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Stoichiometry: Making Chalk

Purpose: Variables: Hypothesis: To determine the limiting reagent when sodium carbonate is combined with calcium chloride. To calculate the percent yield of calcium carbonate. Independent: Dependant: The amounts of each reactant used. The amount of calcium carbonate produced and isolated.

Calcium chloride, CaCl2, and sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, are each highly soluble in water and are expected to form transparent, colourless solutions. In solution they exist as calcium ions, Ca2+, sodium ions, Na+, chloride ions, Cl–, and carbonate ions, CO32–. As ions they are more likely to interact and form bonds with other oppositely charged ions. Sodium and chloride ions remain in solution after interacting with each other. However, calcium carbonate that forms when calcium ions and carbonate ions interact is insoluble in water and forms a white precipitate (solid product formed from aqueous solutions). The predicted reaction will be:

Na2CO3 (aq) + CaCl2 (aq)

CaCO3 (s) + 2NaCl (aq)

The calcium carbonate (chalk) can be isolated from the reactants and other product by filtration. The solid calcium carbonate precipitate should not pass through filter paper. The sodium chloride and any of the remaining reactants are expected to remain in solution and pass through the filter paper with the water. In most double replacement reactions one reactant is the limiting reagent and the other is the excess reagent. The limiting reagent is completely consumed in the reaction and limits the amounts of the products that can be made. Some of the excess reagent is left over after all of the limiting reagent has been consumed. The amount of the limiting reagent is used to calculate the expected yield which can then be used with the experimental yield to calculate the percent yield of a product. Chemicals Materials: • calcium chloride, CaCl2 • Erlenmeyer flasks (3 × 250mL) • digital scale • sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 • funnel • hot plate • filter paper • watch glass

Procedure:

Reaction to Form Chalk
A digital scale (±0.01g) was used to measure _______ g of calcium chloride, CaCl2, and ________ g of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3. Water was added to two clean, labeled Erlenmeyer flasks (1/4 full). Each reactant was placed in its Erlenmeyer flask and swirled to completely dissolve the solid reactant. One reactant solution was added to other (the reaction flask) and swirled to allow for complete reaction.

Collection of Chalk
The mass of a filter paper was measured using a digital scale (±0.01g). Most of the transparent, colourless fluid in the reaction flask was carefully discarded into a clean flask so as not to lose any significant amount of product. Erlenmeyer flask was setup with a funnel on top of it with filter paper in the funnel. The remaining contents of the reaction flask were slowly poured onto the filter paper so that the level of the liquid never rose above the top of the filter paper. Any solids remaining in the reaction flask were rinsed out with water and filtered. Any solid in the filtrate (liquid that passed through the filter) was refiltered. The filter paper was placed on a watch glass and set on a hot plate to evaporate any remaining water. The digital scale was used to measure the mass of the filter paper and the dry final product. The product was transferred to a collection container and the mass of the filter paper was measured.

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