~

THE CEIISOR HAS BEEII TAUGHT TO BE SO SECURITY-MINDED THAT HE WON'T Llf:T INFOOlM4TION THRoUGH WHICH, MIGH, ENOANGE:R LIIIE:S OR PROPE:RTY

Navy Safeguards the _Fleet by Restricting Information; Attempts to Outsmart Censor Rarely Get By As He Knows All the Tricks and Deviles

W hit

the LCKingtp/! was fatally in May 1942, there were man survivors but the secret of ber death was so well kept that the Japs were led to believe she might still be afloat. As a 'resul t, they probabl y overestimated the force that Ia ter disru pted, their program at Midway. Had Lexington survivors given any hint about the sinking of their ship, the J ap plan of campaign might have been altered, The Navy has many secrets and many of them are known to thousands of its own people. It therefore expects absolute respect for security regulations on the pal't of its personnel, To guard its information, the avy has

HEN

seen fit coming . private .nlisted

to inspect mail going to and from its ve sels and bases. All correspondence of officers and men on board vessels and at

Censored1 . . . . . . Grampaw Pettibone Did you know? . . • Trailling Technicians Taxes: Navy Personnel. Oxygen FI'ight . . .
Tec;:hnically Speaking ..

Contents

1 6 8 11 20 25
28

letters
BI.!Il~AU NAVY OF AERONAUTICS 200 DEPART.MENT-NO.

32

certain: outlying stations is subject to censor hip regulations and must be placed unsealed in 'letter boxes or post offices controlled by the Navy. , Censorship rules were -creared not to pry into personal aff'airs. They were drawn up hom ctual experiences concerning certain types of .information which, when made available to the enemy, have proven disastrous. Clues to information have been found to be as objectionable as the information it elf. Censors are not the scissor-fingered butchers their critics frequently charge. They're not at all interested in personal affairs, Of course, as one censor

admits, an anecdote about the sailor and the Polynesian princess 'm~y stick in his mind because 0.£ its amusing nature. But they guard against repeating anything-e-even funny storieswhen off du.ty,realizing that the ethics of postal censorship demand no mendon be made of the contents of letters'BILLY ~~8Eetl.$.~':'';;!'I/l.CTEftS; Si'JU.frY S,"UTII MilD Knows 11'5 Ncme of His Bu.s·iness cative if the threat of censorship did The censor knows that what a man not exist. "TeU you more wheA I see writes to his friends and family is none you," is one of the phrases commonly of his business, and he is apt to forget encountered in letters. all about it 10 seconds after he eeads it. The world is full of agents sent out But he has been taught to be so securby the enemy. These agents are more ity-minded that he won't let anything interested in getting possession of a get through that might endanger his letter which was written by a sailor ownIife=-cr the writer's. w ho thinks he is going to avoid censorThe Navy doesn't believe its people ship than they are in listening to his are careless in permitting the leakage conversation. But they will take the of its secrets. But it wants to take information either way. A harmful every precaution against losing any part of this war. Every man writing a letter: home wants it to be interesting, He wants Don't write Jerter~ to tell things the folks will enjoy readaboard. s hip and

'1l",!'IN!;;\' GOOGLE, DISTURIl CENSOR'S

ROUTINE

1)()I~"I'

ing. Only a few want to be big shots

or braggarts, The average Nav-y man :finds it a Iitele tough. to write a letter anyway, particularly if every time he writes a word he wonders Whether it will result in his getting a. deck or summary court martial. One of the most diffic.ult ~ecurity lessens to learn is that discussions of anything confidential should be avoided! and tha t me.r~ly hln ring at the. existence of hush-hush activities without actually describing them is just as offensive, Hints provoke curiosity. The test of genuine security-mindedness is the ability to behave normally during times of abnormality. A secret is best kept by convincing others it does-

carry them ashore for mailing. Letters and cables J"Cquire careful censorship. Don't give letters or messages to your friends to mail ashore; or to take horne for you. Don't write anything in a letter you ~ wouldn't tell a Jap
"",.~~ or
H

German.

not c...us't.

"Speaking of being re,

stricted," wrote a serviceman recently, "we have lectures on what to say in letters 6t the, secrecy of this work) hut seeing it's you, there should be no harw. in telling you what we do." Naturally, every man. and woman in the Navy has at least one good friend w:h.om "there should be no harm in telling." The friends and relativcs+f01' the most part civilians-are not vicious but they are frequently careless. and, of course, have not been schooled in the importance of security. That Is. where censorship steps in as a. necessary, though unpleasant, function,

Don't discuss yO\U duties or the equipment you work with 00 ship or ashore. Don't send post cards showing where your ship is or has been, Don't go ashore and tdep.ll0ne anything YDU'd be reluctant . to put in a letter. Don't describe ship movementsours or those of other natioas, Don't talk about easualties=-personnel 01" ship. Don't gripe in your letters home. Dop't be a big shot 0. r btagg:a.rt. by . h try~l1g to • impress the public 'tlwt you>re "in the l·OOW." . ,""

U'I'.c •l~

Implication Reflects CommOn Fear Semetirnes Navy letter writers imply that they would be Jar more communi2

teillng too much in your letter!

Don't try to send pictures of na.val or military scenes or equipment=-shew them to the censor. Don't sink your own ship by

letter is likely to be nullified by censorship. but unguarded speech lDl;(Y be picked up and amplified a thousand times. A surprising number of summaries and decks have been handed out just because, rather than use the old "bean, men decided to take a chance and write or s,ay something they would rather die than tell a Jap OJ" German, Probably ever since the first love letter was written, it has been custo-mary for the 'Writer to place "X" marks at the ending. These romantic symbols are out for the duration, codes and ciphers being prohibited by 9 (a). Navy Censonhip Regulations, At. some of the advanced bases it is usual for men to mail copies of a familiar service magazine to the folks back home. Because the pedQdicaJ is cleared by censorship at it.s source, it occurred to a man at One of the bases tha t the Navy censors wouldn't inspect copies going te pkrCQIS and iriends from his starien. Resu.fts in Prompt Discharge So he went to the trouble to write a letter in which. he attempted to set up a private code, enclosed the letter in a copy of the-rnagaziae, and dropped it in tile mail. His reply carne promptly in the form of a summary court-martial and a bad-conduct discharge. Although his sentence was held in abeyance {or 6 months, he learned, as have several offenders, that it's perilous to try to short circuit the censor. A roan. n;1ay as well join the Axis intelligence corps as write a letter aboard ship and carry it ashore for mailing. It's just as hazardous to write letters ashore for posting ashore. These practices are forbidden because they may disclose the p05.i'tion of ships and shore units, It is likewise forbidden to reveal by telephone ashore any information which, if written, would be subject to suppression by naval Censors. Not many months ago, several Allied crewmen at an advanced base loaded a plane with uncensored mail destined fur home ports. Most of the men at

tfllSDRCDRRECTS
lH

t.lIU'l"AT[MENT RttflrFD

LETTER

RECl~TL'I

....

3

the base had knowledge of til scheduled departure several hours before actual take-off and nearly all of them got bus)' and wrote letters filled with confidential information which they had been afraid to write in previous letters because of censorship. The plane crashed ell route and the mail pouches floated around near the shore of territory occupied by the azis. The information contained in those pouches would have been worth billions of dollars to the en my=would have cost the Allies immeasurably had the Nazis picked them up. Fortunately, all. Allied surface vessel came across the soaked mail and spent several uneally hours in enemy territory picking it out of the water. Private knowledge vs. Public Because addresses Ior Navy personnel must carry the name of a ship or station, publication of lists of such addresses is prohibited. This is to
OVRR~
KEN

)CEY
Prt~<lle eDt.respondence shall be in plein EnglIsh, d"arly understandable to the censor, Clnd wl1houl Ihe use of code or cipher, "xceplll1g -ihat -Ih.. 1.1.11 of a foreign lon9"age in outgoing correspondence mClY be permitled if th" writer Is Qddressing Q member Qf !)h family unable 10 read Qnylhing "Ise. If ."ch letters cannOI be translated locally, they should be forwarded to the Office 01 Naval Inl"lIig,,",e fa. trallsl'Olion Clnd
THE CENSOR'S MARK-A SEA1. OF APPROVAL

o

to CENSOR'S

N]GHTMARE

'elease.

by censhorship

re-

cently was a letter written by a member of an armed guard center, revealing that a specified ship hail been torpedoed and was in St. Johm. for repairs. On che king to verify the return address on the letter, censorship discovered that the ship had been repaired, had again set out to sea where she was again torped ed, this time sunk. The writer of the letter was reported missing. Although censorship admits the evidence is not conclusive, it is felt that it was entirely possible that this man had directly caused his own death. avoid dissemination Qf information which would show assignment of fleet units. Private knowledge of ship and station addresses is one thing, say's censorship, public knowledge another. Service personnel will find it advisable to have nothing to do with "Pen Pal" correspondence clubs. It would be most disconcerting to establish correspondence with a Pen Pal only to learn, too late, that 'he's also a pal of the Axis. Frequently, a man ho e from a battle area is asked to grant an interview for the local pape~·. All newspapers have been advised by the national Office of Censorship that stories written from their interviews must be 4

cleared with that office, or with the avy, before publication. nintentional slip-ups occur, but it is the responsibility of the man in the service to remind reporters and editors of this requirement. A bisr SOUl'C of enemy 'int Iligence comes from prisoners,' If captured, a man is required to give only his name, rank, and serial number. He should not carry personal letters or diaries, Indeed, the keeping of personal diaries by personnel of the Navy is prohibited. Possessions of thie kind tell much about a man-envelopes carry the 'name of his ship or station. Seal of Good Leffer Writing In the busines of correspondence, the censor's stamp has become a goodletter-writing seal of approval. I t is something to be sought. No letter is complet and the writer's conscience cannot be serene-without it. It's as essential all the cancellation roark, the address. or the air-mail stamp. To route mail outside the limits of the eensorship system is to establish a sort of private underground. It takes discipline to write letters that are both interesting and free from. censure. It takes fortitude to keep quiet. Having exhibited the guts required to face the battle front, a man will have to show a little more to face the horne front,
• See P1i.1011er Sense issued Training Division.

PROHIBITED

TOPICS

Under no ,ircum.fonce. shaU "p"n '" hidd"n ,,,fer-en,e be made in any p"'. 50nal .ommunicCltion~ or messoge. 10 any of In" follawlll9 (lhese shaU be po.'ed 01 ship~ lind slalion. for the Inlo.motion oJ all personnel): The locallon, idenlity, moyemenl, or prospective mevement of any mereh",,' ,hip, Clirera f', "aycd vessel, or 11<1'101 or mililary f,,,u. lin Ihe ca'e of m,,'chanl shipping and (o'-11m."rcial "ircraft, approlj:imole bul not pr"ci$e dales of selUng are perm.issihle.1
Thll ciefenslve o. ofl'en.ive forc"., weapon" installatIons or pions of the U. S., er her allies. Dinu.slon of strictly naval i"fa,.m",tion such a. flre(onlrol apPClIC!hu, tu",,1 g"CI', 'CJ'p"doe., mines, 9"ns, ,arg"t p,"dlce, ... dlo .. pparolu~, aviation equipmenj. coni en Is of se (fet or confidential publiGatians, etc., Is "Is., p,,,hibUed. Reference sh .. n not be made te weather conditions.

.,

o

e

The prod'lrdion, movement, or sup· ply of IlIlInIlio!l.', or the localion or progress of war industry In any fDrm.

O

The routine· II, employment "f any neva I or military unit fhe U. s., or h"r ellles.

0'

of en"mv operations, or casuQlthl$ 10 personnel or mOlerial wfl'ere·d by the U. S., or her allies, pr-evioU'. to the official !,ublicotlon of $lIel\ lniarmotian.
The effed

o

by BuAer's

DID YOU GET ACCURATE

lhe crillcl.m of equipment, appeorcondition, or mORlle of lh .. col1",ti v " or individual CI.med f.,«es of the Uniled St(ltn, or hel' allies.
<,mee, physlcol

o

WIND DRIFTS?··

the: di'$eminO'i~n of whl.h 'lnamv mIlitary, eeenemie, er financial inleresis, Or which might interfere with the nofionol effort of, or disparage the fo,eign telClfians "f Ihe United Stat"~, or her ClItia.,.
mIght benefit

o

M~"er,

CJ~S()II'8 Nl(a·ITNIARJ~
~'

...

LEl"rJR JS. llQMPosITE. OF C"OIlSt:lll! \tI04'fiOH5.: TH~tiUMEirAl.SRE!F'£R TO K~¥lOf<j Tltlj. PREC£»IH:G fACiE

ter, serial No. 4.708 of January 11, 1943, explai]ls how 10 adjust I.his valva, Ol1ygen equipment is life-saving equipment. Ail SUllO. it medts the most careful attention. It is of vital eoncern to all squadrona that competent, personilel be aSsigned to the upkeep of all oxygen equipment. and that all flight crews be flIlly Instructed in its use.

NumskuU-ery
Washing out a brand new JRF-5 the wheels do am, The pilot knew better; he had 2,150 hours. He called it "temporary preoecupation'"; .>aid he "mechanically" lowered his wheels ; admitted not using the landing check-off list.
by 1ll.l1ding it in the ware!' with
~ GntmpQw

cation was received. In the meantime, the F2A commenced its take-off', The tower called theF2A, attempting to stop the takg-offj bu~ this message w,asoot received. Upon collision, both ,~in::raft burst into fI.ames, resulting in the death of the SNJ pilot. The Trouble Board considered both pilots equally responsible. One pilot for not pmitivcly insuring the 'runway was dear before starting take-off; the other pilot [(;II' passing <iJ1 airplane in take-off pOSi·tIOD1 for not checking tb~ wind and for not cheeking' the take-off course. Cemmunications in both case'S left much to be desired,

Your Life

Depends

on Oxygen

The radio gunner, on an oxygen familiarization flight in an SBD-4 was Instructed to start using his oxygen at 12,000 feet. The plane ascended to 17,600 fe~t and remained above 120000 feet for approximately 20 minutes. On returning to "the line, the gunner was found unconscious with the oxygen rnask still on his face. All efforts to revive him were of no avail. Examination of the MSA Rebreather showed the lock nut on the admission valve adjusting SCI'eW to be loose and the screw 1:0 have backed off sufficiently to prevent o*)'gell from eutering the rebreather bag. Several other .rebreathers in the Bq uadron wert found in similar condition.
,... BUREAU COlJIMENT.-This is a maintenanee problem. All rebreathers shauld be checked frl'quenfly te insureproper operation. including a check of this Inck lIU'" for tightness. An Lnst rueHon l\IanuaJ and Parts List is furnished with each rebreather, Figure 1 of this manual is a general assembly drawing showing tile location of the admisslcn valve adjusting screw and lock nut, Page 7 gives ·aII expla.nation of the limc· Hon of this valve. BIJAcr restricted let.
DID YOU GET AeCURA TE ____. WIND DRU'TS?

Pettibone saliS:

.

Prop Trouble
Pt'opd1ers, like everything else in aviation, need to be handled intelli'gc,ntly to give proper service. Pilots cannot be expected to know all about adjustment and overhaul of propelI er~; these arc matters for propeller experts. Pilots must; however, in selfdefense, know how to operate them properly if] the air. Here are a few uJ the pilot errors in connection with propellers; culled from recent aircra ft 'accident reports: (a) Attempting to take-off with prop in high pitch. You can seldom. g,et off in this setting, but accidents occur because pilots persist in their take-off 1'11,)) too long. If you aren't picking up speed properly, check your propeller sutting-and don't can)' a doubif uI take·off too far down the run-

~\J

"Temporary preoccupatioIl.'" my ankle! They WOUldn't prtnt what I call it.

which gets SO much publicity; that of lauding 011 an airfield with the wheels

This is the sister

dunce

act of the one

rJ.p.

Here's the case of a famous landlng made before· ret.ractable wheels were in. vented to CQnC"US;e pilots: .A torpedo plane squadrnn, which had been operatibg on wheels, had just recently gone back on floats. TIle. squadeon. cnmmander, upon cet-Qrning from 11;" .Ifrsf flight after this transfer, started to land Oil the station 'field (no denbt, due tp '''temporary preoccupation"). He was barely prevented (rom doing so b)" the Tadioma,Il" who fr.ant,iealiy warned-hira that he was on Ooats. This pilot Uie.n circled the field and made II g.ood landing ill the bay. Afier tuxyillg U[I to tlle. riuliplhe got ollton the wing. turned to the radioman and said, "Good. work! That ce.rtainly wa,S II dumb stunt, trying to land on the field on floats . " And with those. f.ew kind words, be lumped Cr-om the wing eato the frtHd-lmea.1l into the water- up to his ned! •.

way.

(b) Landing in high pitch. This is the twin -sister errol' of (a). You can. land .saId:y, if everything goes right. It is only when you Have an emergency

Both to Blame
A fatal take-off collision occurred under the followint:' drturnstanc~s, The pilot of an F2A taxied to take-off poaition em the rig.bt side of the correct runway, The pilot of an SNJ taxied past the F2A down the left side 0.£ -this runway and started aCl<QSS, evidently inteading to take off on another runway. The. tower caned the SNJ pilot, ·notify.ing him of theccrrecr runway. It is not known whether thi" communi,

.~~

~ ~

.""

He Overshot

The Field

6

and have to give her the -gun to go around again that trouble arises. Then you_ won't have the necessary power to climb. And when you need that power you Ileed it right now. That is why all landing~ should be made in low pitch. (c) Your power seems to fall off OJ' just isn't there, but the engine sounds all Fight. When this occurs, or your rate o£ climb is slow, or similar diffi-· culty is encountered, get in tile habit of checking your propeller setting. The trouble is often there. (d) If yOUl' propeller control unit becomes inoperative with the electric propeller in high pitch, remember, you have a manual control unit. Use it! Get acquainted with yot,rr propeller; leasn its habits and its troubles. Know hew to operate it.

@e.

Jt takes a swi:v'el-ntic'k pilot to a,void collisions these days. It requires. constant rigilanee, and the danger isn't only .straigbJ ahead, Ii is also above, below, and on either side of you and, as in this <!8$C. even behmd you. Keep a constant lookout I And this doesn't mean ''lookout'' as the conductor meant when be P!lIlSed 'through the train and yelJed, "Lookout (or the tunnel I"~ In that eaae an immigrant opened the window and! did, andgot hit on ·the head. (really mean LOOK!

"'\\J

Gro:mpaw

P'ettibofl,i?

BaglJ:

ship was spinning to the right, 1 believed the best plan was to jump between the right wing and the nose. I then opened the hood at 5,000 feet! unlatched the safety belt, stood up on the S(lat and jumped. "At this point, I nearly- broke my neck as 1And fDr:gouen .iD remove my

I),arathute Sense
An accident which OCCUlTed recently in the Aircraft Delivery Unit at NAS Dallas gives several pointers on parachute sense. Two SNJ's collided resulting in the complete destruction of the rear fuselage section of one of the planes, The -g,raphic statement of the pilot snows the value of J...eeping a clear head:

(bssifi'cation of Re:ports
It is noted that nurnerous Aircraft Trouble Reports, Boards of Investigation and Administrative Reports- are being classified as eonfidential when they do not contain anything of a confidential nature. In order to simplify the handling of paper work as much as possible, it .is requested Ulllt these rePOI'ts be not made: confidential unless so required by the nature of their content or for security reasons .. It, this connection, whenever confidential photographs are enelosed with any report, the entire report must be made confidential. Photographs of <til'craft acdden!s are not necessarily confidential and should. not be so marked unless they contain information. of a confidential nature. The standard tubber stamp inscription, as now used on the reverse of such photographs, will .insure that they are not released for publication unless specifi_Cally cleared by the Chief of the Bureau ot Aerrmautics,

head set. However, I fell clear of the plane and dropped straight down without rolling. It did not seem as though I was .£alUng and everything was quiet. I could hear the -plane above me making a swishing sound, «The small change from my pocket was falling up past me. My coneem at this- point was that the plane was falling directly above me apd it m.ight strike the parachute when I opened it. 1did not feel as though I had a parachute on so I felt around to make sure it as there. I waited .....1 b until the ground _,.tIT was very close before opening the missed me a few feet and crashed below me, The wind drifted the chute over some trees, so in landing the branches tare 'Off my remaining clothes, ~As I removed the chute harness, I noticed parts' of the plane still falling and also that my plane was buming. My clothes were destroyed, The other plane bad only damaged his propeller and landed 011 -a. road a shorr tiistance away. The free fall and the ride-prior to leaving the ship were ver;yenjoyable, al though the momen t the chute opened the jolt was quite severe as was the landing on the ground, I t surprised me that I had so much time to think, and aha that there was 3:1 no time any cause for panic or fright. Would like to again make a jump at some time) only under more favorahle cenditiocs,"

Rubber Necks Aren't Rationed
A student pilot in all SNJ---4 was unable to retract one wheel after takeoff. Seeing another plane -in the area, he flew over to. it to. show- his predicament. In the meantime a third pilot had sigbted the crippled airplane .and flew over to warn the pilot. This third pilot had good intentions, but execution wasn't so good. In his enthusiasm he neglected to watch Glutfor other aiFcrait~he ran right 1.-))\0 the second airplane from behind.

rug

'While engaged in level flight at 7,000 f:eet. one of the wing planes struck the rear of ship and cut ofF the tailor fuselage a few feet back of the rear seat. A few seconds before being struck, I noticed that a collision was inevitable; as his propeller was within a few feet of my fuselage. I applied full power just asI was struck. My ship nosed straight up and then fell into a forward rolling fall with the nose and remaining Ifuselage rotating around an a.."i:shom one wing tip to the other. "The plane made about fOUT of these forward somersaults, during which time T found that the aileron pressures remained pesitive. .By hold. ing right ,stick the plane rolled to the right and started to spin violently with the nose down. After a few turns the nose came up and the plane engaged in a fiat spin with the nose close to. the horizon. I knew I would have to leave the ship so I shut off the gas, the ignition, and the master switch, As my clothes were in. the rear seat, I thought I could prevent a fire and be able to save them. "1 tried to stop the propeller by engaging the starter, but I had already ~R.ut off the master switch so the starter would Dot engage, A!I the

mr

chute.

The plane

7

Flight Offense: Don't Fly Over Restricted Airspace

frOID ships and stations for this training should have mechanical or electrical aptitudes with a recornmendation of their ccmmanding officer.

Aeronautical Publications
Hyd'rographic Office Asks Orders
The Hydrographic Office, Washington, coordinates distribution of relevant Civil Aeronautics Administration Publications to naval activities; among which are Weekly Notice to. A:irl1um and ,Air Navigation Radio Aids. These pubUcation, arc being ordered in quantities that appear to be inconsistent with station needs, So that the Hydrographic Office is able to keep its ma.ili'ng listscllrrerti and to supply publications in appropriate quantities) all aviation activities are requested to forward a statement of the quantities of these publications now actually needed to meet unit requirements. To reduce the work required in distribution/ henceforth all material {or naval air stations will be forward d to operations officer. Other station components will be expected to. procure them from that source,

Tail light Dizziness
Single Gleam Caused Vertigo
Growd! of night flying in the prescnt war revealed a new scientific problem-dizziness of pilots caused by too close watching of the single tail light of the plane ahead in formation, Fixation of vision on a single poirrt of light resulted in an illusion that the light' was roving or changing direction, By Installing two taillights the Navy was able to offset the vettigo that its pilots suffered, with its resulting erratic flying tendencies.
DID YOU GET ACCURATE WIND DRIFTS'?

There h.ve be·e.. recent r .. ports of aIrcraft flyins over .'he DI!rtrid of ColumbiaAlrspaee Reser ..... lion, This Is a serlou$ offense. Th .... ttentlon of "II pllab 15 dh'ei~d to Memorandum For Ihf .... o...., Ko. 108, "'hJch is .h ..", ... Avl ..tors shoulll l~miliar,lze t.h..... $elYes ... lth this area.

Spedal Devices School
Trains Men in Equipment
The complex character of many synthetic training devices used in .BlhAtcr~~training program indicates the need for specially trained maintenance personnel to in ure continued operation of the devices. In view of this need a Special Devices Maimenan e School has been established under the cognizance of the laval Ail' Technical Training Command, 6

Navy Pier, Chicago Illinois. Selected znen are given an intensive 12-week~' course of instruction in the maintenance of synthetic training devices. Upon completing this training, these men. are assigned to activities havulg need for them. Official requests for such personnel should be directed to the Bureau of aval Per-sonnel via Bu/ser. Stations that desire to have their own men trained at the school should submit requests to Bureau of Naval Personnel via BuAer. Men selected

BuAer "Bulletin" Out
Confidential Paper
Q

Monfh.ly

The first issue of the Bu.Aer CO'f];fi~ dentiai Bnlletfn, a new monthly pnbli-

veue, scores of which are being built for the Navy. Just as the ..61·St American frigates were built to intercept surface raiders of the Ba,bary pirates, the modern frigates have been designed -specifieally to combat undersea raiders. The new frigates are larger than the standard type British corvette! which has rendered such valiant and successful service during the preserrt war. Somewhat simUa,r to American gunboats, the frigates are primarily hea:vy duty vessels. They have an overall length of 303 feet and a beam of 37 feet 6 inches. Theil' speed will be adequate for their anticipated duty in the North Atlantic, where durability, detecting devices, and ordnance are prime factors, Congress aathorised construction of first six American frigates in 1794.

Air Information Wanted
Hydrographic Office Gets Dala
The Division of Air Navigation of the Hydrographic Office collects, evaluates, and disseminates air operational information by means of aviation charts, publications, periodicals, memo oranda and dispatches. Field work In obtaining .and reporting this type of information.has been done lor the: past 20 years by the entire aeronautical organization of Navy. The present stress of war operations has reduced the volume of t.h.is data to a low level. All commands are urged to forward any and all air.operational informatiou that affects aviation charts, naval air pilots or airway pilots, route manuals, aircraft facility directories or radio aids [01" aviators, to Hydregraphic Office, Navy Dept., Washington.

PIJLLETJIII'

DiSCUsSES

,H'f;W TAI;TIC$

8< 'DESIG.NS

cation of the Bureau of Aeronautics, has been serrt to aviation activities to furnish latest notes on tactics, design, and development of naval aircraft. 1'1~e B411elin is being distributed to fleet headquarters, outlying bases" all carriers, naval air stations and establishmenu, naval training eommands, and Navy Department bureaus,

FIe TIT IOU S SH IP-

RADIUS

OF ACTION
Mid lQt[lud. "32' N
Miid Longitude 175'l1 W

REST THE EAGU'!
BuAer NEWS has been tipped off that too many net» di;!sign,,s {OF squadro« insignia. incQ'rpot(lC8~he
[eatures of the eagle. Now that

You receive orders to depart from your carTier at Oi3D to scout out 011 a xourse of 0150 as far as possible; and return to the carder. Your fuel supplj' is for 3 hours 30 minute. (not including- reserve}. Carrier's position at 0730 'is Lat. 30:"-35' N, Long. 177~-15' W, onCl'Jtu"se '070". speed 21 knots. From Aerolcgy you determine the wind at the desired fligbt altitude 3,000 feet to be from 120°, force 30 knots. Temp. at, that altitude + ISO C. lnlt· airspeed j 20. knots. Variation go E.
Magnetic he.alling Sp<>"d of motion Courn Ground 'ai'r.pe.ed
0

faithful old biJ"d has been nailed by its feathin'S :to far too man',)' enteriJri$(U~ i'n 'many CIJ.J·8J against. its will. This has illdu.c:ed a state of fa:tjguc f,hat 'U1ldGiubledly is b<Jginlliilg to shou: up f(lciatly in late» $itting,r. IU.fI; 4S 11. hint, dlts.igners should ,lllY .iJ!f thiJ old stan-dan!!. b¢au;.r: it! sterner (ones, B-uAer remituls til at further exploitation af the toij· 1.1}ompatl'iarch may be disatJtn'oved,

lrve

.airopeed

C"librated OJre <11'on

.pe.ed

I re loti ve

M.I e. "nc"",....
M-inut'eS" on course

At 081S you sight a _convoy bearing 310'" true, distant ';6 miles . Convoy is 00 cou-rse 050", speed 12 kngts. You arc ordered to intercept the convo)! and Iollow it a~ far as possible, then return to your carrier without using all)' of yo:ur reserve fuel.
Megnelie heading' Course Ground speed
COU(lie

Frigates Sail Again
Once more frigates of the Navy win help protect our sea lanes. The. historic; designation "friga:te" has been given to a new type of twin-screw cor-

Trve h .. "di1!>g Dire(tion of reh:rny,e motion

Mile. on

New Corvettes Reincarnate "assic American Vessels

:5 peed
mOliQIl

of

,efali y e

.AI w'h,," lime do you I,,,,,,·ve Ihe ~o"VOI"? l"I. _

W.hali~ IAnswe..-,

Ihe posiHon

,0"

interoepHon

with the (arrier1

Long',_

on P"9E 29)

.'
9

Watch the Little Things
Army Maxims Urge Care
V-ffl'.st Aid Pick the best choice to complete the statements balow, then check 'iol~r ansuiers em. p, 32,
I. t-ald .realmen' lor irrllol;on ".. ..,.".1 by marine life sud! as la'ge lelly fish, •'ell nettle', etc,. 1$ 10-

Planes Old In 1953
Developments to Come Fast
There are so ma:o.y developments under way in aviation engineering

I',..

wash well with soap and water and apply calamine lotion tJ b rub the affected part with clean sand, 'bathe ill- ammonia water, and apply baiting soda paste o o wash with dean water and apply iodine o d wash with 50<ql and water and apply baking soda paste o f. remove the slime with ~l).bbjngalcohol and apply a .good antiseptic
2, The order in which treatment of Injvries I<!kes preced"rtu fn fI rs. ard ist

oa

The only way to lick smart and crafty enemies like the Nips and Nazis is to be smarter and craftier than they are, And this applies to Iittle, seemingly inconsequential things as well as. to grand strategy. The following. common-sense rules were published recently in Aaiation Enginee« Noles. Though written for Army consumption, the maxims are considered equally appropriate for naval aviation personnel. Here they

that our 1941 pre-war planes will

be

11 Don't walk in the open. Every time
you put your foot dawn you leave a minimum-sized mark of 48 square inches to attract enemy attention. 11 Avoid gathering in groups. The dispersion of men insures longer life for all. t! Don't throw or leave papers/ boxes, tins; cans, munition cases, or any refuse ill the open, They should be concealed or buried as they indicate activity in the area. Nevel' dry clothing in the open, This also will attract the attention of the enemy observer to your location. Flashlights and matches should never be lighted QUtdOOl'S at night in a combat area, Such lights erve the enemy as well as a beacon does

are:

o o

fl.

bl eding, poisons, asphyxia, shock

b asphyxia, poisons, bleeding,

h~!J.d

o
o
[J

injuries c shock, bleeding, asphyxia. poisons d bleeding, asphyxia, poisons, shock e asphyxia, bleeding, shock, poisons

3. An importQnt fundc",nert'al temember In the fran.po'rto.lion .e·f on Injuled penon is thol-

'0

o
o

Il

b

oc

o

d e

o

most eases do not require breakneck speed an injured person should be moved to a hospital in a burry morphine sbeuld a!wa;y~ be given before moving the victim stimulants should always be given before moving the VIctim in no case $.h<i!uld person with a :\ head injury be moved without the consent of a·physicia»

as out of date in 1953 as the 1916 Model T Ford was when the MOdel A appeared, according to R. S. Damon, president of the Republic Aviation Corporation . "Th· e improvements," he said, "start with the fundamentals of aerodynamics including the suppression of all external protuberances such as rivet heads) air intakes, and exhaust outlets, The smooth <flying wing,' suppressing even the fuselage and tail itself is an example and will probably reach its highest fruition in the largest type of planes where headroom for convenience and a maximum of absolute dimension within balancing limits of the center of gravity will be possible. "Ultimately; the present engine and propeller itself may be suppressed and part of today's structural weiIlht, his type, I feel, will reach the highest potential in the high speed su percharged high altitude plane, whose cruising speed to be economical will ha ve to he in what are today's top pursuit speed brackets, •

a pilot,

Post-Wa,r Air Traffic Large
Heavy Atlantic Travel Seen
Post-war air traffic between North America and Europe will reach 600 passengers a day, according to a recent prediction by Edward P. Warner1 vice chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board. London-New York schedules will take 15 hours, while in the opposite direction they will average 21 hours, he .said. Departures from London at 4-, 6 8, 10 p, rn. and midnight are visualized. Allowing for flights that may start from points on the Continent, an all-inclusive round-the-calendar average of eight schedules daily in each direction seems at reasonable goal, Mr. Warner said, "An average of .300 passengers per day in each direction, spread out among 8 schedules, would put an average of 37 passengers on each plane. Allowing for the 65 percent load fa tor which seems to be about the maximum-that would call for an aircraft providing aceommodations for 57 passenge I'S,"

4. When .u,,,jvors of "expo,!!.e In an copen boat" are Inoted, CO g..od rule to follow i.sl_

o

a keep the survivors lying down with heads low and feet raised cr b keep the 5U1"VIVOrS lying down with heads raised and feet lowered o c keep the survivors lying down and place hot water bottles or other direct heat against their bodies, particularly the feet and legs o d apply cold applications tIJ the heads of the survivors o e admjnlsterstimUlant'l, morphine, and aid breathing by artificial respiration
:;, A primary objetlive In the 'realment 01 "tm,.,erslon too,!" is 10-

~.A truck shoul d never be parked with the 'Windshield uncovered, Any reflection is liable to attract the wrong kind of visitors, Inspect the camouflage material frequenrlyand correct any changes made by displacement or wilting. 11 Blast marks on th cam uflag from the gun will di los' a concealed position to the enemy, Such damaged parts should be repaired or replaced as necessary.

Earlv Christmas Coming
Home Folks Must Shop and Ship .Promp"Y for Armed Services
Christmas comes early this year for the thousands of naval aviation per· sonnel on overseas duty, according to the post-office department. The 6week period from September i5 to October 31 has been designated as the time during which all Christmas mail would be posted for men at overseas stations, These packages will be marked "Christmas Parcels" and be given special handling,

o a relieve pain by use of heat o !1 keep the feet and legs moist o t restore circulation gradually o d warm the feet and legs immediately o II cool the victim to lower body temperature

10

NAVAL AIR TECHNICAL

TRAINING

WASHINGTON

CHICAGO

Each is a separate ecmmand Commanding oUiter is dlrecllj under
CNATechTra. Ajj.II" ""<lII,isl M.j" il.fialltlll 'Drdnince.men Ari.IIOJlR.di.m" A,I,U., M et.l,milh,
Aliil!iu(I

o
GROUP I CENTERS

I

GROUP II CENTER

I

* *
I

VWE CHIlT OF, NAVAL OPER.ATIONS

CHI):F-NAVAC AIR TECHNICAL TRAINING

A separate c~mman~with· in the physical limits ul an othu cDmmand. CO is dl· rectly under C NATechTr3.
A,I,Uo.....0111'101 M.to. ' ~¥ lalJa.n Ofdnal1tem~n AlI,II,n Rdr,... n A.roti.. M.Wsm/lII. A,I.lim nidar Op,nlors
(AMM. AOM. ARM)

Each

8
IS

GROUP III SCHOOLS

I

GROUP IV SCHOOLS

I

par] al an other
CO has

com mand whO>!

mililary authority. CNATechT.i has chalge 01 all training mailers btall., "'''Mol'l 'Me'
A"litl" ""01",.. ,11" !'!",hulO M~!"'11 A.~"ph·7
PluJlogra:phy

Small establishments ror slII!da tlzed Ira In Ing at lac· tones and educatlDnal
Institutions.

has charge 01 all training.

CNA Teen T ra

Al'fo",.ull .. 1 E,~rll!'"'f

Cantrnl Tuwer O~et3"t~$ a""'llht Otrice;r~' Int.aclrtnillon om,e,,' AIr COrJIlM1 Inlorm,Uo.
Officers' Pl'l1l1fllr.llphi~ Ird!rpretllfoo

A,,,,,,"
c"'l",1 T.... ' Operat."

E'edrlct3ns~ MOlll!5,

(Om"" .. ~
SEATTLt:

MI.U .. R,dl~ M.I"I.1 EnIi,l.d P.. s•••• l)

D.

Bomb'liM ,nd SBAE

Air".~"'>I,t••,,,,

Af!iltoll Rldan Operato-u (AMM, ~DM. ~RM)

I:iAKEHURST~ • ANAGOSTlA6

••

••


CORPUS
8u~" NEW! Ch.fI

Cltr!USTI

9

12

T R A I N I N GTE C H N I C t~ N S A
As the Fleet's air arm expands, more and more technical ratings are needed to fill aviation billets; the Navy's mammoth program trains 120,000 in aircrewmanship, plane maintenance, and repair
For ever}, aviation pilot in the Navy, 10 to 20 officers and men are needed lor technical auiaiian dulies. This illustrateJ the size of the job c-ut out for tile Naval Air Technical Training Oommand. Since the o'Utbre-ak"of the war. the paoe training aviation technicians has quadrupled, with approximately JOO/)OO of them needed every year until the (va$ is won .... from boot camp study to be aviation machinist's mates or aviation metalsmiths. There is abo a course for men specializing in the maintenance of synthetic training devices. At 87th and Anthony, rated AMM's (most of them bad from the Fleet) get advanced or "refresher' courses in catburetors, engines, ignition, instruments, propellers, turrets, and hydraulics. There are also advanced courses for aviation electrician's mates and aviation ordnaneernen. All the Group I and II centers contain a series of different schools, South to Memphis, basic training is provided AMM's, AOM's, and aviation radiomen. In NOl"IUan, the same is true for AMM's, AOM's, and AM's. Both Memphis and Norman have advanced schools: which give courses in aviation radar, as does Jacksonville. Most of the students in the Group I and II centers ate studying for one of the ''big four" rates. These are AMM~ ADM, ARM, and AM. Jacksonville provides basic training for all foul' of them. In addition to the school for aviation radar operators, this center has schools teaching the maintenance of bombsight and stabilized bombing approach equipment and officer's gunnery school with ord-

aance traming £01' nonflying officers. Corpus Christi has a Group I school which gives advanced work in the maintenance and repair {If communications equipment. Both officers. and enlisted men attend this school. Train Officers for Combat Work

at

Building, NATechTraCom was established a year ago by the Secretary' of the Navy to meet problems arising f:tom rapid growth of wartime training. I t comprises in general all schools giving air technical training except those which train flight students. A rear admiral heads the command. As Chief of aval Air Technical Training (eNA TechTra), he .is the direct representative of the Navy Department, including all its bureaus and offices, in all matters affecting activities of his. command. His immediate superior is VCNO. To make an inspection tour of all the activities of Ius command, the CNATechTra has some 50 stops to make. The schools are scattered up

W

ITH headquarters in the towering Chicago Board of Trade

and down the country.
GROUF I CENT£Rs.-Each a separate command, Commanding officer is directly under CNATechTra.. GROUP II CENTER-.-A separate COlD· mand within the physical limits -of another command. Commanding officer directly under CNATechTra. GROUP III ScaooLl;.__;Each part of another command whose commanding officer has IliUitary authority. CNATeehTra bas

of all matters regarding training. lV SOHOOl,S.-SmaU establishments at Iactories and educational Institu· charge
GR,OUP

tions, CNATechTra has charge of all matters connected with training.

Center Af Chicago Controls Command Chicago is the central stop on aJ;lY inspection tout. In addition to headquarters in the Board of Trade Buildmg, there are two Group I centers in the area. At Navy Pier, men fresh

YC)\i t:ili1.1f.iU G(lrmans.

and Japs

~nh ne~ltji.

lr you ~

"0'1' '0 USE (hO)n!

In the Group II schools there is a wide variety of training vactiviries. Officers receive COurses of indoctrination and ail' combat information at Quonset Point, photographic interpretation at Anacostia, Officers and enlisted personnel get together at Pensacola fer photography courses, For enlisted personnel there. is another bombsight school at San Diego. At Seattle and Quonset Point, men learn how to service Link Celestial Navigation trainers. There are parachute material schools at San Diego, COTpUS Christi, and Lakeh u r st. Aerography also is taught at WAilES TRAIN TO Lakehurst. There are IUPAIR ENGINES, courses in motion picture eamera work at Anacostia and control-tower operations at Atlanta. The gJ;eat variety of technical jobs in naval aviation makes inspection tour of NATechTraCom activities interesting to say the least. The tour doesn't stop with strictly naval establishments. Some eight universities and technical institutes pr~ vide trainin.g in aeronautical engineering, aircraft engines, aerofogy. Some 40 manufacturing plants give specializecl training in maintenance of specific type airplanes. airplane parts, and equipment, All this comes under the heading of Group IV schools. At the pre ent time, most of the factory schools are in the process of being incorporated into the large Gtoup 1 center at 87th and Anthony Avenue, Chicago. The 100,000 graduates a year from NATec.hTra schoolsindudes Waves and Marines. The Group school at Great Lakes gives ratings to colored AM'~ and AMM's. It is entirely possible that the Navy may need to train more than 100)000 aviation technicians in succeeding years. If so, NATeehTraCom is ready to answer the demand. Millions of dollars have been spent installing new schools and up-to-date equipment. Experts from private life and veterans from the war zones have been recruited as instructors. There are some 4,500 of them in the three groups.

In

13

OST of the students training in NATechTraschools ate headed toward one of the "big four" ratings. These are the AMM, AOM, ARM, and AM classifications. Some of them an! seamen straight from boot caxnp seeking their third class "crows.' Others are petty officers studying to be chiefs and specialists. TIt: numb r getting AMM training this past year far outdistances all other classification. There were 47,000 AMM's to 18,000 AOM's, 16,000 ARM's and 9,000 AM's. The high proportion of AMM's is easily explained. Those with this rati~g have more work to do around airplanes than any of the other aviation technicians. Al'"fi,{'s are responsible for the maintenance of naval aircraft. In their charge is the cleaning, fueling, servicing, and making of emergency repairs on all types of airplanes and airplane engines. The job covers a lot of territory. It requires a knowledge of engines, ignition, carburetot:, pro~ pellers, hydraulics,. turr~tsj lI~st~ments, accessories, AMM s specialize in the various phases of the job. For all technicians in the ''big four" bracket there is a basic curriculum designed to give a general knowledge of airplanes, hand tools, shop mathematics. After this, they take up the specific training of the various specialist ratings.

THOUSANDS OF TECHNICIANS TRAIN FOR THE "BIG FOUR" RATES flags, M'
Iectrical circuits-also signal semaphore, and blinkers, AM'~are specialists in airplane structures. They may be called upon to do oxy-acetylene welding, ri\1eting, sheet-metal work, beat treating, electroplating. They must know metalwork methods and materials. In the past year, trainees studied in NATechTra schools for ratingsas parachute riggexs, aerQgsome ,000

raphers, and photographers. The numbers for each rate were about ev nly MIITU SPRAYING divided. Tn addiTAUGtfT SEAMEN 'tien, several hundred control-tower op erators graduated with "Specialist T'ratings. Two new rates, aviation electrician's mate and aviation radio technician, were started during the past year. This fact accounts fbr their small enrollment figures. AEM's specialize in maintenance and repair of aircraft electrical systems. ART's do the same for radio .and radar. As a rule, those charged with the car and upkeep of synthetic training devices, such as Link Trainers and Link Celestial avigation trainers, are Al\1M's. Specialist'! in the maintenance of bombsight and stabilized bombing approach equipment are AOM's. Enrollments for aviation radar operation include AMM', AOM's ARM's, and last year numbered something like 11,000 men.

Specialists Trained for Many Jobs While "big four" is used to describe the aviation rates having the largest enrollments, it does not follow that these rates are more important than those smaller in size. Specialists an! needed, for example, to supply such things as combat, weather, and traffic; information, Without them naval aviation would be as handicapped as a pilot without a parachute.

HOW

THEY'RE

TRAINED
NATECHTRA

1.

2; I} 3 SCHOOLS

120.000 TRAINEES

Photo'Pa'l'h"",

Ordnancemen Handle Many Tasks AOM's are "responsible Ior everything a plane 6,ghts with," Their concern is firepower. They must be able to dismantle. clean, maintain, assemble, in~talJ all ordnance equipment. They must know machine gtn:Is, bomb, torpedoes and be proficient in small arms. The whole gamut of pyrotechnics-float lights for taki:ng drift, rockets for identifieation, flares for lighting enemy targets=-ccnstitutes the ADM's job. o In thir d p Iace among th e ''b'19 f our I.. ARM's have the important job of aircraft communications, This means more than the ability to send and receive code at the prescribed rate of 24 words a minute. ARM's must !rnow communications procedure, practical operation of radio equipment, including training and servicing
<

Bt*_
ART Oln-no

IiIf tIIi at
PR
M~eUa.nIlilOU.

Take Advanced

Work

_Iiii
(~, AOM. ARM)

ARM

_tttl ***ttl itttiitt II *tl***iii
ADM

I*i*t**tl*t*

Itiitt titti~

All in all, there were about 120jOOO enrollments in NATecbTra schools between July 1, 1942, and JUDe 30, 1943. Sorrre of thi.s number are duplicates. for certain specialists, after attending one school, move to more advanced work in other schools. Out o£ the grand total, some 7,000 trainees were officers getting indoctrination for aviation administrative duties or technical instruction to qualify them as ordnance, radar, photographic, or combat-infnrmation officers. The grand total, however, includes am)' officers and enlisted personnel receiving training at the Group I) II, and III schools. In the course of the year) probably another 20,000 found .instruction at the Group IV schools in factories and educational institutions. While the "big four" ratings outdistanced all other classifications la t year, there are indications at present that this may (lot happen ag-ain. Consideration is being given to breaking up some of the big rates and classifying' aviation technicians still further according to their specialties.

15

NAVAL

AVIATION

TRAINS

MEN

A

MAc.H'~LSIS MATES BIGGEST JOB IS TO KEEP NAVAL AIRCRAFT FLYING 16

'NO

WOMEN

TO

FILL

THESE

JOBS

ORONANCEMEN

AT NORMAN

FIND OUT HOW TO LOAD BOMBS

I

STUDENT

LEAR.NS INTRICACIES

OF ELECTRICAL

OPERATION

AT PENSACOLA

11

"TRIPLE THREAT" MEN STAR IN NAVAL AVIATION
and know the satisfaction of personally pouring steel at the enemy. It takes plenty of training to qualify as one of these triplethreat men. After boot camp indoctrination in seamanship and traditions of the Navy, the trainee volunteers for aviation duty. If selected, he is sent to NATechTra schools to study for an aviation rating and further lessons in seamanship, Then, if he is 5 feet 10 inches tall and less than 160 pounds in weight, he volunteers for flight duty. It requires more schooling to give him the splitsecond know-how of aerial gunnery. But it is this final ability that makes him a thre -edged threat to the Axis. Generally, the men who "triple in brass" ar"CAMMs, ARMs, and AOMs. All of them ate enlisted personnel. They wear air crew wings as a mark of distinction and ride right behind pilots as the "back-seat heroes" of naval aviation.

to Marine air stations for duty. As with Waves, Marines are given a choice of entering the technical field rather than becoming office assistants,

TECHNICAL TRAINING 20 Years Ago
[fr.om BuAer NEWS July 12, 19231

RADIOMAN SHOOTS DOWN l JAPS IN BATT!,E

Naval aviation has thousands of men who go the old phrase one better and actually ~'triple in brass:" Fitst of all, these men are sailors with a background in seamanship. Second, they are technicians with a knowledge of airplanes and the thousand-and-one maintenance tasks required to keep planes in the air. Third, they are flight crew members and gunners. In this: capacity, they treat mechanical troubles aloft

Waves Rank High in Training for Naval Aviation Technical Positions
More than 2,500 Waves are being trained in the five technical job that navalaviation offers WOIJ;len~nd huna dreds of graduates already fill positions throughout the coun.try, relieving men for combat duty. The Navy opened the doors to Wa~ for ratings as AMMs,AM , aerographers, parachute rigger, control tower operators, and some as instructors in those fields. As evidence that women have the technical skill required to do the work, out of a graduating class of 100 aerologists at Lakehurst lighter-than-air station zecently, the four highest were Waves. After completing tbeix four weeks of basic training at Hunter College recruit camp the enlisted Waves are given interviews, aptitude tests, and mechanical-ability examinations to see if they would be fitted for any of the five technical ratings naval aviation offers women. Those cho en go immediately to technical schools where they attend classes alongside the men studying for those same ratings, The only Iimita18

tions are their own physical ones and the Jaw requiring hat they be stationed somewhere in the United States, About a thousand Waves are training at the Memphis and at Norman Na'Tech'Traflom centers. Others are learning parachute rigging and aerography at Lakehurst, while controltower operators are being taught at Atlanta. The first class of 148 Waves with AMM ratings was graduated from Memphis rill June 26 after 2t weeks of training Which included everything' that was taught men .it the same school, The women were sent to 15 different air stations. Graduates of other technical schools also are in the field. Some of the Wave also are being used M code instructors at the Memphis aviation radio school. Approximately 150 women Marines are taking technical a1l:iation training in the same five branches as their sisters in. blue. On graduation, 'they are dispatched

Further reports from the Naval Air Station at Pensacola, Pla., 0.0 the success that has been attained in teaching radio code to student aviators in their sleep give interesting information on the progresll of this novel and useful experiment, In fact it may be said that the experimental stage in the trials has been past and the method has become standard, as a means of saving students from failure in the course, When the test was started 12 students were unsatisfactory in their progress 'in radio code. After two nights during which radio code was sent to the students in their sleep, only two of the students were unsatisfactory, and these two men had left before the experiment was finished/ professing disbelief in it, The procedure has been to have the students Jeep on the tables in the radio room where the code is taught in the regular school periods. Operators send messages at varying speeds night. The students concentrate on the messages that are seot through until they drop off to sleep, [It was evident from C1.n earlier report that in his conscious hours the following clay, the student was able to receive messages at the speed at which they were sent to him while he was asleep.] To quote a report all the subject: <tIt is very interesting t-o watch the students during one of these night periods. rr the operator intentionally and continuously makes errors in sending, the students will toss around most unusually in their sleep. If the sending stops 01' the rate of sending changes appreciably, it is sure to disturb them, and in mo t cases will arouse them, Even in the midst of their deepest slumber, the call S 0 S at a dlfferent rate of speed will awaken. them instantl v," It is planned to secure electrical sending machines which will send all night and do away with ·the necessity for an operator for future classes.

an

Taxes for Navy Personnel
Latest News-Servicemen on Adive Duty September 15.1943, May 'Defer Filing Declaration of Estimated Tax and Pay Taxes as Late as March 15. 1944 According to New Treasury Department Ruling
1

HE new income-pius-victory tax pIau is not quite as simple to figure out as a Chinese crossword puzzle, but it can be understood. And it has many advantages for the man in the services which will ease your tax burden. You may not even .have to pay any tax, either for 1942 or 1943. There ate really two taxes that are payable. The first is an income tax; the second is a victory tax. However, 110 single serviceman whose sale 1943 income is Ies than $2,000 of service pay has to p1iy an income or victory tax on his 1943 income. And if the serviceman's sole income in 1942 was a salary of $14,000 or less, the tax on that salary is completely abated and any payments he has aJready made will be refunded or credited to him. A married serviceman (living with his wife) whose sole income is less than $2 700 service pay does not have to pay an income tax on 1943 earnings. He pays the 5 pet. cent victory tax if be receives more than $2,124, but this victory tax may be reduced as much as 40 percent through post-war credit. Here are some questions which the new law poses: in p~ying incoi11e tax has been In previous years, ta-x was paid during following year. Now tax is on pay-as-yon-go basis. What hi the withholding ta"X and how does it affect the man in the military service? It is not really a tax: but a: ill thad of collecting taxes by withholding at the source, 20% of a person's salary and wages, after deducting hiswithholding exemption, It does not affect the man in active military service. None of his service pay is withheld for this purpose. (Pensions and retirement pay includible in gro s income are subject to withholding.)
created by the new law?

T

5.

1.

What big difference

2.

How does CI servleeman compute the tolal 1943 tax? Assuming that his 1942 tax is greater, he has to par excess of 1942 tax over 1943 tax after deducting that part of his 1942 true attributable to wages up to $14,000 (or "Earned net income") . For example take a lieutenant (jg-). He has no 1943 tax on his service pay, let us say, but earned $4,500 in 1942) of which $3,000 was salary. He deducts $3,000 from his total income because jt was earned income. But he will nave to pay the excess of his 1942 tax (in this case on the additional. $1,500 income) plus one-fourth of the taxes for the lesser year. The lesser year's taxes are zero, so be only pays taxes on $1,500 incomeof 1942.. .But if his 1943 tax is greater than his 1942 tax, he merely pays his 1943 tax plus.x ofhis 1942 tax.

6.

Which servicemen need not pay truces on their 1942 income? No serviceman whose sore income in 1942 was "earned net income" needs- to pay a tax on this, unless he has to pay a tax for J943. Earned net income consis s of wages, salaries, and compensation for personal services .not exceeding ,14,.000. 1[ taxpayer'.s net i11 come is not more than $3.00.0, hi.r enlite net income ( [ram all S01trCi1l) is considered to be "earned net income."

7.

3.

Which servicemcm musf pay taxes on his 1943 income? A serviceman must pay an income tax if he has a net income remaining after he subtracts the following from his gross income:
a. $1,.500 of his service pay. b. Personal excmptien of $500 for a single man, $1,200 for a married man living with wife, nnd 1350 Ior each additional dependent (as defined by !;hI' Internal Revenue Code). c. The other usual deductions allowed by law.

8. What

How much Itax is forgiven under the new plan? tZ. When the 1942 1."", is greater than the 1943 tax, civilians must pay the diffenrnce, but in the case of a. serviceman that portion of this difference due to earned net income in 194-2 is compl~tely abated. h. The law abo provides, in al! cases, that the 194-2 tu i~ forgiven up to 75 percent of the lesser year's tax-; unless the "tale for the y~'ar is $50 or le~" in which case the entire amount will be iorgiven. If the tax is more than $50 and Iess than $66_67, then a lIat$SO will be forgiven. c. If the serviceman dies in active service on or after December 7, 1941, and before the end of the war, all unpaid inceme taxes tOT any year are abated,

A serviceman must also pay a victory tax of S percent on all victory tax net income remaining after he deducts:
a. $1,500 of his service pay.

4.

b.

624 individual exemption.

Which serviceman win have to pay taxes on his 1942 income? If his income represents returns from investments. etc. (other than earnings), he may be taxed on this income (known as <unearned" income.). The law requires the serviceman to pay (A) his 1943 tax. (if a;t:ly) _plus (B) excess of 1942 tax over that of 194,3, less amount of excess due to "earned net Incom " (i. e. wages, etc.}, plus (C) one-fourth of the 1942 or of the 1943 tax, \\,>hichever -is less (sce chart Cljlposite page) .
20

9.

is the Declaration of Estimated Tax, and how does it apply to servicemen? This is a form used to estimate your taxes fOI' the current year. Civilians must file: their declaration by September 15, but by a new ruling of the Treasury Department, members of the armed forces on active duty on that date may: (1) defer filing the-Declaration of Estimated Tax and (2) postpone pay,. ing their taxes until Match 15, 1944. To take advantage of the installment privilege, servicemen may file a declaration on September 15 (or later if they wish) , Naturally there is no need to file a Declaration of Estimated Tax after December 31 as your full tax can then be computed.

Which servicemen should tonsider flling 'aDedara~ tlon olf Estimated Tq:x .on September 1S? Every serviceman who has a 1943 tax to pay on income from any source whatever. The advantages to him are that he may CO_NTlNUEO ON PAGE 22

HOW THE

SERVICE

MAN

COMPUTES

HIS

What's New in Taxes?
I. PAY-A'S-YOU-GO, instead of paying last year's taxes from this year's income, is the major feature of the new Tax Payment Act of 1943, which further provides for:

19,43 TAXES
SOURCE
G PER CENT NORMAL TAX pius a VARYING SURTAX
ON INCOME REMAINING

2.

DECLAKATtON

OF

ES'rlMATE-D

TAX, filed on September

AFTER DEDUCTING
I, ,15ao SERVICE PAY

2. INDIVIDUAL 5INSU:
MARRIED DEl'ENDENT

EXEMPTIONS S500
}1200 $350 (EACH)

A

vilians. Servicemen d cfe rmen t. 3. VICTORY tAX (5 percent) on 1943 income (part will be returned in post-war credit) plus usual income tAA. 4. Partial (in some eases complete)
FORGIVB ESS OF 1942 TAXES.

15th by ciare entitled to a

"3. MISC. DEDUCTIONS

5. For military personnel, many advantages, including a $1,500 servicepay exemption, covered in this story.

.Tax Facts for Servicemen
EXCESS (if any) of 194.2 TAX over 1943 TAX
EXCEPT WHERE EXCESS IS DUE TO 1!l42 WAGES UP TO S14,000 (",EARNED NET INCOME") "SERVICEMEN PAY ONLY THE EXCESS ON INVESTMENT INCOME OVER $3.000

B

25 PER CENT of LESSER TAX

(1942 or 1943)
(XCEPl' WHERE TAX IS: L J5G (OR LESS)tHEN THE TAX IS ABATED
Z. S50-$66,61-

THEN ''iO IS /lBATED

c

TOTAL 1.943

Income Tax

= A+B+C

Who pays? See questions 3, 4, 5. 6, and 19. How? The serviceman's pay is not withheld by the Government, He pays taxes out of his own pocket. Ii ow much? The serviceman may not have to pay anything, or possibly less than he thinks (see story.), Eut this year there are two taxes to pay: 1943 income tax and Victory tax. When must paym-ent iJ,e made? By Match 15, 1944. Taxes may be paid this year in two installments, September 15th and December 15th. (Pay. meats made in March and June of this year against 1942 tax: will be credited to 1943 taxes.) Who files a Declaration qf Esttmated Tax? See questions 8 and 9. s;;v;.cemen at sea or on foreign shore duty: See question 11. September isi«, 1943 Servicemen may file a Declaration of Estimated Tax and make installment payment on 1943 tax. (Declaration may also be filed later.) December 15th, 1943 Servicemen may pay second tax installment (If any) of estimated tax. March tsi«, 1944File regular income tax return on 1943 income. Pay 1943 tax (if Iustallments not previously paid) . File Declaration of Estimated 1944 tax and pay first quarterly .install meat. 21

, ax Calendar

5 PER CENT VICTORY TAX
ON ALL INCOME R(MAltliNG AfTER DEDUCTING: I. 11500 SERVICE PAY 2. $624 INDIVIDUAL EXEMPT, 3. SPECIAL VICTORY TAX DEDUCTIONS

TOTAL 1943

TAX = A+B+C+D

lTAXES CONTINUEDl ex rose the installment privilege and avoid paying all his taxes at once next March 15, whe.o the first payment of e timated 1944ta.xes also becomes due. When does a firu:d return hQve to be, made by servicemel"l'? The final returns on 1943 taxes will be made on. or before March 15, 19#. At this time also a Declaration of Estim-ated Tax will be filed for the year ] 944. There win be two forms, the 1040 form lor 1943~ and the I D40 ES form for 1944. If a serviceman has to pay a tax, cern he wait until the war is over to pay it? Only in certain cases. If he is 00 sea duty or out of the country on the due date, he cap defer filing or payment until his return to the United Sta es, or until the close of the war. The return will be due the 15th day of the fourth full month after his return, or after the war's end. If servicemen return to this country and leave before th allowed time limit .is HP, they are not required to file a return or make a pay" merit until they again return.

10.

11.

What 15 tfle total tQJCrate on income? It varies with individual _ The victory tax is 5 percent of the vi tory tax net income after deducting the $1 500 exclusion from service pay and th personal exemption of $624, a total of $2,124, The income tax is. divided into two parts: (1) a normal tax of 6 percent 00 the norrnal tax net income, and (2) a varying surtax, the minimum rate being 13 percent of the surtax net income. Normal and surtaxes are COm~ puted together on the optional (short form) income tax return (Form l040A). If a serviceman on sea duty or overseas wishes to file a return, where does he mail it? He. hould mail it to the Collector of Internal Revenue for his home district Of, if none, at Baltimore, Md.

17.

of . S. avings bonds outstanding (Series E, F, and G).

September

I, 1942

18.

0"

What part of a navy man's pay is exempt from tax.ation? In addition to the exemptions and exclusions already mentioned, he is not taxed on his service allowaflces {or subsistence, quarters and uniforms, nor is he taxed on pel' diem allowance in lieu oI subsistence, A serviceman is also allowed the other legal deductions, such as alimony payments losses Incurred. bad debts, c .rtain sales taxes, state income (axe. etc. Which servicemen dte allowed the full $1,500 service pay exclus-io., from taxable income? ;Ev~ry man may deduct as much as $1,500 (rom his active service pay. However, if he receives only $900 service paYI he may not deduct more than :ji900 from his taxable income. For exam pie, a single enlisted man with an inc orne of $3 000 of which only $900 is service pay, may deduct $1400 ($900 exclusion plus $5DO personal exemption) and is taxed on the remaining $1,600. What is the victory tQX and how much income can be exempted from taxation by servicemen? The- victory tax is an additional war tax on income amounting to .'j percent of a serviceman's victory tax net inC(lrne, This arnoun t provides for an exclusion of $ l 500 service pay and $624 personal exemption. A inglc man lnay reduce his victory tax as much as 25 percent (bu t not more than $500) and a married man may reduce his as much as 40 percent (but not more than $1,000) through post-war credits. What Qre post-war credits? These are credit allowahle after the war on account of victory tax payments. Howev-er, credit;'; may be claimed on your victory tax returns if you make paYl'ncnts of a non-inflationary nature: towards tire insurance and debt (contracted prior to Soptern ber 1, 19'~2). and rowands incr aging your net holdings 22

13.

What .part of a navy man's pay i5 toxable? His base pay and I ngevity pay, including an allotments frcm thi pa'; retired }lay (c.xcept that of serviecrnen retired due. to physical disability resulting from active service) ; specialir t rating pay, extra compensation for special duty, such as aviation, submarine, or sea or overseas pay. Also mileage allowances in excess of actual traveling ~"penses, and transportation allowances for families of naval P rsonnel.

12.

20. 21.

If a serviceman finds it difficult to pay his taxes due to his service pay, what relief can he get? He may secure upon application to the Collector of Lntcrnal Revcnue, a deferment extending for 'not more than SIX months after the termination of his "active duty" military service, without intere t or penalty payments,
'Can a serviceman file a joint return with his wife? A serviceman .may file a separate or joint return. If he files a separate return and claims the entire $1,200 personal exemption, ill' WIfe may not claim part of that exemption,

19.

14.

What is the windfall tox and does if affect men in the service? This is a special provision 'to prevent abatement of tai e-son abnormally high war income during 1ge~2 x or 1943. It affects only those whose income during these years exceeded pre-w-ar income by more than $2.0,000. What is a simpHfied 1943 tax formula for the servjceman? The man in the service pays:
Income tax on that part of his 1943 Income remaining after subtracting .111,5QO service pay and personal exemption and
deductions

22.

When will a serviceman gel any refund due ta him on income tax already paid on 1942 income? The law makes no provision for refund of 194·2 overpayment to be made- prior to March 15, 1944. Amounts. already paid on hi 1942 tax. will be credited as payments on his 1943 tax.

23.

Plus
Excess of his 194·2 tax over 1943- tax Less !UI of such 19'1-2 excess attributable to earned net incnme. up to $14.000
PIllS

15.

Twenty-five P~(CCllt of the lesser tax of 1942 or 1943 ($50 is abated on taxes of less than $66,67).

Plu~
Five percent victory tax on that. part of his 1943 income remaining after subtracting $1,.'iOOservice pay, il. personal exemption of $624, and victory-tax deduction (see chart};

16.

Cail allotments of service .pay be made to pay toxes? Allotments for taxe cannot be made to the Commissioner of Internal' Revenue, Servicemen may, however, make al~otroents to personal repre ntativcs (lawyer, banks, etc.) fOT taxes,

24.

BlJAER NEWS .~",I

MONTHLY PAY

YOUR ANNUAL INCOME
• Co m p uted fro m
5 he

TAX

rt form l040a HEAD OF FAMilY

VICTORY TAX
ASSUMING YOU HAVE NO DEDUCTIONS

RANK OR RATING

BASED ON LESS THAN l YEARS'SERVICE

SINGLE

MARRIED and Wife Claims
Half o! the Personal

~El,em_plion all Her
Separate Relu rn

Witll WUe and
2 ,Children

FLIGHT J
. -

SEA/FSlI) ... SHORE --- .. "

1 USA,

nV;RsEAs

" •.
'6SB.iSS

j,3aUJO 945.40 793-.00 41UJO 335.00 744.B5 632.50 309.00
249.JJO

$2.967.80 .ll,5a3_00 1.506.20 1,275.00 919.,40 111.00 3SS.. 0 0 3l6.00 722.. 9 8 .610.50 2.90.00 230.00 545.30 409.-00 195.00 143.00
.3-12,00

1.140_20. 931.0'0 613.40 485.00 HZ_OO 73.00
43.!1.65

293.00 2"23.80 193.8QI 1\3.00 93.801

FLIGHT {gXf~~~A,S" SEA/FS.D." ..... "" , SHORE, FLIGHT SEA!FSD,+-~-_-" -. ., SHORE ... ,_.. ". , ,- {OVERS.EAS USA" ",

-<S.50.OO ·SOi).Oll 866.66 333.33 *48L25 *431.50 320.8329),66 "'412.50 315.00 .275;00 2liQ·00

329.00 47.00 213,80 is 9.011

1~~:~5
86,.30 6.8,.801 141,.30 -1.18.80 sa. 8,0 41.L80 13L~a n.80 25 -,BO

-------FLIGHT SHORE

SE:A/FSD ,

t g~~~_~~~s: . g~~E~_S.

--

568.30
43:UJO

~lUll} l62_(JO 3,,1.00 266,00 )1l2.!J(I· 5ROO 214,00 162.00 24'{1O
" "

FLIGHT ~ SEAIFSD ,SHORE FLIGHT

300.00
220.00 200:00 215.00 250.00 183.3_3

3'30.00

241;(10
SS.DO

64.00 1.00

40.00 195_00 143.00

13-_ao
SB.80

SEcA/FSD .. , ,

(-8Xi~~~~,S"_

::~GRH.E . O~R~E~~ . '1 I USA". ", SEA/FSD- ,." -SHORE. -..•• FLIGHT {3X~R_~~A.~ S.EA,TS.D .. .. . 'I
1

.i-;

..

....

6.00
,

~3.80 ~.BO 42:.30 2S.S0
,. i ~ •• I ~ •• r ~~ , • , , •

158.00 110.00
I

139,00 91.00
i ~•
i j I ~ ••• " ...

1,

MII.IS

262.50
192.. 0 5

244,QO

~---

SHORE.

,,_.- .....

, "I

17~.pa

lS8.00 <j.S.!JD 7.00

·22ll.00 1.69.00 21.00
, • _4 1~ , , _ •• , •• , •••••

61.OS .51.30 9_30

206.00 110_90

--·I--------------~---------------

WHAT
J~0_40 111.00

THIS

CHART

DOES

93,,60
76.00 75.00

FL.IGHT , SEA!FSD." SHORE,-.,

t gX~R.~~,,
.. "~-,,OT'".-.,

118.30
99_00

72,_2:'1 66.00
,91.20 8LOO ijUO &4.00 50.00

FLIGHT {g~R_~~~S, SE,A/l"SD-. , . , .. . SHQRE ... __ .- .. ,

1

1. h give, yuu em ide .. ,af the f nre me "",d Vido<y lox '01> you, 1943 setv kepo·y. It 1 nol \'ou, 10to,1 ItI". .• (See elhe, <h",! and ,Io,y J .2. The ,ntome I<lX is based on option,,1 shert lo'm 1040" (uce,pl en mDnthJy ~(ly O1.Drkea with 00 CI:5!te,.i~1<l... I:t.. 1.:5 'tb~ aveJdge inco,me tax 011 .Novy pet)! <liter makinS_ all e-nmption5 and ove,,,,se, deductions, 3. LO'~!le:vity poy I. tto""ble. If you d .., nol Ilt in!" lei", eh"<1 be"o"u of longe~ily" I4Il.rre oul you. ,manihl)' pdy and taxes sepC!rale,ly' (Of lake ,he' nearest :i,ncome Hgufe r~ Ihe Poy Column ta And ClpproKim<>le lal\'J. 4~ 1,1 you were p""mo,,,d du,lng Ih" yea., b"thin'<o m ~ g"od es tnu~1 be """"puled fOIU;u"" 5. Vidory I.. " t. fl!lu,edh~le afler d ..duoing $1,500 t_er~i<e p<;oy and $624 per,on"l,exemplion. II doe. nol allow 10f .ped'" Vido,y 10" deductions you may lake .. .5. If the man in servlee has mere than ave,age <I.. du<l;O"', ,,~ wlil seve by working out his I"xes Iram the. re,g,ul'a. tax form, 1040. All pay merked with. en as!e'~$'~,hould be <<>mputed on' th e ,"',gu[", '<IX [erm. !:p_ny d~dolJ c,ll'orn. o'''_''r
Use "orm '040

~ 'ncoml&

~I::II~~I

0"

pay

marJ:oeoJ w,Hfi on
Tfle.y
(lfi'p'~IIi!';n,

~U~Ti:!ik

are

e,gT'fIeli:l 'n~ome

(l(>rjft.

MAXIMUM

h:r.:.

!:ompu{Q;d ,IN j'lhoL!!' on ,.hell'- i'l'.(omoC,

rhol1

$-1,500

$eT·1,iiJ;e PP':Y. e-xem-p,':o,,'

'or J.eH Cji'Jd d,epenEieD,I:J:..r and

1o tOtrtpU'·,tu

HUal!! 'axu~

"

J

---

HOW GOOD ARE YIOUIN AEROLOGY?
The cnswer to these problems is duck soup if youire 2
3

Write your' a.115wers here

up on thefundamentols o,f oerol'ogyfog, Cloud formations, winds, weolher, and of her cendltlens enceuntered offen i.n flight. Of (ourse, every pHat should be.

4
5
6

_
_
_

In case you mulf., you'U find correct answers on page 32.

24

OXYG
BnAer fliers in TBF visit major naval: air stations, flyIng ,over

F
25,000 feet and 9 hours between '20,,000 and 22,000 feet. The airplane used was a TBF-l equipped with standard central supply oxygen rebreathers located in the pilot'scockpit, turret, and tunnel gunncr's pesitions. OxygClJ supply consisted of two 514-cubic-ind1 highpressure ( 1,800 pounds per square inch) bottles located in the second cockpit position. In addition, a single individual supply reareather was located between the flare tubes in thea£ter section of the tunnel gunner's, area. Models SA demand regulator and diluter-demand rcgulat(}r~ each with a 295cubic-inch cylind~l" were on the port side of bombardier's seat, Tbe 'extra equipment was provided principally Ior comparative purposes and use only a small part of the time.

'1G H T
Flight .Reaches I=ive.Miles Up Maximum altitude on the flight was 26,400 feet at which the outside air temperature was -400 F. Wi.tll this prevailing outside air tenrperature, the pilot's ankles were uncomfortably chilled but he was otherwise comfortable in spite of the fact that ills clothjng consisted of only summer khakis and. a lightweIght summer flight suit, Fresh air vents W!';TC both dosed ana. the cockpit healer was on. However, upon. opening the fresh air vent, located above the windshield, it felt as though an icicle had been thrust Into the cockpit.

25,000 feet tn test oxygen hop
INDINGS on the use of oxygen rehreathcr apparatus were reported by BuAer representatives who recently completed a Ib)OOO-rnile survey Hight to all major, naval air stations having oxygen low pressure training chambers except Pearl Harbor. The flight was made in step with the increased interest and activity in the field of higlr-altirude flying. Repeated ffighh were made at oxygen altitudes, 15 hours being spent above

F

While the piler was comparatively
comfortable for the two-hour period of this flight} the observer located in the bombardier's seat dressed in similar-manner was chilled, despite the additional warmth of two lightweight

Oxygen-test chamber at NAB, Corpus Christi, gives student pilots a chance to experience sensations of highaltitude ·flying. Here they have donned their oxygen masks and, under the watchful eye of a pharmacist's

mate, arc "descending" into 'denser air after their stratosphere "-Right." Snrne hold their noses and blow to relieve the air pressure on their ear drums. While ~n the chamber they try to work out mathematical p robl ems.

25

R 0 UTE 0 FOX Y G E N F LI G H T.-

CHE·OK.(NG REnRI;;ATHER
1N

OPERATION

FLIGHT

"fIU,",EIi

FI.IEIiS

COVER

1D.DQQ, MILES

IN OXYG.EN

SURVEY.

HIT

·SAO WI)ATHEIl:

rREQUE.NTI.V

ON "'OP

leather jackets, orre worn conventionally, the other wrapped around the lower portion of his body. Under these severe: conditions, as; well as,over the desert of Arizona 'where the ternperature at lower altitudes reached well above J 000 F., necessitating the pilot's holding his ihands in the slip stream to scoop Inadditional fresh air, the oxygen equipment continued to function in a riorraal manner. While at an altitude DE 25,000 feet oyer Red BhdI, Oaliforuia, the pilot connnunicated with the Red. Bluff airport, using the new ANB-M-Cl mask microphone. Throughout the entire trip this new mike gave excellent servIce and was so superior to the handheld microphone that repeatedly it was used for nor:maJ communications when entering or leaving airport traffic. As a result of the experience gained in use and operation of the rebrcather

apparatus during this trip, some practical suggestions are offered as possible assistance to ethers,
!;IV ,",SIN" THIS ~E!lREATI"IER AP.PARA"TUS. FLIERS

1. Make sure high-pressure supply cylinder pressure. gage reads 1,800 plus or minus 50 p. s. i., before take-off and that low-pressure gage (if installed) reads between 10-15 p. s, i. ~. Observe breathing bag for n1?Tmal movement. 3. Check mask fit frequently for tightness by squeezing off breathing tube and inhaling iightlY'-jf mask collapses on face, a tight fit Can brassumed. 4. A "hot" canister indicates proper chemical operation, Nevertheless, change canisters after every two houts of use, and never .re-use previously opened canister. 5. Exhausted or defective canister can be identified by it,s uncomfortable, or excessive resistance to exhalation. Before replacing a suspected canister. vent a portion of contents of the breathing bag to determine whether or not exhalation resistance possibly
~HiT O,ftEA,TPCEFFIC.UoNCV OUT

'or

OJ(YGENUS:E

BEAD

Installation

of-Signal Device ..

lOQsen 'fop and bottom Pzus- feu'Ie'nlers and remove casi1Jc:over(Pali't

# 16561 J. Th e metal stri p previou'sly formed is attached to admission valve l'evar arm IPart#16562J with opposile end'of meta,1 strip.projeeting through redangul,ar hole in case. Then secure 5ui,table 'ti'moun,f of c.otto.n waste tosigl1al devic'e arm using hole in end ef metal ,strip. TeU assembly for proper clearances of rebreather ha:g and signal device arm under simulated febreathet epe.ration. RepiC!ce,secu re case cover.
26

is due to an over-extended breathing bag, If resistance still persists, change cani tcr,
CIIECKL"IG PERSONAL CON D I T ION

1. Before take-off or at low altitudes, check, color 01 finger nail beds (usually pin1:) to familiarize one's self with their normal appearance. Then when at altitudes when oxygen is being used frequently, check finger nail beds for comparison to normal color, An abnormal white or bluish apperu'ancc indicates insufficient oxygen. 2. Test clarity of vision using different objects near and distant for C0mparison with normal eyesight. Any marked impairment 'in vision is apt to be due to an .inadequate oxygen supply to the b0dy. 3. Compare writing' before flight to handwriting at altitude. It is important to note that a noticeable change in the individual's handwriting becomes apparent only as the need for oKygen becomes most criti al ; hence it

is not advisable to use this method except as a double check. If, while on an oAeygen flight, any of the above mentioned checking methods ate used with results illditating a subnormal physical conditionACT AT ONCE! Use PILOT WEARIN.G emergency supply of AN OXYGEN MASK oxygen-sOheck oxygen supply and apparatus-c-if there is no improvement, bring plane down to afe oxygen levels. (For emergency oxyg'en: Re· breather-depress admission valve: demand or diluter-demand apparatus-turn emergency valve ON.) GENERAL Hns'rs 1, Cl1eck oxygen apparatus while plane is 011 ground prior to take-off. Any defects found in the supply er equipment should be remedied irnmediately or replacement equipment installed by trained oxygen personnel. 2. Canister metal sealing caps can

by grasping opening tab and pulling

be removed easily from canister ends

firmly outward, then lilting upward. 3. In the TBF front cockpit, a central supply type rebreather .is mounted in such a position that movement of the rebreathing bag is not readily visible. A simple signal device may be easily installed to give visual indication of operation. The signal device consists of a small strip of metal attached at one end to the rebreather admission valve lever arm (M A Part N . 16562) and extending outward through the only rectangular opening in side of case (slot normally used for canister holder attachment) to a distance of approximately 1 Inch outside, A small bit of cotton waste. or other similar material is secured tQ the end of the metal strip outside of the rebreather case. Thus the actual movement of level' arm and breathing bag during operation is visibly represented by back and forth motion of metal strip and cotton waste,

Three-Purpose Craft
Has Chrys.ler land Fire Engine
NASI BANANA RIVER, Ft., .-A three-purpose craft has been constructed at tills station, capable of fMC· tioning as a standard fire boat, an t~)".uergencysalvage craft, and a firefighting engine ashore. The craft is a 33-foot rearming boat, driven by a standard gasoline motor. The fire equipment consists of two 4G-gallon foam generators, 200 pounds of linked CO2 nozeles, asbestos suits, special fender J boat and grappling hooks, axes, bolt cutters, and other emergency means of entering aircraft all the water. A unique feature is installation of a standard Chrysler type land fire engine. This pumper services two standard 2y~·jnc.h fire hoses, and in addition bas the ability to withdraw at least 500 gallons of water per minute from the hull of a damaged seaplane. The boat carl function as an emergency sal,age craft due to its ability to pump dficientiy the bilges .of a damaged plane. It can also perform as a Brefighting engine ashore because it can fay off the apron in deep water, fur-

nishing 160 pounds of pressure to two standard fire shore hoses, The multi-purpose fireboat contains th.i s service gear:
A bestos suits. Twin 40-gallon Foamire generators, "Mine tyPe" inhalator, Twill IOO-pound O. bottles with coda length hose and nozzles . Twin 2 Y2-inc.h high pressure bose. Twin 4~-inch hard suction Iine, O. I. cans, sand, shovels, 'and buckets. GrapplIng irons, boat books, etc. Emergency tool kit, bolt cutters, pinCh bars, and the like. High pressure spray nozzles. Foam generator. Twin floodlights. Chrysler, gasoline engine driven, .high pressure pumpcJ". Twin I5-pound CO. bottles.

l. 'Provide lor lome lorm of positive Itne' c"'achmen! to the bana.t. In the ca." of sand bagt, Ibis may be prov,ded by ....curely sewing strops 10 the bog.. 4, When possible" -plo(o b,,[[q.t ot .. point where the forward pari of the. bollQst will b, bearing (lgain." some basic slrvelure.

Adjust Travel of Ailerons
NAS, ST. LOUlS.- Two protractors used f01" adjusting the travel of Stearman and N3N ailerons have been developed at this station. A pair 01 these, one 0:0 each aileron, permits the up-and-down travel from the streamline position to be cheeked quickly by one man sitting in the 'cockpit. The protractors are adjusted so that the work may be performed even thoughthe ship is not leveled, and the arne limit marks can be used,

Sand Ballast Should Be Properly Lashed
BuAer Lisls Suggestions The danger of having loose ballast
in a plane wa demonstrated recently

when the pilot of a PV-l applied both brakes full trying to avoid a collision,
causing the plane to nose over. Luckily, PO one was injured in the landing. However, upon Iuspection immediately following the accident, it was found that the 400 pounds of sand bag ballast which had been lashed to Sta. 494-508 was strewn about the after part of the fuselage in a manner as to have caused serious injury to an)' personnel stationed in this part of the fuselage. These sand bags were secured by lashing with approximately 60 feet of 5/32 white line.
... SUIIEAU COMMENT-The necessity for la.sh. ing the sand ballast ;'1 an ai.plane p,operly is obviou$ from the "bove trouble report. believed that if Ihe f'allowing- precautions are laken the ballast can be £e~ured ~o thai it will remain in plelce under all but the most s evere crashes: 1. Seled litruClvre thai is slrong enough to holel the ballast even under (ra$h condition •. Avoid lashmg bedlast to st..... lure wilh .heln> c edge, which will cut the line. If·sharp edg". cannol be avolcled, they should be paddf!d at Ihl! point of atTachmenl. 2. Secu re ba 110 with II I1n0 of sutllci enl sf strength 10 with.hlnd Ihe sho<~ a crash

PROTRACTOR~

SIlVE

TIME;

,N AIL',EFlOK CI1ECK

"

"i.

The smaller protractor is used in conj unction with the above to check the travel of the other surfaces. This protractor is also used on other types of planes when leveled for rigging. Savings in time by the use of these protractors have amply repaid the time spent in their development.
BUilEAU COMMENT-The development of a svoface conlrol pratr"dor <it St. louis ",ay suggest idea~ 10 olhe, $lol;ons for the de.velop • "'enl of similar devices. DID YOU GET ACCURATE WIND DRIFTS?

0'

BOAT

DOUSALV

....GE

JOll.

f":IGHTS

I!AN.DFIRE:li

landing.

=-

28

lire Removal Press Used
Drawings Available

NAS ., PENoS,,-ooLA.-In use at the -.. various A & R shops here 1S a tireremoval press hydraulically actuated, which makes it easy to remove tires of any size up to those used on P13Y beaching gear, even though tires are "frozen" to the wheels. This is a vertical press unit in which the wheeJ and tire assembly i! held between two steel rings of the correct diameter, one of which is secured to the upper horizontal member of the press and one of which rests OD a 11OTizontal platform which may be raised by a lO-ton hydr?uhc jacking element. The press eliminates possibility of damage to tires which may occur if they are hammered off by any but the most careful and even-tempered filechanics, Drawings are avail able upon request at the Plant Section, A & R Dept. of NAS, Pensacola.
ANSWERS TO FICnT/OUS SHIP154" 163"

'0 Stations

Examine Heating Equipment Dolly fOf PB4Y ..l's
i

BuAer furnishes Check List
It is recommended that all airplane. heaters and heating equipment be examined and operated prior to arrival of cold weather 11:0 insure that it is in proper operating condition. In addition to .making certain that personnel are trained in the. operation of the eq uipment, particular a t ten t ion should be given to the following: 1. Gasoline engines of enginedriven units.-Check far corrosion, sticking of valves and for proper carburetor setting, 2. R.aots or Sutor-built fuel-air mixture blowers.-Check for cerrosion and freedom of motion of the rotating parts. These units should not be serviced in the field but should be returned for replacement if defective. 3. Exhaust tubing for conveying exhaust gases from heaters and engirles to the otltJid"e.-Cbeck for corrosion and pin holes or fractures due. to corrosion and vibration. 4. El~r;tric 1notors-Chec.k brushes and bearings for wear. 5. Combustion. chambers arId fire checks-Check fOJ;" deposits of lead, lead oxide, and carbon.. All such deposits should be removed. 6. 1gm:ters-Replace defective ig. niters. 7. Controls-Check operation of all safety controls to make sure that they operate properly. 8. Electrical r.viriltg-Check all electrical circuits for horts, open circuits, and loose connections. 9. fl eat e."changers,intensi{ier tubes, and m.u,fJs.-ln all airplanes having engine exhaust type hea ters, make careful check of heat exchangers to insure freedom frOID pin holes or cracks cau ed by corrosion or vibration, In each case the Erection and Maintenance manual for the airplane and the heater manufacturers operating instructions for the heater should be 'used as a guid in checking this type of equipment, 1£ these instructions are not available or have been lost they should be requested from the Bureau, Requisitions for necessary replacement parts. should be made at the earliest possible date so that these parts 'Will be on hand when needed and, upon arrival of cold weather, beaters will function properly and personnel know how to operate them.

Re.quires Minimum Time, Labor FAlRWING 7 A'I'LANTIC. - When
PB4Y-l's handling

erable difficulty was experienced
...;:>,

arrived at this base considin them on the ground because

0011.1:11:

PLATe

POLl.Y

SOI:,.\lJ,S

PB~·"II' PR:j)BLEM

RADIUS

OF ,ACTION
020· 029Q 120 k 114 k 006" lT4 k

of breaking of lightly constructed drag strut linkage fitting. This fitting break easily, allowing the actuating cylinder rod to bend and prevent the skag from retracting when plan ~ is in flight.

M",gnell~ h,ading True heading True al"'pee" Calibrated c;'"pee,d Oi'ectlon of rei aliVe ",a!ion Speed af reIClliv8 mollon
CO!!lIe

1860
107 k

015·
124 k
210

Ground speed Mlle:s on c"ulfe Mln"les on coursift

101%

115" 100 k 181 1081h

Magnetic heading True heading Diredlo n of relallve 159· 339" molion 42 k 5SV~ k Speed of lelC1Uv" molion 152· 050' C.. urse 94 k 12 k Ground speed 106 Mlln on course 171h 0953 nme left convoy Po.ijion 01 interceptlom Lal. 31 ·-00' N ~(,"g. 115~-53' W

GROI,IND

HANDLING

SUGGESTION

A P PRO

V ED

NOTE: Tolenmces of two or three milas o.
,,",0 01 three degrees'from 'he anoWe,' ~o.lI<lde.ed co.red. [Sea page :9)

are

A detachable

doUy consisting of a

rubber-tired ball-bearing caster was then constructed. Attaching partE were manufactured of !4 inch boiler plate. The dolly can be attached and detached to the tail bumper gear asscrnbly with a minimum time and labor.

of

f,RANKLY, MR. Q'NGLEBERRY, YOlil8 IDEA WILL R(PUI,CE

I DON'T THINK WING DE-leERS.

... s.uREAU COMMENT-Thl. 'U990slion bear'S Cl,pproval r", ground handling. However, adual de.lgn may be .,vbiec! 10 ~llghl c"<lnge with moo;lifi(cllons in the prl!~ent bumper gear. Model PB4Y-l Ai:rplane Ch!>nge No. 36 call., lor replocement of present ,kid plqte with a casl .teel .hoe, 'in addition to other slighl modillcc.tlons of the bumper gear. T"'h chc"se will be i'l'bed a! an eqrly dcle.

29

New Catalog Lists Devic:es Airmat Filter Paper
BuAer's Synthetic Equipment Al.solnsfrucls Army Air Forces
A li:st of synthetic devices made available by theNavy to its O'WII and to Army Air Forces aviation personnel has been pl'ap,ucd in the. form of a Catalog by BuAer's Training Division.

C.art Gives Mobilitv
Carries Foamon Fire EqtHpmenl
NAS, EBRMUDA.-A member of the fire-fighting division at this station was commended recently for a development that increases mobilitv of foamite firefighting equipment. ' The equipment usc" an auxiliarv ,

For Air Gyroscopic

I.nstrumenf$

Airmat filter paper is now available for use ill individual filters ofair-operated gyrosc-opic .instrunrents. By remQviq,g the screenwire in the filter new pa pel' may be inserted and stapled to the wire, Filters for air-operated instruments should be inspected frequently and changed at the first sign of accll,mu_I~Q.O<1-of dirt. It is recommended that airmat filter papelC be requisitioned and used freety. E-xperience has shown that proper filteJ:ing increases the life of gyroscopic

instruments considerably, This paper
may be obtained by a shipment request
'LO

Aviation Sllpply Depot, Plnladelpnia.

the Aviation Supply Officer, Naval

Handy Tool Islimely
Straigh'ens Me,al Tubes
NAS, SAN JUAN, P. R-A handy tool has been developed at this station for straightening ignition harness elFHtE·FICHTIN:GPU'MP
CART

IS TOW'ED flV ~EEP

pump ca~~on which hag been placed
the Foamon apparatus used to male the extinguisher. The Cart can be h0o,ked to the .rear of a jeep and {a-wed to scene of Hl"lY fire requiring foamite,

CATALOGUE:

L'lSTS

U,SE:S OF T,RAINU'IG-

DE:\lICES

It is a looseleaf publication a% by H% inches smartly designed 'With text and illustrations, including devices that range from the simplest whichrequire little explanation, to more complex technical equipment demanding considerable instruction. Ground training with exact models and genuine replicss makes it possible to inetruot Targe groups of students simultaneously, If a student makes an error', the iT(structo.r easily can freeze the problem and correct what ","Usdone wrong while the subject is fresh in !!ve:ry mind, Special devices have proved their medt in teaching procedure, tactics and familiarization to the point where personnel instinctively apply what they have learned to actual flight e.:..perience, The Cli.lalog also gives specific details about each training deviceweight, size, power, space requirements, student capacity. Distribution has been made to naval, Marine and Coast Guard activities responsible for traiaing, and Army Air Forces has placed an order covering all its air training stations. Copies may be procured from the synthetic training officer locally.
In 1864 Admiral David Glasgow Farm_gut used the abandoned Pensacola Navy Yard as his base for ope rilti:ons ageinst ship and shote batteries along Mobile Bay, 30

Gun'sight Mount on F4U-1
FIghting Squadron 17 ha-s designed
a new fixed gu nsigh t mounting bracket for the F4U-l airplane which permits guusight to be raised about two inches, thus increasing vision over the nose from about 90 mUs to approximately 105 mils, Details of this installation are available at NAS Norfolk. The Bur-eau does not intend to make this a service change, as the raised cabin Is on the production line now and will be in service shortly. Lead over the nose ill raised cabin model F4U-I airplane is approximately 120 mils.

TOOLSTRAIGHTE.HS

IGNITI.ON

HARNESS

E,LilOWS,

bows.

Because of the difficulty in get-

ting spare elbows, the tool has proved of great value. It also may be adapted
'to other types of tube straightening,
[D ,~""" " P. P. (;"'10"'8, A"I'4I~.l es

COMMENT-This 1001 Is highly re~Qmmend(!d by tbe Burell"', In I:he inleres_1 of melal p'''I~ conservalion II i. beiievl!d thai I" .. lTIajo,ily of ben, o. denleO! ignilion harness ..I'bows can be, sailltlged by this .Impl!> cmal elndenl 1001. Dl'aw'ngs, .pedBcalion., an.d gl!l'1eral InJ'ormation fot -sIQlion. u~e are avail..ble COli the Bureau byre<!_uesling 1001 dala number 51743.

\Ito BUREAU

S.BD Flexible Gun Latch
Bullefin Out(i,.,es. Remedy Several reports have been received
of the SED Flexible gULl post latch not being strong enough to retain the gun on the ring. SBD-3 bulletin number 49 outlines a remedy for this trouble. This con'sist_s.of undercutting the lip of the-latch about YB inch with hackwith a stronger one obtained from the supporting A & R shop. The eontractor has been instructed to remedy this deficiency,

DID YOU GET ACGURATE WIND DRIFTS?

saw or file and by replacing the spring

Sailing
LIFE RAFTS

AS~ Norfolk conducted tests recently to determine the most practicable method of sailing life rafts fabricated in accordance with Navy Aeronautical Specification M-3Q, using only the equipment now provided. Results of these indicate that it is not possible to point higher than 90° on the wind under any condition, and that the lug rig is more easily handled than

the square rigged sail. Life rafts procured under specifications M-3Q and AN-R-2 were designed primarily for seaworthiness, .rather than for sailing characteristics. However, -ilie Bureau is investigating the possibility of obraining a type of taft whose design affords seaworthiness and good sailing qualities. Several rafts of this type are now under procurement by the Burea u.

SAil

I

I

I

I

J

/

!

I

I

I

.I

~

WllOARO (S~OUlD a. ON POI('] siD<; FDJ! STSD. TAO<l

LUG

RIGGER

This life raft with Jts lug-rigged sail proved to be easier to steer and handle than the one below. Note the portable oar used for a boom and the sail made Fast to the mast at the bottom, next to the raft. A little cramped but seaworthy.

SlIJmo lJN.,r
MAST ,{) PRE vtNT i:>tAfFING

RAGS

By rigging the sail square, the life raft provide more wow for its passengers but was found by NAS, Norfolk, to be harder to handle. Tests were made with standard Navy rafts, but new ones may be secured through the Bureau,
31

LETTERS
Srn.a:
IRS:

A ·rcrah Shipwreck Ki,t ...
BuAer Desires Coltlme.ots on

Experimen'al Equjpmen,

fo

Aid Driftees Pending Rescue
list for 50 copies. of

The following statement was mad!': on pag:e two of Buil.;r NEWS of Aug; I, 194;3": "Two less widcly "known activiti1:'S of the :intermediate training command are the School of Aviation Medicine aud the Photography School at Pensacola.' SecNav letter of Sept. 11, 1942, which
authorizes establishment of the Air Functional Training Commands, places NTSch (Photograpby), N AS, Pensacola, under the

Informatica is requested as to the pessibility of this Headquarters being placed on

the rcgu1at distribution B'I.{ile.rNEWS.

ACTING AOJ O'rANT GJl.Nl:RAl.,

Deyton, O.
SiRS:

AAF Mc!thiel

Commal!d.

An experimental quantity of aircraft shipwreck kits are bei,l1gprocured and delivered in the .indicated quantities and priorities to these naval air stations:
100 Miarni 150 CheCl Point, 100 M S ...... 100 Saint Thomas, Norfolk ........ Quonset Point .. 100 MCAS ...... Seattle •...•... 100 Corpus Christi ..
Noumea ....... Sao Diego .....

Pearl Harbor ..

12

cQg'niz,'lnceof C A'Tech'I'ra. CruEY GF 51' I' ,NAl'TC. Chicago, tu.

NA TTC is correct in claiming the photo school [or its commaad, Also, the School of Aviation Medicine, while Loused a t the headquarters of NAIT01 Pensacola, operates under the ogn:izance of Bl.I,Med.
--k.SIR,s:

Metalsmith School llt thi~ center,WaiVes work and study right alongside the men, and they are certaiUly holding their own. According to a recent directive, only 50 percerit, of the students graduating' from the school may be rated upon graduation. In the class graduated Ju1y 24 there were 10 Waves in a class of 120. Seven of th~c
In i(irls, or 7U percent, earned Lheit:
Cl'OW3.

the Aviation

12 l.&
q2 12

Telnldad , , .... San jlla,ll ..•.•• Jackson ville. . . .

Solo ..... Guantanamo naf
COCQ

12 Norfolk 12 Oakland

1Z

12 Pensacola ...... 12 Philadelpbia

(NASD) .....

(AS""l"

43

(AS s).

43 ,~3

In the class graduated July 31 the two highest students in the class were members of the W"me:n'~ Reserve; in fact, five OUt of the top eight were Wa'ves.
COMMi\.NDlNG O.PPICf.I.t, N","l'TG

The spr ead you gave to the aircrewmen's .insignia in the June 15 issue of But11l1' N.llWS has received goorl rcsllonse here, In

orman,
Sias :

Okla.

Inasmuch 'to !luAu NEWS j not generally available to the V Fighter COIDIDand. it is requeeted that this office be placed 01'1 you,' JTIAJlinglist ~I such procedure is not contrary to naval regulations Back issues will be appreciated. FLOYD F. VOLK, Lieut. csi; I;1C
'Headquarters V Fighter Command

Fact one of tho squ adron commanding

offi· ~ers, whose lads have been pedormill!1 in this area, said that it was the best morale

[Dispatch]
:REQUEST 1I1l PLACED RECEIVE AVL\TION ON SUPPLY DEPOT MA[LIND NOUMEA LIST To BI1REAu'S NEWS

boost he had seen £01' aircrews since the war
started.

IHIAl!R

A\ll.~TloN

SUPl'L¥

DEPOT

U.8..S.

Noumea

Improve Steering Gear
$1 0 For ParIs Does Job NAB, LYVERM.ORE.-After having
much difficulty with the steering mechanism of "midget shop mules," machinists mates at this.station, perfected a system of using old axles and steering gear purchased from auto wreckers. Both trunion and tire failures were '0 numerous; the A & R shop made changes on the mules to provide greater safety and less weal' aud tear. The om}' disadvantage of switching front axle systems was that the turning radius was increased from si: to eleven x
BEST A.NSWElIS
To question. on page 1,0
CI

Inasmuch. as no specilications are available for the e kits, they should be requisitioned from these points as "Contract NOa( S) -923 A i r c r aft Shipwreck Kit." The kits are intended to be dropped Irom. an airplane to shipwrecked survivors in the water, and container and packing have been designed to ppeelude damage to contents UpOIJ impact with the water. i\ sample kit was dropped at an altitude of 75 feet by a plane traveling 95 knots, and kit and coutents withstood the impact without damage. It is recommended that when kit is to be dropped) airspeed be maintained at a minimum consistent with safe operation and altitude be held below 75 feet, if practicable. V -rings are provided in tbe event it is desired to attach kit to bomb rack, The kit i'! approximately 36 by 14 by B inches, weighs 45 pounds and contains the following items: Woolep. blanleets . first Aid Kit • Sunburn Ointment. Chicken Broth . Tomato Juice . Water . Safety Pins and Adhesive Tape . Cigarettes . Flashlight. Graduated Drinking Cup • Sea Markers· Very's Projector and shells, Cb1nPl1SS and Matches. Whis· .kcy . Cotton Line. Wh,istJe· Reflector. Knife . Fishing Kit . Chewing Cum • Malted Milk Tablets . Citric Add Tablets, The Buteau will appreciate recelving comments on the effectiveness of the kits, together with recommendations as to desirable modifications which should he incorporated to increase the usefulness of this item.

INGENUITY

ANO

oU)

AX!.E:> IMPROYE

5TEERING

feet. Front wheels and tires were surveyed plane parts. Total costof the change-over was only $10.
ANSWERS To Pix Ouiz on page 24

t, b

2. d 3. a

4.

S. e

1.1

2.2

3.2

4.3

5..2

6.2

32

A IRe R AFT S HIP W-R E C K KIT

BuAer has ordered a quantity of Aircraft Shipwreck Kits (or experimentation by actiVities. These may be requisitioned from supply

points in accordance with specifications on page 32. Comments and reco,mmendationsfor improvement are solicited by the Bureau.

strapped to plywood base include drinkingwater, tomato juice, dye sea markers, pyrotechnic projector, Very's cartridges, etc.
BO'ITOM SHJ!L;F-Items

Top SHELF--EitS on top of bottom shelf; includes compass, reflector, drinking cups, cigarettes, chewing gum, adhesive tape, salt tablets, etc.

ASS.JlMBLED-Top shelf is padded with excelsior, then wrapped in doth, superimposed on botrem shelf. Excelsior then is packed between layers.

-

,.,._.,__--_-,

WRAPPED-Fabric keeps excelsior well packed, seals off inner contents of kit. Nose streamlined cuts drag if unit is supported on bomb racks.

I

,

,

BLANKETED-Unit

tigbtly wrapped in two woolen

COMPLETE-Kapok

pads are placed

-

on rop of

blankets receives additional padding. Blankets serve primary p!lrpose ofkeeping driftees warm.

blankets and kit then is inserted, sealed into container: with V rings attachable to bomb racks.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful