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AN APPROXlMA TE POWER PREDICTION by J. Holtrop" and G.G.1. Mennen·

METHOD

1. Introduction
In a recent publication [1] a statistical method was presented for the determination of the required propulsive power at the initial design stage of a ship. This method was developed through a regression analysis of random model experiments and full-scale data, available at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin. Because the accuracy of the method was reported to be insufficient when unconventional combinations of main parameters were used, an attempt was made to extend the method by adjusting the original numerical prediction model to test data obtained in some specific cases. This adaptation of the method has resulted into a set of prediction formulae with a wider range of application. Nevertheless, it should be noticed that the given modifications have a tentative character only, because the adjustments are based on a small number of experiments. In any case, the application is limited to hull forms, resembling the average ship described by the main dimensions and form coefficients used in the method. The extension of the method was focussed on improving the power prediction of high-block ships with low LIB-ratios and of slender naval ships with a complex appendage arrangement and immersed transom stems. Some parts of this study were carried out in the. scope of the NSMB Co-operative Research programme. The adaptation of the method to naval ships was carried out in a research study for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Permission to publish results of these studies is gratefully acknowledged. 2. Resistance prediction The total resistance into:
Rtotal '" RF(l

R TR

additional pressure transom stem model-ship correlation

resistance resistance.

of immersed

RA

For the fonn factor of the hull the prediction mula: 1 + kl = cll {O.93

for-

+ c 12 (BILR

)0.92491

(0.95 - Cp)-(I·511-«8 (1 - Cp + 0.0225 /cb)O.6906} can be used. In this formula Cp is the prismatic coefficient based on the waterline length L and lcb is the longitudinal position of the centre of buoyancy forward of 0.5L as a percentage of L. In the form-factor formula L R is a parameter reflecting the length of the run according to:

The coefficient el2 is defined as:

e12

'"

(TIL)o.2228446

when TIL:> 0.05

ell'"

48.20(T/L - 0.02)2.078 + 0.479948
when 0.02

C 12

= 0.479948

< TIL < 0.05 when TIL < 0.02

In this formula T is the average moulded draught. The coefficient cl3 accounts for the specific shape of the afterbody cording to: and is related to the coefficient Csternae-

c 13 = I + 0.003 Cstern For the coefficient guidelines are given: Afterbody Cstern the following tentative

of a ship has been SUbdivided

form

Cite..

+k1) + RAPp + RJII + RB +RTR + RA

where:

V -shaped sections Normal section shape U-shaped sections with Hogner stem The wetted well by:

+ 10

RF 1+ k 1 R A pp R Jf'
Ra

frictional resistance according to the IITC1957 friction formula fonn factor describing the viscous resistance of the hull form in relation to RF resistance of appendages wave-making and wave-breaking resistance additional pressure resistance of bulbous bow near the water surface

area of the hull can be approximated

S=L(2T+B)ye;(0.453
- 0.2862 CM
-

+ 0.4425 CD +
0.003467

BIT + 0.3696

Cwp)

+

+ 2.38 An/CB '
In this formula CM is the midship section coefficlent, CB is the block coefficient on the basis of the

1

= BIL when 0.· 0. The coefficient that determines the influence of the bulbous bow on the wave resistance is defined as: with: cr " 2223105 c. The original equation in [1] sometimes resulted in negative iE values for exceptional combinations of hull-form parameters..0 -4.. The other parameters can be determined from: A A = 1.984388 when Cp when C: IV < 3.100 VlL3 )G.07981 Cp - 13.16302} This formula. obtained by regression analysis of over from: = crc:zcs Vp.0 2. F" is the Froude number based on the waterline length L.8Ar!(BTCM) RAP.014040.·186I3(T/B)I.03 LIB 0.07961(90 c1 = 0.11 2 .8673 C.1.0. use can be made of the following formula: IE + k2 l"" E(1 + k2)S .0 C16 = 1. Cs expresses the influence of a transom stern on the wave resistance.5 2.4 of The coefficient CIS is equal to .187 waterline length L.25 = exp(- 1.1.80 2. Similarly.73014 .Cp - (LIB )0. yields IE values between l~ and 90".69385 for L3 512.3 .5 . Approximate In these expressions c2 is a parameter which accounts for the reduction of the wave resistance due to the action of a bulbous bow.300464 IB)0.2.69385 + (L/V 8.1 F. CIS 1/3 - is determined 1. For openings in the cylindrical part of a bulbous bow the lower figures should be used.6U7(LR where d is the tunnel diameter.446 Cp - 0. In the formula for the wave resistance.5 . + 6.33333 whenB/L < 0.0 3.9 The half angle of entrance iE is the angle of the waterline at the bow in degrees with reference to the centre plane but neglecting the local shape at the stem.79323 BIL . The appendage resistance can be determined from: C.g = 1. whereas Cu = 0.75254 V1/31L + 4. exp( .0 2.446 Cp when LIB> rudder behind skeg rudder behind stem twin-screw balance rudders shaft brackets skeg stru t bossings hull bossings shafts stabilizer fins dome bilge keels ml = 0.0. In this figure the transverse area of wedges placed at the transom chine should be included.5 PV2SAH(l +kz).229577 (B/L)o.2.003 to 0.0 1. = 8. the wetted area of the appendages. The wave resistance is determined RW .25 c7 = 0. In the expression A r represents the' immersed part of the transverse area of the transom at zero speed.80 Cp > 0. These values were obtained from resistance tests with bare and appended ship models.0)/2.2) < 0.02251cb)o.0 1. If iE is unknown. For values of 512 from: C 15 . In several of these tests turbulence stimulators were present at the leading edges to induce turbulent flow over the appendages. The coefficient CBTO ranges from 0. In the Table below tentative I + k2 values are given for streamlined flow-oriented appendages.0625 LIB c2 Cs when BIL > 0.37S6S E 200 hull shapes.5 .36 when LIB < 12 12 1 + k2 values 1. CwP is the waterplane area coefficient and ABT is the transverse sectional area of the bulb at the position where the still-water surface intersects the stem.34574 O.0 for L3/v > 1727. rr = --::E::-:S~--=C:":'" APP The appendage resistance can be increased by the resistance of bow thruster tunnel openings according to: P V211d2 CBTO = 1 + 89 exp{(1 .36 The equivalent 1 + k2 value for a combination appendages is determined from: (1 d= -0.0.1.exp{ml~ +rn2cos()"FII-2)} _ i )-1.801156 (1 - Cwp)O.012.7 1.c16 clf.8 2.7 LIT .- < L3/'\I < 1727.7067 Cp m2 = CIS C.0.89Ycs) = 1 .Cp where p is the water density. 1 + k1 the appendage resistance factor and CF the coefficient of frictional resistance of the ship according to the mc- 1957 formula. SAPP V the speed of the ship..11 < BIL < 0.

pg/(l + F.) + O.(0.217S6cll (1 ~~I'l»)+ In a similar way the additional pressure resistance due to the immersed transom can be determined: RTR + O.0.04 The coefficient c10 is defined as: In addition.OO6(L + 100)-0..0225 tcb .9S-Cp O.1418 Dl/(BT) + 0.75 C_C" The coefficient +O.i) is the Froude number based PB is a measure for the emerFill -1.hB - y2 ell' :. which have been corrected to conditions. 0 FnT has been defmed as: FnT'" VI. Cy is the viswith C V '" (1 + k) CF + CA' cous resistance coefficient Further: Cp1 CA = O..0833333(T.2 FnT) whenFnT <5 CII <5 >5 < 28 > 28 2 c:.0. For single-screw ships with a conventional stern arrangement the following adapted fonnula for the wake fraction can be used: W-C9 RB = 0.24) whenc8 Cll!! TAfD whenTA/D< Cll = 0.BCpl } + 1.0. the followins formula for the allowance coefficient C.45 C. for- c4) In a similar manner the following approximate mula for the thrust deduction for single-screw ships with a conventional stern can be applied: t'" 0. 3. The model-ship correlation resistance R A with RA =~pV2SCA is supposed to describe primarily the effect of the huD roughness of results ideal trial correlation and the still-air resistance.. CA might be increased to calculate e.0.168 where hB is the position of the centre of the transverse area ABr above the keel line and TF is the forward draught of the ship. the effect of a larger hull rouatmess than standard.0.OO2C.16/(c.0. The additional resistance due to the presence of a bulbous bow near the surface is determined from: increase CA = (0.09726 + 0./2gAr/(B +B Cfl/p) = S(7BITA - 25)/(LD(BITA - 3» whenBITA when C:8 or C9 .3 Pi z) where the coefficient gence of the bow and on the immersion: PB = 0.315 .001919 L/(B .2 or C10 = 0.5 p y2Arc6 as: + 0.56~/(TF and Fni F:iA}i.25 v'A.-n The coefficient c6 has been related to the Froude number based on the transom immersion: C6 c9 depends on a coefficient ca defmed whenB/TA = 0.IS = YIJg(TF .11 exp( . are given in metres.0661875+ 1.0.OO3328402/(B/L .00205 + + O.4 was found: or 32 . .m (mean apparent amplitude): clO =BIL when LIB> S..2 efficiency can be predkted The relative-rotative 3 .4 ID)3 + 1.2 In the fonnula for the wake fraction.00524 . '" 150 ". .8.95-CB = 0.11434 + O.24SSsj L(l-Cp1) B _ 0..0585 c10 + C Item or when TFIL .oo3v"I77.33333 when TA/D:::.04 with = 1.5 hll) 0. In this der1!lition CwP is the waterplane area coefficient.16 . To this end the ITIC-1978 fonnulation can be used from which the increase of CA can be derived for roughness values higher than the standard flgUfC of k.105 klf3 - O.OOS579)/Llf3 In these formulae L and k.2(1 .134615385) when LIB < S.25 - 0. the thrust deduction fraction and the relative-rotative efficiency as presented in [ 1] could be improved on several points. Prediction of propulsion factors The statistical prediction formulae for estimating the effective wake fraction. From an analysis of speed trials.5C~ c1 (0.0015 > 0.

however. is the vapour pressure and K is a constant to which the following figures apply: 4.169 well by the original formula: 1/ R C = 0.s/kp» .g.'fIS from: -1 1-1 -w ) + e. In this formula t/e is the thickness-chordlength ratio and kp is the propeller blade surface roughness. The main ship particulars are listed in the Table on the next page: KQ-ibip=KQ. The calculations are made for the various resistance components and the propulsion factors.0. + 10 CYCD . Po + pgh is = 0. The chord length and the thickness-chordlength ratio can be estimated using the following empirical formulae: = These values are based on only a very limited number of model data.2 for single-screw ships For sea water of 15 degrees centigrade the value of Po -Pv 1s99047 N/m2.99 and reflect ideal trial conditions.B. The influence of the fullness and the viscous resistance coefficient has been expressed in a similar way as in the original prediction formulae for twin-screw ships. fast sailing ships: w=O.?!" (0.7S Z Here 6CD is the difference in drag coefficient of the proflle section.oer!eI K = 0 to 0. .2S~ co.1 = 0.no wind.0. for a Reynolds number of 2. successively.3 + 0.3095 Cll CO•75 = 2. These polynomials are valid.073(AE/Ao) D/Z and (t/c)o.5} .9737 + O.deep water with a density of 1025 kgfm3 and a temperature of 15 degrees centigrade and .111(Cp .3 Z) T/(D2(po + pgh .2. implying: .06325 0. P is the pitch of the propeller and 4 .) t = 0. Numerical example The performance characteristics of a hypothetical single-screw ship are calculated for a speed of 25 knots.10 = 0. It has appeared that the characteristics of most propellers can be approximated well by using the results of tests with systematic propeller series.00003 m is used as a standard fIgure for new propellers.. [3].325 CD .B'~ -ACDO.00125 Z) D/CO.106 and need to be corrected for the specific Reynolds number and the roughness of the actual propeller.3 PCO. waves and swell.89 + 1.p.7s){0.0225 feb) 6CD = (2 + 4(t/c>O.9922 . In [2] a polynomial representation is given of the thrust and torque coefficients of the B-series propellers.003605 log (co.1885 fiR D/..05908 AE1Ao + + O.15 • The blade area ratio can be determined Keller's formula: AE/Ao =K from e.0225 leb) + P/D the static pressure at the shaft centre line.7. For this roughness the value of kp 0. P.C".O.07424(Cp - O•7S is the chord length at a radius of 7S per cent and Z is the number of blades. The shaft power can now be determined Ps =PE!(flR'I. According to this method the propeller thrust and torque coefficients are corrected according to: KT-ship '" KT.0. The presented statistical prediction equations for the model-ship correlation allowance and the propulsion factors are based on Reynolds and roughness corrections according to the ITTC-1978 method./BT - In this formula T is the propener thrust.0185 . These original formulae for twinscrew ships are: w = 0.0..3Ca t + and 10CyCB fiR -0.23 D/v'iff' + (1.a clean hun and propeller with a surface roughness according to modem standards. The given prediction equations are consistent with a shafting efficiency of TIs =PDIPs = 0.1 for twin-screw ships K = 0. S. 0.0.7SZ n'J. Estimation of propeller efficiency For the prediction of the required propulsive power the efficiency of the propeller in open-water condition has to be determined.62 Because the formulae above apply to ships with a conventional stem an attempt has been made to indicate a tentative fonnulation for the propulsion filetors of single-screw ships with an open stern as applied sometimes on slender.98.0.

0m cen tre of bulb area above keel line hB midship section coefficient 0. 'A statistical power predic- cO•1S ~CD t/cO. Holtrop. -0. F" . 0.7595 ...170 Main ship characteristics length on waterline length between perpendiculars breadth moulded draught moulded on F.PP =869..A.15610 m c4 C.02% aft of *Lp~ transverse bulb area An 20.. ~2.750 waterp1ane area coefficient C". 2. displacement volume moulded longitudinal centre of buoyancy L Lpp 205.W.001963 = 14.. F"T RTR = 5.9592 = '" 0..5833 = 81. July 1975. 0.. Oosterveld. c12 Cu = ~O. The Hague.0m 4.9931 3. .7393 0. M... Rw P8 Fnl RB From the Bsseries polynomials: = KTs .00m 200.C.398 Cv c9 Cpt w clO c7 cl iE c1 = t T AE/Ao 'fiR = 0. . P.17087 .08 degrees = 1. 1. . Vol.033275 .1274 1.. 0.000352 '" 221..0ml transom area AT wetted area appendages 50.20m 25. 0.2584 .001390 RA Rtotal 1 + k) S PH cll CF Rp 1 + k2 RA..433 = 0.11 leN 0.500 .p 16. 0.557.0 8.02119 =0.04 = 0.5477 = 0.03524 c2 Cs = 0..00m The calculations with the statistical method resuited into the following coefficients and powering characteristics listed in the next Table: 37500 m3 V 2.049 kN m1 m2 References 1.385 '" = .065 m 0.75%(fg~ . 0.2868 Cp 1O.980 CM 0.000956 x tion method'. 25.6261 = 1. 8.6513 .156 7381.P.00 kN =0.0ml SAPP stem shape parameter propeller diameter number of propeller blades clearance propeller with keel line ship speed C..GJ.00m 4 O. J.6594 Hz = 0.63 kN = 1. G.69385 .5084 = 0.83 kN = 0. Proceedings 15th mc. 'Further computer analyzed data of the WlI8eningen Bscrew series' .250 .A.45 ml 0.15 cIS = 0.OOm LR feb = 0.P. 1978.. 3.98 leN = 1793. 0. van. draught moulded on A.Jntematlonal Shipbunding Progress. and Mennen.6461 =32621 kW n KQO flo Ps 5 .tom D Z V 10.1561 12.0 knots B Tp T. 0.and Oossanen.. October 1978.18802 '" 1.26 kN = 23063 kW .75kN '" .00m 10.1747 =2172. 0.50 . International Shipbuilding Progress.030 1.5102 1.00m 32...

6 .