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Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership




SAAD KHALFALLA Spring (2011)


I will introduce by a brief paragraph. the prophet was. following his converting to Islam he became one of the most important advisors to the prophet Muhammad in addition to “Abu Bakr. In the first place. His mother hantammah daughter of Hashim. or controversial issue he will take whatever they agreed about. when Abu Bakr dead Omar became the second successor to the Muslims. at the time before he converts to Islam.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership Introduction: In this paper. I will look to him as successor to the Muslim nation during his time. Biography: His name is Omar son of Al-Khattab Nufayl son of Abdul Uzza son of Kaab son of luayy son of Al-Qurashi. 2 . the Muslims felt they became powerful. Therefore. case. He was born in Makah in 584. Then. I look to some of the actions that he did when he was a successor. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab as topic. 1 He was the first man who believed in Islam in history from the prophet Muhammad. However. if Abu Bakr and Omar agreed about any matter. More. In addition. Omar became his first and most important advisor. I will try to focus on the things and actions that were very popular. He leaved in a middle class family. I am trying to highlight some of “Omar son of Al-Khattab” or Omar Ibn alKhattab’s attitudes and look at them from the leadership perspectives. the Muslims were the minority. He was known by his strength and braveness in his society. Further. it is very big topic to be covered in just paper like this. More. was also descend from the same tribe that his father descend from which is Quraysh. after he converted to the Islam in about 617. Those actions reflect some signs of the leadership.”1 Furthermore. after the prophet death and Abu Bakr takeover and became his successor. However.

In other words he said. OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB ATTITUDES IN THE LEADERSHIP: As we have read. I will put my cheek on the ground. For example. and his son to come to Al-Medina. during his time. Christian Copt slapped back the sun of Umar Ibn Al-As. Therefore. one of other Muslims leaders was on the head of military his name Umar Ibn-As. that increase in the Islamic empire at that time was not by the power of the sword.”) In addition. but was by the beauty of people’s actions. one of Omar’s nicknames was Al-Farooq “who distinguished between the truth and false or right and what is wrong. Furthermore. The Copt was asking for anyone who can take his right from the son of Umar Ibn Al-As back. the Muslim armies not allow fighting people who do not have the attention of fighting and the fighters did not have the permission to kill women.” When the Muslims went to Egypt. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab sent for Umar bin As. People tooled him to go Omar Ibn AlKhattab in Al-Medina and he can retain your dignity back. And I think because of that the Muslim empire increased to cover the North Africa and some parts from Asia. by his orders the Muslim army was not allowed to stay in the nations that they could not protect them.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership Moreover. “I will not calm down until I will put one cheek of a tyrant on the ground and the other under my feet. after they came.” ("Umar. when Omar takeover. Umar bin As. people were free to practice any religion that they have. like Judaism and Christianity in Al-Medina or anywhere in the Islamic empire. and for the poor and weak. he gave a speech described his power that is increased by doubled for those who seek for unjust. Then the Christian Copt and his father went to Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in Al-Medina and tooled him what was happen with them. the leader has to fair. his son was slapped a Christian Copt on his face. and children nor to cut trees. and his power will disappear for the good people. “(Then Omar Ibn Al-Khattab angrily 3 . old people not carry weapons to fight.

After that. in his first speech he said. he gave the orders to the military leaders not to leave for more than three to four months. When he asked her about the age of her child and he was very young. we will be able to see that. Also mentioned. he asked his daughter. he talked the mother of that child behind the curtain to keep her child silent. but the woman seamed missed her husband who was in the army. In the next day. when did you start to enslave the people. He asked her why was she doing that so early? She answered. She said to hem I am trying to wean him. he heard a child crying. if we looked to him as leader from the leadership responsibility perspectives. In my opinion. In the next morning after he finished 4 . I would take care of everything that he left behind. one night while he was inspecting the city he heard a woman was talking. Further. no one would think to insult anyone what matter was his or her religion nor where he or she was come from.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership turned to Omar Ibn al-As and said: "Oh Omar. Therefore. he took the full responsibilities about the entire regions that were under his control. For example. a woman could stay without her husband about three to four months and she was shy in saying that.” In other words. 2002). though they were born free of their mothers?")” (Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi. He was responsible for the families when the men go in the Muslim army. one night while he was guarding a caravan. Similarly. “I am the father of your children until you come back. he said if anyone lift his family and joined the army or went for some type of missions. this type of actions was one of the reasons that all of people were able to live in peace with each other with no matter what their belief would be. because the Omar Ibn Al-Khattab does not give the living allowance to the child until he or she weaned. when Omar took that issue very serious. how could the woman stay without her husband? She responds to him.

he was taking the full responsibilities abut “Muslims House of Wealth. Their emperor was always surrounded with many solders and weapons for his protection.” ("Omar Ibn alKhattab. asked him why did not you let one of us to go and return that camel back instead of you? He said I would be the responsible about that in front of God not you. “He ordered a caller to sound and say: Do not rush to wean your infants.”2 He never spends any amount of money for himself that belonged to the Muslim treasury. Then. and his shoes were under his head. When the roman emperor sent a delegation headed by his minister to meet Omar Ibn Al-Khattab. One day a camel runaway form the corral and he followed that camel by himself. the minister was shock and said to Omar Ibn Al-Khattab a beautiful saying that 2 Historically. or securities. His life was normal and very simple life. When they reached him. managing personal finances and government expenditures.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership from the early Morning Prayer he was crying and said oh son of Al-Khattab.”) In the same way. In addition. Thus. therefore there were no guards. and peacefully sleeping. they find him sleeping under the tree. it administered distributions of zakah revenues for public works. When one of the Muslims who were there. particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate. Further. 5 . Modern Islamic economists deem the institutional framework appropriate for contemporary Islamic societies. it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states. secret secrecies. the roman delegation in the first could not identify him very easy because of his simple life and he had nothing that may lead them to him as the leader to the Muslims at that time. how many child did you killed form the Muslim children. they were instructed that they would find him sleeping under a tree. However. for we pay for every new born baby in Islam. he did not have anything that may differentiate him from other people. It served as a royal treasury for the caliphs and sultans. he was not like to be different from the others. when they asked about him. for the roman minister that was not as the situation that they used to see with their emperor.

The fanny thing that was happened while they were on the way. When some Muslims asked him why is he doing that? He said to them. Besides.” Omar Ibn Al-Khattab broke the Islamic rule about the stealing when the punishment was for the stealer would be to cut his or her hand. Scott General Willard W. human or animals have a limited ability that they cannot pass. the camel would go free to take some rest too.” Moreover. The Muslim nation in the Arabian Peninsula faced a crisis that was called the “Year of Ramadah” where they suffered from hanger and the Muslims had nothing to eat and some of them maystole because they had no chose. The limitation of their ability sometimes how many hours that may be able to work continually or how much weight something can carry on. the good leaders should 6 . they stacked in a mud and each one of them had to walk easy moving even the camel because he also something that feel weight and pain. each life whatever it was. and through your governing you have made justice. and because you made justice among the people you were able to sleep peacefully. “Any fool can keep a rule. they were Omar Ibn Al-Khattab ride then his servant and in the third time. God gave him a brain to know when to break the rule. Further. When Omar Ibn Al-Khattab went to Jerusalem and his servant. He was like live very poor in order to understand how they live and what the things that should be done to them to make their life better. I want to share other Muslims who were sleeping outside in the cold. and when the camel’s term was over. the camel was taking his term. because of that situation Omar Ibn AlKhattab stopped the hand cut punishment for that year.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership can be translated to English as: “Oh Omar you have governed. He used to sleep in outside in the cold weather. Likewise. he was like to share people their feelings. In addition.

we would be able to find many things that he did and the Muslims as nation still 7 . And do not behave as if you were superior to them. Furthermore. Leader should be capable to lead anything that comes under his or her power and or control. he has some general instructions that all of his officers and governors must follow and that was: "Remember." ("Umar. OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB AND THE CURRENT MUSLIMS WORLD: When we look at the accomplishments that Omar Ibn Al-Khattab did during his time as successor. he headed each Muslim state by one of the people that he trusted very well. I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. he established annual conferences for his governors and military leaders to ask them about the people that they were responsible about. lest they fall into the error of conceit. OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB AND HIS OFFICERS: As the Islamic country was getting large and large and it became not easy for him to control form Al-Medina.”) As well as. for that is tyranny over them. lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. I have sent you as leaders instead. Do not praise them unduly. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. so that the people may follow your example.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership sometime feel not only what human could feel and forget the animals just because they did not say we get tired because we walk a long distance or that thing is very heavy. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces.

as the time passed and the Prophet Muhammad and he successor Abu Bakr were both dead and the Muslims were practicing that prayer by optional individually one night Omar Ibn Al-Khattab saw the Muslims each praying alone. he did in the third night and the number of the prayers became more large. Further. Therefore. “I did not want you to take that prayer as mandatory. For instance. Then.” “The Islamic calendar was first introduced by the close companion of the Prophet. 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. the prophet was asked about why not he prayed the extra one last night. each full cycle of the moon will be a one month. However. His answer was. in the forth night Prophet did not make the extra prayer. Then he decided to have the first year of the calendar the year that Prophet Muhammad was emigrated from Mecca to Al-Medina. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab said that why not we gather them and pray as a congregation behind one person. in the next day. 1998). the Muslims still practicing that prayer each Ramadan until now. When they done from prayer. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab was decided to have a calendar that would systemize their life. and he did after that. and if you did you would not be able to do it. As the same as the two nights before. 8 . while leaders do the right things. Many Islamic countries and the Muslims in the non-Muslims countries use that calendar to determine the Islamic events. In the night after.” More. Additionally. “Managers do things right. if we compare what Omar Ibn Al-Khattab had done in example with what Warren Bennis said. he looked to the prayers and well novelty that was done. one night in the month of Ramadan he prayed extra prayer after the mandatory prayer with a few of his companions. Moreover. When the Muslims had difficulties to count the things nor the events that were took place in their time.” (Huda.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership follow until our present time. he assigned the Islamic calendar “Hijri Calendar3. Then. he prayed as the night before and the number of the Muslims behind him increased. during the Prophet Muhammad time.” We 3 The Islamic calendar or the “Hijri Calendar” is a calendar count the months by the Moon cycle.

He saw that prayer could be done by better way. 9 .Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership would be able to see that the Muslims were managing or doing their prayer properly. Whereas. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab saw something that was different. which is to be congregated.

In addition. as well. if we compare his leadership style with the present leadership and leaders we will find that. I can classify Omar Ibn Al-Khattab to be one of historical leaders. That combination was mixture between mercy and justice with power and inconsiderate. Even though Umar Ibn Al-As was one of the greatest political leader in the time of prophet Muhammad. when we look at some of his first speech and see how he punished the son of Omar Ibn Al-As publically. when we look closely to his leadership style we can see the very complex combination that he mixed as successor. we can indentify how he could be harsh against injustice people and how his justice was. he led a nation and considered himself as the one who was most responsible about anything that was on the region. 10 . Nevertheless.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership Conclusion: From the thing that I see. as how he reacted with his servant and the camel when they went to Jerusalem. and when his son made a mistake and he did not take that issue very serious he was punished no matter who was he. we would see leadership in mercy. On the other hand. the leader should not monopolizes his or her position as an officer or governor and punish or forgive anyone depend on the relationship with him or her. Further. which was under his control. From the action of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab against the son of Umar Ibn Al-As. When look to his reaction with the crying child because of the weaning.

'Allamah . The islamic calendar .witness -pioneer. http://www.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership References: 1. Huda. (1998).org.about. o r g/ w i k i / O m a r # R e i g n _ a s _ C a l i p h 11 .org/vil/Books/M_hri/index. Retrieved from http://www.htm 2. 6.aicp.ORG .com/cs/calendar/a/hijrah_calendar. (2002). WPONLINE. 4. w i k i p e d i a .wikipedia. Omar Ibn al-khattab the second rightly guided caliph.htm 3. 2011. Umar. http://en. Retrieved April 27. Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi. Initials. Retrieved from from h t t p : / / e n . Human rights in islam.