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Low velocity by path port -1 Flame stabilization in bluff -2 body flame holder

Several aspects of bluff body flame stabilization are discussed in terms of a theory which focuses attention on the initial mixing region between cool combustible & hot combustion products. Some experiments by Broman & Zukoski on flame stabilization in a ''deflected jet'' are correlated in terms of the theory. The ''characteristic time'' of Zukoski & Marable is shown to arise as a special case of the theory. The extinction propagating flame as the initial event in the blowoff process is discussed qualitatively in terms of the theory. Finally, the results of experiments reported in the literature in injection of gas into the recirculation .zone are rationalized in terms of the theory

Swirl or jet_induced -3 recirculating flows
The stabilization characteristics of premixed flames in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner have been experimentally investigated. This burner utilized the Coanda effect on top of a burner tip. The initially spherical burner tip was modified to a

existed in the recirculation zone. a unique flame exhibiting OH radicals only in the recirculation zone was observed for the concave tip. In extreme cases of Reynolds number over 19. The OH radical signals strengthened again in the merged jet region (downstream of the interaction jet region). and the result showed that the stabilization characteristics were improved appreciably from the initial spherical tip design.500). Small-scale turbulence structure has been observed mainly in the interaction jet region (located downstream of the recirculation region) for large jet velocity (Reynolds number > 11. approximately 20°.000. An appreciable amount of air entrainment was exhibited from the half-angle of the jet spread. The flow characteristics have been visualized using a schlieren technique.flat tip and a concave tip in order to improve flame stabilization by providing enough space for flow recirculation above the burner tip region. representing reaction zones. The flow fields measured by a laser Doppler velocimetry confirmed the existence of . while it was weak in the interaction jet region due to intermittency and local extinction by the generation of small scale turbulence. The averaged planar laser-induced fluorescence images of the flames for this large velocity demonstrated that the strong signal of OH radicals. The flame stabilization has been mapped by varying jet velocity and equivalence ratio. especially for rich mixtures.

which requires moderately low flame temperatures to reduce NOx. leading to a compromise between efficient mixing of fuel and oxidizer and the need to reduce total fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. 1 shows a low-emission flat-flame burner consisting of a complex tile shape with sharp edges. The temperature profile measured by a coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy exhibited an intermittent nature. including sophisticated burner designs using complex shaped tiles. Design strategies have led to the development of custom solutions for specific applications.recirculation zone and the expansion of the recirculation zones for the modified tips. Fig. Equipment downtime due to faulty operation of the burner tile can result in lost production with associated costs. which can far exceed the price of the burner 4. Burner design has changed over the past 20 years due to increasingly stringent environmental regulations. nonuniform wall thicknesses and additional fuel jets to reduce NOx.Refractory burner tiles A refractory burner tile is an essential component of a burner in a thermal processing system. For example. The design is used to control a precise fuel oxidation process [1]. especially near the recirculation . Burner-tile .

Burner tile design:Burner tile design affects burner performance by forming the desired flame pattern.Rapid increase in flow area creating recirculating separated flows . forming the orifice that controls the flow of air for the combustion reaction and stabilizing the flame by means of thermal insulating properties of the refractory material.refractory material requirements and evaluation methods. as well as effects of different refractory binder systems are discussed in this article. Factors that affect tile design include: Thermal stresses in the tile due to thermal expansion restraint from the structural casing or anchoring • Stress risers at sharp inside edges • Thermal stresses in thinner tile wall sections • Refractory thermoplastic/elastic properties in the operating temperature range • Large thermal gradients (to 1000°C. or 1830°F) in the material • Thermal shock from burner cycling • 5. preventing flame radiation toward the burner casing.