You are on page 1of 30

Landmarks in British Cartography Author(s): G. R. Crone, E. M. J. Campbell, R. A. Skelton Source: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 128, No. 4 (Dec.

, 1962), pp. 406-426 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/04/2011 10:47
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

Blackwell Publishing and The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Geographical Journal.








G. R. CRONE aim of this brief paper is first to consider an approach to the early history The of cartography, and then to suggest some directions in which research might be profitably pursued. In the past, the interest in early maps has largely been antiquarian and bibliographical, and much work has been done in attempting to classify these maps by a close comparison of their outlines and of the names included in them. Too much importance should not, in my opinion, be attached to these features. Many of the individual points used in such differentiation can be shown to be merely copyist's errors, and place-names have often been omitted, either at the whim of the copyist, or because he was unable to find room for all the names in his source material. This is not to argue that it cannot be established that one map may be the copy of another; in fact a great deal of copying went on. It is now generally accepted that the largest class of medieval world maps was derived from a late Roman prototype of the fourth century a.d. or earlier. The main features were com? mon to many; it is the details that are liable to differ, and to cause confusion. This late Roman prototype was some centuries later altered fairly considerably to bring it into conformity with Church doctrine, and it is these features which have Without suggesting that these attracted the attention of previous commentators. of the medieval mind, I would are not of great significance for an understanding point out that an explanation of the presence of the rather jumbled town names, mountains and rivers on, for example, the Hereford Map, would be of greater im? As regards the town names, K. Miller has argued that portance cartographically. there is no evidence for the use of Roman itineraries. However, if these names are plotted accurately on a modern map, it becomes clear that some of them at least are derived from that source. A striking example is the great route across the north Italian plain from Aosta to Ravenna. It can also be shown that the names on the North African coast are drawn from the same source, the Antonine Itinerary. It may be accepted, therefore, that the Hereford World Map of c. a.d. 1300 embodies material from late Roman itineraries; by applying a similar method of analysis it can be shown that this particular map also draws upon medieval itineraries. An example of this are the traces of the medieval pilgrim route from northern France The obscure word 'Recordanorum' near the eastern end to S. lago de Compostella. of the Pyrenees can be equated with the 'Voie Regordane', the pilgrim route across France. The crossing of the Pyrenees is indicated by the insertion of the town of Yacca, on the Spanish side of the traverse, and Compostella itself is inserted in the west. Evidence of contemporary interest and understanding of cartography is also shown by the insertion of two towns in Gascony which were prominent at the time the map was drawn, i.e. Fronsac and Libourne. Similarly in Wales two 'new' towns, Caernarvon and Conway, are inserted. These instances are evidence that the Map was not regarded entirely as a historical or ecclesiastical document, but that this version had been made by a draughtsman with some interest in cartography, or for some one who shared this interest (Crone, 1954). This is not altogether unexpected, in view of Matthew Paris's work fifty years earlier, but it puts that work in a rather



different perspective. There is another feature, which has apparently escaped notice hitherto, which strengthens greatly this view; this is the general accuracy with which the river system of the Yorkshire Ouse-Trent is drawn. As can be seen from Figure are indicated and the towns are remarkably accurately ia, the main components placed in relation to them. No other rivers in Britain, except to a limited extent the Thames, display this degree of local knowledge, and this applies generally to the rivers elsewhere on the Map. It can scarcely be mere coincidence that it is quite probable that much of the Map was drawn at Lincoln, where Richard of Haldingham was Prebendary of Sleaford, before moving to Hereford, and that he had access to map sources which have now disappeared. It should be noted that one of the earlier maps by Matthew Paris {c. A.D. 1250) shows the northern portion of the river system in much the same way, while another shows the southern portion similarly. The complete representa? tion, however, is not to be found on any of his four maps. Whether the representa? tion on the Hereford Map rests on earlier sources or not, it is demonstrable that this area of England, or more exactly this river system, continued to be the best mapped in the country. It is not my purpose to trace here the development of British maps in detail, as I have dealt with this elsewhere (Crone, 1961; 1962); the remainder of this paper examines the historical cartography of one limited area. The Gough Map, now dated at r.1360, develops this representation ofthe OuseTrent river system considerably (Fig. ib); the headwaters of the Trent and the Pennine tributaries of the Ouse are indicated clearly, though direction is not always preserved. Another conspicuous feature is the oval-shaped Isle of Axholm, which in this form was preserved in subsequent maps for another two centuries, e.g. in the Lily map of 1546. As has been pointed out by, among others, E. J. S. Parsons (1959), the Gough Map appears to have been the standard map of England and Wales during this period. The next stage in the mapping of England and Wales developed in the first half of the sixteenth century, partly influenced by the development of survey methods on the continent, in response to demands for more accurate maps from officials, statesmen and antiquarians (Crone, 1962). This activity bore fruit in the large Mercator map of 1564 and the county atlas of Christopher Saxton, 1579. John Leland, the antiquarian, who travelled widely throughout England, sug? gested in 1546 that a map of England and Wales should be engraved, but nothing appears to have been done immediately. He had progressed as far as to collect some map material. One of his sketch-maps has survived, and, curiously enough, it covers the Trent basin (Fig. ic). The drawing is rather crude, but Leland has disentangled the Don from the Axeholm area and has a more correct idea than the Gough draughtsman ofthe direction ofthe rivers (Sheppard, 1912). Leland's proposal was taken up shortly afterwards by Lawrence Nowell, some of of whose cartographical work has survived in manuscript, particularly a map of England and Wales. His representation of the Ouse-Trent area is a little more care? fully done than Leland's, but on some points, e.g. the course of the Don, is less accurate (Fig. id). Mercator states on his large map of 1564 that he was indebted to an unnamed There has been much speculation as to the identity of English correspondent. this cartographer; the most favoured candidate is Nowell, whose map may have reached Mercator through John Dee. A comparison ofthe Trent-Ouse area on these maps shows that they have much in common, but it cannot be asserted that Mer? cator's map is an enlargement from Nowell's as we have it (Fig. ie). It is, of course,

th (fttujh le JSAercator Figure I .

. As a first step. Snaps. On Figure 2. . Systerkirk Figure 2 temporary highroads. \ ? Xnar&sborotiqh 'Bolton. Bridge Weth&rby* Marewood* I Sd*&. I have applied the method used on the Hereford Map to Ortelius's map of 1570 (a reduced version of Mercator's large map) and Humphry Lluyd's map of 1573. A fair proportion of the names.Tb\rsk* ?Hefmsley \Newborcnxcjk. Sruzpt. ?U?Ufn* . ?StokesUw ?} Xood'sBay Robin?Wensley MtddUharrt JVarduzllertoTi* ?Rievauhc c \ v y &&&} \ . and to throw light on the methods of compilation. Rjoon' ?Crayke ? VovmZains ?Pateley ^?Borcnuj hbridge 'SuMmV VipUy. that they were using different sources.landmarks in british cartography 409 possible that Nowell's surviving map is a copy of a larger one by him and that it was this that Dee gave to Mercator... jnmt Kam&sj Ortelius.Thinsk. This analysis suggests that. I have inserted the main conJfamesj Lloyd. eighteen are found on Lluyd only. the names from Lluyd and from Ortelius are distinguished. ? _ ?\~. those common to both being underlined. which is perhaps slight evidence for a common source in this area.Jdrkby. and he may possibly have been concentrating on routes across . allowing that some names might be omitted by the engraver for lack of space. and eight on Ortelius. If these names plus those on the highways are excluded. or. but the distribution of the others is sporadic. The majority of Lluyd's names are in the west.*' BlacKtort Wdkefidd * Pqntefract* Thorne.. Unfortunately the available reproduction of Nowell's map is not sufficiently clear to be used for this purpose. In an attempt to establish the relationship of Mercator's work with other con? temporary maps. each cartographer was interested in particular areas. JVamesjfrum Jfames marked* from(jough Barnard Castle Bowes L/ \^ Stockton.WressU SwiU^jton? -Rathwell Hemin^brough ^3^. FerrybrUge. It will also be noticed that all the coastal names from Kingston-upon-Hull to Filey are common to both. as would be expected. lie on or close to them.?. but on the existing evidence we cannot go further than to accept a common source.

R. in Irish names. (In Abridgement ofthe Chronicles of Englande). are Abridgement ofthe Chronicles ofEnglande. however. that Lluyd and the Mercator-Ortelius map had dif? ferent sources for their place-names. no. there are nine names on Mercator. vii. .g. having studied sixteenth century maps from the above point of view. also a preliminary exam? ination of his map of Yorkshire suggests that there are omissions of names similar to those noted above. T. however.) -1961 Early maps of the British Isles. and the difference still holds. The time required to visit each county would seem to be prohibitive for one individual. a route from York to Rievaulx Abbey. The evidence so far available suggests that. As far as the itinerary sources are concerned. portions of which were inserted rather haphazardly into a common framework. (Scottish Geogr. e.G. 1959 The Gough Map of Great Britain. In conclusion there are one or two general points to be made. (Introd. proceeding from a conventional pattern which goes back at least as far as the Bodleian map. to be the result of a survey in the field in any strict sense. ad. References Crone. Reproductions. No doubt our history colleagues might be able to suggest possible sources for this material.410 IN LANDMARKS BRITISHCARTOGRAPHY the Pennines. They do not seem. E. nothing like as detailed as would be required to compile. R. (Introd. a. 50 per cent of Lluyd's names are not on Mercator. . to R. it is curious that the earliest road book listed by Sir George Fordham is no earlier than 1570?that is. and other similarities. these Tudor maps were based on itineraries. Grafton's The tables contained in it. Where they are apparently indicating the same feature. in the area around York. Wales was not available to allow all the names to be examined. Lluyd. is clear?the close similarity between the coastal names. can be ruled out as Mercator's anonymous correspondent. Reproductions of early maps. but further work is needed in this direction. This does not apply so strongly to the representation of the river systems.S. v. It is perhaps not going beyond the evidence to suggest that between 1540 and 1560.g.73. at least. G.d. J. Parsons. a sufficiently clear photograph of Nowell's map of England and Unfortunately. 1912 The lost towns ofthe Yorkshire coast.S.) Early mapping of the British Isles. It would appear. like their predecessors. 1000-1579. In the stretch from Patrington to Robin Hood's Bay. Bodleian Library.G. Finally. 2. 1954 The world map in Hereford Cathedral. therefore. 78. the relation of Nowell to Mercator is very close indeed. S. Mag. Since Ortelius made a somewhat haphazard choice from the large Mercator map. I have also checked Lluyd's names against the latter. and of these eight occur on Nowell. One point. Mercator's 1564 map. . for example. therefore. e. they give a different selection of place names. Sheppard. P. taking about 50 per cent of the names only. a good deal of work had been done to plot these more accurately. to R. 1572 The high wayes . In view of what has been said regarding the hydrology. 1360. one cannot but wonder whether all Saxton's county maps can have been in fact the results of actual surveys by Saxton himself. c.) -1962 Grafton.

pp. Edward Lynam showed that there are strong grounds for believing that Lily drew a map of the British Isles. As I have noted else? where (Campbell. Chorographia Francia? at Ingolstadt in 1533. adds the symbol used to denote Communia to the four signs explained on the original. the explanation of signs. 6). this derivative is rare (at the British Museum. Thus we cannot teil who decided to explain the signs for Metrop[olitanus]. J. CAMPBELL An interesting theme in the history of cartography is the inception and develop? ment of the characteristic sheet or. Markt and Stadt are tabulated and explained in the cartouche below the representation of Franconia. a convention which the line-engravers ofthe maps in the Bologna edition of Ptolemy's Geogr aphia (1477) adopted from the miniaturists who illuminated maps and charts (Lynam. The other copy to bear a key. Dorf engraved Kloster. 1961)?has ?reproduced long been recognized as a landmark in the history of English cartography. pp.II. Episcopatus.2 (7). engraved in the lower border of the principal cartouche and with other unknown Englishmen from the signature Anglorum studio & diligentia within the cartouche. It was by Thomas Geminus who . In using variations of the tower motif and circle to * denote the difference of places'. This convention continued to be used on small-scale maps engraved in Europe until well into the eighteenth century. but we cannot teil to what extent he was responsible for the engraving which bears his initials and device (Lynam. The need to explain the conventions used on chorographical and topographical maps was not felt until the sixteenth century and then the first signs to be tabulated and explained were those which denoted a 'difference of places'. VII (Crone. On this map. THE BEGINNINGS TO OF THE ENGLISH CHARACTERISTIC MAPS SHEET E. thus it is unlikely that it introduced many Englishmen to the device of explaining the meaning of signs within the framework of a map sheet. 1934. Reproductions of early maps. Comitatus and Castra.G. but it is noteworthy that of the eight re-issues or derivatives printed between 1549 and 1589. Peter Apian followed a convention established by Italian line-engravers in the fifteenth century.A. The first edition of this map is rare. defines only the four symbols of the first edition.L. nor can we be certain that the former worked from a fair copy prepared by one of the unknown Angli. To come to my main theme?the introduction of explanation of signs on maps drawn by English map makers. more simply. The map ofthe British Isles published at Rome in 1546 in R. only two bear keys to the town stamps employed. the circumstances obscure. 2 and 6). signed Per Joannem Mollijns. been 'issued in a limited edition and not for general sale' (Lynam. The Italianization of a number of place-names may indicate that the engraver worked from a draft prepared by an unknown Italian collaborator. It is associated with George Lily from the initials G. the 1546 map is noteworthy because it is the first map of these islands? and one of the earliest line-engraved maps known?to bear a key to the 'difference of of its publication are still places' marked.2. As is well known. 426-7) the earliest map extant to carry a key appears to be Peter Apian's map of Franconia?Das Francken Landt. Maps C. p. there is a photograph of the copy in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris). The earlier of these. 1934. or from a draft drawn by Lily himself. it is signed Apud Iouannem Andream Valuasionem The first edition is rare and may have (there is a copy at the British Museum). 1952. 21). p. M. printed at Antwerp in 1549. In the present context. 1941. The re-issue of 1555 must have been the edition best known in England. cc. the symbols denoting Schloss. printed at Venice in 1556.S. Neither the engraver nor the publisher is known.

A villages (the similar set of conventions was also employed on the 1588 draft of the same county draft of (now MS Rawlinson B 282 at the Bodleian Library) and on Smith's Staffordshire (now MS Ashmolean 765 e 2 at the Bodleian Library). erased the symbols from the margin of the cartouche.412 SHEETTO ENGLISHMAPS THE BEGINNINGSOF THE CHARACTERISTIC the original copper plates which had been brought to England.1 This is un? practice on the Continent general cartographical doubtedly why the county maps of Saxton want for legends. indeed it is clearly a crude reduction of Saxton's On it Norden used only two signs?a simple building map of Northamptonshire. Thus explanations to the conventions employed were given on only five maps in the first edition (1570) of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius. index of letters and numbers?during In the design of the earliest known draft of his own map of Cheshire. but he. Very little is known about Saxton's methods of work. for the county towns of the adjoining counties. Flemish engravers rarely added an explanation of signs. the British convenient tablature (Plate 1). . dated 1585 (now MS Harleian 1046 folio 132 at the British Museum). 2 At the British Museum. now at the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. Smith ex? and plained his conventions for market towns. It therefore seems reasonable to suppose that he also arranged for fair drafts of the maps to be prepared for the engravers and that Flemish draughtsmen in exile in London were employed.2 This sketch is noteworthy because it is the earliest known map drafted by an Englishman to bear a marginal index of letters and numbers. p. the first map engraved in well known map of England to bear an explanation of signs was issued?Norden's Middlesex which accompanied the first part of his Speculum Britanniae (1593). 1960. houses last being represented by the simple open circle with central prick). who recruited and paid the engravers of Saxton's maps and made himself responsible for the publication of the atlas. 49). an official of the Queen's Court. Norden's map of Middlesex was a marked advance on his first known map?the which crude sketch which accompanied his meagre description of Northamptonshire he had completed some four years earlier. Fourteen years after the publication of Saxton's Atlas. His MS map of Lancashire (1598) has similar conventions but does not bear a key (now MS 1 Thus of one set of maps bound together by the Italian publisher Lafreri under the general title Geografia Tavole Moderne de la Maggior Parte del Mondo di diversi autori. On this map. parish churches. It has long been conjectured that Norden was introduced to the device of inserting a key to his symbols by the herald and topographer William Smith. only one bears a notarum explicatio. Apart from the introduction of this device. castles. The conventions used on his maps were in the style of topographical maps engraved in the Netherlands. it shows the sites of religious houses in Flanders. the map showed no advance on the work of Saxton. purchased or another. No other map of Isles published in the sixteenth century carried a key. 1560-1570. but his enormous task of mapping the whole of Eng? land and Wales within the space of seven years (1572-1579) can have left him little time in which to prepare fair drafts for the engravers. what Norden called the 'difference of places' is distinguished by an on the open-circle with central characters?variations ingenious but simple set of The fourteen characters are tabulated and explained in an enprick convention. This want of so a device for the better interpretation of a map was in accordance with at the time. who had himself probably first become familiar with it?as with the idea of the marginal his long residence in Nurnberg (Skelton. they alone would have had the necessary experience. there is a photostat copy of Norden's holograph MS of North? amptonshire with map. if for Northampton (and stamp they fell within the framework of the map) and an open symbol with central prick for all other places. Thus there was little need for a key. So far as is known it was Thomas Seckford.

p. which Smith brought back from Niirnberg. it is known chiefly through the line-engraving This version does not bear a key to the symbols employed. Neither Symonson nor his engraver Charles Whitwell thought it necessary to include a key to the symbols employed on the former's map of Kent (1596).500 and one which included a substantial amount of detail.x Peter Stent's edition of c. Or he may owe its design at least in part to discussion with Peter van den Keere. 1650) and John Overton (c. by a neat pictograph?a By 1594. Mr. 33. 1950. but the last is possible because it is known that failing to find a patron he arranged to publish at his own expense the full work including the map of the county and the two 'birds-eye' plans of London and Westminster. Cer? tainly the simple set of characters is eminently suitable for a map on a scale of approximately 1:192. parishes. Add. MSS 31.. almost certainly the engraver. 1680). Each of these maps carried a key to the 'difference of places'. yet appreciated by any of Norden's contemporaries. but it is impossible to deduce anything from this omission. and on his map of Sussex (1595 ?) engraved by Christofer Schwytzer.769 in the British Museum). The only other of Norden's county maps known today is that of Hertof William Kip (1598). 17). 'divisions for hundreds'. The great improvement to the lay-out of his map of Middlesex suggests that Norden may well have modelled it on that of a map. engraved by Charles Whitwell.M. Jodocus Hondius (Hind.853). MS.2 Thus for the first time the key to an English county map was extended beyond the customary settlement types and beacons.S. and is of particular interest as the line-engraving of his map of Hampshire [1595?] is known today only in revisions published by Peter Stent (c. fordshire. It also has a key (Plate 2). (Skelton. the map of Sussex distinguished beacons beacon crowned hill?which was explained in the key. A fine manuscript copy also survives of Norden's map of Hampshire (B. On the other hand. Similar sets of characters to those employed on his map of Middlesex were also used on Norden's map of Surrey (1594). 'testimony to direct communication his survey of Northamptonshire must have begun before Norden completed. it may well be that Norden himself invented the ingenious but simple set of characters employed on his map of Middlesex in an effort to reduce the cost of publication of the first parte of his Speculum Britanniae. the most interesting in the present context is that which he presented to the Earl of Essex (now Add. We cannot be certain. Recently. for it alone included a key to the characters representing market towns. castles. Skelton has shown that between the two men. 1952. now lost. which there is. Norden had also completed 'Speculi Britanniae Pars: an historicall and chorographicall description of the county of Essex'. p. who two years earlier had en? graved a map of Ireland (Hyberniae Novissima Descriptio) for his brother-in-law. The desirability of including an explanation of signs does not appear to have been other than William Smith. map 3 There is a copy of P.?yet Whitwell would have been familiar with the 1 Camden based his of Hampshire on a draft of the county by Norden. 1960. in fact. and that it was only at the last moment that he received a sub? stantial contribution towards the cost of publication (Lynam. 204). and parks. The only known MS copy of the map of Hertfordshire also lacks a key (now MS 521 in Lambeth Palace Library). . 50). Stent's version at the R. they must have been familiar with his maps.G. ham? lets. Of the three surviving manuscript copies of his map of Essex. houses of nobility and houses of gentlemen. p. rivers and bridges (no roads are marked either on the surviving MS copy or on Stent's printed edition).SHEETTO ENGLISHMAPS THE BEGINNINGSOF THE CHARACTERISTIC 413 Harleian 6159 folio 2 at the British Museum). 1650 is interesting because he inserted a title to the key?'Explanation of the Map'?and also extended the cartouche to include the pictographs denoting 'woody places'.

but they are limited to the signs showing the dif? ference of places. n. archbishoprics. 50). Woutneel's imprint is also on the MS of Worcestershire?but not on the engraved version of the county. now in the British Museum. 1926. fair towns and Cinque Ports (Plate 5). have been described by Mr. Of the maps in Camden's Britannia (1607). 1960. parks. n. p. There are no entablatures of signs to the maps engraved by Jodocus Hondius in John Speed's Theatre of the empire of Great Britain (folio ed. have keys to the conventions employed. 330). the number of variations on the tower symbol representing the difference of places increased and the explanatory tables likewise grew. and perhaps other topographers was collected for it' (Skelton. 5). see Skelton. Skelton who has shown that they 'point with a high degree of probability to William Smith as the 1602-3 series and the intermediary by whom cartographer of the Anonymous unpublished information from Norden. as noted above. V. 1960. to his 'variations' on the open circle alone. p. This map of Essex (1602) is exceptional in being the only one of the anonymous series to be a half-erased inscription attributing the map to signed by Hans Woutneel?over Christopher Saxton (see Edward Heawood. Both languages were employed on the copper plate. market towns. Edward Heawood showed that there is testimony to the maps in the anonymous series having been engraved in the Amsterdam workshop of Jodocus Hondius about 1602 (Heawood. deaneries. pl. 10). These drafts. bishoprics. pulls were still being used in the seventeenth century. The extension of the explanation of signs to a more or less full characteristic sheet took place in England. now lost. Furthermore. that of Essex has a different design. Tooley discovered four manuscript maps which are clearly drafts pre? pared for the engraver of the maps of Cheshire. as on the continent. some two years before he was employed by Symonson. Perhaps the most interesting ofthe four drafts in the present context is that of Hertfordshire which is an enlarged and corrected version of Norden's map of 1598. Hertfordshire. the neat conventions adopted by Norden found no permanent and their sucplace in the English cartographical alphabet. having. On the drafts. p. 1611). It was during this century that topographical maps on the scale of 1163. But even Ogilby did not consider it necessary to explain the signs for woodland.d. Burton. Skelton has already noted. During the seventeenth century. bridges and other features. sometimes with a central prick. only those based on Norden's maps. but who pre? pared the drafts for the engraver remained a mystery until a few years ago when Mr. 49). The plates for this anonymous series had a long life. Heawood believed that Norden was probably associated with the production of the original edition. there is a notarum explicatio in which the symbols are given in English in one hand. corporations. Warwickshire and in the anonymous series (Skelton. XIX facing p. 1932. the 'difference of places' is shown. engraved Norden's map of Surrey. In its lower right hand corner (Plate 4). The engraver employed the map conventions then current in Amsterdam (Skelton. 1960. 1585. 49. p.414 THE BEGINNINGSOF THE CHARACTERISTIC SHEETTO ENGLISHMAPS device. shire towns. Worcestershire 1960. including his map of Kent. and in Latin in another hand.) in the so-called anonymous series (Plate 3). How overworked the tower symbol became during the century is shown by the 'explination' [sic] on John Ogilby's map of Kent (1670) which employed it with minor modifications to distinguish cities. p. 49. His contemporaries cessors preferred variations on the tower symbol embracing the simple open circle. R. p. Eleven of these maps carry an explanation of signs similar to that on the map of Surrey. 50..360 or greater . during the eighteenth century. as Mr. by signs in the same style as those used by Smith on his MS map of Cheshire. In this connection it is interesting to set the key to Norden's map of Surrey alongside that of Surrey {Surriae Comitatus.

VII: Early maps of the British Isles a. 22. and its development within the framework of the Board of Ordnance. Twenty facsimile reproductions with introduction and notes. director of the Trigonometrical Survey. Reproductions of early maps. made some severe criticisms of 'the very erroneous state' of English county cartography (Mudge. 47-50. English county surveying in the eighteenth century. Lynam. 325-7. 1000-1579. by private undertakers. Edward 1934 The map of the British Isles of 1546. Pa. -1932 English county maps in the collection of the Royal Geographical Society.S. 1724 (Plate 6). and the eighteenth century county maps pro? vide precious evidence of man's use of the land and its resources?the pattern of settlement and communications. these maps mark the end of an epoch in English regional cartography.THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE OF BRITAIN SURVEY GREAT 415 became true proportional renderings of the ground. Close performed a valuable piece of historical salvage. 1961 (Ed. technically considered. The first engraved atlas of the world. Pa. Washington 426-30. Hind. Yet.d. Heawood.?In 1799 Captain William Mudge. SKELTON national survey of Great Britain owes its origin in the late eighteenth to two men?the Duke of Richmond and Major-General William Roy century in the administrative field. THE ORIGINS OF THE ORDNANCE GREAT BRITAIN R. Crone. P. 116. This demanded?especially on the continent where topographical maps were used to aid the movement and quartering of troops?a carefully considered set of conventions so that every sign and every letter should convey a precise meaning. Vlllth General Assembly-XVIIth Congr. -1941 1950 English maps and map-makers of the sixteenth century. must seem arbitrary. Geogr. References Campbell.x*).) R.-Int. on scales of 1 inch or 2 inches to a mile. A noteworthy example is that on Richard Budgen's map of Sussex. A. A. but he had not the advantage of using the archives of the Board of Ordnance (in the Public Record Office) and the personal papers of the Duke of Richmond (now for the most part on deposit in the West Sussex Record Office). administration survey grew up under the auspices of a military department of government. Cambridge. Skelton. 1926). Mus. Jenkintown. 7-28. On such a scale the cartographers could delineate the human landscape in greater detail than had yet been seen in county maps. Un. 1952 Engraving in England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Then a full explanation of signs became essential and indeed was included on many of the maps published by English county surveyors during the century. 1960 Four English county maps. Brit. R. Study of the personalities and motives of Roy and the Duke of Richmond. III. the other in the scientific. 1952 The development of the characteristic sheet.G. 1799. 1532-1822. Qtly. Sir Charles Close's ?one monograph has deservedly become the standard history of its subject (Close. exposes the background of and technology against which the concept of a national politics. Without this vital documentation the adminis? trative processes leading to the establishment of the Trigonometrical Survey in 1791. Topographical surveys of every county had been made. I. The processes of survey and construction employed generally differed little from those in use at the end of the sixteenth The SURVEY OF . Eila M. land cover and land utilization. Geogr. A. J. 68. M. industrial enter? prise and social life. Edward 1926 Some early county maps. G. In Proc. and of the relations between the two men.The eigh? teenth century had nevertheless been a period of extraordinary activity in the map? ping of the English counties. R. Jenkintown. J. J. Geogr. notably the papers of General Colby. In printing extracts from records now lost.

Professor at the Royal Military Academy. engravers and archiand surveyors. in presumably John Lodge Cowley. to the lands in West Lavant. whose bounty was enjoyed by painters. and no man to whom he was so much indebted. his adversaries could represent him as wilful. and even as such is neither correct nor well executed'. and February-March William Gardner from about 1767 as surveyors on regular wages (West Sussex R.?Whether had its source in the management of his great estates at Goodwood. they entered that of the Board of Ordnance. but resumed it under Pitt in December 1783 and retained it until 1795. ch. Singleton and Halnaker Park which he inherited. to his employment of James Sampson in 1763-6 and of 1759. surveyors. His household accounts testify to his regular employment of Thomas Yeakell as a salaried surveyor from 1 November 1758. 1768' (this was for setting fire to General Conway's library). writing in 1780.?Charles Lennox. propose . Goodwood Papers. but Yeakell and Gardner were to remain in the Duke's service until. or in his mathe? matical interests. He worked as an engraver as well as surveyor. to publish a topographical survey' of Sussex. . perhaps picked up by the Duke on his military campaigns in the 1750's. Ae/i. enlarging and developing his estates round Goodwood. ambitious and inconsistent. no . As a landowner he instrument-makers tects. East and Mid Lavant (1775 and 1777). hanged May 11. we do not know. under the patronage of the Duke of Richmond' (Gough. 178. had been 'engraved . the climactic. in 1782 and 1784 respectively. in which his opinions were liberal to the point of of the Ordnance. he served for seven years in the army and there? after turned to politics. in the latter capacity be carried on a private practice. but while his political friends (such as Horace Walpole) respected his intelligence and integrity. Halnaker and Tangmere (in 1765). In March 1782 he was appointed Master-General then a Cabinet office. William Gardner and the 3 rd Duke of to play leading parts not only in the mapping of Sussex but also Richmond?were in the national survey of England. The Duke resigned this post a year later (April 1783). The wages-book notes against Sampson's name 'run away Aug* 1766. or in both. phase of his career more will be said later. radicalism. Boxgrove. his surname suggests that he was of German origin. 3 rd Duke of Richmond. was active in consolidating. Richard Gough. from about 1770. II. Af/i). . and that the first sheet. No record of Thomas Yeakell's birth has been found. in association with Gardner. by mathematicians. he added the manors of East Dean (about 1760). He was a conscientious public servant. King George III remarked that there was 'no man in his dominions by whom he had been so much offended. that To these strictures he was able to add the more encouraging announcement 'Yeakell and Gardner. was born in 1735 and succeeded to the title in 1750 (Plate 7). which (he considered) 'deserves but the name of a map at most. 297-8). v). pp. the Duke's patronage of surveying Thomas Yeakell and William Gardner. and many of them had as their basis no more than a road-traverse with topographical in-filling (Gardiner. in West Sussex. to his provision for having Yeakell instructed in mathematics by 'Mr Cowley'.416 OF SURVEY GREAT BRITAIN THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE century. . The Duke of Richmond.O. After graduating in mathematics at the University of Leiden in 1753. . as the Duke of Richmond'. dated 1778. The Duke of Richmond seems to be alone among eighteenth century landowners in maintaining professional sur? veyors in regular salaried service. in which they were to remain for the rest of their lives. on a scale of 2 inches to a mile. The Duke was a man of wide and eager intellectual curiosity. Of this. The three men named?Thomas Yeakell. 1737.. singled out for particular censure the map of Sussex published by Richard Budgen in 1724.

Explanation of signs on John Norden's map of Middlesex.i. Detail from John Norden's MS map of Hampshire. now in the British Museum . 1593 2.

3. Explanation of signs on unsigned MS map of Hertfordshire. 1594 above. now in British Museum . Explanation of signs on early maps of Surrey: below map by Norden.NOTARVM ^k'Z ty<^&* m EXPLICATIO. anonymous map {undated) tllllf ?iililii|llSlali|pf^? #' !l^i^|^l|IiillS^S| 4.

.5.. 1724.-^//. Slll 6. i6jo W^^M^^^M ^>. ^. Detail from John Ogilbys map of Kent. Explanation of signs on Richard Budgen's map of Sussex.

3rd Duke of Richmond.7. by Romney . Charles.

below. The Goodwood terriers of Yeakell and Gardner {details): above. jrd recension {2": 1 mile) .. 2nd recension {6": 1 mile). r.8. ist recension {20": 1 mile) and l.

Two-inch map of Sussex by Yeakell and by Gardner: detail {reduced) . engraved by Glot: of the Chichester g. Six-inch detail {reduced) district.

1804-5. The Trigonometrical Survey: two-inch drawing of West Sussex. surveyed by Gardner.ii. Six-inch map of the Plymouth region. detail (reduced) . 1784-6: detail {reduced) 12.

.? (/f^*l:^%.a ^? v5-? 8 S'?-? ss >2 e> ? "^ s .

every bridle way and foot path will be delineated. being described as a widower aged 30. in English cartography. but the cessation of work on the map need not be ascribed wholly to this circumstance. his earliest private com? mission for an estate plan. This offered a wealth of detail more common in large-scale plans than in county maps. On 18 April 1782 the Duke took his seat at the Board of Ordnance as Master-General (P. but every farm-house. was in 1767. and Yeakell replied expressing his wish to have the post. evidently quoting from a (now lost) prospectus. He lived at Westhampnett.O. the device eliminated the costly process of copying by hand. and bridges and each rivulet will be traced. covering the southern half of the county. or wall. as Gough. Two engravers executed the plates for the printed 'base-maps' used in the second and third recensions: Thomas Yeakell and Glot. outside the Duke's service. There are three versions of the terriers (Plate 8). with the nature of its fence. Every inclosure . pale. The financial return had been disappointing. so that he must have been born in 1739 or -40. . with maps. both men. not in collaboration with Yeakell. and there the father was buried in 1787. From about 1765. II. Goodwood Papers. that he could not 'absolutely promise' it? but would 'endeavour to get it done for you' (P. now in the West Sussex Record Office. In the Goodwood accounts regular payments to Yeakell continue until Christmas 1782. on November 1..O. William Gardner was married at Boxgrove in November 1770. fords. survives.O. As we have seen.e. which was never published. the fourth undated. in addition to their salaried work at Goodwood. Yeakell in association with Gardner executed a fine series of terriers. In the second recension. 1780. there his son Thomas.. and their shape and even height made sensible to the eye' (Gough.R. will be described. On December n he appointed Yeakell 28 . of the Duke of Richmond's estates and manors. By this time both surveyors. the first three dated 1778. drawn in the conventions of estate plans. A/4). were published. plans by Yeakell alone being known. On 30 October he wrote from London to Yeakell at Goodwood about an 'Appointment in the Drawing Room'. indicates: it would 'not only contain an accurate plan of every town and village. and his name appears in the parish registers from 1764. generally on a scale of 20 inches to a mile. with the holdings coloured. the maps are cut-outs of an engraved map on a scale of 6 inches to a mile. Their most ambitious enterprise was the 2-inch map of Sussex announced by Gough?the 'Great Survey'. as it was called (Plate 10). who followed his father into service as a surveyor at Goodwood and under the Board of Ordnance. are presented in a form both ingenious and original?indeed (so far as can be ascertained) unique in their period. apparently a French engraver. 46/14). or a little later. is the earliest printed delineation. will have its place. barn. 1780 and 1783. The hills and vallies will be clearly distinguished from the low lands. whether bank. the office of the Ordnance draftsmen in the Tower of London. and garden. and to Gardner until Midsummer 1784 (West Sussex R.R. Only four sheets of the Great Survey. W. The county map was in fact the child of the surveys of the Richmond manors carried out before this by Yeakell and Gardner. The Duke wrote back. i.O. W. These surveys. and their patron. of an extensive tract of country?some so large a scale (Plate 9). 47/99). . ditch. This 6-inch map. we can identify his cartographic style with more assurance. pp. were in a different service.. and the cartographic technique foreshadows that to be em? ployed by Gardner a few years later in his surveys for the Board of Ordnance. The maps of 72 square miles?on the third recension are similar cut-outs from engraved maps at 2 inches to a mile. and since a good deal of work by him alone. 297-8). the rivers with their bends. was born in 1762/3. The earliest is entirely in manuscript.BRITAIN SURVEY GREAT OF THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE 417 near Goodwood. carried on private practice as surveyors.O. every road public or private.

brought up to date by Roy in 1779. W.R.R.418 THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY GREAT OF BRITAIN Chief Draftsman at the Tower. and his map of the area. 54/217). Some of his measures have a modern look. Until 1828 the MasterGeneral had a seat in the Cabinet and was its principal military adviser. 46/18). obviously at the Duke's instance. he surveyed Narragansett Harbour in 1764. 46/18). I.. W. under the direction of the Board. on 5 February 1784?still with the Board of Ordnance (P. introducing stricter control of expenditure.. Engineers their duties included instrumental survey in the field.O.O.?The Board of Ordnance. He carried out a thorough reorganization of the Ordnance Office.. He was to survey the Plymouth region. in succession to Mr. and in 1787 he too came on its regular establishment. 47/100). It was responsible for commissariat and ordnance supplies to both the Army and the Navy. for instance. pp. The Board of Ordnance.O.R. his instructions were issued on 11 commissioned as a February 1783 (P.. Their training was therefore entirely in military survey. and the custody of the maps and plans in the Drawing Room. at a very early age...O. 10-15). 47/119). and in the debates 'his Grace's passion for engineering' was likened to an old man falling in love. new establishments.O. drawing.R. civilian Promotion usually followed seniority. as cadets in the Drawing Room.O. signed a contract private practitioner?he W. as reconstituted by Royal Warrant of King Charles II in 1683. They encountered violent Parliamentary opposition. was only twelve years old when. This appointment is characteristic of the Duke's resolute but urbane methods in public business. whose style of drawing closely resembles that of . New maps were needed for the work. Af/i). Fee. had wide duties and manifold powers (Clode. In this capacity he was responsible for fortifications and the military defence of the kingdom. it controlled the engineer and artillery was ex officio Colonel of the Royal Regiment of arms. or Reward' (P. was completed in the next two years. 30/54. as an Ordnance cadet. This fine map. W. In 1784 we shall find Gardner conducting surveys for the Board in the Plymouth area. and passim).O. These men normally entered the service of the Board. so in 1783 he obtained a Royal Warrant increasing the salaries of the Ordnance surveyors and draftsmen and prohibiting their acceptance of any 'Gratuity. They rose through four grades. W. and confirmed by a commission in 1783 (P. In his first years at the Ordnance Office. over the heads of men with thirty or forty years' service. George Haines retired (P.O. just as in 1764 he had forbidden his servants to receive tips and had raised their wages in compensation (West Sussex R. and the Master-General Artillery and of the Corps of Engineers. from the highest of which the Chief Draftsman and his into the deputy were normally selected. and this was the occasion which brought William Gardner into Ordnance service. better terms of service.R. The Duke's plans for new defence works were based on recom? of Coasts) William Roy (as Inspector-General mendations made by Lieut-Colonel after a tour of the dockyard towns in the summer of 1770. 74-5. and the introduction of Yeakell?a ?at the top of the ladder. arts. A large civil establishment of surveyors and draftsmen was maintained for this work. Goodwood Papers. can hardly have been popular.. a year later. Charles Blaskowitz. the Board was eventually dissolved in 1855. correction and copying of maps.R. W. and they were eligible for commissions and Artillery. 1869.O.O. compilation.O.O.O. the Duke made proposals to Shelburne for fortifying the naval dockyards of Portsmouth and Plymouth 'against a regular Siege' (P. Military surveying and map-making was an engineer service. at 6 inches to a mile. supervised by the Commanding Engineer of a district or formation.

and 'a Surveying party was to be formed. the next in line. was promoted Chief Draftsman in Yeakell's place. In this modest project. computation and mapdrawing arising from the trigonometrical survey begun by General Roy in 1784 and resumed in 1791. which could be executed 'at a moderate Expence'. he first formulated a plan for triangulation of the whole country. Many years later he wrote: 'On the conclusion of the peace of 1763 it came for the first time under the consideration of Government to make a general survey of the whole island at public cost' (Roy.R. with responsibility for coastal defence. Gardner's surveying party went into the field at once. .. as Deputy-Quartermaster-General.O. he surveyed Guernsey and Jersey at 6 inches to the mile. General Roy. with these additions. Thomas Chamberlain. 1785). at 6 inches to the mile. which was to be directed by Roy. the former in 1787. seems to have been turned down as 'a Work of much time and labour. 'in the same manner as those done by Mr Wm Gardner of the environs of Plymouth. P.R. Roy proposed to make use of existing materials by correcting and combining the published county maps and running 'Serieses [sic] of Triangles along the Coast. this party was to receive zd an acre for surveying and drawing two fair plans. In 1765 Roy had been appointed Inspector-General of Coasts under the Board of Ordnance. W. but it was to become the prototype for future work by the Board's surveying draftsmen (Plate 11).O. and calculate all the triangles and was also to fill in. to consist of the Chief Surveyor and a certain number of Draftsmen'. . dated 24 May 1766. and his responsibility was 'to take great Tryangles. but his grander geodetic vision. In 1763. 47/109).SURVEY GREAT THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE OF BRITAIN 419 Gardner's estate plans. W. Georgian MS 314). was never printed. Major 307. if he had afterwards any leisure'. in which the map of Scotland would be incorporated. that they are to be coloured and that the height of the principal Hills from the level with the Sea and their distance in the straight line from each other should be expressed in red Ink'. the Ordnance records in the Public Record Office show Gardner continuously employed in military surveys and in the field-work. The 'great Base of the first Triangle serving as the Foundation of the Work' was to be 6 or 8 miles long. Of this zd an acre. and he died at some date before May 30 (Wills.C. for making 'a General Military Map of England' (Windsor. Although (as Roy wrote at the end of his life) this was 'rather to be considered as a magnificent military sketch. the Chief Surveyor was to receive *2d. In the summer and autumn of 1787.. 'to rank next to the Chief Draftsman'. and attended with great Expence to the Government' (Windsor. the latter in 1795 From now on. viz1. and along the Ridges of Hills and principal Rivers'. with five other surveyors. pp. Gardner was appointed to a new office of Chief Surveying Draftsman. he had made his will on March 30. in the Royal Archives at Windsor.O. The Duke seized the opportunity to reconstruct the surveying service (P. two of his assistants?Thomas Yeakell the younger and Thomas Gream? were Sussex men. 47/109). reduced to sea level. on a scale of 1000 yards to 1 inch.?As a young military engineer William Roy had made his mark with the survey of Scotland executed. Both maps were engraved. 163-6). is not concealed. Besides their established pay. in the years 174755 (Macdonald. To his pen we may attribute an unsigned scheme. it brought to light the aptitude for survey which dominated his career. and the principal triangles were to be carried along 'one grand . P. On 3 April 1787 Thomas Yeakell presented his last monthly return as Chief Draftsman.O.C. This project. a general sketch of the hills and their heights . Georgian MS 314). 'to render the Work of more extensive and general use'. 1917. All work was to be certified by 'the Engineer when there was one'. The scale of the map was to be 1 inch to 1 mile. than a very accurate map of a country'.

operations were begun for connecting the observatories of Greenwich and Paris by triangulation. and his ideas had time to mature. revised this between 1785 and 1790?Roy W. as he tells us?he measured a base 'across the fields' between Marylebone and St Pancras. he recalled 'that many years ago it was in agitation to carry on a survey ofthe whole Island. Roy. Roy's second project was stopped by the American War. In this way an are of 8*2 degrees of the meridian would be mea? sured. thro' the whole extent of the Island. and three years later the triangles to Dover and across the Straits were completed (Roy.O. 1790). marked by Obelisks . . In 1783?'for my own private amusement'. paper as a directive for a map The revisions show how Roy's professional thought came increasingly to be directed towards the project ofthe national survey. any future operations His Majesty may please to order to be extended . The instrument used was the 3-foot altazimuth theodolite?the 'great theodolite' they called it?con? structed by Jesse Ramsden for the Royal Society at the King's expense. art. for which in fact the document as amended furnishes the specification. a proper scale for the map would be i inch. . 'if particular Buildings & Inclosures or Fields were to be represented truely topographically'. whereof I was to have had the Direction'. under the auspices of the King and the Royal Society. 29 July 1784). as the technical charter of the first Trigonometrical Survey. 388).?Roy envisaged both his surveys of the invasion coasts and his triangulation of south-east England as (in his words) 'the foundation of a general survey of the British Islands' (Roy. Emphasis is laid on precise delineation of the topography. p. 423-6). At the end of his Royal Society papers of 1787 and 1790 he laid down the plan for the basic geodetic and trigonometrical operations. 14). . to those of a national survey?and indeed making use of the former to promote his concept of the latter. a temperate man. 'with respect to Military purposes'. . not for the first time nor for the last. This gave azimuthal readings within 2 seconds of are at 70 miles.420 THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE OF SURVEY GREAT BRITAIN Meridian line. furnished by the Duke of Richmond as MasterGeneral ofthe Ordnance. Although Roy. was driven by Ramsden's procrastination to the use of language so violent that it had to be excised from his Royal Society paper of 1790 before printing. it is printed below (pp. . and. . 'intermediate to those measured in France and at the Polar Circle'. or ix4 inches. The Trigonometrical Survey.R. In 1784. Later?evidently of 'the Island in general' on a scale of 1 inch to a mile. 1785. and triangulation had been carried out with technical Roy's base-measurement assistance. . we find Roy's mind ranging beyond the requirements of military engineering and coastal defence. 22). written by him for the Duke of Richmond and setting out 'general Instructions for the Engineers to be employed in surveying the Coast and Districts of the Country near it' (P. 1785.O.. and observed a series of triangles in and round London (Roy. 1790). In his letter of 28 June 1784 to the Royal Society. and Roy concludes that. to which he was bound by his Ordnance duties. Among his papers in the Public Record Office is an undated (and unpublished) memorandum. it that of the London instrument-makers was upon the technological accomplishment the standards set by Roy for the national survey depended (Plates 13. Here. and a more accurate determination of the 'spheroidical figure of the Earth' could be obtained. in men and equipment. to more remote parts ofthe Island' (Royal Society Minutes. but when he died in June 1790 no regular establishment existed for continuing the trigonometrical survey which he had begun. Roy measured a base of five miles on Hounslow Heath. like that thro' France'. and he recom? mended Hounslow Heath for the base-line as 'being very conveniently situated for . to the mile. 30/54. The specifications for the national survey are prescribed in Roy's writings.

was engaged in all these operations. the Duke of Richmond did not neglect the mapping of his own county.O. and this was to be the scale of the map engraved from the surveyors' drawings. by his personal interest in topographical survey. 1926. 'the filling in or surveying of the interior parts of the great triangles'. William Gardner. and in 1792. one at least as good as that of any other County should be published'. Such detail could not be represented 'on a less scale than two Inches to a mile'. 29). 1945. Gardner was indeed on familiar ground (Plate 15). or Marshes' to be surveyed. the 2-inch map of Yeakell and Gardner] cannot be completed. and he 'procured from Mr Ramsden a proper Instrument for this Purpose' (P. The 'proper Instrument' was the second 3-foot theodolite (now in the Science Museum). All these. Woods. who in 1794 succeeded Chamberlain as Chief Draftsman (his former office of Chief Surveying Draftsman being abolished). Heaths..O. Under these officers the surveying draftsmen of the Board's civil establishment were to be employed on the work. to subordinate surveyors using 'the small Theodolets and chains provided'. roads and lanes. 1899. Gardner . we have been able to determine.O. all the Hedges.R. that the 'casual opportunity' of purchasing 'a very fine instrument' prompted the Duke to resume the survey. Not only were boundaries of 'Forests. but also 'in the enclosed parts . The primary tasks of base-measurement of the great triangles' were assigned to the senior engineer on the spot. p.OF BRITAIN SURVEY GREAT THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE 421 The Duke in due course provided for the prosecution of Roy's work. 'the services of Mr. In setting up the station at Rook's Hill. .R. The re? mainder of Sussex and most of Kent were triangulated in 1795-6.. 204).O. p. 'appears to be quite inadequate' (Close. to satisfy 'the wish of many Gentlemen that if the Great Survey [that is. W. Roy's revised memorandum to the Duke had defined the principles on which the and 'determination survey was conducted. (Gream had resigned from the Ordnance service in April 1791 to take up private . wrote Roy. As Close points out.. pp. tance. On July 10 the Master-General informed the Board that he had appointed 'Major Williams and Lieutenant Mudge of the Royal Regiment of Artillery to carry on the Trigono? metrical Survey with the Assistance of Mr Dalby' (P. just east of the Trundle at Goodwood. and it can hardly be doubted that the measures which he took in 1791 were dictated equally by con? siderations of national policy. W. 164-6).O.R. and by his desire (as Colby wrote many years later) 'to support the scientific reputation of the Country and to improve the Corps under his Command' (P. 46/22). constructed by Ramsden to the order of the East India Company for in India. 'may afterwards be reduced to a Scale of one Inch to a mile for the Island in general'. They were to make measured traverses of the coast. . but not delivered because of a business disagreement triangulation (Phillimore. this was in fact the standard scale adopted for the survey and manuscript maps. Commons. from his intimate knowledge of the County of Sussex. W. river-courses. and in the following sum? mer triangulation was carried southward through Surrey and West Sussex. In June 1791 Gardner and Thomas Gream announced a i-inch map of Sussex. the suggestion made by the earliest official historians of the survey (Mudge. by whose assis? Mudge acknowledged. While he was promoting the national survey. 44/614).. with certainty.. In June 1791 he took 'His Majesty's Pleasure for proceeding with the Trigonometrical Operation begun by the late Major General Roy'. 46/22).O. In 1793-4 tne surveying parties were in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. the names of many places. In 1791 Roy's Hounslow Heath base was remeasured. and other Boundaries of Fields are to be care? fully laid down'. which we might otherwise have considered as doubtful'.

During the next two years. . W. Public Record Office: Board of Ordnance papers W. William Gardner died in Ordnance service in March 1800.R. 78 (Maps and plans). 1791-1842. i-inch map of Kent which was published. fitly known as the Ordnance Survey. Gardner generally attended us. the topographical survey is little less detailed than that of the 2-inch map. by Ll Colonel Colby'). . The map advertised for 1792 was not ready until June 1795. 'Mr.O.O. Gardner . with materials for correcting a Map of that county. Mudge recorded that 'a great part of the objects points] in Sussex.O. to be minute in our Survey of Sussex. 55/330-538 (Warrants). . 54/197-236 (Establishments).O. as a post-war economy. . .O. intended.O. Mudge's statement vindicates the introduction of Yeakell and Gardner to office under the Board by the Duke of Richmond. Yeakell.e. and he checked the trigonometrical data for Essex and parts of Suffolk In 1799 he completed 'in a masterly manner' the drawing ofthe and Hertfordshire. 44/614 ('Precis ofthe Progress ofthe Ordnance Survey . in 1795 he was observing triangles in Kent with the theodolite. 47 (Minutes of Board). W. when it was published by William Faden with a dedication to the Duke. W. The title states that the survey was 'begun by W. Mudge tells us. 'General Roy's Papers'). the sur? veyors on the Board's civil establishment were by Royal Warrant constituted into a 'Corps of Royal Military Surveyors and Draftsmen. to be subject to the Rules and Discipline of War' (P. 1783-1834. Duke of Richmond was dismissed from the office of MasterConclusion. at some future period. In 1799 Mudge had written that 'in the Survey now carrying on. W. the Duke created the national survey of Great Britain. .O. of men who had learnt their trade in estate and county surveying. having been supplied with suffi? cient materials for correcting all the southern and western parts of his map' (Mudge. 46 (Out-letters of MasterGeneral and Board). By putting in harness to? gether the civilian surveyor and the military engineer. The continuity of cartographic tradi? tion in England is exemplified no less by these appointments.. pp.R.O. eleven years before his death. and the Isle of Wight were [i.O.O. completed by Thomas Gream'. by Faden on 1 January 1801. This has arisen from the union of the parties'. than by the affinity of their topographical workmanship in private practice and in public service.O. In December of the same year. 44/517 (Corps of Military Surveyors and Draftsmen).) In the summer of 1792. the Corps was disbanded. in 1817 (P. As it is constructed from the data of the official triangulation. By this he meant the collaboration between the military surveyors and the draftsmen of the civil branch.. we received instructions from his Grace the Duke of Richmond. Although on half the scale.O. In these years Gardner was also kept busy with computation and map-drawing for the Trigonometrical Survey. W.O. trigonometrical verified by Mr Gardner'. xi-xii). Gardner and the late T. 30/54. from Ordnance materials. Hampshire. to be published under the patronage of his Grace'. References Original records British Museum.422 THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY GREAT OF BRITAIN practice. . 'at the time of our visiting the station on Hindhead . 30/54-60 (Invasion and defence. ten months after Gardner's death. 44/517). as very important advantages have accrued to Government from the accuracy with which their plans have been made. 1799. Map Room Surveyors' drawings for the Trigonometrical Survey of England and Wales.?The General of the Ordnance in 1795. W. 55/421). W. W. and to furnish Mr. accordingly. W. this might well be considered the first printed map of the Trigonometrical Survey. W. our operations are intimately connected with those of Mr Gardner.

Nevertheless the materials for the history of English military survey. art. and for facilities in doing so.O. and members of his staff. Appendix Printed below is the memorandum (undated and unpublished) written by General Roy for the Duke of Richmond (see p.OF SURVEY GREAT BRITAIN: APPENDIX THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE 423 Royal Society Minute-books of Council. Windsor. Phil. it cannot now be traced. 188-226. 1799 An Account of the Operations carried on for accomplishing a Trigonometrical Survey of England and Wales. Sussex Weekly Advertiser or Lewes Journal. 77. vol. et al. 420). 6 June 1791. 22. 1945 Historical Records of the Survey of India. 1869 The Military Forces of the Crown. and including letters of Roy. Deletions are indicated by square brackets. 75. Archaeologia 68. W. Major 307) and William Gardner (proved 3. I (1927). Mr. 111-270. Somerset House Wills of Thomas Yeakell (proved 23.i8oo. Francis Steer. f. Printed in Fortescue. [Memoranda submitted to His Grace the Duke of Richmond. Note The documentation is not as complete as could be desired. deposited with him by the Misses Colby. The document is unpublished Crown copyright material in the Public Record Office and has been reproduced by permission of the Controller of H.M. Chichester: Goodwood Papers Household Accounts. Gardiner. County Archivist of West Sussex. Macdonald. For the opportunity to explore some of them. Mudge and their successors and associates. Phillimore. It is set out so as to show Roy's revisions to his original draft. M. Williams.a. whereby the distance between -1790 the meridians of the Royal Observatories of Greenwich and Paris has been determined. Roy. Richard 1780 British Topography. apart from those in the Public Record Office and Goodwood Papers. 80. There are important deficiencies in the Ordnance records delivered by the War Office to the Public Record Office. Letter-books. . R. Dehra Dun. Adderley 275). Sir J. An Account of the Trigonometrical Operation. William. P. vol. W.). exist and await exploitation. Gough. Phil. Printed works Clode. Trans. William. is now known only in the extracts printed by Close in 1926. 1960. up to and in the eigh? teenth century. Maps and plans. Thomas 1791 Proposals for publishing a New Plan of the County of Sussex. C. P. I. . Sir Charles 1926 The early years of the Ordnance Survey.*. The only documents surviving from the first Trigonometrical Survey. and successive DirectorsGeneral of the Ordnance Survey. Phil. 30/54. Trans. The Correspondence of King George the Third. Close. William 1737 Practical Surveying Improved.1787. insertions and substitutions are in italics. dated 24 May 1766). Chatham.. and Gream. I [1784-96]. Royal Library Georgian MS 314 ('Considerations on the Propriety of making a General Military Map of England . R. Stockholm. Stationery Office. I wish to thank the Leverhulme Trustees. (ed. Trans. 328-34. vols. Mudge. H. The substance of this paper was read before the Chichester Branch of the Historical Association in 1957 and at the International Geographical Congress.C. Porter. additions.C. by way of general . The invaluable collection of papers assembled by General Colby.s. Parish Registers of Boxgrove (Sx) and Westhampnett (Sx). Gardner. 385-480. its reference number is W. with other records of the Ordnance Survey. George 1917 General William Roy and his 'Military Antiquities of the Romans in North Britain*. 6-7 (1769-1810). 161-228. are the surveyors* plans in the British Museum and one letter-book in the possession of the Ordnance Survey. West Sussex Record Office. William 1785 An Account of the Measurement of a Base on Hounslow-Heath.iv.C. Chatham. 1889 History of the Corps of Royal Engineers. and must be presumed to have perished by enemy action during the last war. An Account of the Mode proposed to be followed in determining the relative -1787 situation of the Royal Observatories of Greenwich and Paris.C.

to establish signals by Camp Colours or otherwise on the chief eminences. by taking the Angles of elevation or depression.? The principal Triangles. the relative heights of the vanes.? Every Base should be measured at least twice. or other conspicuous objects and in each of these Triangles all the three Angles should be as often as possible actually observed with the large Theodelet. Perhaps for common Surveying. with which those in common use will be from time to time compared at least at the beginning and end of any operation. taken on a Quay or Wharff. whose situation being permanently marked on the ground.? One method of keeping the Books must be adhered to by all the Engineers. as the foundation of the work. and from which point all the others can be distinctly seen. by some permanent Mark. single Trees. must be made for curvature and Refrac? tion. while the . that a true mean may be obtained for the ultimate Result. and for connecting the different Serieses of triangles together ? These Bases should therefore be as long as the circumstances of the ground will permit. that great accuracy must be observed in adjusting the Instru? ment. In many cases it will be advisable and even necessary.] General Instructions for the officers of Engineers employed in surveying. for the Base or Bases to be measured. such as an Army would occupy to oppose the Descent of an Enemy on the coast. or their distance from the centre of the Earth will be obtained at once. the first thing to be considered will be. and the whole should refer to Low Water Mark at spring Tides. will form so many auxiliary triangles for connecting the Survey. are such. without any allowance for curvature or Refraction. with Ramsden's best Theodelet. not less than a Mile.? With regard to profil or elevation. where other remarkable Objects may be wanting. with certain Columns ruled on the page towards the left hand to contain the Angles and measured distances of the stations. whose distance from a number of others has been already ascertained by trigonometrical computation. What situations are the best. according to the distance. will be subsequently ascertained with respect to the first. while the operation is going on. or some other substantial Building situated near the Shore. or a Mile and a half: and as often as possible. commencing at the bottom of the page. they should be measured on the sand of the Sea Shore. In every District to be surveyed. will be such as are nearly equilateral. from some centrical point. But in general. the Business will be greatly expedited. that any one of them may be able to lay easily down the observations of the others. Windmils. that the reduction to 1800 may be properly made. at the same time. and oftner if there should be any this pur? remarkable disagreement between the first and second measurement. if the Telescopic level be adjusted by inversion in its Ys at any intermedi? ate point exactly half way between the two Station Staffs. and taking the Angles repeatedly. because in such cases no Reduction of any kind will be necessary on account of difference of level. one chain should be kept as a standard. In certain cases.? In levelling.424 OF BRITAIN: APPENDIX SURVEY GREAT THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE Instructions to the Engineers to be employed in surveying the Coast and Districts of the Country near it. the smaller heights near the shore will be best determined by the accurate application of the Telescopic Spirit Level.?For pose. so as to be referred to occasionally. the best kind of Book would be one of the quarto size. to which reference may be had on any future occasion. But by the Angles of elevation or depres? sion. as on all occasions should be first determined: Because these being once settled. allowance. formed by the Church Steeples. that a true mean may be taken for the ultimate length. connected with the Base or Bases. And with a view to still greater accuracy it will be proper to observe the heat of the Air. the relative heights of all other chief commanding points of any general Range running parallel to the shore. or to a River. the relative heights of the angles of the great triangles. or his penetration into the country after he had effected a Landing. as shown by the Thermometer at stated intervals.

wherein may be entered every thing that occurs relative to the nature of the Coast. The filling in or surveying the interior part of the great triangles will [probably] be executed in the common manner by the Junior Engineers. with the small Theodelets and chains provided for the purpose. in each district. The Risings or irregularities of the ground are every where to be expressed with care. It would also be useful to endeavour to ascertain. Woods. if frequent Cuts in different directions are made throi the inclosures and the direction of thefences laid down where they intersect these cuts. and these last above such as are quite flat.? A Book of general miscellaneous Remarks should also be kept. by ascertaining the Angle that it makes with some one of the longest sides of the great triangles. chalk. They will [of course] consequently proceed [along] around the contours and Creeks of the shore. noting the seasons of the year when they are in the Marshes or grazing lands near the Coast. The Commanding Engineer on the spot will charge himself with the determination of the great triangles. And as in every chalk country the Rivulets generally run underground & the Inhabitants are supplied by wells dug to a considerable depth. [But] These may afterwards be reduced to a Scale of one Inch to a mile [seems to be sufficient for a whole County. Rivulets. and perhaps] for the Island in general. [and principal Drains or Watergangs]. and also along the courses of the Rivers. which being done. contained the corresponding Sketch or Eye Draught: or the mode recommended in the Appendix to these Instructions may be made use of and whichever found best in practice will of course be adhered to. Particular Sea Ports of consequence. what parts of it are accessible. Commons or Morasses. althoy the exact Turn of every one need not be surveyed.? The first survey will be made from the Magnetick Meridian.SURVEY GREAT OF BRITAIN: APPENDIX THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE 425 Right hand page. the plan of the Lines. ships of war may come to an Anchor to cover a debarkation from Boats. But in every district it will be necessary by observation of the Sun or Stars to determine a true Meridian. the particularities of the surface. [would] will require a scale of about six Inches to a mile. and when not ? When the Engineers have made themselves thoroughly acquainted with any parti? cular district where they may be employed. along the great Roads and lanes. Each Field cannot be represented on less scale than two Inches to a mile. they will be able to point out the Routes by which the Cattle should be driven back on the landing of an Enemy. and what sort of communi? cations there are leading from the Coast to the interior Country. as well as what may relate to the relative heights. will be more readily and truly repre? sented afterwards. such as. which may be that generally made use of for the [whole] general plan [of the Coast]. or Gravei country Extends. and what not. at what distance from the shore. or great features of the Country. so as to render the plan truly topographical. and in the enclosed parts of the Country all the hedges. Heaths. should be first laid down . the remainder may generally be taken by the Eye. The Boundaries of Forests. whence the variation of the Compass will at the same time be deter? mined. and will register in a Book kept by himself every thing concern? ing them. and other Boundaries of Fields are to be carefully laid down. and size. The Collectors of Taxes will be able to give information of the number of Waggons . such as the Thames and the Medway &c. and the width of the Tracks in each Parish. what may be the numbers of Horses. how far the clay. Whether there is plenty of Timber and of what sort. by preserving that gradation or keeping which should distinguish at first sight the higher part above those that are lower. whether determined by the Level or by the vertical appartus [sic] of the Theodelet. To do this in the best manner. in case an enemy had made his landing good: also the nature of the soil. The number of Carriages of different kinds in every district should be estimated noting the distance of their Wheels. and the place of Rendesvous where they would be most secure. it will be proper to mention the depths of such wells. are to be distinctly surveyed. [half an Inch would suffice]. Black Cattle and Sheep.

The second paper is by Miss Campbell. Skelton said. Crone. drawn on two quarto pages. Crone. by three people whose names must be very familiar to this audience. to Mr. Crone would say whether he knows of this map or of Thomas Buttler. a publication of Maggs Brothers. DISCUSSION Afternoon Meeting. The three papers summarize the results of recent research and are arranged in order of time and their common theme is the continuity of map-making activities in Britain from a very early date. J. Both saw service in Ireland. But it does show that. S. Not only was it more accurate. That. University of London. Mr. Skelton took it this evening. Perhaps Mr. played a great part in delineating Britain before the establishment of the Ordnance Survey. some became part of the Royal Corps of Surveyors and Draftsmen and were paid a retainer and so much per acre surveyed. after 1824 the military took over and carried out most of the future work. is to ask if he has any record of a sixteenth century manuscript map of Great Britain which was advertised for sale. . The second comment is on the lecture about the Ordnance Survey and the part played by civil surveyors. The map. The third and last paper is by Mr. throughout the Middle Ages down to the sixteenth century. In 1828 Sir Henry Hardinge spoke of the services of the Corps on the survey before a Select Committee on Public Income and Expenditure. Darby) said: This afternoon we are going to hear three papers. in Mercurius Britannicus. emphasizing the part played in its early work by private surveyors. Skelton read their papers The Chairman : I think I see in the audience Mr. and for work in the field. Mr. He said that the prejudice of the civil surveyors against new methods and the impossibility of bringing them down to a military disci? pline made the use of soldiers a much better proposition. 26 March 1962 Before the paper the Chairman (Professor H. I am writing to him tomorrow to find out more information.426 THE ORIGINSOF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY GREAT OF BRITAIN: DISCUSSION & carts in each Parish and the Clerks of the Militia Subdivision Meetings will be able to say how many men are on the Lists for Balloting in each Parish. who is Lecturer in Geography at Birkbeck College. Parsons who is in charge of the Map Collection at the Bodleian Library. Kraus of New York in 1946. But after the first years of the Ordnance Survey. E. C. Parsons : I should like to say how much I enjoyed the lectures this evening and I have just two observations to make. The first Survey Company (the 13th of the Corps of the Royal Sappers and Miners) was formed in 1824 and the second (the 14th) in 1825. we find that Major Colby had no great opinion of them and this dissatisfaction led eventually to the establishment of the first military survey company when he took charge of the Survey of Ireland. Mr. She will deal with the early development of some of the symbols used on English maps during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The first paper is by Mr. Skelton who is in charge of the Map Room of the British Museum. I only discovered this on Saturday last and I wrote immediately to Messrs. Mr. Crone. Miss Campbell and Mr. the Librarian and Map Curator of the Society. Crone will present evidence for a link between late Roman maps and the earliest maps of Britain. The first. in 1939. the pure military combination made the greater and more satisfactory pro? gress. Skelton will describe the results of his recent researches into the early history of the Ordnance Survey. These surveyors. and an illustration given. He said that when a comparison was made between civil surveyors working with military officers and 'sapper' surveyors working under their officers. was included in a manuscript dealing with astrology and magic and was obviously based on the Gough Map: it is signed by Thomas Buttler. Maggs and learned that the manuscript had been sold to Mr. As Mr. carries the story a little further than Mr. indeed. of course. but also very much cheaper. although the civil surveyors were responsible for much good work in the early years of the Survey.