Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership




SAAD KHALFALLA Spring (2011)


However. I will look to him as successor to the Muslim nation during his time. the prophet was. More. Then. following his converting to Islam he became one of the most important advisors to the prophet Muhammad in addition to “Abu Bakr. after he converted to the Islam in about 617. I am trying to highlight some of “Omar son of Al-Khattab” or Omar Ibn alKhattab’s attitudes and look at them from the leadership perspectives. after the prophet death and Abu Bakr takeover and became his successor. He was known by his strength and braveness in his society. He leaved in a middle class family. I look to some of the actions that he did when he was a successor. case. His mother hantammah daughter of Hashim. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab as topic. if Abu Bakr and Omar agreed about any matter. it is very big topic to be covered in just paper like this. I will try to focus on the things and actions that were very popular. Biography: His name is Omar son of Al-Khattab Nufayl son of Abdul Uzza son of Kaab son of luayy son of Al-Qurashi. was also descend from the same tribe that his father descend from which is Quraysh. Further. or controversial issue he will take whatever they agreed about. 2 . the Muslims felt they became powerful. Those actions reflect some signs of the leadership. at the time before he converts to Islam. However. Omar became his first and most important advisor. I will introduce by a brief paragraph. In addition. when Abu Bakr dead Omar became the second successor to the Muslims. More. He was born in Makah in 584. In the first place. 1 He was the first man who believed in Islam in history from the prophet Muhammad. the Muslims were the minority.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership Introduction: In this paper.”1 Furthermore. Therefore.

during his time. that increase in the Islamic empire at that time was not by the power of the sword. Umar bin As. by his orders the Muslim army was not allowed to stay in the nations that they could not protect them. old people not carry weapons to fight. and his son to come to Al-Medina. the leader has to fair.”) In addition. and for the poor and weak. he gave a speech described his power that is increased by doubled for those who seek for unjust. People tooled him to go Omar Ibn AlKhattab in Al-Medina and he can retain your dignity back. one of other Muslims leaders was on the head of military his name Umar Ibn-As. OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB ATTITUDES IN THE LEADERSHIP: As we have read.” ("Umar. and children nor to cut trees. “(Then Omar Ibn Al-Khattab angrily 3 . I will put my cheek on the ground. one of Omar’s nicknames was Al-Farooq “who distinguished between the truth and false or right and what is wrong. and his power will disappear for the good people. his son was slapped a Christian Copt on his face. “I will not calm down until I will put one cheek of a tyrant on the ground and the other under my feet. Therefore. like Judaism and Christianity in Al-Medina or anywhere in the Islamic empire. Then the Christian Copt and his father went to Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in Al-Medina and tooled him what was happen with them. For example. Furthermore. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab sent for Umar bin As. people were free to practice any religion that they have.” When the Muslims went to Egypt. And I think because of that the Muslim empire increased to cover the North Africa and some parts from Asia. In other words he said. the Muslim armies not allow fighting people who do not have the attention of fighting and the fighters did not have the permission to kill women. The Copt was asking for anyone who can take his right from the son of Umar Ibn Al-As back.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership Moreover. Christian Copt slapped back the sun of Umar Ibn Al-As. after they came. but was by the beauty of people’s actions. when Omar takeover.

he took the full responsibilities about the entire regions that were under his control. Similarly. She said to hem I am trying to wean him. no one would think to insult anyone what matter was his or her religion nor where he or she was come from. For example. but the woman seamed missed her husband who was in the army. In my opinion. In the next day. 2002). Therefore. though they were born free of their mothers?")” (Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi. a woman could stay without her husband about three to four months and she was shy in saying that. if we looked to him as leader from the leadership responsibility perspectives. how could the woman stay without her husband? She responds to him. he asked his daughter. “I am the father of your children until you come back. he said if anyone lift his family and joined the army or went for some type of missions. in his first speech he said. he gave the orders to the military leaders not to leave for more than three to four months. he talked the mother of that child behind the curtain to keep her child silent. he heard a child crying.” In other words. In the next morning after he finished 4 . He was responsible for the families when the men go in the Muslim army. When he asked her about the age of her child and he was very young. Further. After that. He asked her why was she doing that so early? She answered. because the Omar Ibn Al-Khattab does not give the living allowance to the child until he or she weaned. one night while he was guarding a caravan. Also mentioned. when did you start to enslave the people. this type of actions was one of the reasons that all of people were able to live in peace with each other with no matter what their belief would be. I would take care of everything that he left behind.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership turned to Omar Ibn al-As and said: "Oh Omar. we will be able to see that. one night while he was inspecting the city he heard a woman was talking. when Omar took that issue very serious.

managing personal finances and government expenditures.” ("Omar Ibn alKhattab. Further. the roman delegation in the first could not identify him very easy because of his simple life and he had nothing that may lead them to him as the leader to the Muslims at that time. they were instructed that they would find him sleeping under a tree. he was taking the full responsibilities abut “Muslims House of Wealth. he was not like to be different from the others. they find him sleeping under the tree. for the roman minister that was not as the situation that they used to see with their emperor. and peacefully sleeping. particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate. 5 . the minister was shock and said to Omar Ibn Al-Khattab a beautiful saying that 2 Historically. Then. how many child did you killed form the Muslim children. secret secrecies. Modern Islamic economists deem the institutional framework appropriate for contemporary Islamic societies. therefore there were no guards. Thus. When they reached him. when they asked about him. In addition. When one of the Muslims who were there. However. it administered distributions of zakah revenues for public works. for we pay for every new born baby in Islam. One day a camel runaway form the corral and he followed that camel by himself. Their emperor was always surrounded with many solders and weapons for his protection. and his shoes were under his head.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership from the early Morning Prayer he was crying and said oh son of Al-Khattab. he did not have anything that may differentiate him from other people. When the roman emperor sent a delegation headed by his minister to meet Omar Ibn Al-Khattab. asked him why did not you let one of us to go and return that camel back instead of you? He said I would be the responsible about that in front of God not you. “He ordered a caller to sound and say: Do not rush to wean your infants.”2 He never spends any amount of money for himself that belonged to the Muslim treasury. It served as a royal treasury for the caliphs and sultans. it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states. His life was normal and very simple life.”) In the same way. or securities.

I want to share other Muslims who were sleeping outside in the cold. The fanny thing that was happened while they were on the way. the camel would go free to take some rest too. When Omar Ibn Al-Khattab went to Jerusalem and his servant. When some Muslims asked him why is he doing that? He said to them. and through your governing you have made justice. human or animals have a limited ability that they cannot pass. The limitation of their ability sometimes how many hours that may be able to work continually or how much weight something can carry on. they were Omar Ibn Al-Khattab ride then his servant and in the third time. He used to sleep in outside in the cold weather. The Muslim nation in the Arabian Peninsula faced a crisis that was called the “Year of Ramadah” where they suffered from hanger and the Muslims had nothing to eat and some of them maystole because they had no chose.” Omar Ibn Al-Khattab broke the Islamic rule about the stealing when the punishment was for the stealer would be to cut his or her hand. they stacked in a mud and each one of them had to walk easy moving even the camel because he also something that feel weight and pain. each life whatever it was. and when the camel’s term was over. Likewise.” Moreover. he was like to share people their feelings. Besides. the camel was taking his term. General Willard W. In addition. God gave him a brain to know when to break the rule. the good leaders should 6 .Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership can be translated to English as: “Oh Omar you have governed. He was like live very poor in order to understand how they live and what the things that should be done to them to make their life better. and because you made justice among the people you were able to sleep peacefully. Scott said. because of that situation Omar Ibn AlKhattab stopped the hand cut punishment for that year. “Any fool can keep a rule.

lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. Leader should be capable to lead anything that comes under his or her power and or control. he has some general instructions that all of his officers and governors must follow and that was: "Remember. And do not behave as if you were superior to them. OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB AND HIS OFFICERS: As the Islamic country was getting large and large and it became not easy for him to control form Al-Medina. so that the people may follow your example.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership sometime feel not only what human could feel and forget the animals just because they did not say we get tired because we walk a long distance or that thing is very heavy. he established annual conferences for his governors and military leaders to ask them about the people that they were responsible about. I have sent you as leaders instead. he headed each Muslim state by one of the people that he trusted very well. Do not praise them unduly. lest they fall into the error of conceit. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB AND THE CURRENT MUSLIMS WORLD: When we look at the accomplishments that Omar Ibn Al-Khattab did during his time as successor.”) As well as. for that is tyranny over them. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces." ("Umar. we would be able to find many things that he did and the Muslims as nation still 7 . I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. Furthermore.

“I did not want you to take that prayer as mandatory.” We 3 The Islamic calendar or the “Hijri Calendar” is a calendar count the months by the Moon cycle. However. Many Islamic countries and the Muslims in the non-Muslims countries use that calendar to determine the Islamic events. Then. and he did after that. 1998). each full cycle of the moon will be a one month.” More. “Managers do things right. as the time passed and the Prophet Muhammad and he successor Abu Bakr were both dead and the Muslims were practicing that prayer by optional individually one night Omar Ibn Al-Khattab saw the Muslims each praying alone.” “The Islamic calendar was first introduced by the close companion of the Prophet. Further. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab said that why not we gather them and pray as a congregation behind one person. he did in the third night and the number of the prayers became more large. 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. the Muslims still practicing that prayer each Ramadan until now. Then. For instance.” (Huda. His answer was.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership follow until our present time. he assigned the Islamic calendar “Hijri Calendar3. in the next day. As the same as the two nights before. in the forth night Prophet did not make the extra prayer. In the night after. he prayed as the night before and the number of the Muslims behind him increased. the prophet was asked about why not he prayed the extra one last night. Therefore. 8 . Moreover. When the Muslims had difficulties to count the things nor the events that were took place in their time. When they done from prayer. if we compare what Omar Ibn Al-Khattab had done in example with what Warren Bennis said. Then he decided to have the first year of the calendar the year that Prophet Muhammad was emigrated from Mecca to Al-Medina. one night in the month of Ramadan he prayed extra prayer after the mandatory prayer with a few of his companions. he looked to the prayers and well novelty that was done. and if you did you would not be able to do it. while leaders do the right things. during the Prophet Muhammad time. Additionally. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab was decided to have a calendar that would systemize their life.

Omar Ibn Al-Khattab saw something that was different. Whereas. 9 .Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership would be able to see that the Muslims were managing or doing their prayer properly. which is to be congregated. He saw that prayer could be done by better way.

when we look closely to his leadership style we can see the very complex combination that he mixed as successor. we can indentify how he could be harsh against injustice people and how his justice was. which was under his control. the leader should not monopolizes his or her position as an officer or governor and punish or forgive anyone depend on the relationship with him or her. That combination was mixture between mercy and justice with power and inconsiderate. Even though Umar Ibn Al-As was one of the greatest political leader in the time of prophet Muhammad. as well. and when his son made a mistake and he did not take that issue very serious he was punished no matter who was he. we would see leadership in mercy. Further. Nevertheless. 10 . as how he reacted with his servant and the camel when they went to Jerusalem.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership Conclusion: From the thing that I see. On the other hand. From the action of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab against the son of Umar Ibn Al-As. when we look at some of his first speech and see how he punished the son of Omar Ibn Al-As publically. if we compare his leadership style with the present leadership and leaders we will find that. I can classify Omar Ibn Al-Khattab to be one of historical leaders. he led a nation and considered himself as the one who was most responsible about anything that was on the region. In addition. When look to his reaction with the crying child because of the weaning.

Retrieved from Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi. (1998). (2002). The islamic calendar . 2011.htm 2.Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in the Leadership References: 1. Initials. o r g/ w i k i / O m a r # R e i g n _ a s _ C a l i p h 11 . from h t t p : / / e n . WPONLINE. Retrieved April 27. 'Allamah . Retrieved from http://islam. 4. http://www.htm 3.about. w i k i p e d i a . 6. Omar Ibn al-khattab the second rightly guided -pioneer.ORG . Human rights in Umar. Huda.

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