Tactical value of Photo Interpretation is exemplified by tnis picture of one of CI number of Jap ships dispersed by bombers off Bougainvine

. from this v,iew PI analyzed and emerged with co nclus ions ; 1. Ship previously had not been encountered, 2. II probably is of Terotsuki destroyer class. Allied fleets immediately were put on the alerl.



















Vitalized Ligbter ..Than-Air Service Shares the Task of Clearing Sea Lanes of Underwater Menace
INCE its establishment shortly after Woyld War I, the United States Naval Air Station at Lakehurst has been the avy's main lighter-thanair training and operating base. The Lakehurst station grew up around the huge hangar which wag built to house assembly of the U. S. S. Shenandoah when the Navy launched its rigid airship prog-ram. During the last war th United States and other allied nations wed non-rigid airships in coastal patrol and anti-submarine work. The British successful in the use of to spot submarines. After War I the Admiralty credited blimps with actual destruction of a



number of enemy subs.

Bases Extended Along East Coast In the United States, a series of airship ba es extended along the Atlantic

Did You Know? .. Navigation Problem Royal Air Force-. . . Marine Corps Aviation Technicolly Speaking. Letters. . . . , . . . .

LTA • . • . . . . . . Grampaw Pettibone


1 8

10 11 14 26 27 32



coast from New England to Key West, and non-rigids were also in operation .in the Canal Zone. Training programs were in operation at a number of these base, as weU as at Wingfoot Lake, Akron, where many World War I .non-rigida were built. With completion of the Lakehurst station after the waryal] naval lighterthan-air activity centered there until Moffett Field carne .into being at Sunnyvale, Calif. It was established as an operating base for the U. S. S. AI aeon, one of the two large rigid airships contracted for by the Navy. FollQwing IbS~ of the two rigid ships, Moffett Field was turned over to the Anny and Lakehurst be arne again the

Navy's only lighter-ehan-air base, Dw'mg this period between the two wars small classe of regular Navy and reserve officers received instruction in . free ballooning and rigid airships at Lakehurst. Training in non-rigids dropped almost to zero. As the national' 'mcrgrucy [corned prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, airship training at Lakehurst was expanded to some extent. Plans were underway for airship coverage of coastal areas as it hecarue evident that the submarine 'Would again be a. menace to American shipping, In the interim, only limited developrnent and training had been carried on, and these by a relatively small gr<mp of officers who believed in the ability 0f the airship to perform an important duty for the Navy. The first K-type non-rigid patrol airship---only naval patrol type non-rigid designed and built since World War I-was one of the results of the development work. A few K ships were under C01:lstruction, but only a handful of blimps, in.duding two obsolete non-rigids obtained from the Army, and several smalfer types, were in operation, Cadets in TretiRing at lakehurs' On December 7, 1941, sixty-three aviation cadets were in training at Lakehurst, Four training ships were used. Cadets trained from eight to nine month before they were commissioned as ~n;sigtts and designated naval aviators (airship). Contracts eventually were let for a great number of the patrol type nonrigid and the need for pilots and Crews necessitated streamlining and rapid expansion of the training program, Course of instruction for cadets was shorte-ned to six months. then later to four months as the preflight school system came into existence. Cadets arriving hom prellight had already received Navy indoctrination and started immediately on their flight training. To tum out pilots and crews more quickly, a second training school was established at Moffett Field which had been taken back from the Army. In general, cadets from preflight schools at Chapel Hill, Athens, and Iowa City received their training at Lakehurst while those from St. Mary's were sent to Moffett Field. At 'both Lakehurst and Moffett Field, cadet received grcuud-school and flight training. Ground schools gave instruction 2

in aerodynamic aerostatics, airmanship, balloons and gases, cornmunications, design and maintenance, ground handling, mooring and docking, navigation, ordnance, parachutes, photography, power plants, and strategy, tactics and mission, The general scheme was to alternate a day oI flight training with a day of ground school,
Cpaets Serve ill Ground Crew

wben final landing ls made.


wim which the airships arc inflated, is
noninflammable and nonexplosive but costs more because it has to be extracted from natural gas in the Texas oil fields and shipped ill special cars. a,d/oons Hdye Their Own Techniq..e An instructor and five or six students make each balloon flight, with students gaining full experience 111 operation. As it has no motive power, the balloon is a child of the wind and goes in whichever direction the wind takes it. Ballooning is essentially a problem of finding currents going in to the desired direction, then staying in the currents through vertical control by releasing ballast, cansing the balloon to rise, or valving gas which causes it to descend. When the final landing is made, a rip cord is pulled, opening a panel in the top of the balloon which allows all of the gas to escape. The balloon is then rolled up. packed in the balloon basket and placed on a truck that: takes it back to the base. After completing primary instruction in free balloons and L-type nonrigids, students .a lie giVen advanced training in K-type patrol ships, generally receiving several weeks of actual operation work with squadrons. K· type ships have a capacity of 416jOOO cubic Iect of helium and arc 250 feA long, They are provided with mo. powerful engines, have far greater range and are armed, with machine guns and depth bombs as well as spe. cial anti-submarine devices. While it is possible Ior one pilot to fly a Ktype ship with pedals for steering and an elevator wheel for altitude control, common practice is to have one man on the elevator wheel and ODe on the .J;'uddet wheel. Ordinary complement all a patrol mission consists of three officers and seven enlisted men. When they have successfully COmpleted a11 flight courses, cadets are commissioned s ensigns and designated naval uviators (airship), after which they are assigned to operating squadrons or to training schools as flight instructors, In May 1943, the Naval Airship Training Command was established at Lakehurst, . J. The Command,

For the first week or so after their arrival at Lakehurst 01' MoJTett Field. Cadets served as ground crew members,

Naval Aviation News
Readers will note the change ift Tfcl1[ie from BuAllr to NaVAl Aviation



T'his clumg» coincides !ljith 111,8 t~an4(!.r of Mrlllin ouiniian dioirirms from th» Bureau of ,4etOlldU· lIt:s 1.0 Lhe Vice Chief of N(Jval o perations under th» cognizance.


tlie Duputy Ohlef (Air) ..




COlltlJnt.I oj the magaEine

wrll re-


.rubsfalltially ururhanged by acticm, . aval Aviation NEW~
to CO(!61'",1"11. of

est. to all

inletaClivilies. Contri5utio7U of material toJil/ receiue


!hB U1.11l1J clilZsideMliri'l for fJllblica. /'[0'11 in Naval Aviation NEWS.

land ships they were later This experience was invaluable, as it gave first-hand knowledge of the practical technique required by the crew in dealing with last landings, light landings, heavy landings. New, first airship flights are given in small L-type training ships nearly identical to the type used commercially for passe11ger flights and advertising before the war. These ships have a capacity of 123>000 cubic feet of helium and arc 150 feet long. Besides an instructor<\nd enlisted mechanic, the training ships carry from three to six cadets depending upon stages of training. Training flights last from three to five hours, each cadet having a turn at the comrols. Cadet's training is almost entirely in the Lstyp ships until he has soloed and begun to build up solo time. Free balloon instruction is one of the most interesting phases of pilot training. An airship with both engines dead can be Hewn exactly 1n the same manner as a tree balloon. Training balloons are generally of the 35,000. cubic-foot size, filled with hydrogenused because it is easily and inexpensively rnanufactu red and must be released at the end of th balloon flight



he ded by a rear admiral, has cog-

nizance over all lighter-than-air trainrng as well as development and experimen 1'1.1 pto~.tams: . Figures on t!i._ growth of mrshlp tr;ull).ng~numher. cadets, training ships; flight hours-

The men in a typical LTA crew
ave been selected

from all They

walks of American life.

are young, intrepid!, energetic. Navy trained, they operate as

a closely knit unit.

The blimp
LT. (JG) JOSEPH BARTOLF, of Lakewood, N. J., is 28 and a graduate of Columbia University. He took preflight at Floyd Bennett andserved at NAS Atlanta. Later h transferred to LT A training.

they man has hetome a definite threat to

the enemy's

submarine operations at sea.

tool designer from Huntington, lnd., is 22. He joined the Navy in 1942, completed preflight at Bendix Field and LT A training at Moffett Field, was assigned to Lakehurst.



of Suffern, N. Y., is 24. Formerly an upholsterer, he enlisted in 1937,


trained at Newport and served aboard the Chester. He went through L TA school, Lakehurst.

JOSEfH GARINO, AMM 2JC, press , operator from Benld, Ill., is 21. He joined in ] 942, received boot training at Great Lakes. He attended machinist mate's school at avy Pier, and L TAl Lakehurst.


C. IVIN, AMM sic, former machinist of Bloomfield, N. J., 20. He enlisted in 1942 and trained at Norfolk. He attended aviation machinist's mate school, Jacksonville, and LTA at Cape May.


machinist of Roanoke Rapids, N. C., is 23. He served on the H ousRamapo, and Hammann. attending LTA School did shore duty in Hawaii.










York City, is 25. A truck helper) be joined in 1941 and received, boot training at wport, after which he attended radio school, Jacksonville; LTA, Lakehurst.

ARM iI/C, a c-oal miner of Filbert, W. Va., 'is 21. After getting his basic training at Pensacola, he reo mained to attend radio chool. He later attended L T A school.




Llgll1er-tll1ln·a1r c~1f baSl';d co Atlan!ir.r Pacifi~. an~ aun ~m h~lp keep Allied' sea lanesclearell jlf the sullm3fin~ nlerufce.
1111.11.1 EWS CI1.rt ~

cannot be given for obvious reasons, hut the expansion has been sizable. New Commond Expands Training

new system of training was inaugurated by the AiJ'ship Training Command. Henceforth, primary training is conducted at Mollett Field and advanced training taken at Lakehurst. Primary still is given in sllIaJ,1 L-type ships, but an advanced training squadron .has been formed to take over instruction in patrol type ships. "Synthetic" and other training devices are liberally employed. The training period has been lengthened from four to six months, consisting of three months primary and three months advanced training. Enlisted training takes place at Lakehurst and Moffett Field. The men receive a four-month course of basic training in all phases of lighterthan-air with emphasis 11 their specialty, such as; machinist's mates, ordnancemen, metalsmiths, radiomen and OthCI' classifications. Finished with their course, the men receive the designation of "QuaIl.TA," arid then

10 August 1943,

are transferred to squadrons 01' other operational duties. Expansion of sc pe and a tivities of Jight~-than-ail" has necessitated considerable. spreading out, and comrnissioning of new bases has been the logical development The following stations have been put into operation as L 1'A bases: South Weymouth WeeksvilIe Glynco, Ric h m 0 n d, Bouma, Hitchcock, Santa. Ana, Sunnyvale, and Tillamook. In addition, bases are in operation outside the continental limits of the United States.
DeveJ"opmenf of Li9hter-Than~Air

years la tel' it was so overweight that it barely could lift itself dff the ground. Its envelope leaked and the powerplant functioned badly. It did fly, however, and since. the finn had built the ship in good faith, and at a cost greatly in excess of the contract pric.) ic wall accepted and designated th. Dr-I. After a few short :flights it was put back in the shed, deflated and eventually broken lip. In December 1916, a coast patrol airship of 12 hours' endurance was designed and designated type B. This design was approved by the Secretary of the avy on january 27, 1917. It was intended to build only one airship of this design as art experiment, but, as relations with Germany became acute> the Secretary ordered the conconstruction of 16.
Orde-r Creafes Difflcu/f Problems

Lighter-than-air craft activities in the Navy began in April 1915, when the Navy Department ontracted for one non-rigid airship with the Connecticut Ail-craft Company, New Haven, Conn., a concern which; had secured the services of a German engineer, a German m chanic, and an Austrian pilot, uppo_ edly experts. This first dirigible, designed and built under the supervision of this irnported talent, was a great disappointment, £01' when it was completed two

This order was a. thunderbolt, as delivery in any reasonable time was out of the question with existing facilities. ~o w'rm had knowledge or experience, and no time could be elBowed them for experiment and re .. I!<1.Tch_ There also was no time ~ to build one experimenta 1 air, hip to prove the design, for all 16 were wanted at once. After many conferences with all po. sible manufacturers, a.rrangemen.P finally were made for the production of these airship by a group of firms, pooling their knowledge and skill. Contracts were placed on March 14.. 1917, for nine airships to tbe Goodyear Company, five to the Goodrich Company, two to the Connecticut Aircraft Company, and 14 cars and engines (Ior the Goodyear and Goodrich ships) to the Curtiss Aeroplane 09Th Goodyear Company also undertook to provide a Jlying field with









u WE£~S






shed and hydrogen plant to conduct tests and trials and to ttaio naval airship p rsonnel. Delivery of the Btype airships was accomplished between July 1917, and Jun.e 1918, during which time the Goodyear Company trained the first naval airship detachment at Akron. These airships were successful in < ccomplishing their mission and proved to be equal to the fo.reign airsbips of that date. The B airships trained 170 pilots and flew 13,600 patrol hours without a fatality. In the spring of 1918 a larger and faster type of nonrigid airship to carry heavy depth charges was designed for antisubmarine activities overseas, Designated type C, this design provided high speed to cope with head winds, increased ndurance to permit convoying, and a duplicate power plant to lessen the chance @f complete break-down at sea. The design proved to be highly uccessful and a speed f 60 miles per hour was realized. Contracts were placed with Coodrioh and 'oodyear for 30 C-type airships to be ilt in accordance with the Bureau's design, the cars for all 30 to be made by the Curtiss Company. The first Q'type airship, the C.-I, was completed in September 1918 and on its maiden f:light flew a nonstop distance of 400 miles. At the time of the Armistice, only 10 C-type airships had been completed and the contracts for the other 20 were canceled. (-Type Ship Not Favored by Pilols The C-type airship, although entirely succe ful, was not favored bv pilots becau e of certain features of design. An attempt to meet these criticisms was made in the D class. This class nad the C-type envelope with a 6-foot parallel strip added to the middle body, Th cars of th D cL.·1$~ were fitted with tWQ Union engines mounted at the stern on outriggers. By the Huddle of 1919 the Goodyear Company had acquired a competent design staff which had built one or two airships to its own designs. Among ese was a single-engined pusher with envelope slightly larger than theB ·s·p. This seemed a worth-while

variatron on the B class and was acquircd to determine the value of the t pt'. This wa the E class. A. ornewhat similar ship, having a car of slightly different design was also developed hy Ceodyear and designated the F class. The principal differences between these two ships were in the details of the car and in the fact that the engine of the E-l was fitted with reduction gearing to the propeller. The BUTeau de'igned a large -non· rigid called the G class during 1919, but no ships of this type were constructed as the project was abandoned in favor of tigids. This G-c1ass ship was to have carried a 3-inch gun of the long recoil type together with a substantial bomb load and wa to have an endurance of 50 hour's at ':1-5 miles per hour or 25 hours at 60 m. p. h.

Closed Car Featured


K-l Shjps

Nicknamed Animated Kite Balloon A project 'which was the other: extreme [rom the G design and sometimes referred to as an animated kite balloon was proposed in 1920. It caned for a very small airship, capable of being towed like a kite balloon, and yet able to maneuver on its own when the towing cable wall slipped. A contract for a ship of this type, known as the H class, was placed with the Goodyear Company in Jl;lnc t920. The trials of this ship were held in June and JulYJ 1921_ It was found to have most of the features desired, but required some irnprovernCllt in the design of the engine bearers. ThE! volume of the envelope was 43,000 cubic feet and a ~]ngll') Lawren . 60hor cpower air-cooled engine was used. A second ship of this type with the defects of the H-l correeted w.1.S built for the Army and was entirely SUGCCS~f ul in its trials, The next nonrigid to be built was the J-L The design of this type was prepared jointly by the Bureau of Aeronautics and the Goodyear GOD;lpany. An effort was made to incurporate in it all the good points of the preceding' ships and to remedy all the defects which bad appeared. Trials of the J Iwere held in the faU of 1922 and were very successful.

The x-i, completed in 1931, introducod the closed car, internal suspension, and whecllanding gear. Another novelty, which has not been repeated, was the \1S(:, of Iuel gas to replace a considerable proportion of the gasoline. Later nonrigids of th K class are enlarged editions of the K-I without the fuel ga& feature. Two additional Classes of nODcigids are operated for training purposes: the L class, which i$ considerablv small r than the K class, and the G class, somewhat larger than the L ships. The G ships were operated formerly by the Goodyear Company and were taken over by the Navy. Nonrigid blimps form the principal cla of airships in use today. They have performed valuable services in antisubmarine warfare, Blimps escort convoys and work closely in conjunction with surface craft and airplanes. When a submarine is sighted, the airship .immediately end avers to attack with depth bombs. If it is tinable to l-each the spot :ip time to make an attack with reasonable chances of success, it drops buoys; flares, or bronze slicks to mark the position. Then li telling devices are employed to track down the submarine. Its ability to cruise slowly and to remain ill the vir-inity for a long period is, of the gt' atst assistance in organizing search op~ eraticns, Convoys escorted by blimps have had lew losses and those were caused more by convoy ~traggling than any other factor. Th· blimp has rendered excellent service in seal' hing for and assisting survivors of destroyed vessels or of marine or aircraft disasters, Its 10\.,. sp ed and ability to hover permit quick spotting of lifeb ats and rafts, particularly urid r conditions of poor visibility. Onc located, rubber boats, food; and water can be dropped and at'! accurate position can be transmitt d to rescue craft. U e of barrage balloons is steadily on the increase. The balloons support a network of strong wires, eapable of bringing down or severely damaging low-flying aircraft or dive bomber',



Don't Lose Your Balance
In reporting a recent fa tal crash of a PV-l airplane following take-off. the trouble board commentary stated: "The pilot u ed 20% flap Jar take-off which is recommended for short-run take-off. The total weight was 28,379 lbs. with c. g. at 35% of mean aerodynamic chord.' The pilot was unable to overcome the tail heaviness the plane stalled, and struck the ground during completion of recovery,

bounce, 01' in a short turn. These accidents must, therefore, have occurred when the left wheel was extended, indicating that many similar accidents were prevented only because the left wheel was not extended when an attempt was made to raise the landing gear lever. The landing gea.r will not retract unless the control lever is raised. Moral: Know ,,"our cockpit!

Propeller Precaution
While in flight, the propeller SB2C-l failed in automatic. pilot switched to manual, set r. for 2,150, and connnenc d a dive of an The p. m . from

The pil t of an NJ~~ lost control of his aircraft on take-oft' and hit a truck which was authorized to be on the field. Fortunately, none of the men on the truck was injured because they had been 'warned to be on the alert for just ~ucb all emergency. They all jumped and rtrn to safety, The following remark is quoted from the- pilot's statement: "J would not be alive today had I not securely fast ned my shoulder harness before

....BUREAU COJJ1·MBNT.-AUention is Invited to the Erection and MaintenaQce handbook lIS well as the Pilot's Notes for the PV-l whic11 state that the aft e. .g. limit- is 33.1% l\1. A. C. for safe operation. Had full consideration been given to proper airplane. balance hefore. take..o~, and had the limits as set forth In teehnleal data been respected. this crash 'prnhalaly would have been avcl'ted. Any PV-1 loading- eonditiun whioh reslIlts in aft aft c. g. location above 33.1% eannot be considered safe even with 0% flaps for take-off, W11i1e it is possible to use as much as 20% Jlaps for shortrun take-olfs, it should be realized that the resultant "clatively slow take-off speeds will lower the !;laieaft c.g.% M_ A. C. val-ue.

10,000 feet. During the dive, the engine overspeeded, causing ample engine failure,
",BUREAU COMMENT-If all electric propeller is set in manual at any speed in level Hight, it will allow engine r. p. m. to increase as nighl: speed is increas ed, In this in tance, the manual control was set for 2,150 r. p. m. iIll leveillight, Durrug the subsequent di-ve, the 1'_ p. m. exceeded the 3,100 r, p, m. lim it this engine. with consequent failure. Te make certain that th.e engine does not overspeed, dives may be made. ill full manual. high pitch. This will insure against governor or circuit failures which may occur during dives made with propeller ill automatic. For actual combataut. oiperat1o.ns, however, diving' in automatic is the only practical

Check Your Altimeter
Two serious accidents have recently rred du ring night landing apPTOI;u.:he5which may have been due to wrong altimeter settings. In one case it is known that a drop in barometric pressure had resulted in the altimeter reading being ZOOfeet higher than the actual altitude. The patrol wing in whjch this latter ac idem occurred has added the following requirement to the landing check-off list: "Check Altimeter etting with Control Tower."

Attention Avenger Pilots
There have been several cases of pilots retracting the landing gear on TBF and TBM airplanes while on the ground. These accidents usually occur as the result of pilots attempting to raise the landing flaps, but instead raising- tb landing gear lever by mistake. This- is still all right if the airplane is resting firmly on its wheels, bu L the locking feature of the landing gear becomes inoperative whenever the left wheel is nearly extended, This nwy occur on the g,'oUlld ~s the result of a



.. BUREAU COlrf1tIEN7'.-This requirement is recommended to all squadrons concerned, where radio altimeters are not installed. Altbough this is nnw standard doctrlne, it is felt that~ pilot's may often negl'e~t to ~ake this cheek because they erroneou Iy bell VI.' their altimeter readings to be correct. This error will be obviated and possible accidents avoided if pilots are requlned to checkulrimeter setthl!pl with the oontrol tower when returning (rom flights during periods of reduced visibility, whenever cendtttons of radio sileliee 111.'1' mit.

'J'ecJmicaJ Order 16--4.1 -:,;hould be thor. oughly understood by all pilots Dying aircraft equipped wit], constent speed propellers .

Pettibone Harps on Training
Maybe you think I've been hipped on the subject of cockpit drill and knowing your airplane. Listen to this remark of a squadron commanderwho has been out there: "A pilot is- no damn good in combat as lOIlg as he has to think about handling IDS plane.'

(irampaw Pettibone on Glide Bombing
To call a pilot a "glide bomb Tot used to be a term of derision. Recent events have changed all that; glide bombing has more: than proved Itself and the title now carries a mark of
special :resp<;,ct.

The di-lrerenee- bt'tween glide b ing and dive bombing is indicated


the titles; it is mainly a difference in the angle of dive, with greater speed and acceleration necessarily employed in dive bombing. This diITerence. however, is. not always made by pilots engaged inthcsc two methods oJ at. This is unimportant where dive .hers are used in glide bombing, but it may become. serious when aircraft which were not designed for dive bombing are rued for this purpose. A particular case in point is the TBFTBM model -airplane'. It is basically a torpedo plane and has ~ufficient: strength to withstand the .~t'.rei$ses of glide bombing, but not diue bombing. The considerable number of structural failures. which have occurred during bombing runs with this airplane indicate that some pilots ate trying to rnake a dive bomber out of it. They are deliberately exceeding the speed and acceleration restrictions, Ia.id down in Technical Order #3743, and often with fatal results, Those 1lJ'~ the maximum IiInits ; they cannot be exceeded With impunity! The Buteau has recently directed the lnstaUationof visl:lal aceelerometers in these airplanes. They should be used ill training to acquaint pilots with the actual acceleration (g) experienced in pull-outs. Before stuare pl~rll1_jttedto make rum on a their training ShO-llldconsist of a gradual transition from shallow angRe glides LIP to glides of about 40-45 degrees I with pull-outs studied in ref_, erenee to the accelerometer. This training should continue until the pilot has assured himself of his ability to make his rum without exceeding the

speed limit nod to recover without exceeding th(~ acceleration limit. The limitation of 10-45 degrees is reco)~UDendecl because, with wheels dQWI1,bomb bay doors open and using minimum power to keep the engine cleared, this glide can be maintained under all load conditions without ext:eed-i'ng the 1'l:stricted speed, If a greater glide angle is used, or if other of the above provisions are changed, special attention must be given to beginning the pull-out before exceeding the speed limit. In this connection, pilots are cautioned that speed continues to increase durillg the first part of the pull-out. Accident reports indicate that several wing Iailures have been caused by rhe excessive use of ailerons. The apb plication of ailerons results in unsym~ metricalloadlllgs. and greatly increases the possibility of failure, A weaving approach _isoften necessary, as I.S some turning during the gJidc~ but severe "C0rk.scH~wing" should be avoided when approaching speed limitations. The allowed limit of aileron control, as given in T. O. #37----43, is the force requi red £01' full aileron defl'ection at 200 knots, Lea,!'~ what that force is and don't exceed it! Technical Order- #84-42, particularly paragraphs ill 1 and 12 concerning pilot technique i,u rlives and pull-outs and in gusty air, and Technical Order #37-43 should he studied and thoroughly understood before making any bombing l"UO:S. Once yuu have accepted this airplane as a glide bomber, it is relaeively cnsy to avoid exceeding the maneuvering restrictions.

Nav'y Fights, Well on. land
'nhuman foe Finally Annihilared
NAS, C1.INTON-In a lightning raid, a striking force of officers and men especially trained in Commando tactics wiped out a ganison of enemy jackrabbits and established a bridgehead a mile wide along the north boundary of this station. . The raid, planned to wrest control 01 the station's Vktery garden from the Iong-eared foe, was considered a local success. The defending jack. rabbits were caught 'flatfooted, apparently unawate of' the Commandos' presence until the raid was sprung, Enemy losses were estimated at approximately 100. while the NAS force suffered QO- casualties.

The raiders included a score of officers armed with shotguns and more than 100 enlisted nten, volunteers-from Public Works, the mas-ter-at-arms force and other departmen ts, who went into the battle armed only with billy-clubs. It is believed that the raid marked the first instance in World War II in Which Navy forces have helm employed in his type of combat. The dor:nmanding Officer deployed his raiders in a line. of attack approximately a mile wide at the rear of the radio transmitter building. A few jackrabbits on patrol were found be{ore the actual raid was. launched, but they were annihilated before they had a chance to warn 'Che main enemy body. The Commandos went into action at 1519, advancing steadily westward

for a distance

of two

and one-half





miles Defore they gained their objective and .retircd safelv, The surprised enemy filed in confusion lrom the Victory garden territory and were rnowed down by gun and club.

Measuring Rods
.Army Air Forces Sure Before

Note to Draftsmen
Naval Aviation N.BWS fretju~ntl')l recsiues drrtwi71gs and blueprints of new teols, deuices, and original meihads .suggested by A&R .,}WjlS for general us« by osiier actiuit ies. 'These mggl.l.aion,. "1'eachil~g Naval Aviation NEWS /nnn Mfildties or from iice Navy Detwrtmrll/ Board on Awardso are v.f suffidel1l interest: to .uJarmnt publicatioll. Bill difficullY is enco'.HlJereai.f dH.lWings £(Mf-not be I'eproducr;d mithou! being rfJIowjhed or jJC),inted U}1 by an. artist: Bureau facilities [or this work are vverltMc-d. Drawing rooms arc c;r()w·deri with, tcork: of au i!'xl!'emrly

Navy Edits Navy~Army Monthily
Teaching rccognmon of ships, planes, tanks, ordnance and other objet;: de g!.lerre undrruhtcdly will be facilitated by appearance of a new lllQnthly magaziae published by the Navy as an outlet for "Jatefit informa-

Coun'.;ng a Plane Destroyed
If during

all enemy pilot of a single-seater, the plane is a gOj,l'e!~ according to a formula tor chalking up destroyed enemy aircraft, adopted by the Army Air FQIC-eS. Two other tests are: 1. If the plane is seen descending compldcly enveloped iJ1 flames and 2. If the plane i:;; seen to disintegrate or if complete wing: or tail assembly is seen ttl be shot away from fuselage. Rules lor scoring a ProbabtrJ arc just as l'igid as those for scoring a Certain. A plane counted probably destroyed. is one believed sufficiently in flames to preclude the chance of extinguishing· tOl'TIl, or (me damaged t-o the e..x.teni where believed it must have crashed, but without 100 percent certainty. A plane is counted only damaged when parts are seen to be shot away.

i~ seen to bailout



Fwltl aatiritles are urged to lake more puins: "l.fJilh drawings and bluelnints so that t/tql will be, from th« editor's u£e.wpoint> in Q, more "dig,esfible" form. Dr·awing.r should be sltarj) mtd simple, black 01'1 l(Jhi.te" l:egibk provide complete airport facilities, as well <IS hotel accorrrmodations for pas~ sengers desiring to vacation at sea, It would be self-propelling at 8 knots, Construction of the scadromes will be.gin just as SQQnas steel is available.
Mr .. Monro, said. .... BtrREAU COMMENT-It i. enc<>u'''!ltng I~ .ee c"mme,dal "nt~rpri.e f"kin9 the. iniliol $Iep
faware! afl'edi'1g e$ttJbl~:!.ht~g tr'Ch!!iiIOiC'l!onic eemmeree Thi~ .~Itmulu~ i. p<>n-w,u .. via'i .. n.

Floating Islands in Ocean
Sleel Projeds to Facilitate .Seadrome R.oufe Across Ocean
Floating, mile-long islands. of steel whiGh will tower 7G feet above the ocean and have a draft of 160 feet will cut the cost of trans-Atlantic air travel to virtually the same all' overland travel, according to C. Bedell Monro, president of the Pennsylvania-Central Airlines. This estimate was made recently by Mr. Monro when his company filed application with the Civil A~rClpautics Board to establish a "seadrome" route between the United States and Gl::ea.t Britain. The establishment of this projectfloating isla;nd:s of steel sp._acedat 800mile intervals across the Atlantic-will give America vitally needed bases in that ocean and provide the shortest, fastest and most .CCor:lOU)iC airway route between this cpuntry and Europe," Mr. 'Monro said. The "seadrome" idea was developed by Edward R, Armstrong, Philadelphi a construction engineer. It would




a conslructi.ve .Iep lowa.d lorge pCly-lo.. d. which ls neces~!:lry 'in commercjcil flying Qnel will ,,"honee ,comp~lifio" in Ihe p,ad"dion of The pod-war en. may b,ing o;tbDlll ~"m,h'! fe,,!u re s in aircraft dev el opm en I tha' would ·eliminC!le exten,ive fadHli"s. hday" we ~",n pI;:;", d~\i"lop. (md p,""'ote compelition ..

cion on Navy and ,Ann}' recognition subjects. Bearing the inclusive title Recognition, the magazine is well edited, roomy in format, profusely illustrated. .Its simple hut effective design cnceur.ages I1eacl;o.g should provide a eonstructive force .in speeding up gras.p of recognition, Wide distribution is accomplished through regular channels.


iralsport Planes to Vary
Schedules Will Demand 5 Type.s
Five types of planes wiU be needed for scheduled air transport of the future, according to Charles Froesch, chief engineer, Eastern Air Lines, 11K These will be: 1. a plane of small capacity designed to stol! every 25 or 30 miles to pick lip passengers, mail, and expresdQ.l" transportation between small eommunities or transfer to mail. line points ;2. a larger plane designe.' to stop every 100 to 200 rniles ; 3. a


plane for Limited stop service to operate at high speed; 4. a large plane providing day and lllght de hL,,{C passenger- accommodations des:igned to operate 1,0DO miles or more between sto-ps, and s. a "Hying box car" for cargo.


MOoC··k jePl~hCHld


Allotment (ontinue'5 Pay
Dependents The·" Don" Sulf·er
A vital problem of dependents of officers and men in service---oiten ignoTed-ean be solved easily by registering an allotment. When a man .is reported missing in action (or even Irom his shore station, say on a fel'l)' hop}, he ill not declared legally dead foJ' 1 year. TIle wife, or other dependents, are left entirely wi dmut prctection-c-unless there is an allotment, To a.l"l"alJ_ge for an allotment a-£~er the man is reported m.issing is a difficult proecss invol ving sometimes months of waiting, If, however, that allotment already has been declared, it will pay regularly for a year.
&()' -45'

plotting .h~'" 81 < w.

'Df IlifnClU Qi'~!:Ii 'Mid-Ie! 25' N.

You arc navrgator NA5, W at 16:lU at

of a PEM. la t: 28°-15' 31, J 943, July

1fhc plane

Banana River,

N,. IOR'g


to patrol is 26k

course Irorn ,pr~rJ
whu' W hut Wh", i, your Irue heu<ling ;, your

oJ 120~ T for 2L0' (T AS)
ITH 17 .p~~d 1I"QS)?

12'0 miles,


fl.ighl j"vd
124 k.

I 000 feet; true

prl'd;, .... <;1 s:,ound DR pOI,Hon?

I,. y·ou, 1715

At ZT 17"-10"'-'44' i·otJ oheainerl observation of l.hr 'Suo with a bubble octa nt Whose I, C. was (-t I 8' a n d your watnh was 15 setxmds "low on Zone T'iru«. The hs was 23~ 1]'. At .statien advanced


W.RX, lat. 27 o~OO' N, long-.B] "-00'
$01" ... til<" ~UI! ~igh t lJ ad to' obra ill a 1715

1712. yonl: radio




and radio benrinl':,


of 122.5"



plot lli~ line of pO~ltlO'rl

Wh", '$th,,,


s,,<re<I "'tide .good?




Air Divisions Go to OpNav
Aeronautics a Materiel Bureau
Five divisions of the Bureau of Aeronautics have been transferred to the jurisdiction of the Chief of Naval . , leaving the Bureau to function as a materiel organiz)l.tion, fur which it was or.ganized originally, The divisions are, Planning, Personnel, Training, Flight and All Information. They will be under the Deputy Ghief of Naval Operations (Air), a new position recently filled by Vice Admiral John S. McCain, former chief of the. Bureau, The director of Ma rine Corps aviation and appro-

Wh", I,. the "~I,," I 9'round
What I. Ih~ wln'a:?

frD·m IEUd



Who' i, the "";",ol,,d time oj .. ,rNa! the end of' fif51 !e!l&'

A l that time YQ'J are ard cred to ella n g'c nea di "'S to pa trol U30· '/" for L 80 uiilus and rhe ,1 n-n rn to ha~t' .. Wh,n is th" true h.oding?
Who t i,~ the What' ls Ihe predl(ted H A ," ground Ih .. end speed? of "he secend leg}




At UI], 5 a lik rolf t VI i th ~11 rvivors is sigh ted br-ari n,; 058. estimated 7 mile-s distaru, You make ,1 contact ","POl't. Wha' I. the po.itionof the IIFe 'ol\?'


Lpn.g __ ..__

priate Marine Corps ofli~ets of BuAC'i·
arc assigned directly to deputy chid. Special Devices Division will remain in BuAcr but wilt work in close cooperation with the Training Division, The latter will determine utility, riumber, and .distribution (;If all such device; as are required for aviation training,

'Whot Is th e cou'r~'e from the end "f Ih e .. ""n!'! le9' ,a ba"e~ What Whal' js the d;.'ance? i. the

t,~" heodih9?
ground .peed?

W.ha' I,. Ihe p.e.dicted

AI ZT I VOO a fix


ebtaine d in lat. 29"--40'

K, long. 77 f'.o...2fJ'W.
Lon!l _

t. .Ibe 1945

DR po.ilio,,?

Al about

1945 ybu, lake tlw following Antares

observa lions:: Spica.

19"-40'''-44' :14"_12'
"S6Iv<' the sights,
WJ,1>:1i·l !h~ Ilo~ition Whal

ZT h,
the ZT 1945 fix,



pi!).1 and label
of the b? speed?




gr"",nd UA?

INh", i< ,the revised JA,,,,we"

0" p"g"



Naval Aviation .Sepllember 1918
Sept.-Navy submitted two-seater fighter design to Curtiss for use with the K-12 400 h.p, engine, Thisengine was. 175 pounds lighter thanthe Liberty-and. OD tile average it developed rnorc horsepower. The design wascalled the "Dunkirk Fighter" owing to the need for a fast nghting seaplane at Dunquerque, Franco. It was to carry 4- machine guns-and was 20 miles an Irour faster than any existing figh1.ing plane. The first rnachine was destroyed 1:Jy fire. Lt. Comdr. Kenneth ''''hiting in command ef Naval Air Station at Killinghebne, England. Planes operated against submarines, formed outposts against Zeppelin, raids, and convoyed thousands of ships. Planswere made to transport seaplanes en lighters, or- floats. towed by destroyers to within easy stri.king distance of Heligoland, Cu"Xh.av!,!n, Brernerhaven, Emden, and Wilhelmshaven. When the float had reached its station, it was to be given an inclined position by flooding a rear compartment, the seaplane sliding from thit deck. Although pre-




lirninary trials demonstrated the entire practicability 6£ tho plan, it was subsequently abandoned because the cat was let out of the bag by malrirtg a test in the vicinity of Heligoland' Bight: a Zeppelin took photographs, and the element of surprise-upon which the entire undertaking was hased-was lost. Lighter-than-air personnel abroad urgently :req uested larger nen -rigids capable of carrying a S·inch gun of the non-recoil lype in addition to a substantial bomb Ioad-s-and with an endurance of 50 hOUTS at 45 m _p.h. They wanted a ship as. large as could be constructed on the non-rigid principle. An investigation of this project showed the. impracticability of the design. First-non-rigid of the "C" tYF!' completed, These ships had a maximum speed of 60 miles per hour and were built to cope with high winds, They were given greater endurance for escarting convoy's. Contracts were let 1:0 Goodyear for 3D of these ships but the number was reduced to 1Q following the Armistice. Ship., had two engilles-total pf"lwer, 300 hop. Ma-xinwm .\i,trength of naval avia-

tion school at M. 1. 1'. reached with 1600 students and 11,5. instructors. Naval aviatien overseas continued to have difficulties in transporting mateHal. There were a shortage of car 5, rn u C h congestion and completely inadequate railroad facilities. Partieubdy troublesome was the transpor- ration system between France and



0'01 SUI'WA



For in- "u,...""",.."." stance, the French claimed that the 1talians would not return freight cars to France, that they kept them for use in Italy. Consequently France would not permit bCT freight cars to cross the border into Italy. Considerable time was spent in solving the problem. First American DH-4 delivered to Northern Bombing CI'OUP from Pawl. lac. As· planes were placed in commission, they were assigned to Briti,<;~. squadrons in actual war flight • .J manned by our personnel in an effort to. keep them busy until the Navy and Marines had sufficient planes t·o 01'ga.nize into separate units, Sefit. 21.-Ina letter to Cernmanding Officer of United States Naval Air Forces, Canada (Lt. Comdr. R. E. Byrd), En~jgp Wa)ter Hinton outlined necessary steps for trans-Atlantil: flight. Sept. 24.-Ldter from Capt. H. 1. Cone to Capt. Irwin: "English gradually began to use Iandplanes for con¥OJ work where humanly possible. Usc of dirigibles [or escort pUI1JOses has proven very good. Out small amount of experience meet here would trnd ro show that dirigibles are invaluable and much Iess expensive in men, money, 'and material "to ac:omnpl,ish the same amount ofescert as seap Ian ell. Theil' one disad~antage, lack of weather qualities, is gradually being cvereeme to a certain extent .... Sept. 30.-AlI contracts fat French seaplanes canceled in view of expected delivery in large quantities _ American-huilt craft.

I tal y.


Navy Airmen Remembered
Four naval aviation fields have been named after deceased naval aviators, ac ording to a recent announcement. The station at Argentia, Newfoundis known as Bristol Field, in of the late Vice Admiral Arthur L. Bristol, Jr'J who played a large part In its founding and at one time was commanding officer of the Ranger. The field at the auxiliary nil' station, Milton, Fla., is. known as Whiting Field, in honor of the la.te Cap . Kenneth Whiting, who was naval aviator No. 16 after being taught to pilot a plane by Orville Wright in 1914. He was commander of the first American aeronautical detachment to reach France in the first World War. Later he commanded the Langley and the Saratoga. The third field, at Priest Faint, Md., I was named 'Vebster Field, after the late Capt. Walter W. Webster, former manager ofthe Naval Aircraft Factory.

The fi Id at the auxiliary air station, Otay 'Mesa, Calif., was "Called Brown Field, in honor of the late Melville Stuart Brown, one-time executive fficcr of the Lexington.

Pick llie best choice 10 com-plete the 'statements beloia, the« cheek }I o IU' lm-

Air-Borne Risks Preferred
Substantial reductions in insurance rates for trans-Atlantic travel to the British Isles have been announced by aviation insurance companies in Great Britain and Canada. Rates recently quoted have been approximately :2 percent for the Found trip. The new rate is % percent of the sum insured (up to $100,000 per paJ;s,nger) for the found trip, including a 2 months' stop-over in Great Br{tain. All war risks are covered. Because trans-Atlantic travel by ail' at present is not always available to everyone, travel by vessel is permitted under the same insurance, one company said, adding "the underwriters prefer the air-horne passenger risk."

SweTS 011 /lage
1. When





gy"'·<om".... the-

to fh e to the
to the


o od

spi lining axi s is parallel lines of h\tlthde b horizorrtal axis is parallel meridian
vertical axis .is parallel llicl'idiall spinning axis is parallel

to the

meridian e horizontal axis points. to the zenith
issued to vesN..vy are of

2. The ma.9nllli~ cempcsses

sels- of the U"iled





illurniuared card type dry typt1 c combination type d Iiquid jype
II 8




Bond Allotment Runs High at. Naval Air S·tat.ions
NAS U.niformed Personnel LeadJ' Copying Civilians'
Naval Air Stations, which set the pace in the Navy War Bond cam paign for civilian employees; have also taken the lead in the recently inaugurated bond allotment program for uniformed personnel. Although thisphase of the Navy bond program is only a few months old, nearly half a million allotments already have been registered by officers and men of the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard.

3. The commission p"mum! i. flown 01 the moln Iru<'k a na"ol ve .... j to indicate thQI th .. " esse , i.s-





in commission and in command of a flag officer b not yet in commission but is in command of a commissioned
in officer, no ( a fI ag 0 ffice'tcommi ssion and In command of a commissioned officer, not


a Hag officer commission and in command of
a commissioned officer, who




znay be a flag officer commission and in command 01 a noncommissioned officer

4. Air«afl op"rating on the water-11

o must keep clear of all ships b have right-of-way over all ships o c are not Glassed as ships and need



p TOg r a ill


launched last April, with the air stations taking an early lead. Several stations have already reported more than 90 per cent of their uniformed personnel enrolled through the allotment plan" for bond purchases. July sales set a new monthly record for the Navy bond program, with the total of $27,783,065.25, more than $6,000,000 higher than the previous record established in April. Of the July total, $4,263,321. 25 represented bonds sold to uniformed personnel under the allotment plan. The chart lists the air stations and allied activities with the- percentage of ersonnel at each station participating.


nor obey the Rules of the Road d are not classed as ships but must obey the Rules of the Road 8 are classed as ships and must obey the Rules of the Road

o o

o ,a band gr-nerator Obtai ker' s voice o a ship's batteries

S. The Iype of 10lker sysfem 1"01 i. rapidly superseding th. othe. types h the one fhQt re~ejye.s It,. p"Wer f,,,m t!t_

d ship's generators emergency generator

6. Fldg helst sig"ols- <;Ire ""rmaUy


o a blinker

.. 1I..I..db .... -


o e radio

semaphore wigwag Q. searchlights


















Might of Britain Has Been Etched in the Sky by Courage and Quick Adion of a Capable Air Arm
HE R~yal Air F~rcc is a separate service equal In status to the Royal Navy or the Army, its birth dating back to April 1918, when air power was recognized as a definite factor jn war. Great Britain had an air force as far back as April 1911, when an Air Battalion was set up in the Royal Engineers. At that time the Italians' use of airplanes in their Tripoli campaign probably convinced the British they too should have military planes. 14

A year later the Royal Flying. Corps, split into military and naval wings, was formed. It absorbed the battalion. In the early days of the RFC, the War Office held the idea that the airplane had no "military ignificance." Its aviators flew an assortment of Farman biplanes, Bleriot monoplanes and other types/ none with engines of more than 80 h.p.xating. In 1914 the Royal Naval Air Service


was created, separate from the RFC. Thus, the British had distinct military and naval air arms during most of the first World War. just as the United States now has. , But in 1918, all aircraft including those on carriers or other plane-carrying fighting ships of the Navy were merged in the Royal Air Force where they remain today. The Fleet A." Arm includes only ship-borne aircra

Stifish Navy Once Considered


An analogy to the formation of RAF as a separate unit can be foundin the history elf the Royal Navy, Four centuries ago the EngJi:h Navy was merely a collection of merchant veshli'ed to carry the Alroy across the seas, The captains oI the e ships were not train d in sea warfare and when War came of age on the water, it was found necessary to build and man special fighting ships. This. led-in the Sixteenth Century-to the formation of the Navy as a separate service, a move which was revolutionary ill its day and subject to attack by some as endangering the Army'. efficiency. When the Armistice was signed in 1918 the RAF found itself with 200 squadrons, 22,64'7 aircraft, 10:1 airships, 291,000 officers and men, and 25,000 women-the world's- greatest air force. In the years that followed, with disarmament conlerences the vogue, RAF dwindled from 27,000 officers to 1,065 and its: enlisted men to a Fraction of the wartime strength. Like the RAF, the German Lt~ftwaffe today i& a unified service under its own commander. Both, however, cooperate closely with army and navy, VVhen either service wants a special job done, it cal ls on the air force to do it. RAf Consists of Commands RAY is organized in to a series of commands, each one partly functional and partly geographical in operations. Bomber Command comprises the main force of bomber aircraft, and Fighter Command the main force of fighter planes. Coastal Command has patrol planes and torpedo-carrying bombers that work closely with the Navy. There are, in addition, the vitally important Maintenanee Command, the- two training commands-Fl ing and Technical=-Balloon Command, and Transport Command. The first named is one of the largest in the entire Air Force. It job is to k ep RAF plan flyiug.







Transport Command includes the former FeL'lY Command and coneponds to the U, S. Naval Air Transport Service in scope. Balloon Command operates the extensive balloon barrage which protects English cities from low-revel attack. All these units are classed as "Home Corum ands." RAF aIso has separate commands which operate in the Mediterranean area, India, and the Middle Ea;>t. Each of these operates both bomber and fighter planes and other types as well. Mediterranean Command, lor instance, is larger today than the entire RAP at the staJ;'t of the war. Form Basic Units The next unit under the command is the group. Most commands are organized in a number of groups disposed geographically. All bomber stations in a particular part of the country, for example, are organized in a group. usual Iy commanded by an air vice marshal. EHh r a number of stations or wings may comprise the group! with two GJrthree squadrons under the station commander. The squadron is the basic unit of RAF. It consists 'usually of about .a score of aircraft, according to type. Besides their pilots they include 200 ox more in maintenance and ground ·taffs. Closer inquiry into the major home commands reveal that they work clo ely with army and navy. Coastal COl,Il)llarld uses its flying boats to patrol far out into the Atlantic to escort convoys and search out -boats, Bristol Beasdort« carry torpedoes to attack , enemy convoys, Blenheim» fly the vast ocean lanes to protect British ships, U$ do LockGroups, Squadrons

heed Hwdsons, Cqtalina.s and Consolidated Libeuuors team up with Bnglish-made WellinglO1iS and WhitleY$ to protect from German air and sea attacks the vital lifeline of ships across the Atlantic. Today Coastal Command's battle zone covers 11101'e than S,500;OOO square miles. In defending Allied shipping this Command has flown more than 50)000,000 miles; escorted more than 8,200 convoys: made 75'0 attacks ort enemy vessels and' sunk or damaged 300,OO(} tons. It has attacked more than 300 U-boats, destroyed 75 aircraft attacking convoys arid driven off 500' more. Fighter Command Carries load The work of Fighter Commaad in the now-historic Battle of Britain. is easily recalled. Its Spitfire and Hurricane squadrons, aided by an efficient radio detection system, defeated the Luftwaffe in the memorable air war: of 1940. Later, in escorting bomber squadrons over Nazi-held Europe and in lone rO~'ays,the lighters have knocked hundreds of enemy planes out of the sky. Since the war began more than .1,000 have been destroyud by the command and its allied an Iiaircraft defense organization. When Fighter Command's task of protecting England from raiders fell off with decrea ·jng Nazi assaults, it developed a new mission of blasting heavily burdened enemy transport-ation on land and sea. Swift intruder planes shot up hundreds of Iocomorives on land and ships in nearby waters. 80mber Command Hurls Fury on Foe Bomber Command started its .longrange: operations- against Germany before the 1940 Blitz and today is carrying the brunt of the, air war on the continent. lts mighty four-engined Slirlin.gs, HaltjaXtl.fj and Lancasters have sown death and destruction as far as Ro tock and Northern Italy. Speedy Mosquito bombers have penetrated Berlin in bit-run attacks. While the two- ngined bombers were being supplanted by larger



owed b'l

0/ ~uman


man,! to











a...I.. 'T'


fIyJ"~T,~";... Cpmmaifd

Majntenanc~ CPfIllTiand



bombers, RAP also was increasing its bomb load from two tons to as much as eight tons per plane. Besides bombing European mainland points, Bomber Command also dropped thousands of DUnes in enetny waters, sinkal' damaging 164 shi ps in a sixperiod alone. Today, with the- spotlight on tht: Mediterranean, the overseas Command in that area takes on increased importance-s-under it. the Northwest African Air Force, RAF Middle Easr forces .and Malta; that most-bombed spot on earth, nowoomparativdy quiet after more than 3,000 aerial raids. P~o'e'CIsConvoys off Atrica Another Command handles the

As a resukt of experience learned in North African figoting, Army Cooperation Command was merged into a Tautical Air Force and plated under Fighter Ccmruand. This reorganization was aimed to inSure greater cooperation between reconnaissance airCl'aft and light bombers and planes of the main lighter force. H is expected til increase the striking' power of the armies in the field and speed tl P' the flow of information, not 011iy of "TEl: EM""'" 1)0£5 Jill:! theenemy's moveIn,,..AVAIR NEWS rn e n ts but (If British troops operating In the field.



us Navy

West Africa operations

of RAF-

mostly protection for convoys-and the tl1ipd overseas Oommand supervises activities in India and Ceylon. A~ the Allied offensive against Japan gathers momentum in Asia, this command will intensify present raids on Jap-conquered countries which it now is pressing to the. limit of its facilities. Three. nonoperatjonal cofnmands complete the organization of Royal Air Force. Flying Training and Technical Training Commands hun out the thousands of pilot~, gunners, Acbanics and others who fly and. re·1j!IIir the planes. The third is Maintenance Command, formed only in August 1938 to take over .maintenance units. Its job if> to pick up planes at the fa.ctory, deliver them to squadrons; repair craft in the field and provide Iced and anything else required by men 'and machines of RAF,

So that naval aviators will know what is being said when their RAE friends use slang, Naval Aviation NEWS herewith, pl'esents some additions to the British airman's vocabulary ; A black ~ something badly done

sibie story dutnmy at t a c k on aerodrome, generally unauthorized Brmvned o.ff--- fed up Broom Job---- any member of the Bri tish army Bind - - a,ny thing irksome Beai 1~P

A {lamwL----. a long winded, plau-


a girl ftiend
tea a flight sergeant

Chiefie-------. ErL

'The dccL-- ... the ground In. th.e drin"- __ dGwn at sea
enlisted man, usually a mechanic Get cracking __ . get gping Gong -~ a medal [anker«: - - - -- - punishmen t KiM an aeroplane NAAFL c an t e en (post exchange) . Olfice-------cockpit PulftiL cockpit Play Ptlwy hide in clouds Pt/,! on a peg wake a disciplinary chargePrallg________ a crack up Quick .rq;UiiL__ s h 0 r t machine gun bunt Shot down in fiaI7IBS -_ severe reprimand Shoot a line_-- tell an exaggerated story
r- __ •

UEU1~N~NT 'I~'

The:se two dopes-Prune (Jnd Oilbert-ore helping Axis with .t he ir antics



LIGHT mechanics, bomb plotter>. and radio operators of the W,0111en's Auxiliary Air FOl'CC: arc carrying on with th pion ring spirit of the Women'll RAF of World WaJ," 1. They work beside the men of RAF and in many instances have completely taken over their jobs. Manning ome of the barrage balloon sites is an example. On June 28, 19391 WAAF Was constituted by Royal Warrant an integral part of RAP. Formerly women who were on duty with RAF belonged to the ATS (An ... xiliary Territorial Service) created by the Air Council in August 1938. [ow they have their own officers, NCO's, u n i J 0 r m s, and badges-identical with officers and airmen of the RAF. WAAF has expanded to 78 tirues it original size, By the end of the second year of the war its strength was pass~g into the second hundred thousand. Its initial 5 trades have increased to 65. In the signals trades women are wireless and radio operators and radio mechanics. Technicians are dOtlJg skilled and erniskilled jobs as armourers, electricians, and instrument repairers. Among the scientific trades are "photographer, meteorologist, <1.TId inc-projectionist and tracer, In the medical class are dental clerks, dispensers, masseuses, radiographers, and operating assistants. clerical










group includes general and specialist clerks, bomb plotters, and equipment assistants. Essential too arc domestic jobs-cook, tailor, orderly. So far airwomen have not served as air crews. (W om n ferry pilots for RAF are members of the Air Transport Auxiliary Women's Section.) But two categories W AAF actually By-flight mechanics who test the engines or equipment UJ test flights, and nursing orderlies in air ambulances. During the first winter of the war w 111. en in V\lAAF were tried ou t on a number of RAF stations. Lack of equipment and accommodations linked with bad weather, made their life hard as .England went through its coldest winter in several decades, As the airwomen proved their abil-

iry to do technical jobs required of an air force they were given more and more responsibilities. During the Battle of Britain W men itaffed plotting rooms where huge maps showed locations of squadrons of British and enemy planes fighting for the lives those below, A large portion of W AAF is occupied in cooking and catering for the, RAF, manning its telephones and teletypes, staffing its offices and even cleaning its quarters. A number of code and cypher officers have been serving for some time 'in the Middle East. After 4 y·ar of action W AAF has found its place in the war picture, working with RAY for victory. Its members have taken over more and more work on the ground, releasing men fm flying duty. - They had the additional satisfaction of knowing they played an important part in servicing the aircraft these crew. Were flying.



RAF Firsts

JUNE 1919-Fird ",on-slop flighl Atlantic by Capl. John A.lcock and lieut. Arthur Brow,i'I~ Iii hours, S7





JULY 1919-Fi .... airshIp flew o~"" ' AiJ"n'ic-R-a,,_ JUNE 1 9'21-Firsl air-moil ;l!.vice between Colt.. ond Bogdod. SEPTfMBERI926--I. A. F. lielltenont won Sthnelde. Trophy, flying 28.1 mph. SEPTEM8I!R 1929-11. A. F. <lgoin Won Schneide, Trop"y 01 3,211 mph. A.PRil I 931-fir$1 ai, moil umied from Auol.alia 1o, England. SEPTEM8.ER 1931-11. A. F. ,,,I new world .peed ,eco.d of 408 mph. JANUAItY 1932--first oir m!:lil flown from Englond fo South Africo_ APRil I 93l-Flrst plane flown OYe' summit of MI. Eve, ... t. SEPT~MBER. 1936-R. A, F. mer sel n~w altitude 'e.cord of 49,967 feet. SEPTEMBER 1938-Fi ••t lon9-~h'Qnce, nan.!ap flight, Suez Conol 10 Ausl.olia. SEPTEM8ER 1939-Firsloffen.ive raid of Ihe wa. on Germo" warships In S<hHlig Rood a. octOBER 193 9-Firsl (eoftef rold on BetH n, APRIL I 940-Fit'f roid on German ba'G~ in Norwav,Denmo:rk. JUNE" 1940-Finl R. A. F. IO"9-range raid on Turin, Genoa, and Milo,,_ MAY 1 942-Fi .,1 I,OOO-plone .aid on Germany. NOVEMBER T 942-Fiut bomb. droppeq on Turin. 8rOOO-pound







OBSERVER IN 0 I~"g.' awarded but "ill 1'10."1



HEN the German Lufiwafle dropped the first bombs on English soil near CatlterLtuj( in May 1940, little djd it know how inexorably it would reap vengeance a thousandfold. Reaching a climax in August and September and on through the faU; the blaok-crossed aerial armadas hammered Great Britain with everything they had to knock it out. of the war, They failed and as the Luftwaffe tapered off because of terrific losses, RAF. retaliating, has poured streams of bombers over Oermaa-held Europe for the past tWQ and a half years. The Battle of Britain became the Battle of Germany and the tempo was stepped up. Already Briti!;h bomb loads more than double what the Luftwaffe dropped on England. In two years Hamburg has been raided 1t5 ti me'S" B,-e!;nert 110 and the huge city of COlogne hit on 144 sorties, These numbers have multiplied with RAF over Germany almost E1ightly. In the height of the blitz on England, the Luftwaffe sent over as m0:l1}' as 800 planes a day ill; its attempt to cripple RAF and British war industry and puhlic morale, By May 1942, the Ruhr was getting that back with interest as I,OOO-plane raids, all hea vy bombers, dropped more than 1,500 tens of bombs a night. Dortmund took 2,000 tons in one hour. Since the war began Co!ogrte Iias absorbed more than 500,000 incendiaries and the central part of city is reported to be 80 percent in ruins, Getti.ng Along ana S.noesfring Britain started the war with a short.age of beavy bombers and depended on rwo-engined bombers such as the W f!llingtQI~ and Whitley to carry the brunt of raids: on Europe" Later if switched to huge Stirling~~Lanoasters 'and Hal1"jaX~J and quadrupled bombloads carried by the night marauders.
Two-ton bombs soon were aug-




FllstRA.F' Mosquito bombers drop d~vastating eargo,'m the Phi!i·ps Rlldio·work~Bt Eindhollell) lHolI'~nd,. whi~'h had b~·en t .... i .. g out elecitrlc.alequl n ..... ent 1:0 help Na"f$ oght allied motions lhO .. lilll1d-fOldlhC FtA'F is repayin.:G.ermany ,"-lie bol.ow showing -"ast de ..a~t ..tioll

"!Jr,,,..,,,, n~ar -5t,


1l,,~satelll1:e lIa.t~qn$ for S""neS like the Paul's .,u:th".k;... in heart pi London

mented 20





plaste1'ed the industrial RUb)', Mines were dropped in a daring raid to blow huge holes in the Moehne and Eder dams and flood lower Rhineland areas. RAE plane losses run as heavy as 45 or 50 bombers a night as its planes enAuntel' the best 1i_ghters the Luliwaff,C'lin mru;ter~ plus radar-controlled antiaircraft, But that number is far below what the Germans lost in the height of the Battle of Britain, RAp's Spitfires and Hurricanes had their best day on September IS, 1940,. when they shot down 185 German bombers and fighters, They lost only 25 planes and 11 pilots ill exacting that toll, A. recapitulation of English and German plane losses shows 2)375 German planes were destroyed in daylight between August. 8 and October 31, 1940, at a cost of .3 75 RAF pilots killed and 35B wounded. Up to ].w~e 1 OO1s rein a 10tal of 13,287 German and Italian planes have been destroyed since the start Q£ the war by RAP and by antiaircraft fire. An additional 785 were downed by naval Of merchant ships or the. fleet ~il'arm, making a total of 14,072 since the war started. Thi~ figure has been increased by the toll of the. Sicilian campaign where L11{twaDe losses Iar exceed those of the superior Allied forces. Long-range bombing is the order of day today as British planes fly round-trip from England to northern Italy or from North Africa to Italy, "Hedin has been hit by more than 75 raids. a late one dropping 2,000 tons of bombs, in addition to many nuisance raids by two-engined M:» J q 'U i ~0 bombers designed to spread the Luflwaffe's defeI;l.ses, In the three and a, half years of aerial war ending July L 1943, tile Germans have dropped 70,000 tons of bombs on England in a swiftly decreasing ratio while RAF has _srna~h(;:d the. Ruhr and o th Cl' German areas with 154j500 tons, The trend is best explained by the fact that Eng~ land has absorbed only 1,000 tons of bombs this year to 76,000 tons rained on Germany. A..o,. the blitz wore on and Germar; losses still were heavy, the Lultwaff e had to' abandon daylight r<t~ding and send its planes .over by night, It was in this last phase. 01 the Battle of Britain that most of the civilian Iosses were incurred. tjDUXll1g the 8+ days of attack, 1,700 persons, mostly civilians, were. killed in


AND R. A. F.







.111 11111111111 JlIIIIII 111111 .,"I·· :'>~~..~· I ·111'111111111 • 111111111111111
13.000 TONS 2AOOO TONS. 31,500 TQNS 3.000 TONS
50;000 TONS 1,000 TONS

7(;,J)O() TONS

the daytime and! 3,360 wounded, while 12,51H were killed at night and 16,9135
wounded. No authentic figures are available on casualties in Germany since the English began paying back the Rhineland for the bli~ but they probably arc rnany times as heavy. The Germans had sunk five ships and d<1ruaged five more in coastal con" \loys during the blitz. They had damaged airdromes; they scored hits on a number of factories and damaged docks and various Iameus buildings! including Buckingham Palace. They

many thousands of houses. !:hey Jailed to do the most irnportant tiling-knock out RAP. By the winter of 1940 RAF was stronger than it was at the start of the Battle of Britain and the Luftwaffe had lost 2,375 planes in three months, In later months U. S. Anny Air Forces have supplemented RAF by raiding Germany in the daytime while Stirlings and llali/axes were on the night run to the Rhine. In their first 'year of operations USAAF dropped 16,609 tons of bombs .in 82 rnissirms,



Chief Ma:r,hal Sir Charles F. A. Portal, Chief cf the Air Staff,s
GIbse rver

in the R

Flying Corps in 19 encouneered t.h:e German ace Immelniann Qudng,a; illgh t, to 0 k a pot -shot at
him with. a Win dlell ter aut 0 'ill at j c rifle, and caused minor damage to





1893", he served as iii despatch rider with tb~

Royal Engjnec!"s in 1914.
H" became an instrnctor .at the Imperial Defense

College in HI3~> and in
March 1940 commanded Bomber Command before


becoming' Chid of British Ai r Staff 1n October,



Ma .•shal


Chnistopher LloydCourtney Air Member of the-

Air Counci! Ion Supply
and Organisation since J an uary 194Q, has B erve d as Deputy Director oj Operations and IntclIig~l1C~

at the Air Ministry

and .as Director of Trainmg. Fifty-three 1 a r S 't\ old, he has been cornmissioned in all three fight'

services, He joined Royal Naval Air Scrvt<:c
in 19-12 and received the D.S.O. in 1:917 for serve in.
.M wing ccmmander Dunkirk. His RAIl service includes peeiods of


duty in. Indi. .. a.nd Itaq.

.K.. C. B., C.ll. I!..ri, ,


s, o. Air Chici Marshal Sir Artb,ur W. Tedder was appointed Air 0 ff 1" e I Commanding in Chief 0.1 the Allied Alr FOrGe~ in the Medireenancan Area upon ·the formation of-the







13t" K. -r.•C. M. G., M. p,




old,. he


The Rt. Horr S.ir Archibald Sinclair, Secretary of State for Air and Presiden t of the Air Ceunei), speaks for Reyel Air Force in Parliament. Fifty-three years of age, he has been Secretary of State for Air since May 1940. In 1910 he entered the Army, becoming a major in the Second Life Guards. From 1919 to L921 he Was Personal Military Secretary to the Secretary of State for War, and in 1921-22, Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. He has been Ohief Liberal Whip: Secretary for Scotland, and Leader of the Liberals III Commons where he had a brilliant political record. 22

entered the Dorset Regiment in 1913, and ~n June 1.916 he entered t1;:!1~

Royal Flying Corps, He
a permanent commission as squadron leader in RAF in. 1919. In ¥ay 1941 he was named Air Officer Com, mending in Chieffot the Middle East area,
was granted




Air Chief Marshal Sir
Sholto Douglas, Air Officer Commanding in Chief of the Mlddlc- East Command, was serving as Deputy Chief of the Air Staff un til November

1940 when. he became A. O. C. in C" Fighter
Command. Now 50 ye;H~ of age, he was an observer officer III the. RFe in Januaql 1914. One of his squad rons, No. 84, shot down 2()) German. planes and drove another 149 out of control. following the war, he graduated from the "RAF Staff College and from. the Imperial Defence College,

SIR S80[7."0 DOUGLAS K. c. B.. M. G., 0.2. C. Air Marshal Arthur T. Harris, Ail" Officer Commanding in Chief, Bomber Command, since February J 942, previously served tor a period as head of RAF Delegation Ju Washington. He cornmanded the first .night-fly.ing experimental detachment in the last war IOT the defense of London agai nst Zeppelins, later directing RAF in Palestine and 'Transjordan, BOI'L! il) J_892, he joined the First Rhodesia Regiment in 1914.. transferring to tile Royal Flying COl'pS in 1915: In 1939 he was named Air Officer Comrnanding Bomber Oroup S,

K.C.B., 0.8 ..1l., ./I..F.C. Air Marshal Si.. William L. Welsh, head of the Royal Air Force Delegation in Washington, was the Air Officer commandlanding

ing RAF forces during the in North Africa. Among' recently held posts

'are : Air Mem her for Supply & Organisation at the Air Ministry, Air Officer Commanding RAP Flying Training, and Air Officer commanding Technical Train ing. He entered the

RAF through the Royal Naval Air Service, in
which he




1918, and served

as a pilot operating with units aboard aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy. Ie,C.D .• D.S.C., A.F.C.

R];:AT :BRITAIN has in Kb:ig George VI, Comrnanderin Chief of the Royal Air Foree, the only monarch in her history who also is a qualified air pilot. The King saw service in th first World War in both the Royal avy and the Royal Ail' Force, although he did not win 'his wings until after that war was over. He served aboard the, H. M. S. Coliingu)Oo.d in the Battle of Jlltland, being second in COIIDnand of the-battleship's fore turret. During the battle he wail on top of the turret for a time until a shell narrowly miss d him and he was ordered below by a superior er, This engagement made him the first English prince to take part in a naval pattie since1780. Later in the war he served aboard the I-L M. S. Malaya until -illness forced him to retire, In 1917 he joined RAF and went to France as an adjutant. Because the King and the Government disapproved, he was not permitted to learn piloting until t919. King George's experiences in the Navy and Air Pores during the Jast war have proved valuable-to him in the present conflict.


KING GEORGE VI Marshal of Royal Air Force



EVER before or since has an aviation lighting force acquired so much experience in so short a time as did Royal Air Force in the Battle of Brirnin. RAE began irs defense with what then. proved to be the world's two bestfighrers, the Spitfin and the Hurricane. Hider's hordes of Messe1'schmitts) Doreiers, and ltmker$J greatly ournumbering British squadroas, feU short their objective. The reason lay in Germany's faith Quantity, Britain's in Quality. Today, bettered by provemenrs developed from combat, British planes leadJng an offensive many times more furious than one they pushed back. . of in the

In the Battle of Britain, Hurricanes shot down more air" craft than all other types put together. This low-wing single-seater fighter has a single in-line Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, attains a speed of 335 mph at 22,0.00 ft. Early models were used largely for interception at high altitudes. Service ceiling is 36,000 It. This plane is one ef RAF~s most versatile fighters; also being used Iorlow-level bombing, night-fighting and dive bombing. It carries 12 machine guns or four 20 mm. cannons. Wing span is 40 feet, length over 3 I feet. Latest version is the "tank-buster;' or "tin-opener", which has been fitted with 2 x 40 mm. guns.

Capable of carrying a bomb load of more than 4,000 lbs., this medium bomber is very popular anti is being produced in Iarge numbers. It weighs over 14 tons full y loaded, bas. a range of 3,200 miles. It is a twm-engined mid-wing monoplane of fahnic-covered geodetic construction (framework of metal basket-weave type) which makes it hard to shoot down. Huge holes shot in the wings and fuselage have not prevented it from returning to bottle base. Maximum speed is about 244 mph; service ceiling is 18,000 It has a span of over 86 ft. and length of 61 ft. Three stations, using power turrets, mount two to four guns each.

Claimed to be the fastest bomber in the world, the Mosquito can outdistance many Interceptors, flying at a speed of mote than 400 mph. It was used to bomb Berlin in the first daylight raid on the capital, after making its first operational flight in late 1942. This high mid-wing plane is constructed for the most part of pI ywood, which allows for widely dispersed manufacture. It carries a erew of two has a SPall of 54 feet and length of almost 41 feet. Lt is powered by two liquid-cooled Roll -Royce engines of unspecified h. p.; its armament is foul' 20 rnm. cannon and four .303 cal. machine guns. Carries 4· x 500-Th_bombs.

The rwin-engined Beaufighter is a fast two-seater plane developed from the Beaufort bomber eo answer the need for a heavily armed long-range fighter. ] t has a. hlgh service ceiling: 29,;700 feet, and a maximum speed of over 330 mph. A mid ,wing monoplane, it mounts six machine guns in the wings and four cannon, grouped in the nose, It is used principally as a night fighter but also performs as a day fighter, strafer, "tank buster" and 'with Coastal Ct)ID" mand, Range is 1,500 miles. span is almost 58 feet, and length 41 feet. The undercarriage as well as the tail wh of this plane is hilly retractable for improved strearnlini


The Spitfire, now eight years old, is one of the finest fighters in the world. Its service ceiling is 37,700 ft., but the latest types have been credited with bringing down Ju-86P pressure cabin aircraft from nearly 50,000 ft. It as a top speed of 400 mph, using au .in-line Rolls-Royce erlin engine' ll. wing span of nearly 3} It., and length of over 3'0 ft. Fast rate of climb, superior maneuverability, lour .BDS cal. machine guns and two 20 mm. call non make the Spilfin: a formidable opponent.


The Tyflhoon, a new fighter. was specially designed to be built around 011C of th most powerful engines. It has a speed of more than 400 mph, It is powered by it Napier Sabre sleeve-valve engine of 24 cylinders and carries either twelve .303 Browning machine guns or four 20 mm, Hispano ,gi.lUS in the wing~. The TyjJhoon, designed for high-altitude fighting, is a low-wing singic-scater monoplane with a large radiator intake under the Dose. Span is 4] ft. 7 in. and length is 31 ft. 11 in. It i used as an Intruder and also as a Fighter Bomber, carrying 2 x 250-1b. bombs, It resembles the Hurricane in certain respects.

Designed for speed in production, th H aliias is a heavy Iong-range bomber that has been "USed extensively over Germany and the Middle East. Not so Iast as the LanulS't'er, it still makes nearly 300 mph, Pilots have rechrislened it the "Halibag." Fuselage is ol rnonococque constru ·tion; flight, navigation .. and bomb control sections are forward of the engines, carry complete armor protection. Bomb load is SYz tons, span is 99 feet, and length over 71 ft. TraUing edge flaps extend from fuselage to ailerons, permit take-off Irom ordinary airfields with heavy bomb load. The Halifax carries usual air crew of seven.



The Stirlinj!, carries one of the heaviest bomb loads of any bomber ill operation, more than 8 tons. This mammoth monoplane went into operation in early 1941, the first British plane of this type to go into service, It has a maximum speed of approximately 300 mph. It is p wered by air-cooled radial Bristol Hercules engines or Wright cyclones. Three power-operated gun turrets, armor-protected, use a; total of eight Browning .303 cal. machine guns. Span is 99 feet, and length is over 87 ft. The Stirli1!g has een action in the heavy "Hamburg}' raids over Germa:ny and Italy, and is used in day and night raids.


Called the mightiest of Britain's heavy bombers, the Lancaster is a 30-ton long range aircraft, with an outside raJ1ge of nearly 3,000 miles. It has bombed Berlin, Cologne, the Ruhr, and Hamburg in devastating raids. Bomb load is B tons approximately. The Lancaster is a midwing .monoplane of conventional design, said to be one of the easie t planes to build. It is being produced in large numbers. The four engine may be either radial or Iiquid-cooled inline type. Maximum speed is approximately 300 mph. an is 102 ft., leng h 69 % ft. Armament consists of x .303 machine guns mounted in fOUT pewer turrets.

Rattlesnakes Are
But Jeeps

a Hazard

Best Remedy

MCAS,. MOJAVE, GALtF.-Guards at the air sration here are having
trouble with rattlesnakes whieh thrive in the desert area. As many as four a day have been killed by men walking post around the station, making it ~dvis:able for sentries to wear leggings at all times for protection. Antivenom kits have been ordered from the medical department for use of men who have been bitten. So far the best way to kill the snakes without risking life and lim b is to run over them with a jeep, the Station SfI'YS•

New Landi'og, Technique
Checks Swerving, Marine.s Find
MOAB, EL TOF,o.-Pi!ots of a- Ma.rine fighrer squadron at this station have adopted a new technique of landing F4U-l's to counteract the swerving tendency evidenced Irarnedi. ately after landing. The pilots use POwel'/ 30 degrees of flaps and keep the rail lew rather than try to make three-point landings. By ma;k_ing moderate S--turns while taxiing, the blind SPQt on the nese of the plane is eJiminated'.
... BUREAU 'COMMEN'T'--:the 001"..<1 eebln Version of Ihe, .. ,i.plona h". noW _been ~Iart .. d in thepr .. dLlc,tion lin" and d"r;v...,y of thc$e plan eo. to sa .•v-ice lin its will b e'gj n i~ the n e(j r I"lu,e.11 1". believed Ihal the, i",p,oved vision r",."lll"g from fill, "'Qdif!calloll wHlfgcill1a1& I",nding and to->;U"!I oj th" .. i,planes.

of ga,s in his tank after a four-hour flight. The pilaf-s story was that beIore the flight he wrote the various headings on the kneeof his flying suit. The heading of the third leg was 0570. During the flight the zero got blurred and he read it as 257". After 45 minutes be realized his mistake. Then he took a heading of 110° for 10 minutes while he plotted his position. He fh,rw a hf"ading of eo" until he tbO\~ghthe was on the third leg, whereupon he headed fOT the coastal airfield. (Plotting.\:lOard amateurs who diagram the above positions may well wonder bow the pilot ever got back to home plate, and whethe-r he theugbt that 110" was the bad .. azimuth tot 257°.) M oral: Check positions in advance and write heading in large figures lim the plotting boards. If the Moslems, no matter where they are, know the: direction of Mecca when they want to pray, pilots ~hould at least knew the general direction of Point 0 before it becomes too late to pray. This pilot was trained at Corpus Christi, and after _flying over the Gulf of Mex1CQ fell into the habit of turning west to raise a landfall. A little common sense often helps, it~s a good thing to remember on which side of what continent you arc stationed.

Saron,g's the Style Today
Original Uhiforms-for


'The sartmg js the official uniform W-or::n by the Fu-st Samoan Battalion of the U. S. Marine Corps Reserves It. consists .0£ a khaki lava-lava, ._

skirt, rca.chmg below the knees Witn
scarlet stripes around the bottom. ChevroIl.'i denetirJ,g rank are worn an inch from the bot tom of the lavalava.






Chute Kit Bag Utilized
Drops Supplies
10 Pilot.s MCAS, CaERRY POINT.-An onE. na:ty parachute kit bag, 01' ehafing bag as it often is called, serves as .<1:11 emergency eat"go con tamer to hold supplies -for pilots forced dow:n in swam p" A quick attachable chest type para. chute IS snapped to the two handles of the bag. Into the bag is dumped supplies such as water, lood, blankets, flares, and dry flight clothing, A lQ-foot line serves as a static line, and the bag and chute are dropped to the stranded pilot. Actual use has shown that this hag will 'Withstand a load of at least 100 pounds.

Samoan Marine Corps Reservists are Polynesian Natives enrolled as reservists for the .duzation and trained by Leathernecks stationed on the island. The uniform b. patterned after regalia. worn by the famous Fita Fita guard', which has patrolled the a~a and has guarded the t-erritpry:a_ priSon for more than two score yeaw The Samoan M~rines wear their sareogs with a khaki turban, an undeI"lihirt and a scarlet sash, Shoes and SOQks are not required, Desp.ite the fact that very few members of the natjve reserve speak English, they tardy misunderstand an order or rC'i!uest.

Loose Hose Causes Fi;re
Drops Through
MCAS, MARNEY MESA.-A loose hose connection was blamed for a fire which destroyed the port ~nglne sf an RID-I, just after the pilot had taken ofl' on his sole flight. There was a sudden loss of power and the pilot turned back to the field to make a downwind landing. Du;ring the turn he saw the engine was afire. It dropped off the plane as it rolled eo a stop. NI other planes immediately were grounded and thoroughly checked. Other loose connections were found gurated as a result. ..

Knee..Deep in Error
MCAS_. MOJAVE,-Twelve Wildcats took off here on their fir-.st over-

water hop, but <lifter finishing their various tracking courses over the Pacific only 11 returned to base. Finally, just before a squadron of TBF's took off to hunt 101" him, the missing pilot landed with ]5 gallollS

and a new checking procedure ina.A

The Square Search (omputer
pilor Precomputes
True Headings
The Square Search Con1putel' has been developed to aid pilot" 1n locating an objective when this objective is not visible at a given paint (the E. T. A.)Each c mput r i designed for a true airspeed, 130 knots, FSSC :#,88-C1160 or 150 knots, FSSC #88-01165. With this computer .• the pilot may pre rnpute his tru headings and clock time of rurnaon each leg of a "Square search flight path for any given .conditions of visibility and wind. Fa e of the computer contains a compass rose and a rotatable disk with the true headings indicated. At a true airspeed of 130 knots if wind is 20 knots from 220 Degrees first course will be 220", second course will be 301". third 40", fourth 139". These, compensated for variation and deviation! may be written in the last column

of the chart Oll the reverse side of the computer. Vi~ibility factor is computed by dividil1g by 25. Resulting nearest whole nurnher is .mnltiplied by distance given on chart, and column 1 is fill€'d in. From precomputed chart .included 011 back oJ computet', time ali each course is taken and written in column 2. Sample Problem Filled in on Chart

The sample problem which has been filled in on the blank chart assumes a wind of 20 knots from 220°, and a visibility of five miles. Variation is 10° East, deviation has been .ignored for the sake of implicity. Five was divided by 25, giving a visibility factor of 2. Ell. h value D was then multiplied by two to give values in chart column (t). Time on course, column (2), was obtained by finding precomputed values under wind speed 20 knots, opposite the appropriate course

numbers and ground distance figures. Clock time at E. T. A. was assumed as 100£1, giving all times in column (3), AU that's left to do is fly the. headings in column (4) by times indicated in column (3). Square search computers are made of white vinylite which may be erased and used many times. The 130 knot square search computer, FSSC #86q_ 060) bas been distributed prcviusly and may be obtained from stock at the followiag Naval Air Stations: Corpus Christi, Jacksonville, Pensacola, Quo.nset Point, San Diego, and Pearl Harbor. The 150 knot computers, FSSC #88~C.1l65, were available for delivery in J\\Igust. They may be drawn Irom toek at the following stations in addition to those mentioned above: Alameda, Norfolk, Seattle, San Juanl Trinidad, Miami, Cherry Point, Atlanta, and the Naval Aircraft Factory at Philadelphia,








SQUAft[ ~EA~tH ~OM'UTlia , e, 5 c ~o st),.c·r15Q
eONrl'I!(AC-T N 00 10 T f,'j ~ k ROJ,iI rtL51'tl'il"l'l ilL ~ sOIl!j (j~jl~o!l,~O ~









Boresight Templ!a.te D'esigos
InaccurtJcies in Method Cited
Two designs of brm::sighting ternplates for VF-type aircraft have recently been submitted to the Bureau, These templates were designed for boresightrng airplanes where sufficient space was not ~alrailable for utilizing target screen and boresight bracket method as described .in Buteau of Aeronautics Technical Note 64--42. In one case boresight template 15 mounted on engine reduction gear housing, and in the other on the brueh box housing the engine. While the template method of boresighting :is

satisfactory for use- under the above co 11 diti ons, there are :inhenmt inaccuracies in this method audit should not be used where it is possible to use the target screen and boreaight bracket method. Inaccuracies referred to are due to the lellowing :
I. Wing S\lri.-' :;LTC not aecurately jigged in fixed posi ti 0 01 wi th ref e Ten ee to eng; n c. 2. Cooditicn of 'E!C'Xib)c OTIrt.tIn.g~ of £.nglile m



Daes caib of



FUEL SYSTEM ot your planes? .,
downward on which a horizontal referezice line could be positioned. By si_ghting' aJong the ends of the- boresight brackets, this line (and consequently horizontal arms of template) could be adjusted so as to be in a true- horizontal position with reference to airplane, rhus canceling error due to flexible englae raounsing, In ,order to allow for the above adjustment, holes through which template is bolted to the engine should be slotted. to permit necessary z-a'1ge of adjt1$tmcnt.

J. Any slight. error in aligning

may- cause siaeable deviations.

agun with target is .[]l1\guified many-fold <11 longer fa n gcs d nil to sit art dista n ee between. !?ill n -2 n d target.


Wherc'bore;,~ght templates arc used, the design Gould be improved by addltion of a vertical member extending

(S,u;.o""d.. U".I"da/f!d June 15. 'Sll) LATEST N UMBERS O~' ENGINE




Augll..&;t 10, 194-3






Englne Wright






Whitney R-985 R-985 R-134°

_ 175 _ 176 1 1.93 217

Windshield Glare Cured
Device S,hades Sun's Rays NAS,

R-134·0___ R-153.5 R-169!(L_


7-20--43 Be.ing Issued 7-20-4,3 .._7-20-43· Bissued ...ei.n 1-20"':43




R-1820__ R-26!JO

_ _


________ Revised June 43 Mailed 7-6-43

R-1830 __.




333 _______ 7-12-43 69 ________ .Revised Mailed 7-2-43


309 320

R-183,O___ R-18.30

R-I8S0__ _ R-JR30


32~ 3·2.3 324 I

~_~_. S"UPIl. 7-'1"-43 ----15--15--43 • Being issued ~_ Being

.TUlle 43

n- 2601)___ 76
R-2600 R-2600 R-26Q!l _ _ _

shining 61n. the fuselage, between the windshield and forward edge of cockpit of all N2T-1 and an !\'2S casts a reflection on the windshield which interferes with the pilafs vision, Both the yellow surface of the N2T--l ana. the aluminum color of the N2S te:Be_


7-2'-!i3 94 7-1-43 95 __ _ _ __ _ _ Bei nit 7-2]-43

the stmlight
To correct this, M & E devised balfmoon .shap<:d pieces of colton cloth, dyed locker green and roughed up with sandpaper, and affixed them with dope to the shiny surface. This was found to dispel the glare. The device is used in both frorrt and rear cockpits of the N2T -1 but is necessary- in only the rear cockpit ,Of the N2S, the fOJ'\ •vard cockpit being shaded by the I.Jppor wing.


R-J830 __ 325 R-1830_~_ 326 R-1830 _ 3-21

Being Issued 7-21-43 1-20-43 Being


General .Engine Bnlletir,

Dale ' G-24-4¥ 6-30-43 6-~O-4.3 BeIng iSSlled 7-13~43

R-1830 __ 328 7-20--43 ._ 6-29--,13 L~ R-2BOO f 69 10 G--29-43 2 >-_-~ R-2SQO 1 7l 7-2-43 3 ~---- - --_ -- __ R-2800 , 72 _-7-7 ....-.'1. 1 4. 1 R-2S00_ 1~7-43 .L ~__- ----- -R-2800 _ ,73 1_ •• R-280Q ~ 7<'1 7 1--43 I-------__:_--7'5 7-17-43 R-2800 _ R .... S00 2 _ 76 .. __ Bf!ing I issued R-2'800 __ 77 - - __j1-?-5-.t_3 R-,2800___ 78 7-lW-43

is$Qed 1',--------


How to Remove Fabric Dope
Lambert .Field Advises Six: Steps

The A & R

Shop here has developed a tirne-sasing
and effective method tOT removing old dope from aircraft fabric. Six steps are- involved:
1, Mix cellulose acetate dope hall and half ...... thinner. ith (Dope used must be lh~ acetate type because of its rapid dissol viilg action upon .a11 types of dope.) 2. Get enough ehcesecloth to cover compll'ltcly that section from which the o.ld dope is to be-removed. , 3. Using the doped mixture- described jiaragraph 1, give the surface to be. remove .

be noted from t,he !Lbov~,list that no l;:DglJle alrangea have been sent out since the 1~1 iS~\I;e. Instructions whio1l would Oil the basis Of past practice be issued a,s engine changes are now be,jug issued as l]nllot.ins with the intent of 'simpUf,\'.ing the idE'ntilillation ID lns'l'rU,ctJon and infcrmation roa~erjal issued by the Bureau concerning et'l.g-lNl' operation find malntenanoe, It wl11 furtbf,.r be notad under the date nolunm t,hat the latest supplements, revi-Sions! or n!il:l~tl~ are now .shown, Snpplem611ts obviously lJ'J,llst not replace busio.oulleliDs in servlce files butshoule be aLtachoo to them. However, :revisions do replace t)1e previous i~UC8 and to avoid ·illll.dverll!ut reference to superseded instruetlQIl,S all Siler) IS5\1eS should be dest l'oyed. Occasionally N!~SSllcS are sent au t, Reissues also replace the pl'cViqu)l Jlu blica Lions but di !fer :IToJJ1revi"ionB in th at only .rniuor cQrrect.iOllll, are made.

n will



a good "oat and while i~ still wet apply is the piece of cheesecloth over the top of the section just doped. mixture o{ dC\pe and thinner and allow to dry at least 10 minutes or u01:l.1 the Sll rf ace feels dry to to uch .


mil; same

4. Dope the top of the cheesecloth, using

No,ed Firs,' Time

in Recent RUDM Defining Trouble A recent RUDM from vT~4 indicated dissatisfaction with the chartboard installation in TBF-l airplanes. The sketches depict troubles enoountered by VT --4 pilots.
regarding In Ihl~ type COMMENT-Th~s un.a'idcoc!ory 'of airptane. of pi'lols. 10' en[a.rge <.h...r.boa.a I~ Ihe Il .. treport inltQlioli<:>n chartboa,d



Aftct the surface is dry, apply pure thinner Hberally the underside 1;1£ to the surface containing the cheesecloth. This should be done with a brus;h (same type used to apply dope) and should be brushed thoroughly into the fabric.

6. While the: underside is still wet. pick 1)9 one COfl1Cl: the cheesecloth And pull :i t evenl y across th c sur face tha t has. th ~ thinner under it. The dope wlll come off


ls well IIpon

if lsbefor

on .he cheesecloth leaving tile fabric clean and dear of any old dope. If small patches refuse to peel off' '''''th the cheesecloth, It is probably due to not enough lliirmeE on the. underside. of the fabric 'or because j t was
.allowed to dry out too m.uch before pulling nff the ch~esedoth.

llev .. d th .. 1 the in.l,allalion

adapted Ihe

usa of ,1111.ins
hal'ions way operat,;on appear of the

Actually. Ihe HIu.·
imp,roper na, ... al in


be II,tid ..n.d neglect

to .how -a-n.d drawe.r

Best results are obtained when only acetate dope and thinner are used in this operation.

hod%onlal po.iti:on. SlIgges'lio,,' and' C.Omm.enl$Fram ,other .quad.ong an th" dedrobility "f I.hi, ,nOfoUb,li"", are invitc>d by the Bureau.


:1". JlOLSTf]N.



[See pag'" True heading P;.edl<ted g ee und 'pMd 1 I)

1'J2" l.2'1 V. It 27<-29' N long. 79"_'16' w :Lal. :21"-25' N Long. 19°~06' W Lat.

1715 DRpo~ition 7l5nx Aduo' !lrcund'
good' Wind ~peed

In TBF Is i'lcrm'alnm..'s I\lnged·top pe',mils
".l"Y a~<~~! 10 COYd"",

Use, af' eh to rI!>" atd el<.

135 k


,23 H 0

Force 30 ~

ETA al -eod .,f flnl leg
True heading g... umd ~,p ed' .. of seeend leg Lat. long. ,"oune leg True from: end


1723 023" 150 It

ETA al' end

C"'.ble tind .flOp 10 fU$,,,lo;'lle

ring 10 ~'1CI.fn

Po. ilion of life rafl
of ,Kone!

29· -OB' '" 7.,°-27' W '2"4"
21' 5


Di.!o.ti~e heading g.out1d pO$ill'," 'p~ed Lal. lQI. Lang, Adu,,1 ground .peed Revis .. d ET.A NOTE:

Predicted 1945D'R

243" 94 II 29'°_09' N W 28"_59' N
W '" or 124

Use of' sl.S""1 <od~wh("B ~1i"Jlb"i<t,d ~1"wQg1!' I. cit nO'''I.1'1 qngle,. pull draw"" oUHo pa,ilion,.hown '<1"0....... w1thout p:unin~' chuitboard. Fqf T8F ".se, 1>411 ,d«lwe~ 0..1, unlock hinge, atld hih9~ drawer doWn 10 us obl .. angie., as below.



Long. 78"--4:2.' Po~lt-ian of the

1945 fb


of two hom Or .hree miles de!!r~e' Ihe .<In..... e .. are

Tolerances correct.

or three


The word "torpedo" waacoined by Robert From (he "torpedo electricus" which, scientific. Latin 'Q •arne Ior crampfish mortally wounds ft~ victims. by shock,

fllng~ - ,equire,!: eaSily yefea Ii cd 10 ck, one! a ,. to P r ,"~f~r".b,I,y "dl u.Ia'~le,..to hoJo;! ,pI d~""ea ""!!lIe.


Wingtip Skids Installed
OflUri'Jwa Has Bureau Authority NAS, OTI'Ul\1WA" IowA.-The A & R Department at this Station has developed a 6-pouud installation of win,g~t1p skids for protection of wing panels and allerens against damage when an airplane ground-loops. Wing. tip skids have been installed on a number of airplanes used in routine Hight training. A ZOO-hout Right test has demonstrated prevention of damage to wing panel and aileron 01). airplanes which ground-looped violently. The wing-tip skid: absorbs loads appUed in. any direction without failure, the strengtb in torsion and bending being approximately equal. No damage to the wiog structure at the point of attachmerrt has been observed on planes equipped with the newly designed skid. No change in B.ight characteristics of airplanes equipped with skids has been observed in routine .flight and test fiights. Verbal authority to install on airplanes has been obtained it1JITI CNAPrimTra. Prints of the assembly and instaltation will be made available on request

The replica is a wooden structure, cc~vel't':d",-ith -a pl)'"ieVoodskin. VF repli.ta,s have outer wing panels estending to a station immediately outboard of the last piece of ordnance. These wings Cold like the wings of the original airplane, Contours- of the wing~ and fuselage
are accurately duplicated, Gun com-

partments, bomb bays, turret mounts, etc., are also fai~h:fully copied. AJl operating gear is supplied. Plane Has Wheels, Toil The replica has wooden wheels and a spring-mounted movable tail wheel. Replicas of airplanes having hydraulic gun chargers are equipped

with the nor:cessary hydraulic system, actuated by a hand pump. These replicas may 1,1eutilized for training of teams .of aviation ordnancemen .in rearming and boresighting procedure, Thus necessary training .is. rovided without grounditA. p operational craft. _ Use of this device provides fur increased arming speed and profkiem:y on the part of aviation ordnancemen, Delivery time is from foul' weeks to four months after approved of the request, depending upon model ordered. Comruents and suggestions OJ,:l this training .device are invited by the Special Devices Division '0f BllAer-.

(Succeeds list ot July 15, 1943)

August 15~ 1943
Airplane F4F-3 F4F-3A __. _ .

Bulletin _ _


Change 132.



6-17-43" 6-17-43 6-17-43 7-9--43' 6-17-43 6-10--43 7-10--43
7-10-43 7-10--4.3 7-21-,tl 7-7-43

II- BUREAU COMMENT-Sureau approval for Ihi, butqUaliol1 hco. been gronl ..d for NAS Oll"",,,,a .. lone. It h d",i,e,a thai ~e,p'I'i"'.le approvot he re<tlle.led by ,,!>eh slallon can, 18"'1'10111'9 il< .. ~e, co" the Bureau wi.fI". to follow dosely' the urvlce experlonce In ..... h e ca'.e. Or ..wings and data mar be obl'cined direclfy btl.1!I NAS, OtlumWq.





P·6F-3_. __._ . _. __ .

J.2F-3 J2F-4





F4(H_. .


9 8 15 16

14 19

Aircraft Arming Replica
The Aircr~Jt .Arming' Replica IS a full-size wooden copy of t:h e portion of a combat airplane which contains OI'd~ nance equipment. It is used, in plac€' ofan actual airplane, to train aviation

J2'F-5 bi2S-L N2S-2 N2S-.3 N2S-t 082N-L

.. •__ .

"PV-l______ _ __ PV-3. P'Bl\f-3 . __ ~_ l'DM-3C _ PBM-3U FUM-as PBN-I . PIlY -5 POY-5A_. PBl'-5B________ PB2)::...3 _ _ l'b2Y-3R




_ _ _ _ _ ._ _

91 36 25 35 61 28 21

7-:;':"'43 7-7-43 7-7-43 1-3--43 7-22-43 7-7-43 5-4-43 5-4--43 5-4-43 3-81-4.3 a--:'11-43 3c-31-43

12 13 1.6 II 2.5








_ . __ . __ _ _ _ _ _

~ ' __

J>B4·Y-l_ RSo,..4i
R4D-I R-4,D-lL R5D-L

!. .

._ ~_ _

28 2t :20 1 2 36 41 5 15 20


7-9-43 L-20--43 6-30--43 6-22-43 6-30-43 6-22-.4,3 .3-2&-,43 7~22-4a 7-22-43 7-22-43

12 22 3 27 Gil 38 8 81 37 11 128 122 26 7·8 68 .'1.2 13 10 25


76 4

5-8-4'3 a--2&--,.{3 1-16-43 7-9-43 7-3-43 7-5-43

7-3-43 7-3~43 7-21-43

7-10--43 7-1Q-43 7c...23-43 7-23-43 7-10-43 3-Il-43 7--20-4.3










R.50~5__ _ _



_ _


11. 7 1


___ ___ _ __.

•_ _


9 2 9


ordnancemen in rearming and boresighting techniques. Replicas of the following 'airplanes are available from Bu.Aer's Special Devices Divisi.ori ~ F4F-4, F4U-l, S"BD-5, SB2C-l and TBF-l. Other replicas will be available in the near future.


SNJl-L SNJ-3 ~J-4

. ~_


S03C-] S03.C-2_. SQaC-2

_ _


23 15

'l'BF- L __.


7-2-43 7-16-43 7-12-43 7-12-431 5-26-43 7-7-43 7-7-43 '1-13-43 7-21-43 7-15-43 7-19-43 7-19-43 1-12'-43 7-20-43 7-20--43 8-3-43' 8'-3--43 7-23--43 7-23-43



132 36 15 56 6


4-24-43 7-1-43
7-19-43 7-"S-43 5-4-43 7-3-<t3 5-"22--4.3 6-23-43 7-7-·J3 6;-7-43


15 29 2. 130





I Nomina] Mei.ric Pitch, Threads per inch millimeters ~5 .7 .75 .8 .9 1.0 1.25

Suggested US Thread 36

Depth of Thread,
Single inches -,Ol28


Wid'thaf inches
,002 ,003 .004 .004 .004 ,004 . 005 , b06 .O{l9 Flats,


CRAPPED enemy parts of suitable size and material are sometimes adaptable for use by U, S. fOTCOS in the field, but frequently they are of little value unless it is possible to cut metric screw threads on fittings, Sketch and table show how occasional repair jobs may be made in the field. In preparing 1athe for cutting metric screw threads, the compound rest is located so that it travels parallel with lathe ways. Compound rest lead screw is removed and tool rest travel is partly controlled by a lever, tool travel being retarded a fixed amount depending on dimensions of the lever. Three setups handle 11 of the 21 standard metric pitches in common Use, Lever control is automatic, and thread cutting proceeds in a normal manner even to the use of the thread mal indicator for the US pitch used, The necessary additional parts may be rnade as simple as desired consistent ·w. required accuracy. As the 'tool is in fOI succes ive cuts, ratio and ch change, This may be ccmpensated for by originally adjusting set-up with the tool in its final cutting posi-




1.5 2.0

36,286 33·867 31. 750 28.222 25.400 20.320


26 24 22 .20


.662 .716 ,709



.7U9 .709 .690 .709 .690 .709 .827 .709 .70g .690 .704 .709 .767 ,827

.0179 ,0192 .0205 .0256 .032 .0384 .0448



16.933 114.514

14 12
12 9

3.0 3.5

12.700 111.160

.827 .709


4.0 1>.5


5. 644

4. 5 5.0

6 4~
4 3X 3 3


.0512 .064,0
,0768 .0895




5.080 4. 618 4.233 3.908


. 115

.167 .179

.015 .017 .020 1·022

.010 .012





.032 .035

.025 .0.27 .030



US tbreads used 'per inch desked·

Other ranos n;lay he used If the above do not fit the job,

tion, so that final cut is to desired pitch. This error is small, but light cuts are recommended on long threads as the effect will be cumulative, In many cases, a piece with the desired thread pitch may he available. This can be chucked and lever and. pivot positions adjusted to generate

this pitch without reference to special dimensions. The metric thread is a 60° thread, the same as the US thread, For convenience, depth of a single thread and width at flat are included in the table in decimals of an inch, the depth equaling 0,6495 p and the flat p/8,

. ..

FiJ( -Iwper ~

r;¥,Q"?- ~ iIe::I




permit ingress and egress to the auxiliary power-plant compartment. It is recommended, therefore, that operating personnel close the hatch after entering or leaving the cCimparhnent.

Marine fighter squadron at this sratien p [0 babl y ha~ as disti ng11) shed an A


array of air heroes commanding it as any the nation, Its commanding officer fought with the "Flying Tigers" in China and .i ts exec uti v e officer wan 1}) e a Vy Cro ~ Ier his fighter tactic! at Guadalcanal. The navigation officer holds the Navy 'toss for similar exploits. The COi1llll\IIUcarious officer won a Distingmshed Flying Cros'! and the fiight officer the Air Medal
}'fARIl>le CORPS

rion NEWS commEncing- Jan, I, 1943. up to .and including Sept. 1-5, 1943. It. is further requested thn t this office he placed on the ina iling lis t f Or' I\I ture issu "5.

Pyrotechnic Projector Kita
A sufficient quantity of pyrotcchn. projector kits to equip all life rafts now in service has been procured under contract N288!)-11320, and is baing delivered to all major supply points for inclusion in the life raft equipment container as detailed In TN 6-43 dated February 15, ] 94:}.



Orlando, Sras :

Anny Air Forces Equipment Fla.


and Purple






In accordance with the newly inaugurated policy of the Bureau of aval Personnel of offering certain categories of aviation cadets the option discharge from ~h~ Naval Service, this Board has ompleted th task of mailing well in excess of 800 letters


Srn.s ; This activity has been very' much ested in comments From other N A


pi,aus. for the publication

of mag-



tion, It is interesti ng I:Oe note that less -than one-half 01 one percent took advantage of this offer.

to eligible men who are under



azincs or newspapers designed to cover aU activities under the jurisdiction of the .reSf} ctive boards, since a similar project is soon to make its appearance [rom this Board, Very shortly Ullflheck. the excellcn; publication of the soeu-to-be-discontinued

Naua! Aniaiion Cade« Selection Board Washington, D. C.

FIS, Lockport, Ill .. will become the composite voice for NACSB, Chicago, and all acrivirias under our jurisdiction, It will ontain new" sections on all activities, a department for news and educ<ttioITal features of interest to men on our backlog and considcrable muterial of general interest to and about Naval Aviation.

N!JIJul AUlaliorl Chicago, III. SIRS;

Cade]: Seleatio« Board

A conrmitree to review adequacy of pel'sonncl complements visi ted this station recently. The purpose of the visit wa!;. to e amine the. existing station ccmplement with a. view to making replacements by Waves, Clvil Service personnel, etc., to release men for sea duty. Each department head submitted to 'the personnel officeI' a careful analysis of his personnel needs with a statement as to ratings which could be replaced. The visit had a beneficial effect in that we became mote completely familiar with the department's personnel policies, and it gave us the opportunity to reexamine OUJ' OWn personnel problems,

In operation since July 26, the new Ships Time is successful, according to
consensus ll'cre. Tn order to, allow personnel to sleep during the cool hours of the night, Ship's Time was set two hours behind Pacific War T'ime, Sborrencd daylight hours which will interfere wlth flyl;ng will necessitare gradual adjustment to

NAS, Sr. LOlUs, Mo.

Pacific Wal~ Time.

If possible, this school would like La receive regularly the publication, aval Aviation NEWS. It is felt this publication can be used to advantage in couaecrion with the tl'aini,ng' program of this school. H this request can be complied with, the copies should be mailed to the Director of Ground School, Army Air Forces Navigation.Scheel, San Marcos Arm)' Air l'icld. San Maroes,

The opened kit consists of one projc tor and six red Very's shells. Each shell is sealed in a waterproof plastic container and the entire kit is protected by a wax dipper cardboard carton. The hand projector will fire the shell approximately 2.50 feet in the air and no 'apparent recoil results when the projector i~ operated. It is consa ercd that this kit will provide an a~ quate night signalling medium for personnel afloat water. Activities should requisition the kits from the major supply points as requited. Inasmuch as no specifications are available for this item at present, they should be requisitioned as "Contract N288s-1 [320 Pyrotechnic Projector Kits."

NAS, Pasco, Wash"

Srus : It is reque t d thnt this oflico be Iurnished with one. copy of each issue ofNaval Avia-

-Army Air

Close the Hatch!
Several activities have reported airplanes that

on the Model PBM-3, -3R, and -3C hatch-cover
the auxiliary power plant stop-brace bends and

breaks due to the slip-stream pressure again rt the open hatch cover when the engines are being warmed up. The hat h is not designed to be left open when the engines are being warmed lip and should be used only to

BEST ANSWfRS To queJtions Oil 1"09" 13
1. d .2. d


~ ~. h



on Inside back cover 2.2 3.3 4.4 S.3



1t1 191'5 a youn.g Nip naval! ·officer nam ed Yamamoto said: "The most iim.portant ship of the future· will bea ship to cany airplanes," What Yamamotlo did not prediet, or foresee, wo.s that carrierscre destined to playa big partin humbling his nation. AnsWers!)n page 32. W,ife your 2
answe.rs here

4 5



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