AN APPROXlMA TE POWER PREDICTION by J. Holtrop" and G.G.1. Mennen·


1. Introduction
In a recent publication [1] a statistical method was presented for the determination of the required propulsive power at the initial design stage of a ship. This method was developed through a regression analysis of random model experiments and full-scale data, available at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin. Because the accuracy of the method was reported to be insufficient when unconventional combinations of main parameters were used, an attempt was made to extend the method by adjusting the original numerical prediction model to test data obtained in some specific cases. This adaptation of the method has resulted into a set of prediction formulae with a wider range of application. Nevertheless, it should be noticed that the given modifications have a tentative character only, because the adjustments are based on a small number of experiments. In any case, the application is limited to hull forms, resembling the average ship described by the main dimensions and form coefficients used in the method. The extension of the method was focussed on improving the power prediction of high-block ships with low LIB-ratios and of slender naval ships with a complex appendage arrangement and immersed transom stems. Some parts of this study were carried out in the. scope of the NSMB Co-operative Research programme. The adaptation of the method to naval ships was carried out in a research study for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Permission to publish results of these studies is gratefully acknowledged. 2. Resistance prediction The total resistance into:
Rtotal '" RF(l


additional pressure transom stem model-ship correlation

resistance resistance.

of immersed


For the fonn factor of the hull the prediction mula: 1 + kl = cll {O.93


+ c 12 (BILR


(0.95 - Cp)-(I·511-«8 (1 - Cp + 0.0225 /cb)O.6906} can be used. In this formula Cp is the prismatic coefficient based on the waterline length L and lcb is the longitudinal position of the centre of buoyancy forward of 0.5L as a percentage of L. In the form-factor formula L R is a parameter reflecting the length of the run according to:

The coefficient el2 is defined as:




when TIL:> 0.05


48.20(T/L - 0.02)2.078 + 0.479948
when 0.02

C 12

= 0.479948

< TIL < 0.05 when TIL < 0.02

In this formula T is the average moulded draught. The coefficient cl3 accounts for the specific shape of the afterbody cording to: and is related to the coefficient Csternae-

c 13 = I + 0.003 Cstern For the coefficient guidelines are given: Afterbody Cstern the following tentative

of a ship has been SUbdivided



+k1) + RAPp + RJII + RB +RTR + RA


V -shaped sections Normal section shape U-shaped sections with Hogner stem The wetted well by:

+ 10

RF 1+ k 1 R A pp R Jf'

frictional resistance according to the IITC1957 friction formula fonn factor describing the viscous resistance of the hull form in relation to RF resistance of appendages wave-making and wave-breaking resistance additional pressure resistance of bulbous bow near the water surface

area of the hull can be approximated

- 0.2862 CM

+ 0.4425 CD +

BIT + 0.3696



+ 2.38 An/CB '
In this formula CM is the midship section coefficlent, CB is the block coefficient on the basis of the


= BIL when 0.· 0. The coefficient that determines the influence of the bulbous bow on the wave resistance is defined as: with: cr " 2223105 c. The original equation in [1] sometimes resulted in negative iE values for exceptional combinations of hull-form parameters..0 -4.. The other parameters can be determined from: A A = 1.984388 when Cp when C: IV < 3.100 VlL3 )G.07981 Cp - 13.16302} This formula. obtained by regression analysis of over from: = crc:zcs Vp.0 2. F" is the Froude number based on the waterline length L.8Ar!(BTCM) RAP.014040.·186I3(T/B)I.03 LIB 0.07961(90 c1 = 0.11 2 .8673 C.1.0. use can be made of the following formula: IE + k2 l"" E(1 + k2)S .0 C16 = 1. Cs expresses the influence of a transom stern on the wave resistance.5 2.4 of The coefficient CIS is equal to .187 waterline length L.25 = exp(- 1.1.80 2. Similarly.73014 .Cp - (LIB )0. yields IE values between l~ and 90".69385 for L3 512.3 .5 . Approximate In these expressions c2 is a parameter which accounts for the reduction of the wave resistance due to the action of a bulbous bow.300464 IB)0.2.69385 + (L/V 8.1 F. CIS 1/3 - is determined 1. For openings in the cylindrical part of a bulbous bow the lower figures should be used.6U7(LR where d is the tunnel diameter.446 Cp - 0. In the formula for the wave resistance.5 . + 6.33333 whenB/L < 0.0 3.9 The half angle of entrance iE is the angle of the waterline at the bow in degrees with reference to the centre plane but neglecting the local shape at the stem.79323 BIL . The appendage resistance can be determined from: C.g = 1. whereas Cu = 0.75254 V1/31L + 4. exp( .0 2.446 Cp when LIB> rudder behind skeg rudder behind stem twin-screw balance rudders shaft brackets skeg stru t bossings hull bossings shafts stabilizer fins dome bilge keels ml = 0.0. In this figure the transverse area of wedges placed at the transom chine should be included.5 PV2SAH(l +kz).229577 (B/L)o.2.003 to 0.0 1. = 8. the wetted area of the appendages. The wave resistance is determined RW .25 c7 = 0. In the expression A r represents the' immersed part of the transverse area of the transom at zero speed.80 Cp > 0. These values were obtained from resistance tests with bare and appended ship models.0)/2.2) < 0.02251cb)o.0 1. If iE is unknown. For values of 512 from: C 15 . In several of these tests turbulence stimulators were present at the leading edges to induce turbulent flow over the appendages. The coefficient CBTO ranges from 0. In the Table below tentative I + k2 values are given for streamlined flow-oriented appendages.0625 LIB c2 Cs when BIL > 0.37S6S E 200 hull shapes.5 .36 when LIB < 12 12 1 + k2 values 1. CwP is the waterplane area coefficient and ABT is the transverse sectional area of the bulb at the position where the still-water surface intersects the stem.34574 O.0 for L3/v > 1727. rr = --::E::-:S~--=C:":'" APP The appendage resistance can be increased by the resistance of bow thruster tunnel openings according to: P V211d2 CBTO = 1 + 89 exp{(1 .36 The equivalent 1 + k2 value for a combination appendages is determined from: (1 d= -0.0.1.exp{ml~ +rn2cos()"FII-2)} _ i )-1.801156 (1 - Cwp)O.012.7 1.c16 clf.8 2.7 LIT .- < L3/'\I < 1727.7067 Cp m2 = CIS C.0.89Ycs) = 1 .Cp where p is the water density. 1 + k1 the appendage resistance factor and CF the coefficient of frictional resistance of the ship according to the mc- 1957 formula. SAPP V the speed of the ship..11 < BIL < 0.

pg/(l + F.) + O.(0.217S6cll (1 ~~I'l»)+ In a similar way the additional pressure resistance due to the immersed transom can be determined: RTR + O.0.04 The coefficient c10 is defined as: In addition.OO6(L + 100)-0..0225 tcb .9S-Cp O.1418 Dl/(BT) + 0.75 C_C" The coefficient +O.i) is the Froude number based PB is a measure for the emerFill -1.hB - y2 ell' :. which have been corrected to conditions. 0 FnT has been defmed as: FnT'" VI. Cy is the viswith C V '" (1 + k) CF + CA' cous resistance coefficient Further: Cp1 CA = O..0833333(T.2 FnT) whenFnT <5 CII <5 >5 < 28 > 28 2 c:.0. For single-screw ships with a conventional stern arrangement the following adapted fonnula for the wake fraction can be used: W-C9 RB = 0.24) whenc8 Cll!! TAfD whenTA/D< Cll = 0.BCpl } + 1.0. the followins formula for the allowance coefficient C.45 C. for- c4) In a similar manner the following approximate mula for the thrust deduction for single-screw ships with a conventional stern can be applied: t'" 0. 3. The model-ship correlation resistance R A with RA =~pV2SCA is supposed to describe primarily the effect of the huD roughness of results ideal trial correlation and the still-air resistance.. CA might be increased to calculate e.0.168 where hB is the position of the centre of the transverse area ABr above the keel line and TF is the forward draught of the ship. the effect of a larger hull rouatmess than standard.0.OO2C.16/(c.0. The additional resistance due to the presence of a bulbous bow near the surface is determined from: increase CA = (0.09726 + 0./2gAr/(B +B Cfl/p) = S(7BITA - 25)/(LD(BITA - 3» whenBITA when C:8 or C9 .3 Pi z) where the coefficient gence of the bow and on the immersion: PB = 0.315 .001919 L/(B .2 or C10 = 0.5 p y2Arc6 as: + 0.56~/(TF and Fni F:iA}i.25 v'A.-n The coefficient c6 has been related to the Froude number based on the transom immersion: C6 c9 depends on a coefficient ca defmed whenB/TA = 0.IS = YIJg(TF .11 exp( . are given in metres.0661875+ 1.0.OO3328402/(B/L .00205 + + O.4 was found: or 32 . .m (mean apparent amplitude): clO =BIL when LIB> S..2 efficiency can be predkted The relative-rotative 3 .4 ID)3 + 1.2 In the fonnula for the wake fraction.00524 . '" 150 ". .8.95-CB = 0.11434 + O.24SSsj L(l-Cp1) B _ 0..0585 c10 + C Item or when TFIL .oo3v"I77.33333 when TA/D:::.04 with = 1.5 hll) 0. In this der1!lition CwP is the waterplane area coefficient.16 . To this end the ITIC-1978 fonnulation can be used from which the increase of CA can be derived for roughness values higher than the standard flgUfC of k.105 klf3 - O.OOS579)/Llf3 In these formulae L and k.2(1 .134615385) when LIB < S.25 - 0. the thrust deduction fraction and the relative-rotative efficiency as presented in [ 1] could be improved on several points. Prediction of propulsion factors The statistical prediction formulae for estimating the effective wake fraction. From an analysis of speed trials.5C~ c1 (0.0015 > 0.

however. is the vapour pressure and K is a constant to which the following figures apply: 4.169 well by the original formula: 1/ R C = 0.s/kp» .g.'fIS from: -1 1-1 -w ) + e. In this formula t/e is the thickness-chordlength ratio and kp is the propeller blade surface roughness. The main ship particulars are listed in the Table on the next page: KQ-ibip=KQ. The calculations are made for the various resistance components and the propulsion factors.0. + 10 CYCD . Po + pgh is = 0. The chord length and the thickness-chordlength ratio can be estimated using the following empirical formulae: = These values are based on only a very limited number of model data.2 for single-screw ships For sea water of 15 degrees centigrade the value of Po -Pv 1s99047 N/m2.99 and reflect ideal trial conditions.B. The influence of the fullness and the viscous resistance coefficient has been expressed in a similar way as in the original prediction formulae for twin-screw ships. fast sailing ships: w=O.?!" (0.7S Z Here 6CD is the difference in drag coefficient of the proflle section.oer!eI K = 0 to 0. .2S~ co.1 = 0.no wind.0. for a Reynolds number of 2. successively.3 + 0.3095 Cll CO•75 = 2. These polynomials are valid.073(AE/Ao) D/Z and (t/c)o.5} .9737 + O.deep water with a density of 1025 kgfm3 and a temperature of 15 degrees centigrade and .111(Cp .3 Z) T/(D2(po + pgh .2. implying: .06325 0. P is the pitch of the propeller and 4 .) t = 0. Numerical example The performance characteristics of a hypothetical single-screw ship are calculated for a speed of 25 knots.10 = 0. It has appeared that the characteristics of most propellers can be approximated well by using the results of tests with systematic propeller series.00003 m is used as a standard fIgure for new propellers.. [3].325 CD .B'~ -ACDO.00125 Z) D/CO.106 and need to be corrected for the specific Reynolds number and the roughness of the actual propeller.3 PCO. waves and swell.89 + 1.p.7s){0.0225 feb) 6CD = (2 + 4(t/c>O.9922 . In [2] a polynomial representation is given of the thrust and torque coefficients of the B-series propellers.003605 log (co.1885 fiR D/..05908 AE1Ao + + O.15 • The blade area ratio can be determined Keller's formula: AE/Ao =K from e.0225 leb) + P/D the static pressure at the shaft centre line.7. For this roughness the value of kp 0. P.C".O.07424(Cp - O•7S is the chord length at a radius of 7S per cent and Z is the number of blades. The shaft power can now be determined Ps =PE!(flR'I. According to this method the propeller thrust and torque coefficients are corrected according to: KT-ship '" KT.0. The presented statistical prediction equations for the model-ship correlation allowance and the propulsion factors are based on Reynolds and roughness corrections according to the ITTC-1978 method./BT - In this formula T is the propener thrust.0185 . These original formulae for twinscrew ships are: w = 0.0..3Ca t + and 10CyCB fiR -0.23 D/v'iff' + (1.a clean hun and propeller with a surface roughness according to modem standards. The given prediction equations are consistent with a shafting efficiency of TIs =PDIPs = 0.1 for twin-screw ships K = 0. S. 0.0.7SZ n'J. Estimation of propeller efficiency For the prediction of the required propulsive power the efficiency of the propeller in open-water condition has to be determined.62 Because the formulae above apply to ships with a conventional stem an attempt has been made to indicate a tentative fonnulation for the propulsion filetors of single-screw ships with an open stern as applied sometimes on slender.98.0.

0m cen tre of bulb area above keel line hB midship section coefficient 0. 'A statistical power predic- cO•1S ~CD t/cO. Holtrop. -0. F" . 0.7595 ...170 Main ship characteristics length on waterline length between perpendiculars breadth moulded draught moulded on F.PP =869..A.15610 m c4 C.02% aft of *Lp~ transverse bulb area An 20.. ~2.750 waterp1ane area coefficient C". 2. displacement volume moulded longitudinal centre of buoyancy L Lpp 205.W.001963 = 14.. F"T RTR = 5.9592 = '" 0..5833 = 81. July 1975. 0.. Oosterveld. c12 Cu = ~O. The Hague.0m 4.9931 3. .7393 0. M... Rw P8 Fnl RB From the Bsseries polynomials: = KTs .00m 200.C.398 Cv c9 Cpt w clO c7 cl iE c1 = t T AE/Ao 'fiR = 0. . P.17087 .08 degrees = 1. 1. . Vol.033275 .1274 1.. 0.000352 '" 221..0ml transom area AT wetted area appendages 50.20m 25. 0.2584 .001390 RA Rtotal 1 + k) S PH cll CF Rp 1 + k2 RA..433 = 0.11 leN 0.500 .p 16. 0.557.0 8.02119 =0.04 = 0.5477 = 0.03524 c2 Cs = 0..00m The calculations with the statistical method resuited into the following coefficients and powering characteristics listed in the next Table: 37500 m3 V 2.049 kN m1 m2 References 1.385 '" = .065 m 0.75%(fg~ . 0.2868 Cp 1O.980 CM 0.000956 x tion method'. 25.6261 = 1. 8.6513 .156 7381.P.00 kN =0.0ml SAPP stem shape parameter propeller diameter number of propeller blades clearance propeller with keel line ship speed C..GJ.00m 4 O. J.6594 Hz = 0.63 kN = 1. G.69385 .5084 = 0.83 kN = 0. Proceedings 15th mc. 'Further computer analyzed data of the WlI8eningen Bscrew series' .250 .A.45 ml 0.15 cIS = 0.OOm LR feb = 0.P. 1978.. 3.98 leN = 1793. 0. van. draught moulded on A.Jntematlonal Shipbunding Progress. and Mennen.6461 =32621 kW n KQO flo Ps 5 .tom D Z V 10.1561 12.0 knots B Tp T. 0.and Oossanen.. October 1978.18802 '" 1.26 kN = 23063 kW .75kN '" .00m 10.1747 =2172. 0.50 . International Shipbuilding Progress.030 1.5102 1.00m 32...

6 .

A.121563 (L3 /v )O. +k.36486( 1 - C ).06Cp Icb/( 4Cp .5 the power predictions were often wrong. Introduction In a recent publication [1] a power prediction method was presented which was based on a regression analysis of random model and full-scale test data. Especially for high speed craft at Froude numbers above 0. respectively.487118c14(B/L)1. Jands.ther· The coefficients ion as in [1] : c2' "s. Re-analysis of resistance test results The results were analysed using the same sub-division into components as used in [1] : RTotal = RF(I +k1) + R.3 C M1. By doing so. It depends on the stem shape coefficient Cstern for which the following tentative flgures can be given: Afterbody form Pram with gondola V -shaped sections Normal section shape U-shaped sections with Hegner stem Cite -25 -10 the o C14 = 1+O.55.Cp + 0.604247 p In this formula B and T are the moulded breadth and draught. N. Holtrop" 1.ningen.5.46106 (LIL R )0. In spite of these adaptations the accuracy of the method was found to be insufficient for some classes of ships.A. Beside these analyses of resistance and propulsion properties a method was devised by which the influence of the propeller cavitation could be taken into account. L is the length on the waterline and 'V is the moulded displacement volume. For several combinations of main dimensions and form coefficients the method had been adjusted to test results obtained in some specific cases. a new fonnula = _7. The coefficient c14 accounts for the stern shape. 1n addition some formulae are given by which effect of a partial propeller submergence can tentatively be estimated. Cp is the prismatic coefficient based on the waterline length.5 L as a percentage of L. RW_B-C17C2C5 + R. In this extension of the data sample the published results of the Series 64 hull forms [2] have been included. n. The results of these calculations indicated that probably a better prediction formula for the wave resistance in the high speed range could be devised when the low speed data were left aside from the regression analysis. the following wave resistance was derived for the speed range ~ > 0. due to '/PI exp{m3~ +m4cos(XF.I) where lcb is the longitudinal position of the centre of buoyancy forward of 0.06806(TIL)0.pp+Rw +RB +RTR where: RF . With the objective to improve the method the data sample was extended covering wider ranges of the parameters of interest.Ol1C stem 10 2. LR is defined as: LR = L(l . The regression analyses were now based on the results of tests on 334 models. W08.272 A STATISTICAL RE-ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE by AND PROPULSION DATA J. A re-analysis was made of the wave resistance. frictional resistance according to the rrrc-r 957 formula I + k1 = form factor of the hull RAPP '" appendage resistance Rw wave resistance RB additional pressure resistance of bulbous bow near the water surface RTR As regards the appendage resistance no new analysis was made.326869 OJ Marilim~ Research In8litut~ Netherlands.93+0. These formulae have been derived in a study carried out in a MARIN Co-operative Research programme.. Permission to publish these results is gratefully acknowledged. For prediction of the resistance of the appendages reference is made to [ I] . additional pressure transom immersion = model-ship correlation = resistance resistance.0.oo917 (L/B_2)lA0692 (T/B)o. • O.A formula R.605315 A regression analysis provided the fonn factor of the hull. d and A have the same definit- 7 . A new general formula was derived from the data sample of 334 models but calculations showed that this new prediction formula was not better in the speed range up to Froude numbers of about ~ = 0.2)} where: c17" for m) 6919.3346(V IL3)2.203S(B/L)o.

69385 + (Ltv 1/3 ...91 CIS 3.. -0.1.890.7067 Cp whenCp> 0.8)/2. 1.229577(B/L)o.33333 m4 T_.984388C..273 C2 "" exp( .11 < BIL < 0..11 when 0.36 when 512 < L3/V < 1726.. + 6.8673 C.56A 1~/ {BT(0.4 + (lOF" .4 Here RW-AO.0.55 it is suggested TA ID)~ + 1.8 TAID when T.4 a formula which closely resembles the original formula of [I J.. (1 . The vertical position of the centre of ABT above the keel plane is hB• The value of he should not exceed the upper limit of 0.25)/(LD(BI1A whenB/T_.95 -CB) .0833333( when = : 1.69385 whenL3/v c15 "" . c16 CI6 = 8.O.. > 5 when c8 < 28 3» c9 .5 ..hB)} m4 CIS '" cl5 0. By the regression analyses new constants were determined which give a slightly more accurate prediction.0.8 as in the Rw formula for the high speed range. As regards the height of the centre of the transverse bulb area hs it is recommended to obey the upper limit of 0.91 The midship section coefficient CM and the transverse immersed transom area at rest AT and the transverse area of the bulbous bow AST have the same meaning as in [1]. 0.12997/(0.55 according to the respective formulae. In the analysis the same structure of the wake prediction formulae in [I] was maintained.4 exp( .13....6 1.11056/(0. or "u = < 0.c16 Dr. Re-analysis of propulsion data The model propulsion factors and the model-ship correlation allowance were statistically re-analysed using the extended data sample.07981 Cp . < 512 + TF. .0.7 8 .0140407L/T c9 '" 32 . This formula.73014 .16/(c.034F..25 0.) whenB/TA < 5 - c. 3. Rw-.446Cp - is the wave resistance prediction for X X d 0.9 0.31.36 whenL/B> . The only modification consists of an adaptation of the coefficient that causes the humps and hollows on the resistance curves. ca or m •.79323 BIL .40 < FII to use the more or less arbitrary interpolation formula: or c19" 0.0.211) = . s .1.95 -Cp) when Cp < 0..(0.tID< 2 O.6 TF• Because attempts to derive prediction formulae for the wave resistance at low and moderate speeds were only partially successful it is suggested to use fOT the estimation of the wave resistance up to a Froude number of 0.75254 V l/3/L 4.03L/B FII .4)(Rw-BO. . in the calculation of the additional wave resistance due to the bulb..24) whencs > 28 cll .1../ c) ) Rw . 12 c3 . The available material to develop such formulae is rather scarce. A point which has been improved in the wake prediction formula is the effect of the midship section coefficient CM for full hull forms with a single screw.5S is the wave resistance for F" = whenL/B< 12 . No attempts were made to derive new formulations for the transom pressure resistance and the additional wave resistance due to a bulb near the free surface./D> 2 For the speed range 0.0625L/8 when B/L > 0.13333 when BIL < 0. C7 .(0. S(7Blr.. whenCp< 0. which is slightly more accurate than the original one reads: RW_A = cI c2c5 V pg exp{mlF~ + m4 cos(XF.1.5 C s '" ..446 Cp ..t. This data sample included 168 data points of full-scale trials on new built ships.4)/1.2)} with: c •. 0..8AT/(BTCM) 1..25 .07961 (90-iE)-1..37S6S c8 or C '" BS/(L O.0. = BIL c7 . 0.40 and Rw-sO. The improved formula for single screw ships with a conventional stem reads: = 0 whenL3/V> 1726.sS- R W-. The coefficient defined as: c9 depends on the coefficient C s 2223105 ct786 13 (T/B) 1.

however. that for practical purposes the original formula is used.06218 + 0.71276 + O.0. Apparently. determined accurately by the po I vnoeu 'al's given in [4] and [5].7 1 + 0.0225 feb . -value according to the statistical formula of [11.0225 /cb) For multiple-screw ships and open-stern single-screw ships with open shafts the formulae of [ I] were maintained. is the factor by which the propulsive power is increased due to cavitat- FN is fed into the computer ion.0225 lcb) 0. The influence of propeller propeller submergence cavitation and partial Especially on high speed craft propeller cavitation can effect the propulsive performance. It appeared that for new ships under ideal trial conditions a CA -value would be applicable which is on the average 91 per cent of the C.p~ + pgh) (l + k) CF + C . This resulted into the following formula: (Kr/(J2o"»Bl::: 0.0.0015 C nern For the relative-. the incorporation of more recent trial data has reduced the average level of CA somewhat. > 0.2624 Po -p.) value where cavitation begins to affect the propulsive performance.9922 where p. Po + pgh is the static the undisturbed flow at the level of the line. This coefficient is indicated as <K. The unaffected KT and K values of the propellers were supposed to be Q .3571-CM} when C. « 1- I Cp + 0.01762 + 0.. be regarded the same for non-cavitating T conditions and for conditions in which the propu l'Slve properties are affected. From preliminary analysesitappeared that fOT FN =(t)oj(t)oo-~ and Fp =(KoIJ3\/(KQIJ3)(J~. The data used consisted of the changes of KT and KO due to cavitation at certain l-values. It is suggested. but the representation of the results was confined to a graphical fonn only..274 C!9'" C w = 0.1 I94AE/Ao .315 . Cv is the viscous resistance coef- Kr --/200 T 2D2(po . + pgh o Jhp V2 the vapour pressure.00249 Z . If Kr/(Jloo) exceeds the value given by the prediction equation cavitation influence is present and should be accounted for. It appeared that the influence of the cavitation number could be expressed well by using for each propeller the suction-side the conditions where influence of cavitation begins can be represented 9 . J is the advance coefficient and 0" is the cavitation number defined as lJ~ As regards the thrust deduction of single screw ships a new formula was devised of comparable accuracy: t= 0..38648C. is pressure in shaft centre the advance From the data of the B-series (KT/(J2o"»SI was determined for each propeller and by means of multiple regression analysis these (KT/(J20o »81 values were correlated to the main propeller parameters. Of course.07424(Cp 0.0.-Ko-I relationship of the 16 B-series propellers tested under cavitating conditions were a statistical analysis.~ Coefficient n should be increased.otative efficiency an alternative prediction formula was derived but because its accuracy is not better than that of the original one it is Iluaested to use the prediction fonnula of (11 : '1R '" 0.. This influence was represented in relation to the characteristics of the non-cavitating propeller because' these are well defmed by the polynomial representation in [4] and [5]. well by a certain value of the speed-independent ficient: coef- CPt = 1.25014{BIL)0. the factor by which the rotation rate whereas F.18567/(1. p is the density of the water and V is speed of the propeller. The factors FN and Fp were considered as a function of K /J2 for each cavitation number because K /J2 ca:. The model-ship correlation allowance was statistically analysed. The K.28956 (v'BTID)P. Here AE/Ao is the expanded blade area ratio and Z is the number of blades. This was done by analysing the ratios 4.45 Cp The coefficient ficient with Cy ::0 0. this will not be true for the effect of the pitch setting of a controllable-pitch propeller because then the radial load distribution is changed..05908 AzlAo + - + 0. The pitch ratio appeared to have no significant influence on the Kr/(J2 (1.015 CSterll - - 0./(J2o')BI' Here Kr is the thrust coefficient. Tests on B-series propellers in uniform axial flow under cavitating conditions were reported in [3].

Kr ( J200 J2ao ) BI + 0.01 In all other cases FN and FJ. is valid only for Kr ..JJ2 ..4301 (AE/Ao)-1.00 3. 0.tion Speed CIS VE is the resultant entrance velocity of the propeller.1&45(A.039 tlR .46875 584.3 F. By means of selective regression analysis the proportionality was correlated with the main propeller particulars.7440 -1.0 m CB Shull CA.4453 Rw (kN) (knots) 25 27 29 31 33 3S RAPP RTR (kN) R (kN) (kN) -1A 475 512 539 S64 S90 618 21 24 28 31 3S 39 25 16 2 0 0 0 662 715 756 807 864 925 Where D is the diameter.2730 . . however.00 12.0298 1.297 1.. 0 m m m m m3 ABT iE CM Icb .09 when when F.60096 14.m = and FJ.3. for positive values of U the factor G can be determined from: G .705 (30 knots) 10 .p. '" 1 + 15. For practical use the following equations were derived from model experiments on the assumption that by intreducing a fictitious increase G of the entrance velocity the influence of the partial emergence can be accounted for over the range of propeller loadings of interest: VE '" 1A g Sapp C&tem 50..7274 -2..231 m • 1. It is suggested that the para- mlltersAElilv andZ are not used outside the ranges of 0. 0 2S degrees 0. 0.5780 -2. When the propeller emergence is not excessive the thrust deduction and the relative-rotative efficiency can be regarded to be unaffected. approximated by: Reaults propeller design and calculation of propulsion foctors 0.1728 1.. 1+ _e. '" = 0.30 • 900 SO .763 tlo" 0. As a parameter indicating the emergence the variable U is used with: D+ho -Wh U=----=D=---- m4cos(A. This increase-factor G was related to coefficients describing the emergence of the propeller and the propeller loading.ot)U 3U( J 0"0 BI pD2(l _ w)2 V2 T ) It should be noted.jAol-1lSl4(10-Z)-1.os34 -0.8962 -2.3 _Z)-l..7329 0.3.1876 -0. > 0. S. Main particulan L B TF Whereasthe fonnula for FJ.Hence.1820 0. TJ(pD2(1-wfzV2). that the scatter in the data was fairly large. Hkl • 0.0409 -O./F. LR. rn2 AT 1 +k2 C.4133 -2. In the optimization of the performance of ships in ballast conditions the behaviour of not fully immersed propellers can be of importance. 1A is the draught aft and wh is a measure for the wave height at the location of the propeller..0.78 4. < 0.. Numerical example The fonnula for FN is valid for Kr Jla o > (Kr) Jla Q BI For the following hypothetical twin-screw ship the still-water powering performance is calculated over the speed range from 25 to 35 knots.:. .054 w 0.0883 .2.69385 m2 V(l-w)G Results resistance calcu1o... _( ~T) J 0"0 From experiments it appeared that the speed increase factor G could be expressed as a linear function of the emergence coefficient U and the propeller loading JS. cn "'l c2 . =- .9 0.05 and 4< zc 5 where the coefficient 3 is an empirical constant..80 Rel4ted coeffictenu C .275 as an independent variable.3279 0.75 < AE1Ao < 1. ho is the vertical distance from the keel plane to the blade tip in its lowest position..00064 0.746(l0 where: ell'" ell F. are 1..136 = 0.10 3.5%L aft oPAL 10 m2 3 0.4478 (.?l m)Fg 0.. c5 ).980 D PID AE/AO 3.3100 . and the following prediction equations were derived: FN'" 1+ 46.

4 • without effect of propeller cavitation. Yeh.033 1.W.000 1.7 291.3 275. July 1982.011 1.276 Results performance calculation Speed (knots) 25 27 29 31 33 35 References FN 1.C. 3. 'An approximate power prediction method'. van. International Conference on Computer Applications in Shipbuilding. Marine Technology. International Shipbuilding Progress. Tokyo.3 275.P. 'Further computer analysed data of the Wageningen B-screw series'.6 329.YR. P. P.. van.W. •• including effect propeUer cavitation.000 thrust (kN) 699 756 799 853 913 978 total IV- PD(kW) Fp 1.019 1.A.. July 1975 . speed displacement forms'. Manen.D. 29. and Oossanen.008 1.1)00 1. and Oosterveld. SNAME. J. 1973.C.000 1. M. I.027 21S08 24406 259.7 291.2 340. M. lammeren.8 351... 'The Wageningen B-IIcrew series'.GJ. November 1969.1 309. Holtrop. 11 .000 1. W. and Mennen.. J.2 12610 14707 16617 18915 1. G. (RPM) 1l** (kW) 12798 14856 16785 19106 21964 25318 (RPM) 259. 5. Oosterveld. H.C.000 1. van.1 326. 2. 'Representation of propeller characteristics suitable for preliminary ship design studies'. 'Series 64 resistance experiments on 1Ugh.000 N" . and Oossanen. Oosterveld. July 1965.W. M.1 3Q7. 4. International Shipbuilding Progress. Vol. van.

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