• • • • • • • •

Ch 13 Personality: the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person. Psychodynamic approaches to personality: Freud. Approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control. Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud’s theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality. Unconscious: apart of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware Id: The raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational pulses. Force that drives u to obtain pleasure and avoid displeasure. Ego: The part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world. conscious mind that make decisions. Superego: Freud. The final personality structure to develop; it represents the rights and wrongs of society as handed down by a person’s parents, teachers, and other important figures. unconscious part or yourself that is developed by your upbringing. Fixations: A fixation occurs when an issue or conflict in a psychosexual stage remains unresolved, leaving the individual focused on this stage and unable to move onto the next. Preconscious: Contains material that is easily brought to mind 2+2=4 Pleasure Principle: The id. strives to fulfill our most basic and primitive urges, including hunger, thirst, anger, and sex. Reality Principle: The ego. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon an impulse. Psychosexual Stages: Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges. Oral Stage: 12-18 mo. infants center of pleasure is the mouth. Sucking, eating, mouthing, biting. Anal Stage: 12/18-3 Center of pleasure=anus. Toilet training. Phallic Stage: 35/6 Center of pleasure=genitals. Identification with same sex parent. Oedipal Conflict: A child’s sexual interest in his or her opposite sex parent typically resolved with identification with the same sex parent. Identification: The process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitating that person’s behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values Latency Period: 5-6 btwn phallic and puberty=children’s sexual concerns are temporarily put aside. Genital Stage: adolescents-adulthood. Reemergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships Castration anxiety: The fear of loosing one’s penis which ultimately becomes so powerful that the child represses his desires for his mother and identifies with his father. Neurotic Anxiety: irrational impulses from the id threatened to burst through and become incontrollable. Defense Mechanism: Freud. Unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others. Repression: the primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious. (Unable to recall you were raped). Regression: behaving in an earlier stage of development (boss has a temper tantrum) Displacement: Expression of unwanted feeling from powerful person to weaker one (brother yells at younger sister b/c teacher gives him bad grade) Rationalization: (student drinks before exam saying exam isn’t important) Denial: Refusing to believe a piece of information (Amanda) Projection: (a man who cheats, feels guilty, and suspects wife cheats) Sublimation: aggressive person=soldier Reaction Formation: Unconscious impulses are expressed as their opposite in consciousness Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts: Psychoanalysts trained in Freudian theory but later reject some of its major points. (Carl Jung rejected primary importance of unconscious sexual urges) Collective Unconscious: Jung. A common set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our ancestors., the whole human race, and even animal ancestors. Archetypes: Jung. Universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience. (people like Star Wars because broad archetypes of good [Luke Skywalker] and evil [Darth Vader] Inferiority Complex: Adler. Problem affecting adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children, when they were small and limited in their knowledge about the world. Trait theory: A model of personality that seeks to ID the basic traits necessary to describe personality. Traits: consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations. Allport: 3 kinds of traits: Cardinal trait: a single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities. EX power hungry person has a need for control. Central traits: 5-10 traits that make up a person. EX honey and sociability Secondary traist: less important traits EX reluctance to eat meat or love of modern art. Factor analysis: statistical method of IDing assoc. among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. Raymond Cattell: using factor analysis he suggested the 16 pairs of source traits. Hans Eysenck: traits = extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Extraversion: level of sociability (sociable, lively, active, assertive, sensation-seeking). Neurotic degree: emotional stability (anxious, depressed, low self-esteem, tense). Psychoticism: degree to which reality is distorted (aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive). The big 5: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Social cognitive approaches to personality: theories that emphasize the influence of a person’s cognitions, thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values as well as observation of others’ behavior, in determining personality. Self -Efficacy: belief in one’s personal capabilities. It underlies ppl’s faith in their ability to carry out a particular behavior or produce a desired outcome. Self-Esteem: the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations. Relationship harmony: a sense of success in forming close bonds with ppl Deterministic view: behavior is shaped by forces beyond the control of the individual. Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality: theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited. Temperament: the innate disposition that emerges early in life. Humanistic approaches to personality: theories that emphasize people’s innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning. Self-actualization: a state of self-fulfillment in which ppl realize their highest potential, each in a unique way. Unconditional positive regard: an attitude of acceptance and respect if another person. Conditional positive regard: depends on ur behavior. Ex if you do something bad, they no longer accept u. Psychological tests: standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively; used by psychologists to help ppl make decisions about their lives and understand more about themselves. Reliability: consistency of a test. Validity: actually measure what is supposed to measure. Norms: standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score with others’ scores. Self-report measures: a method of gathering data about ppl by asking then Qs about a sample of their behavior. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2: a widely used self-report test the IDs ppl with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors. Test standardization: a technique used to validate Qs in personality tests by studying the responses of ppl with known diagnoses. Projective personality test: a test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it. Rorschach test: a test that involves showing a series of symmetrical visual stimuli to ppl who then are asked what the figures represent to them. Thematic apperception test: a test consisting of a series of pics about which a person is asked to write a story. Behavioral assessment: Direct measures of an individual’s behavior used to describe personality characteristics. CH 15 Abnormal behavior: behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents then from functioning in their daily lives. Medical perspective: physiological causes are at the root of psychological disorders. Cause found in physical exam, which will reveal hormonal imbalance, chemical deficiency, or brain injury. Psychoanalytic perspective: psychological disorders stem from childhood conflicts regarding sex and aggression. Behavioral perspective: abnormal behaviors are learned responses. Cognitive perspective: ppls thoughts and beliefs are the central component of abnormal behavior. Humanistic perspective: emphasizes ppl’s responsibility for their own behavior and the need to self-actualize. Sociocultural perspective: assumes that behavior is shaped by family, society, and culture. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision: a system, devised by the American psychiatric assoc. used by most professionals to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior. Anxiety disorder: the occurrence of anxiety without an obvious external cause, affecting daily func. Phobias: intense, irrational, fears of specific objects or situations. Panic disorder: anxiety disorder that consists of panic attacks. Range from few secs. To several hours. Generalized anxiety disorder: long term anxiety. Obsession: unwanted thought of idea that keeps recurring. Compulsion: irresistible urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable. Somatoform disorders: psychological difficulties that take on a physical form, but for which there is no medical cause. Hypochondriasis: constant fear of illness and preoccupation with health. Conversion disorder: a disorder with an actual physical disturbance. EX complete or parital inability to move an arm or leg. Dissociative disorder: separation of different facets of a person’s personality that are normally integrated. disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. Dissociative identity disorder: person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities. Alter ego. Dissociative amnesia: a significant selective memory loss. Dissociative fugue: amnesia in which someone leaves home and assumes a new identity.

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

not bc he may have had a legit reason) Collective orientation: Asians use this. with your fears. Dopamine hypothesis: schizophrenia occurs where there is excess activity in areas of brain that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Person-centered therapy: reach ones potential for self-actualization(client centered therapy) Nondirective counseling: part of <. Anxiety drugs: reduce anxiety by reducing excitability and ^ feelings of well-being. Process schizophrenia: symptoms develop slowly and subtly. Reactive schizophrenia: sudden and conspicuous. of things you assoc. Early adulthood. Mood stabilizers: drugs used to treat mood disorders that prevent manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Intense happiness. Borderline personality disorder: ppl have difficulty developing a secure sense of who they are. Antipsychotic drugs: drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic symptoms such as agitation. CH 17 Attitudes: Evaluations of a particular person. Bipolar disorder: person alternates btwn periods of mania and depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: permit serotonin to linger at the synapse. Such as social withdrawal or blunted emotions. Absence or loss of normal func. such as reinforcement and extinction. power. and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior. Hallucinations. not listening to message because doofy is saying it even if he might be right. Group therapy: ppl meet in a group with a therapist to discuss problems. Lexapro. more attractive ppl produce greater attitude changes. Meta-analysis: data from a large number of studies are statistically combined. Drug therapy: control of psychological disorders through the use of drugs. Autism: a severe developmental disability that impairs children’s ability to communicate and relate to others.) information-processing routes to persuasion: central and peripheral route processing. unpleasant stimulus with the undesired behavior. impulsiveness. Appropriately in society. Dialectical behavior therapy: a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting ppl to accept who they are. Hierarchy of fears: a list. people might think that im also giving) Assumed-similarity bias: The tendency to think of people as being similar to oneself even when meeting them for the first time (your best friends are awesome because your awesome) Self-serving bias: The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors and failure to others Fundamental attribution error: Tendency to overattribute others behavior to dispositional causes and minimize importance of situational causes (assume beef is late bc he is lazy. Personality disorders: inflexible. Groupthink: Type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose ability to critically evaluate other points of view. Psychodynamic therapy: seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious. Psychoanalysis: Freudian psychotherapy. Community psychology: prevent psychological disorders in the community. and emotional intrusiveness by family members. Psychosurgery: brain surgery once used to reduce the symptoms of mental disorder but rarely used today. decisionmaking. (Easier to convince Doofy then normal person. Mania: extended state of intense. Rational emotive behavioral therapy: attempts to restructure a person’s belief system into a more realistic. Systematic desensitization: behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety. Humanistic therapy Humanistic psychology minimizes the effects of the unconscious mind. so patients can deal with the problems more effectively. MAO inhibitors: prevent monoamine oxidase (MAO) from breaking dwn neurotransmitters. Aversive conditioning: reduces the frequency of a behavior by pairing an aversive. wild elation. nice. Started by carl rogers. CH 16 Psychotherapy: treatment in which a trained professional (a therapist) uses psychological techniques to help a person overcome psychological difficulties and disorders. regardless of the feelings and attitudes the client expresses Empathetic: understanding of a client’s emotional experiences. Two sided messages are more effective then one sided. Goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior. Biomedical therapy: therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological functioning. Type 1: positive. No personal distress. Antisocial personality disorder: ppl show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others. Exposure: treatment for anxiety. Learned helplessness: learned expectation that events in one’s life are uncontrollable and one cannot escape a situation. Ppl gradually or suddenly confronted with a stimulus they fear. Cognitive behavioral approach: incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way ppl think. Characteristics of the message: not just who delivers message but what the message actually is.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mood disorder: disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living. Anti depressant drugs: improve severely depressed ppls mood and feeling. Interpersonal therapy: short-term therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships. Cognitive treatment approaches: teach ppl to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves. Unconditional positive regard: expressing acceptance and understanding. Characteristics of the target: Intelligent people are more resistane to persuasion than those who are less intelligent. resolve problems in living. regardless of whether it matches their ideal. the man. or concept Message Source: characteristics of person talking. but better if paid) Social cognition: The way people understand and make sense of others and themselves Schemas: Sets of cognitions about people and social experiences (B-Rad lies =harder to be persuaded by him) Central traits:The major traits considered in forming impression of others Attribution theory: How we decide on the bases of samples of someone’s behavior and the causes of their behavior Situational causes:Perceives causes of behavior that are based on environmental factors (You spill=you clean. i. focusing instead on the uniquely human capacity to understand one’s place in the world and relationships with others. hostility. or bring about personal growth. not because you want to but because the situation requires it) Dispositional causes:Prompted by the targets personality Halo effect: Initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other characteristics (Im sexy. and energy. delusions..e. in order of increasing severity. Compliance: Behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . rational. maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from func. Prefrontal lobotomy: surgically removing or destroying parts of frontal lobe. and a great deal of inappropriate activity. hallucination. or loss of normal functioning. personal identity and uniqueness of the individual Social Influence: Process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others Group: Two or more people who interect with one another and perceive themselves as a group Groups hold norms. People are swayed in their judgments by logic and strengths of argument Peripheral route processing: People are persuaded on factors unrelated to the quality of the message. Tricyclic drugs: incr the availability of norepinephrine at the synapse of neurons. Type 2: negative. Behavioral treatment approaches: treatment approaches that build on the basic process of learning. belief. Spontaneous remission: recovery w/o treatment. Graded exposure: exposure is gradual. behavior. Electric current of 70 to 150 volts is briefly administered to patient’s head. ADHD: inattention. Central route processing:recipient thoughtfully considers the issues and arguments involved in persuasion. Major depression: depression that interferes with concentration. Narcissistic personality disorder: exaggerated sense of self-importance. and delusions. expectations regarding behavior appropriate to the group Conformity: A change in behavior brought by a desire to follow the beliefs of others Status: The social rank held within a group Social supporter: A group member whose dissenting views make non-conformity to the group easier. promotes the notion of independence ndividual orientation: Western cultures use. Electroconvulsive therapy: used for severe depression. Deinstitutionalization: transfer of former mental patients from institutions to the community. and sociability. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: depression treatment in which a precise magnetic pulse is directed to a specific area of the brain. Expressed emotion: interaction style characterized by criticism. Schizophrenia: severe distortion of reality. Transference: transfer of feelings to psychoanalysts of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient’s parents or other authority figure. high need for cognition are more likely to use central route=people who are thoughtful Cognitive dissonance: Person holds two contradictory thoughts(Cleaning is boring. Family therapy: focuses on a family and its dynamics.

body aches Social psychology: Study of how people’s thoughts. they may treat them in a way that actually brings about a lack of ambition) Social neuroscience: Social psychology that seeks to identify the neural basis of social behavior mplicit association test (IAT): measure of prejudice allows stronger measurement of discrimination Interpersonal attraction: Positive feelings for others. schizophrenia. liking and loving Reciprocity-of-liking effect: Tendency to like who likes us Passionate love: Intense absorption in someone that includes intense arousal. including worker motivation. agitation Physiological: Weight loss or gain. mood disorders. interpreting the event as one that needs help. loss of interest. intimacy component. insomnia or hypersomnia. Normative influence •Going along to get along •Conforming to avoid the negative social consequences of appearing deviant • Asch: Unambiguous judgment Conformity: Behavior or belief that moves toward a group consensus as a result of real or imagined group pressure. Discrimination: Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group (Nibs opinions don’t matter because they are lower then us) Prejudice: An evaluation of a particular group and its members Stereotype: A set of generalized beliefs about a particular group and its members Self-fulfilling prophecy: Expectations about the occurrence of a future event that act to increase the likelihood the event will occur (If people think that a group lacks ambition. psychomotor retardation. self-denigration. Cognitive symptoms: Pessimism. diminished sex drive. guilt. feelings.caring of Companion love:strong affection for those with whom are lives are deeply involved Love consists of three parts: commitment. deicing on and implementing the form of helping Altruism: Helping behavior that is beneficial to others but clearly requires self-sacrifice. and productivity Obedience: A change in behavior in response to the commands of others. turning away from aggression Diffusion of responsibility: The tendency for people to feel that responsibility for acting is shared. Decision to give aid has 4 steps: Noticing something that needs help. suicidal ideation Behavioral symptoms: Neglect of personal appearance. Organic disorders. passion component Aggression: The intentional injury of. assuming responsibility for helping. anxiety disorders. safety. personality disorders. satisfaction.interest. loss or increase in appetite.• • • • • • Industrial-organizational psychology: Psychology focusing on work-and job –related issues. another person Catharis:The process of discharging built-up aggressive energy Prosocial behavior: Helping bevior. and actions are affected by others. or harm in. Compliance: Changing behavior in response to direct social pressure Milgram experiment: Results: 65 percent continued to highest level • • • • • .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful