few huncombat ,perJonhann· arid number of air-

hOI e been called the "last I,;)f the small v borribers" are tarrying from 20, to 40 times the bomb 10.3 d o fI917'~ "big" planes, and d Q iug it <I t th ree to four fillies thespeed for 10 to 15 times the distance. Beyond the service bombers in actual combat operation. and cornparing the plane, which are 110"", being readied fcn production wi th their 10 rerunners of 25 years llgO, the progre.'!,~is nn!hing .~hQrt QE phenomenal. 1t is riot toe imaginative to say that military aircraft of 195.0 will resemble the planes Army Air Forces had in DI"-Cember, 1941, to just about the
sa mC'e'Xten tlha
t a n &8 r1}'


1 7 re-



sernbtes the old DH-4. Wbilt perferraancc is to be expected {rl)ll! [he tools 'Or all' power in 194D and 1950 is a broadguess, but {his much ~t'('tns certain and must be the basis for any readistic planning of future air strategy on the part of Arnl)" Air
}'or('t'~ :
(C(mlrtl.1L~d 077

p. 13)




The geograph.J.cal position of the United States no longer will give this country protection Irorn enemy air power operating from any part uf the world now under Axis control Five or ten yearn ago that statement would have been a prediction; today it is simply Army Air Forces conservative projection into th future of about half th present rate of air poweT progress, don' -to give a realistic picture of wllrLt can be expected two to five years hence. To secthat picture It is only necessary to look at the world as men who fly see it today. The following timetable illustrates the point:
FromNew York •.. Chicago •..•


Fundamental truths that affect national existence have b ien hammered home by the lightning strokes of air power in this war, spokesmen of Army Air Forces say.

It is a force which of :itself does not. defeat an army and capture the enemy's equipment. Air power must be coordinated with land forces in order to achieve victory.
LAND POWER NEEDED , Ail' power must not be developed at the expense of land power. By th.t' same token, air !;;UJ.lPQrt of land power must not be neglected. Both arc interd 'pend nt. STATESMANSHIP NOW GLOBAL No sertrrity is saf military OJ" econornic-c-that igno:r the changed relationships brought about by air power. Hereafter, stalesmamhip must be on global terms. OUR LAST CHANCE


Airplane M,'/es 3,960 9,365 6,759
4,333 3,460 7,801


Berlin . Singapore •. New York ... Capetown .• San Frondsco Wellin.91of'l • Woshin'l't'on . Moscow. ... ,


47 34
24 39

America will never again have rhc opportunity
air pOWI'r after is needed. possible this time, but we

to build



have made it

Lontlon New Yerle


. ROll1e .•...• . Lordon ....



Berlin ..•...


4th 17

never risk this again.
Hdmt P~~bQd.,', U.




This 11('\\' global concept of tim and space must dictate an future strategy, both for war ana for the preservation of peace, just as it has dictated the over-all trategy which guides the use of the Army Air F rces t day.

Basic Orga:nization
The AI"TtlY set-up. like the Navy'~, needs a properly balanced air r rc . This includes a sufficient quantity of high quality airplanes-bombers, fight€'.rs, re 'Orln a issa nee, and tra nsport, It includes navigators, bombardiers, pit ts, and gunners, plus-ground crews. (An all' force with the be. t fighter planes and few bombers. would be like R. boxer with a mighty right arm and a crippled left, Am}), Ai.r' Forces point out.) Air base arc placed at strategic points, with landing fields, storag and rnaintenan 'C facilities. housing and technical installations, and all that goes to enable a. modern a·ir force to carry .on. To maintain Army Air Forces eprations over the world, an air supply rystem is kept in operation and today giant cargo planes are carrying the goods to the battlefields when ships are too slow or uuavailable. A gl.impsc of the organization of Army Air Forces reveals that the overall 'picture may be described in three key word .•: PCllic~l, Commands, and Forces. Policy is under direction of

Ge11. Henry H. Arnold, commanding general of the United States. Army Air Forces: and an air staff and special ~taff. Recognition of the decisive importarrce of air power in all phases of modern warf, rc i, $h wn .in th' cornpact air-ground Army General taff, about half of whom are from the Air Staff. Operating directly under the Comrnanding General of Army Air Forces nine great commands composc the last stag s of the Air Fortes' preparation Ior combat organizations. They are Flying Training Command Technical Training Command, Air Transport Command, Materiel Command, Troop Carrier Command Proving Ground Command, Air SCMCtl Command, Antisubmarine Command and Flight Control lommand. Maj. Gen. Harold L. George s Air Transport Command itarted in June 1941, with a I 'W, i) ffi cers and cler ks, as the Air Corps Fen-ying Corn mand to fl lendlease equipment frOTIl the factories.

Air Supply

Vilal FactoI'

Four airways have been established and thousands of planes. personnel, and millions of pounds of supplies for this six-corrtinent air force and other fighting units have been flown to th various fronts with an illn."u:inO' record of safety, Air supply>. a long-estabII hed principle of American air doctrine, is rapidly becoming a vital factor in world strategy forwmning th war. Training of air crews and ground crews 'COmes nder the Hying Training u Command and Technical Training Command. These have expanded

A reorganization of AnllY Air Force was recently announced by the War Department, designed J. to decentralize control to the field and 2, to gear the organiz&tion to current war necessities, As a result of this change, Al'my Air Forces Headquarters is Tell ved f details of execution and left free to determine overall policy, while, greater responsibility is delegated to field CO.Illmanders, Headquarters ·ta.ff per onnel .in Washington has been reduced and the nineteen major component of the Air Staff will be lowered to six.








round - the- world air s e ric. e for men, material, and mail w h i h aJ-

ready surpasses Hie combined operations of all the ail: Iines in the world,


grl;'atl:y, and thousands of crews are being 'turned out each month. The Materiel Command procures aircraft and equipment, and condu .ts research and development at Wright Field. The Ail' Service Command operates air depots, repairs and, maintains aircraft and equipment, and insures a constant flow of parts and supplies to
all units, dome tic and overseas.

Army Air Forces Aviation Badges



The Troop Carrier Command is responsible Ior transporting air-borne troops and equipment, parachute troops and equipment, and Iortowing troop and cargo"carrying gliders.






To provide air forces, tl1 ' final stage is Operational Training, just as it is in Naval Aviation. As personnel and aircraft are received from the training schools and factories they arc trained as units, with the emphasis Oil development of smoothly working combat teams. Th~y then are sent directly to the fighting f ron ts and attac hed to task forces. Here they fight under the direct command of an ail' officer chosen by reason of his training and xperience in conneetion with the par" ticular mission then required. Sometimes this air officer is in command of the entire Army installation ground arid air forces, as in the case of the late Lieutenant General Andrews in the European theater who had









Maj. Gen. Ira Eaker as his air chief, or 01 Lieutenant General Emmons. in
Hawaii, or Lieutenant Gencral EL1.Tmen in the Solomons. n the other hand, ornetimes the air officl~r is under the command of a ground force officer such as Lieutenant Gcnl'ral Spaatz, air chief for Lieutenant General Eisenhower in North Africa, and Lieutenant General Kenney for General Mac/vrthur In Australia. Under the principle of unified command, sometimes the commanding general of a given area comes under the Navy (Hawaii under Admiral Nimitz, South Pacific under Admiral Halsey, and the Aleutians under Vic" Admiral Freeman), and sometimes h is the other wa around, .as in the Canal Zone, where Lt. Cen, Get~rge H. Brett is in command,








In lul)r, 1907 an aeronau tical section was established in the U. S. Army

Signal Corps. A $25,000 airplane, built [or the Army by the Wright

brothers, crashed during its test flight. The first successful Army plane was tested on August 2, 1909. The baby air force at the time of \Vorld War I became an Aviation tion of the Signal Corps. Total Army aviation consisted of 6.; officers 1,087 enlis ted Hum, and 55 airplan es (noTlc of which mounted a machine gun). At the end of the war th ail' arm was placed under a new combat branch, the Air SCivJCe. In J921, extensi e bombing experiments were made Of) the. obsol tc battleship .Alabama. In 1929, Lieut. James H.

Doolittle made a take-off and a landjog by instruments alone, in a h oded cockpit. In ID35. Army men made the first flight in which the pilot took ofI~ navigated to his destination, and landed completely by instruments, The GHQ Air Force was officially organized on March 1" 193.1, to de" velop the combat new as a fighting team WIDehcould fly, bomb, and shoot. In. June, 1941, this organization be. came the Air Force Combat Com" rnand, whi h in turn was super eded hy Arm}' Air Fore 'S the following




techniques of air W;:Jr[arc, untested before December 7, 1941, have proved their worth on battle fronts today. Although many of it doctrines were con idered .revolutionary or impractical only a year 01' two ago, the contribution of the Army's air arm to the United Nation ha com in fOJ' substantial recognition, Th mammoth long-range bomber, heavilyarmed and well protected, was .nurrured by the Army into what many consider will develop into the most destructive weapon of World War II. Under careful supervision of a group of air-minded Army officers, the Army Air FOl'CC have been developed into a powerful integrated unit that fights offcnsiv Jy or defensively with equal success. The men who arc re ponsible for it gre\,\' up with American military aviation. Like the early pioneers of naval aviation. many of them were part of the Army's air branch when it boasted only a handful of planes. Army Air Forces' foundation was laid long ago, but its real b 'ginning is of recent origin. It dates hack to 1935 when the GHQ An. Force was ostablished with a taff of youthful aviation old-timers. Under their supervision, very aspect of military aviation wa: studied: pilot training, air a,l1US and armament, aircraft designs, strategy; and tactics. America has devised it, own revolutionary air-war theories, The recent ccornplishments have answered those who questioned these conceps. O~cja I recognition of the importance of Army aviation came a few months ago in the promotion of LL sen, Henry (J-I;,lp) Arnold to a [OUTstar general making him the first airmall to hold the high est rank the U. S. Army offers to its fighting heroes.


ent commanding
Air Forces

W~st Point, graduating in 1907 as it second Iieutcnant in the infantry, Four years later he was assigned to the Ai.r Corps, rhea an aeronautical secrion of the; Signal Corps with one plane and a handful of pilots. He was one of the Wright brothers' first students and holds Pilot License No. 29 and
Expert Aviator Certificate No.4. In 1912 he set a .new altitude record of 6,5~O Icet, winning the6rst Mackay Trophy to be awarded, He j-cccived the 1.9~~4' award of the same trophy '1$ Commander' oIth.e Army Right into the frozen Alaska wastes.


general of the U. S. Army
his military .areer




Arnold was the first military observer to uSC" radio to report his aerial observations. incc 1955 he bas successfully beell commandlcg officer of the Air Corps First WirJg, Assistant Chid of the Air COrlJS, Chic( of the Air Corps, Deputy Chief of Staff fur AlT, and uow the Chief of the entire 1). S. Am1)' Air Forces. He WOn the Distinguished Flying Cross in 1936 for an Alaskan Jermarion flight 2 years prior, the Distingui hed Service Medal in 1942 for participating in an aerial flight from Brisbane, Australia, to Bolling Fjeld,

District of Columbia, and thu Air Medal in J 94~ for his work in the developmenc and wide expansion of the Army \ir Forces.

M'\J. GEN. LEVa!> H. BRl!ltl\'roN-Brereton TC igned a naval ensign's commission jn 19"11 to became a coast artiller second lieutenant. He served in the Philippines then commanded it squadron in France during World Wal' I, rising' to chi, I of staff of rhe Third Army's air service, H was awarded the Croix dl' Guerrc. He was attached to numerous air fields in . S. before becoming comuianding general of ~Olb U. S. Air Force in India and later in the Middle East (9th Air Force).

MAJ. CEN. GLAI,RE L. CJffiNs chief of the ''Flying TIgers' in China, General hennault became a celebrated nviation leader. At present, he is commanding general of the U. S. Army 14th Air- Faroe in. China. His background includes acrobatic flJying with the Army at the 1 !'l:i4 .Naticnal Air Races, service at numerous air fields in U. S. lind Hawaii, and. as an instructor in tactical flying. Chl:nmtllit is the author or " book on fighter aviation,

Eaker got .his Il)'ing expe riencc ill :post· World War d"Y5 in U. S. and the Philippines. He was secoud in command of the Good Will FLight around South. America in 1927. With Spaatz, b e piloted the Army plane "QueJlirm .Afark" to a new endurance record, He joined the Caterpillar Club dttring a lest flight rash, Eaker too,~ nver cornUland of bombers in the Europcan theatre in J uly 194'~ and tater became cD\nmand,llg general of 8th Air Forte in London.


M<\J. Gr.z.;. IRA C.

The Role of Defensive Pursnit.

MAJ. OI;'N, Q1..rvJ';& P. ECROL5-Echels served ll' Wodd War I as a field artillery officer, becoming a pilot in 192 L Graduating from Army tactical and enginer-ring schools be went to Ann)' War College in 1938. This was followed by service in the Air .orps Maten!'l Division. In March 1943, he became assistant chief of the Air St,at, Washington, 101' Materiel, Main nance, and Distribution, He is largely responsible lor quality and quancity of ~rmi' combat planes.

MAJ. GEN. HA R 0 L 0 L. CEQ,acE-As commanding general of th Air Transport Command, George's job is to g-et supplies and planes by air to ever), part of the globe. He saw service ill France in me J art wat' as a 'bombing mst::(uctor. following this he served at Aberdeen Proving Ground and at Hawaiian Air Fields. George 'Von an event in the Tntcrnational Air Races in 1921 and ", rticipated in 'the 19:18 Good wrn Fright a nd also the J 939 An::n.)' flight 10 South America,

LT. Gl>N. GEORGE C. KE1\NEY~Kcnne"y is commander of Allied Air Force in the Southwest Pacific wi th headquarters in Australia. During the lrut war, I;te piloted 11 fighter plane in Frarice, participating in ]2 aerial combats and downing two Cerman planes. General .Kenney held numerous high, air corps posts 'ia this COUll try, including a duty at Wright Field all head of Air Corps ExperiSchool, mand'In

LT. GEX. CAIU. SI'AA1:z--As comm an ding general of the Northwest African Air Forces. General Spaatz is a kq- man U; the allied offensive against the Axis, During World War I, Spaatz was a figh ter pilot, shooring down three Fokkers in aerial combat to win the ~J.



I, 0 It







mental Depot and Engin ering
bdocl; assuming COTIlthe Southwest' Pacific.

Spaatz commanded the Army plade "QueJliol1 Mark" in its mstQric flight of 150 hours, He was II special military observer in E:ngland before United States entered the present war.

Stratemcycr is hief of Staff of the Army Air Forces, He started his military career as a second lieutenant, graduating from West Point. Following service iII the southwest at various Arl11)' flying fields, Strarerneyer spent three years in Hawaiian ,\.r:.rqyair activities. For five years until 1929, Strat meyer was an instructor at West Point, then served at Fort Leavenworth and Hamilton "Field before cnrrring the ArID)' War Cell ... ~ in 1938. S


CARRY out the four missions of Air Power, Air D tense, Ail' Support and Air Service, the Army Air Forces are well equipped with sturdy a-nd capable aircraft. And as the war moves into grimmer stages, the Army Air Forces's rength in this pha e is keeping' abreast or the increase in number of its personnel. The American problem (as seen hy Army Air Forces) was long-range offshore operations under tavorable weather conditions, which demanded sufficient altitude to fly above ships'<arrtiaircra It fire, and on tile other hand required extreme bombing precision, since a lup is a small targ t from 20,000 feet. As part of this emphasis, the precision bombsight was intended lor me for daylight operations, and the large


bombers were to be handled by highly trained combat rews which included specialized bombardiers and aerial navigators. Long-range operations over Iand objectives were subject to the same goneral considerations. The second problem was the development of attack aviation, cooperative work w:ith ground fOTci'S consisting of suitable planes, and techniques for Iast, low-flying weeps against specified targets, with heavy machine gun, c-annon fire, and light bombs. A third subject for study and experimentation was fighter operations, with special empha is on interception of enemy planes and air defense. In addition, there was a demand that air power b self-su taining by means of a rully developed fill' transport SCIYleecovering the world.
011 JMee


Consolidated B-24 (Liberator)
'I'his large fonr-epgined bomber is rated the Army's fastest Iong-range craft, Like the B-1 7. the Liher4tor ha four radial engines" weighs about 30 tons, has a tOP speed. in excess of 300 miles, and is heavily armed, It has had II useful career in. the Pacific theater and the .Mediterranean, where its long range has been ao important factor. It also Joined with the Fortress ro give Germao-held France lind the

Low Countries terrific poundings ifl dayLight raids. It has. a wing span of no feet and is 63 feet long. High wings aud twin rudders are outstanding features of this ship. Some Army authoriries consider it the Nation's besr all-around .heavy bomber, -while others prefer the B-17. The 'tWO migbty planes pair together, however, to give [he United States probably the best daylighc bomber ream in the world tOday, a team whose 6re power makes them feared by ill enemy fighters, Earlier models of rhe B-24, lacking power turrets, were used only- for ferrying service by the Br.itish, Morfin 8-26 (Marauded
Probably the fasresr, most powerful, medium bomber in the air. Powered by two Peart & Whitney IS-cylinder radial motors rated -at 2,O()0 horsepower, ie has II speed of more than 340 miles per hour, enabfing it to run away hom some fighter planes that are supposed to shoot it down. The Mqrattder carries II heavy bomb load and was used 'as II torpedo p~ane at Midway and [n the Aleutians. It has a wing span of 6; feet and is 58 feet long. The lI'Uvruuder is the only ooe of the: Army's three main medium bombers with 3 tail turret and also carries a fuB complement of heavy machine guns. Because of its high. speed and armament the ship is used extensively for ground straliog and artacks on shipping. It has high wings set far back and a round, cigar-shaped fuselage. The Nfara,ider is teamed up with two ocher medium bo,mbers of the U. S. Ar1Uy~che Douglas Havoc and the North American Mitchetl~[o make a {ast, versatile [rio respected on every battle front .in the world.





F'- Y'NG





Boeing 8-17

(Flying Fortress)

Known the world oyer for its long range, bristling armament, and rugged construction, the Fortress has performed well. Twelve or more heavy-caliber machine guns Jire from all angles, many from power-operated turrets. German lighters found few weak spots fwm which co artack a fortnation. of 1'0 rtress es. Their latest eacrics have been 1:0 sweep down from above and in hont to avoid the concentrated fire power from abeam or astern, The Fortress flies !I( better than 300 miles per hour Ius a wing span ot 103
feet and is 73 feet long. Cruising rangeat operational height with maximum fuel

the fligbt crew. Behind them come the ground.crew-e-mechanics, crew chief; bomh supply crew, and mien to check instrutrical equipment;
merits, radios, armament, parachutes, elecsuperchargers, and propellets. To the rear of the plane are the dis-

patcher, wearher observer, and the rwo trucks with drivers who supply oil and gasoline Ior the. mighty Fortress, When
hundreds of heavy bombers raid Germany almost daily it may be seen that III luge

army of flighr and ground-crew wen is required to make such Bights possible.

and reduced, bomb Ioad is ::\,000 miles, The picture above shows me crew of 38 men required to keep a B-17 Fortress in the air. The front row contai ns the p.i lot,
capilol', bombacdier, and navigator. In

rhe second row arc the radiomen, engineers, am] gunner, all of whom comprise


basic ideas have- reached a high measure of !. in the success in man)' widely separated areas t11{, BOC:U1g' B-17 Flying Fortress and Consolidated ]3-24 Liberator high altitude hcavv bombers; 2. the light or track bomber, of which the speedy. hard-hitting Douglas A-2ll Hum i~ an outstanding- example: 3. the specialized type's of fighter pl nes, and 4. the amazingly These fruition;



expanded world-wide service of t11 Air Transport; Command. Oualitv COUll'S first in all a iation. Designs of' bomber and fighter planes always have been clastic in the nited States' military program. This country is not lliaking he rni take Germany made when it fIOZ:C the designs of the {('-lOS) and .Iu-8! SII.I.ka to errsur oven helming quantity production. The Battle of Britainexposed this colo sal tactical blunder, and hewed that changes had to he made continuously to keep pace with the cncrn- 's research and improvements,




The Tf"'a,-/utwk contains refinements. on earlier models which. had helped to stem. the advancing Japanese rides in: Burma and the southwest Pacific and the Germans .in Africa. It has a wide variery of uses on all world battle fron ts, including mediumaltitude figluel', low level attack plane, and light bomber. The IVarh",l!k is powered b)' One 1,260·botsepower Rolls-Royce Merlin liquid-cooled engine, has a speed of 380 mifes per hoUL and four times greater fire power than the Ii [5.( P-4Q models. It hall a willp span of 37 feet and is 3 I feet long, The P __fO did excellent .lighting for me · "Flying Tigers" in China where it amassed '" heavy [011 of the besr planes tbe ]aps coul-d throw against h on [he Asian. front.

North American 8-25
of the A-rD1Y's twin-motored

bombers to

World renowned as [be plane which first bombed Tokio, the Mit.Ghell is another diseingn ishi rself i11 action on alt fronts. It can carry]. tons of bombs -and has a top speed of more than 300 miles per hour, It
has Wrlgl1t radlai mgines rated :It 1,700 horsepower. Highly valued for anrisubmarine patrol inthe country because of its

speed, range, and ease of handling,

.it has

been ,h%cribed. as the most useful and versatile medium bomber in (he- air. The Mitchett has a wi ng span of 6 L feet, is· 54 feet Long. Ir has 1I lai:dy long range and effective service ceiling that enables it to participate .in bombing missions deep

within enemy-held Europe,

Rated by some

as the easiest bomber TO Ill', the Mitchell has been adopted also by the Navy for certain operation where range is viral.

Bell P-39 (Airacobral
One of the most graceful planes in the air, the AiMcobnl ranks with the P-;l a





Ll50-horsepower A.ll.i.sotJ placed behind the pilot, it is rated in the 400·mile class. Carries J7-mm, cannon in hub of -propeller, making j t the hell.viesr armed of Our figh ters, Used extensively in southwest Pacific and by the Russians, who l-ike it for strafing troops and tanks. Other features Include excel.lent visibility and ease of rakeoff and landings. Has 34-Ioot wing span, The Airecotn» was AJl1erica's firsr highspeed plaue, .having been developed in. 1937, and is sriU one of the best performers below 16,000 feet in hot OJ: cold climates,



P-38 (Lightning.!

A twin-engined one-man fighter rated one of the fastest in the air today. Its .50calibre Machine guns and aerial cannon

SIra fer.

make it dangerous as II. fighter and groLHld It j~. rated one 0 f th e fastest climbers and a leader io the 40Q-mile-atlhour class. Large numbers were used in

Afrio;;a, the southwest Pacific, and Alaskan areas, equaling- or bettering any Ari plane. Wing spread of 52 feet makes it one of the largest single-seater fighters.

Douglas A-20 (Havoc!
The Army's top liglu bomber and attack -plalle which is making' life miserable for Axis troops and su,pply Iines. The A-20 is powered by two 1.700horsepower Wright Double Cyclone engines. The Hsooo has a top speed of more thao. 350 miles per hour. Planes based on this design have been slightly successful as light bombers, ground srrafers, and night fighters. It served widely and welt Jn the African desert campaign and on several other fronts. It is very popular with the Russians and the English. The Havoc: has II. wing sp,ln of 61; ,feet and 1s 4:7 feet long, Features are itS high wing and dihedral mil plane. North Americcm P-S1 (Mustang)
Designed especially for low altitude attacks on ground troops and equipment, rbe P~51 is the first plane to use the Iaminar-flow wing, It has a 37-foot wing span, is 32 feet long, and measures only 8 Feet S inches in over-all height. Powered by a 1,1 SO horsepower Allison motor the AImt"".:: is rated in rhe 4QO-miJe-ail·hou[" class. Appeatance resembles Germany's M·f<SHirschm1IJt 109 and the English Hurricane in some respects. It is the Ji1'5t fighter plane £0 attack Ger!Ull11Y proper. l)jsringlfjshi'lg features are its low cantilever wing, square rips on elevator and wing, hlgh rectangular railplane, and square rudder,

Republic P-47 (Thunderbolt)
The newest Armriighter: mounts six .50-calibe.r machine guns. IE is powered py !I 1,OOO-horsepower Pratt &. Whitney radial engine, tnt: same as used In 'rhe Navy's Corsair, and, ",iII 1:Iy at hetter:than 400 miles an hour. A turbo-supercharger permirs operarion at 4{),DOO feet. "the P-47 had its first real test In It: is the biggest single-seater in the war; weighing 13,000 pounds. Like in "the Corsair, the pilot sits aJmo .t in the middle of the fuselage. Included in rhe outstanding fe.atures· of the plane arc its cigarshaped fuselage, round wings and 11 radial cowling of egg-shape contour.

accompanyicg- heavy bombers on raids oyer: Geemany,




CHIIEF OF STAFF U.S. ARMyiioc:lington,


" AI,"'C -.'










------~'P BI






Sh;k~s behtnd-enemy lines at ~ndtJ.stTios, communleeftcna, supply lin es, 'il i'rdrames.

131 sour'll PACIFIC



-=-.: ~ -=!I'.~











111" ',~",];rLinll".., ."".1

Intercepia enerqy bcmbeee ana £igh'te'ls;
gains over c..Ix 9uper:ioril:y battle. ~ a"leQ!S_


coordination ground forces.


Intervenes on batflefield and- WCH''ka in wilh

Servioes cdrcl:afi and ong,llt-ef:t. mQJn-toin..s flow of po.;rls. end s~p~



•• jo, ....



..I )" ,,",,' i

pI1J:!!sto aU c eece.







• I
























Naval Aviation 1918
J1l711' J9f8.5S Jason. arrives in Europe with first American-built seaplanes delivered abroad, June 1918.-Firstlib 'Tty engine used hv Nav\, overseas mounted in HS-2 flYing boat at Pauillac .. [nn» 10, 19f8.-LTA Ease at Brest established fOT use of kite balloons. Corrnnanding officer; Lt. Comdr. W. N. Corry, .SN. First attempts of U. S. Navy In France to use kite balloons on destroyers, Experimental fliglus made from Destroyers Sig()l~r?1.1'Y, Cushing, Erickson, and O'Brienalso from converted yachts. Ju.ne 17, 1918.-No complement of seaplanes for Pensacola was officially established until June 17, 19t8, when DIrector of Naval Aviation, by J tter, prescribed the following: training.




.')6 N-9's-Hispano-Suiza powered Ior use in gunnery training. 18 HS-t's, 18 F-bo.ats lor bombing training, 12HS-l'~, 24 H-16's for navigation bombing formed first. personnel dispatched to St. Inglevert for further training. Assembly and repair base was set up at Eastleigh, England. Originally it was intended that this group consist of twelve squadrons. Shortage of personnel, however, reduced this number to four Navy night squadron and four Marine day bombillg squadrons, Before aircraft were available to the pilots in their own organization, they were permitted to fly with the British and French landplane quadrons. Here th~y Rew

June 2{),1918.-Northem

So punths, Camels, SjJads, Nil1upol'ts, and other fighting planes of that period. These pilots flew with RAF pursuit squadrons 213.217, and2J8. [une '29, 1918.-I11 a novel t st. three ~-2a flying boats with U. S. Navy pilots were towed to sea aboard lighter. These were then flooded, thus floating the flying boat and an effort wa made to take. off in the Qp.etl. sea, However. the water was too rough, and two of the aircra ft were sever ~ly damaged before taking the air, and the experiments were abandoned. This experiment was an effort to devise some means of getting U,C short-range plane of that day to a position sufficiently which would permit them to bomb trategical points in German-held territory.












BA.CK IN 1918


New Salvage Yard In Operation
NAS. GR05Sr,: IL·!;;. MWH.- This station's conservation department has jU.!it completed a new salvage yard which puts the assembly line technique into reverse. The saJvagE' building WasC'onstructed. out of a group of WPA huts, which themselves wel'e salvage. It it; so arranged that salvage trucks drive into the building between two rows of bins and the various types ~LJ"a are P thrown ofT the moving truck as it passes the proper bin-a sort, of disassembly line. The construction WOTk and painting was done by base personnel Completion of the building puts iztto full swing the gt.htion'.~ conservation pro.gram under which. every bit of used and unused material on the base is collected, sorted and redistributed for further utility, Nothing is wasted.

Strato·',remlins Help
comes ~'TlJnnel of Love"

Aviators Endure Altitudes
Low-Pressure Ch'qmber BeNAS_ SE.>\;rThE. _"Su<lto-gn·nil.im," with sutrirm l"Up~ em th9ir boots to help them ride plane l'ling-s at 300 miles an hour, h<lveadded a Puckish

Little gir] gremlirl!l, called Pinfinellas, sit on the ailerons, just going along f01" the ride. A. widget: a baby grcmILn, gently floats down to earth in ·a parachute in another scene. One fat 4tllc Iellowis busily t'l.Igaged in p"uliinghimself our of a cloud in which he had become- stuck, Still another carries irlde~ ·in buckets, distributing them on the wings.


Ta,xi In th.e Dod,o
NAS, ME~lNl.Io;. - The Dodo, a flightless bird "born" recently on this station, h proving its value training cadets W110 are backward in taxiing. It- was fashioned I.rom a surveyed NR-I-da maged wing panels were rerrroved, damaged prop sawed off, an old olc.Q taken for a nose wheel, and

touch to the interior of the lew-pressure chamber at the station here, Th12 wemlins were painted in oils on .the walls and ceiling of the chamber to brighten the inte.l'iol' a nd help "keep the aviator's minds off the altitude." The idea was. conceived ;fil'1!,t by a lieutenant of the Medical Corps [0 Jessen the mental apprehension of flIers pracricing fDr" hl~h-ahitude work.

So celorlu]


the pressure chamber

with its g.remlin~, plus ;<1 picturesque Northwest mountain scene, that naval personnel havc-nkknamed it the "tunnel of LQve"-a,.la Coney Island. It .is of interest to note that since the decorations have been placed on walls, tlwre has been a marked fall in the numhcr of failures due to "apprehension." The Ooast Guard and local police
called on the ajr statien for rapid tran.spo'fta;i.on. It wa~rcadi!J fur-

Helps Nab FBI Prisoners

the carburetor adjusted so it wO!-lld not rev up. 1t was set .nearly into balance on its main wheels by putting a steel plate on the firewall which also was used as a base Jor the mechanism of the nose wheel.

USMGAS, ST. THOMAS. Vranrn The station crash PO<1.t,always alerted, was recently called upon to perfunn a diffel·ent type pf re"trif'\7mg. Two FBI prisoners awaiting transpertation from the' .islarrd elected to take matters into their own hands, and with the aid of a hacksaw and a stolen, boat departed eastward.

iiishcd, and the miscreants were f!.w;hed from the bush on a nearby isIan d, and retrrmcd to incarcerated status <\t Charlotte Amalie within fr:H.Ir hours after the- alarm. The station's floating paddy-wagon. also hmught back the "borrowed" boat, but latest reports stilllise the hacksaw as missing.


Saving in Oil Effected
Chief Eliminotes Needless Change
A71 oil-saving suggestion by Chi·f Aviation Machinist's Mate S. Spigel at the Dallas Naval Air Statton has resulted in a change in Bureau requiremerits for testing newlv built planes which will save both dollars and urgently needed oil. Under the Bureau' circular Iettcr 27-42, dated Jw}' 21, 19-1:2, after new planes were delivered to Aircraft Delivery Units and checked, the engine oil had to be drained and new oil added before they were ferried away to destination. It was pointed out there \\ ere three prior oil changes before SNJ aircraft reached the delivery unit-by the engine manufacturer, Ior ground tests by the plane manufacturer (North American) , and by the plane manufacturer prjor to one-hourflight of airplane and .its delivery to the' air station, Ac("ordjngly i.t was urged that examination of Q;U strainers as thev wert' biting cleaned was sufficient to' determine whether the [our th oil change was necessary. The Ohier recorumended that sin t\ no fOl-eigJ] particles were found in the vast majority of cas s the fourth chang could be omitted. The Bureau found that all the other Aircraft Delivery Units which were

daily chccking, testing, and inspectil'l.g planes, concurred in the rcrommendation. It thereupon amended its instructions by circular I ittcr 14 3 providing that if no foreign particles Were [0 lLUd j n the oiI 1'lw[ourth change


could be omitted.

Escape 'From Mud
F4F Dredged From Quagmire NAS_, DALLA~.-WhC:TI an F4F-4
made a Iorced belly landing in a muddy field near here recently, the era .sh was blamed on rapid loss of .altj tude due to [allure of the propeller to return to
law pitch.

TIl(" field, located in the bend of a rin:r which previously had overflowed its banks, was virtually a quagmire. 'rhis increased the difficulty of getting the plane back to the tation without Iurther damage or necessitating disasscmhly. The Ius elage, imbedded in two feet of rnud, was stron~ly underpinned and two large six-foot pits ·W(',..IT dug' in an arc to allow lowering of the landing gear. By releasing air iJJ the shock struts 'i\nd attaching a-cable [rom the to-p of the strut to the wheel axle to prevent them [rom dropping out, it 'was p05sible to rock the plant' frorn ide to sid . thereby raising onc wheel at <J time. As ea h wheel was in a ra iscd position, a heavy blot"k'was pia ed underneath, and by repeating this action the plane was brought to g-rQund

.level. The onl exit from the field wa . a private railroad siding one mile distant. After rolling the plane across the mudd field wi th t11' hd p of 15 men and a jeep, tho work rew was confronted by another obstacle. A deep ditch and a six-loot embankmerrt, upon which the track tails were laid, had to be surmounted, A platform was constructed to bridge the ditch and a runway made up the side of the embankment to the top of a Hat car, Ncces ary repairs were made and the plan was in usc within a few days.

New Billet Relieves
NAS, Los ALAMIT05.-Appointmont of a Service and Maint monee officer for each of this Station', squadrons ha worked out well, the Station reports.. An officer in charge of the line c ews bas resulted in careful coordination with A. & R_ check and repair crew. and minimum lost time from the operating line.

What's Wrong With This Picture.
It's no tough job to pick out the rrcuble when -Y0l1\e warned that all -is not as it should be. But it's behind the in trument. panel with nohody to do your (;hcckiug Ior you, that you need that Instiuct for deteciing gremlins. If the answer to this one isn't obvio'us, turn to page 32.


Each peep hole j large enough for both eye' the observer, wit.h two p ep hole on each side and four at the top at the corners, Inside> the deck is painted sea-green and the inside walls and overhead sky-blue with douds. Ship models. are arranged through a 3-foDt, door 011 om: side, A small movable "island" of concrete> witb a rod on which are hung cards giving the latitude and longitude of the , island" is also placed on the deck of the box a a rcferen e point. A compass card on top of the box gives hearings. Pilots using the box report their findings to person in the next room via headphones and speakers. A microphone is used to play back astudent's voice 101" corrections in diction while giving information on the "enemy fleet."


New Flight Records Devised
Data Available Continuously

sox Til





Contact Report Box

Device Speeds Up Identificafion of Craft

AS, PBNSA.CULA.-A "contact report box" to help train aviation pilots in quick identification of surface ships and their formations has been developed by the gr01..lTId training school O1t tills Station.

A ombination of penny-arcad construction and ingenuity, this box contain miniature ships, cloud effects, light for daylight and moonlight and 12 peep holes. Haze effects may be obtained by hanging mosquito netting across the box halfway between deck and overhead, Prbblcd glass 'is 1.1;;: d eo give sunlight-on-water effects, The box: is constructed of eight sections of 4 feet by B feet plyw ad.

NAS, BUNl{,ER HILL, IND.-This station ha instilled a new system of keeping Right time records 0 that an accurate and continuous record of engine logs, aircraft logs, and flight time is available. The syst sm is operated by means of a special telephone circuit connecting the flight schedule boards in front of the hangars to th flight records mom. The headset type of telephone is used to enable one man to work on the boards and act as broadca ter at the same time.


The Mark X Model

I Aerial Torpedo is design d for use
on inland stations where th required raw material is plentiful, particularly the bust-in charge. (See Diagram.) The banty hen is used a motive power, a this fowl has more spirit than a figh6ng Marine. NEWS L.ETTER recei I'd these interesting specifications from NA . Hutchinson. The Station added that :in l'eleasing the model for study it was not believed that the enemy would obtain useful information. This conclusion was reached after :1 p€r!od of Iurious debate and was abetted by the conideration that Model I has been superseded by a Flying Eagle Mode1.


(fiAfl6E III';" /lAs. $'IITr'ltlllrT ~"lfNt!P TlJ S/(uw U~SIl EIt(!Nr M.~r; (AII~I!Vfi /lIN .1) lRM/("


Fatality In Chute Descent
Buger Commenfs on


Device for AufomQtic

NAS, PENSACoLA.-Recently a fatal accident occurred wh 11 the. pilot of a plane attempted to abandon his craft and des end by parachute. It was assumed that the pilot was struck by the plane and this probably disabled biro to the extent that he was unable to pull ills rip cord. T11 an effort to avoid accidents of this sort, a discussion arose as to the possibility of devising some system wh~reby a line would be anchored to the plane while the oth r end was attached to the rip-cord handle or the parachute. Thus, in the event of disqbility, the parachute would open automatically when tIle Iine pulled the rip cord.

chutists j-umping [I'QII1 freu balloons, Later, in the World '",,'UI', the idea was employed with th trijJFiJlrt line coiled into a bucket mounted in the cockpit. It soon became widcnt, however, that this system was impracticable and that a h-e .-Iall parachute must be devised. This resulted in extensive' experimental work duxing the 1att r part of 1918 and 1919~ which culminated in the standard parachute as we know it today. There are Far too many conditions under which jumps are mad to Warrant the us' of lac so-called automatic relea 'e. In the 'vent a plane is in a spin the line may well foul the plane and result in a fatality. Again, where a plane is 111a vertical dive with -a velocity which exceeds-that of a falling man, it may be de irable that the 'chute not b opened until the man
(Su~~uds liJt doted April 20," 1943)

has slowed down. Further, in combat, a pilot may desire to delay opening his parachute to avoid becoming a . low-descending target for en emy aircraft. It is essential that the pilot be the controlling factor in the openiug of his parachute due to the variable conditions which luay prevail at the ti111.C of the jump. Under no conditions should any sy. tern he used which connects the rip cord to the airplane.

1 est Detects Oxygen Leaks
NAS, PENSACOLA. - The Oxygen. Experimental Labor-atory of this station reports a test that can be made to insure that oxygen masks have no outside leaks. The test is: Smear a thin coat of Oil of wintergreen or oil of mint on outsid of rna k. If the U~CI? can detect any odor of 011, it .is apparent that the mask is not ai.r tight,





MAY 20, 1943
PRAtT & WHITNEY ENGINE BULLETIN R-985. . . . . . . . . . .. R-1340 .. _ R-18.30. . . . . .. .. .. R-1830. . . . . . . . . •. R-1 830. . . . . . . . . ..
1• • • • • • • • • ••



Being issued,

A container was devised from a di 'carded hot-air intake. pipe. In thi tube, which is about 2 inches in diameter and 5 inches long, about 30 feet of cotton line was packed, one end of which was anchored to the plane. The advisability of using this d vice, however, is questioned because of the danger of premature reI ease due to fouling in the cockpit. 1:!Ihij-ilIMt.WUR This idea:i as old

173 , 190 311.......................... 312 , 313. . . . . . .. . .. ,.... .....•.... R-1830 303 (Sup, plement). R-2000 " . . .. 25 •............•...................... R-.2000 _ , . .. 26 R-2000 27•••.••........... \" R-2000. . . . . . . . . .. 28 , ...............•..... R-2000. . . . . . . .. .. 29 •.......... _ , R-2000· ....•...... 30.....•...........................•. R-2S00 .. '" _ 5B R-j800 .. , 59 ....•.....................•....•... R-2800 .....•...•. 60 ........•............•...............
t •••

1 ••••••••••••

. .

.. , . . , .. '. . . . .

Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.

Do. Do. Do.

t~~~g: ::::: .::: ::::::::: ~: :::::::: :::: :::::: : ~ ~ .:':;
y-770 Y-770 Y-770
Ranser." ••..••..........••.••.

R-1820 •................ ,..... R-1820 , ' . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. R-2600., . .. ..••..•.....

R-1 B20. . . . . . . . . ..

R-2800 R-760 R-97.5


61 •.. , .............•.....•...

62 ..•...................


-3.24 ..• ,. 325 81, ••............

323 ........•.....

7B 18






. ,



13· 14


as parachutes themselves, and is someused by para-


what similar to that

. 5-1-43. . s-a-as. . 5-3-43.


12.. 9"ounGe duck, it has been flame" 2 proofed, waterproofed, and mildewproofed. Between the two surfaces of duck is a one-Inch quilted layer of HflI:ne.proafeii Kapok. The. cover is fastened togetheren the bottom ~idt: with a heavy zipper of nonlocking type, Cover Has Two Compartments The cover is held tight around the engine section by meal'S of a web takeup strap' extl"ndl.n.g around the entire circurnference. When tightened, the Covet is separated .into. two cornpartments thus permitting' heated air to pass through and aro~rtd the' engine without pll$!;>iflg over the. outside of the engine cowling, There is another ,~imilar web takeup strap at the trailing edge of the cover with felt padding beneath it" which when drawn tight against the cowling prevents escape or heated air to the outside. This makes possible the recirculation of air through the outlet duct opening at the ho.ttom of the cover. The 12-incb collapsible canvas entry and return :dur.t,~,which permit recireulation of hot air, are so designed that Ihey UHl be .aclapt(,cl to various types and sizes, of beaten or close the duct opening and keep the motor hot for several hours,

Landplane Engine (overs
An insulated aircraft engine cover to help warm up air-cooled engines in cold arr-as, Of' to kt!'~p warm those alreadv heated, has been developed by the Navy, Tests have been made with this cover, designated No, 1, and it has been found ,ati!';factory with the following aircraft (;pgi'm'ij.: F'4F<\ F+P--4, SBD-3, PV-3, PE,l, l'E't-5, PEM-L F4U, and PB2Y. It also can be used on ~msJkr engine


by using

the take-up


Sun Filter Stop
ThE' A. & R. Dept., N<I,val Air Station, San Diego, has issued Local Cllar1ge No, 111 which describes the installation 01 a stop for the sun filter on the Mark 8 gunsight of the Model F.fU-l airplanes. T'he stop is designed to prevent breakage Qr glass due to contact with the windshield when the. SUI. filter is thrown 10 the right, Copit's of \bJs local change, with the necesSi'l1'V drawing, have been ~('Il.l to all .illt~rested st.<l.tiOllS. It is recommende-d that action similar to that outlined in the above change be taken by any activity where difficultv due to t6i6 break" age is eMQllllt~rcd. Copies of the change and d.tawjng may be pwcured from the NAS, San Diego. 30

Another engine cover, designated No, 2, has been tested and Iound satisfactory Ior all engjnes having c('Iwling of the Tl3:F and sirnila r size, The. cover envelop's the entire en" gine hom propeller bub to and in" cluding cowl ventilator flaps, It may be u~ed with portable gas-fired pH> heaters, electric preheaters that fit entLrely within the engine. nacelle, without any heating unit to preserve heat in a warm engine, and f{11" dry iog out engines after a rainstorm. Constnucted from two thicknesses tlf

Reversing Relay
Fke1 Air Photographic Squadron 1 has reported that when the guns in the Martin 250 CE-3A. turrets on the PB4Y-] airplanes were depressed with some force against the post stops, the gm~ mount adapter brace often brokr. This difficulty has been remedied by that squadron by installing l'J reversing J"Cday ill the elevation-depression control .circuit which causes the gi..tn~to reverse their direction Just prior to striking the post stop. The circuit is again reversed as soon as the guns leave the danger area, All new M..rtin turrets of similar de:;,igtl are heing delivered with a similar rnodifieatinn incorporated. Since there are orilv <I limited number of these 2:itl GB~.3A turrets in eperation in PB4Y-J airplanes and at gunnery training centers. no rnandutory turret change for the. incorporation of this change' will he issued. Service aetivi.de~ who rnav bl'! interested m thi~ changr-, however, are requested m securl' ioformation thereon directly [rom Fleet Air Photograph Squadron 1.

·'The fore.,.o"

wl",'I~ me 10 (orne


10 hi:!' ..!flu
ReAMg~ ~ U1.!ift


to 10,,'~ ael fij,. blu",prin~""

Facilitating Manufacture of Sun (i"ear Bushings
NAS, DALLA .. - The Assembly and Repair-machine hop at this station has adapted a DCW type 01 fixture to the crosshead of it~ engine Iathes to facilitate the manu facture of sun gear bushings. The fixture consist of a piece of heavy angle iron upon which three cutting tool are mounted, two in an upright position and the third in a horizontal position to take the final cut. The bushings are nnw cut in three operations without removing th sto~k fr6m the machine, Tool No. I i used to take thefirst rough cut and to finish the larger diameter, Tool No.2 fuen Cuts the smaller diameter and fillet, following which tool No.3 s vers the finished bu~hing froni the stock. The time req uired, to produce a finished sun gt:ar bushing is r;LOW 2Y; minutes as compared to the 2D minutes per bushing previously required.









Compartmentation Asked In WingTip Floats
PATROL SQUADRON 42, PACIFIC.-On innumerable occa ions O. S. Hoar t»-pe aircraft have turned turtle while moored in comparatively calm water. In II recent case .investigation showed a nail-sized hole to be in one Boat. This had allowed enough water- to ~eep in to capsize the plane. It eorns highly desirable that a system of float cornpartmentation be devised to solve this problem,

(Succeeds lisf elateel April 20, 19'f3)

IiIRPLANE Bp-l, .................. BULLETIN DATE

BO-2 ..........'.'...... F2A-1 .................. F2A-2 ..,............... F2A-2P .•............... F2A-3 .....,..•......... F2A-3P ................. F4F-3................... F4F-3A .•............... F4F-4 .......•.......... F4F-7................... FM-l ................... F4U-1 ...".............. GB-1 ................... GB--2................... GH-1 ...•............... J2F-l..............•.... J2F-2..........•........ J2F~2A ................. J2F-3..........,........ J2F-4.•..........•;..... J2F-5................ ,... JRB-1 ......•............ JRB-2 .................... JRF-1 ................... JRF-1A ................. JRF-4 ...........•.....•.
JRF-5.. ~•......•........ JR5-1 .................... JR25-2 ..•...............




10 9 22 10 26


BUREAU COMMENT W a tertigh tcom part-

mentation in mall wing tip floats to be effective would require numerous eorrrpartments, This is not justified in view of the additional weight. If only one-third of the buoyancy were 10 t the airplane would probably capsize due to the C. G. position relative
La the center of buoyanoe while the

10 10

38 31 30 8 5

airplane is listing. Su,£licient handholes are provided for frequent inspection and drainage.


38 19 12 13 8 9 10



NP-1 ..••.•.•.•...•..... NR-1 ...•.......•....... N25-1 ....... , ..........

N3N-1 ................. N3N-3 .................

1 32 18


8 8 4. 4.

5 15"


5-3-43 5-3-43 5-5-43 5-5-43 5-5-43 5-5-.43 5-5-43 4-14-43 4-14-43 4-14-43 4-14-43 4-14-43 4-23-43 2-5-43 2-5-43 3-3-43 7-27-42 9-11-42 9-11-42 9-11-42 9-11-42 1-2-43 3-31-43 3-31-43 7-23-42 7-23-42 7-23-42 7-23-42 6-18-41 7-1-42 11-5-42 11-5-4-2 9-31-42 ~-14-4! 4-14-43

16 40 59 21 57 47 127 105 84 32 23 37 12 7 57 38 39 28 14 12
9 6 4.
21 7



21 30


55 0 77 37

3-30-43 3-30-4.3 5-6-43 2-5-43 1-22-43 4-17-43 5-4-43 5-4-43 5-4-43 5-4-43 5-4-43 5-4-43 4-8-43 4-8-43 4-9-43 4-9-43 4-"9-43 4-9-43 1-7~43 .......... ,. 3-30-43 3-30-43 1£-26-42 3-25-43 I 3-31-43


1-30-43 3-6-43 3-24-43 3-24-43 3-24-43 3-24-43 3-24-43 3-30-43 3-30-43


Note On Operating
Cartridge Starters
Reports still art' bing r ccivcd of unsa tisfactory operation of cartridge starters, particularly the Eclipse Type III 'tarter' on F4U-l airplanes, It should be rernc-mbered. that a cartridge starter is basically a. gun, and unless the ,aIW' care that is given a gun i~ given a cartridge start r, unsatisfactory operation will result. If maximum striking power is to be obtained from a gun the gases of COJUbust ion cannot be allowed to cape without doing useful work This is even more important with cartridg

AIRPLANE N2S-2 ..................
BULLETIN 10 9 4 20 42 53 46 3 4 9 21 18 13 .2. 2 94 79 83 DATE


12 21 3 26, 61 73 60 14 5 41 56 25 51 2 9 176 141 128 95 117 114 20 38

DATE 3-31-43 10-26-42 2-23-43 3-25-43 4-1-43 ~1-43 3-25-43 5-7-43 4,-,6-43 4-5-43 .4-8-43 )-2'7-43 4-8-43 3~15-49 1-14-43 3-22-43 3-22-43 3-22-43 3-22-43 4-.20---43 4-20-4'3 4-20---43 1-20---43 4-1-43 4-29-43 4-10-43 9-1-42 9-1-42 9-1-4c2 3-11-43 11-2-42 4-2-43 4-12-43 4-12-43 5-3-43 5-3-43 4-1.2-43 4-19--43 4-19-43 4-19-43 4-19-43 4-19-43 4-19-<43 4-20-4] (*) 4-13-43 1~4-43 1-28-43 1-21-4'3 1-21-43 2-12-43 2-12-43 1-8-43 4--19-43 4-U-43 8-14-42 8-14'-42 B-14-42 8-14-42 4-8-43 3-31-43 1-,0-43 8-14-42 8-14-42 4-28-43

-N2S-3 .............•.... N2$-,4 ...... ,.......... OS2N-1 ................ OS2U-1 ............ OS2U-2 ..........•..... OSi:U-3 ................ PV-1 ................... PV-3 ................... PBM-i .................. PBM-3 .................. PBM-3C ..............•. PBM-JR .....•.......... " , ... 4-14-43 3-20-43 4-14-43 11-27-42 11-27-4'2 11-27-42 11-27-42 4-7-43 1-20---43 8-21-42 4-9-43 4-1-43 4-9-43 3-·2,6-43 7-1-42 4-28-43 4-28-43 4-2.8-43 4-28-43 4-,28-43 4-'28-43 4-28-43 1-10-42 3-:25-43 4-7-43 3-27-43 5-23-41 5-23-41







starters than with guns in th normal sense, since design limitations permit use of only relatively low pressure' in comparison with those obtained in

It is imperative, therefore, that every precaution possible he taken to insure that when a cartridge is 6re.d maximum allowable operating pressure is . obtained. Thill can be done by making sure that the overload protective device is not defective that the intake tubing connections are tight and that the exhaust valve is sating properly, Only by frequent and regular inspection and cleaning can satisfactory operation be guaranteed. Activities therefore are urged to take care of the cartridge starter by keeping jt dean, for unless it is fired first there never will be a chance to u e the other gure; on the airplane.

PBQ-l .................. PBV-l .................. PBY-2.~........ , .•...... PBY-3 ............•..... PBY-4 .................. PBV-5., ................ paV-SA .......•........ PSY-58 ..........•..•... PB.2Y-2................. PB2Y-3 ........... , ..•.. PB2V-3R ................ P94Y-1 ................... , R3D-1 ................•. R3D-2, .................. R3D-3 .................. R40-1 .............. , ... R4D-2 .........•.... ,,· . R4D-3 .. ,.....•.•........ R4D-4_, ................ RSO-1_ ..•••...••.• , ..••. R50-2 .................. R.50-3 .................. R50-4 .................. RS0-5 .............. ,.,' SBD-1 .................. S8D-1P ........ _........ SBD-i •................. SBD-2P ..•.....•...•.... SBD-3 .................. SBO-3P ................. SBO-4 ................. , SSD-5 .....•............ SB2A-4 ... , ......... " ... SB2G..1 ....••....... , ... SNB-1 .................. SNB-2., •.... , ........... SNC-1 .................. SNJ-i .................. SNJ-2 .............. , ... SNJ-3 .................. SNJ-4 ..................
< •

PBN""', .......•..........


'3.2 37 2 4 2


3 3 0 ,~~.~~~ ... ~.". 5-4-43 8 4 1-4-43 6 2-22-43 '3 2-2243 8-'24-42 8-27-42 J 8-24--42 9 8-24-42 i 1-8-43 1 5-3-43 49 5-3-43 34 5-3-43 52 5-3-43 38 ~s-,.43 62 49 4-IJ-43 5-3-43 11 3-18-43 S! .... 0 . ~ ... ~ 7 5~3 4-9--43 5 7 4-9-43 i-15-43 12 10 12-19--42 4-8-43 11 4-8-43 18



40 27 21 22. 5 13 10



22 18 21 9 2 98 106






117 99 20 1 8 2


12 15 12 30 114 8 8B 8 36 21 61 8 109


SNv-1 .............•....


rBF-1oo ..............

SOC-S!... , .............. SOC-2A ....... _........ SOC-3 ..... , ...... , ..... SOC-3A ............... , S03e-1 ................. S03C-2." .............. 503(-2(. .............. SON~1 .................. SON-tA ...............

8 19 8 69 6 15 8 1 6 50



" ..

10-24-42 1-20-43 6-26-42 1-2()-o43 6-26-42 2-19-43 2-19~43 2-19-43 1-20-43 6-26-42 3-5-43






What's Wrong With
This Picture?
Answer to Panel Board Teaser on page 27: No Fuel Pressure

by D. S. Broum; not by

. T!re poem Gull of My Dreams o.ppear111 the May 1 NEWS LETTER was wriilen


E. Mort/gamrry.

"Count not upon certain ptomotio'Tl,.~ But rather to gain it aspit'e; Through the sight-line end &f the target T)tere c.ometh perchance a missfire."


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