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Urban Regeneration For Sustainable Economic Growth: A Study On Boro Bazaar; The Main Economic Hub Of Khulna City

In Bangladesh
S.M. Reazul Ahsan1 Rumana Asad2
Abstract: The major dynamic driving forces of the cities in developing countries are economic and social forces to change the urban system with the growing demand of population and urbanization. Of course all the urban problems are different and unique to a particular city based on the city growth pattern, economic and social character. Khulna the third largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh with 0.85 million populations within 59.57 square kilometer was developed as a medium scale industrial city since 50’s. Before that the city economy was completely based on river based trade and the city developed around the river port locally named “Boro Bazaar” means big market place. The changing city form gave Boro Bazaar the shape of mixed use zone rather solely commercial or business zone. As a central economic hubs in the city centre, Boro Bazaar needs to be more dynamic to response to the city economy and its growth pattern. For last one decade Boro Bazaar has faced compact unplanned haphazard development even along the river side just to meet the demand of rapid urbanization process. Therefore it is now become and urban challenge to revitalize the Boro Bazaar area to make more effective response to the rapid economic growth and to ensure better urban environment for the residents, businessmen and the employers.
Key words: Urban regeneration, compact development, mixed use zone.

INTRODUCTION: The cities in the developing countries commonly characterized by the highest density of inhabitants, industrial assets and production, social and technical infrastructure; dynamic informal economic sector; largely uncontrolled spatial expansion; poor governance resulting in inefficient and over loaded public services and facilities; unregulated and disparate land and property markets and insufficient housing provision are having higher

Assistant Professor, Urban and Rural Planning Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. Email: r_ahsanku@yahoo.com 2 Assistant Professor, Architecture Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. E-mail: ria_arch@yahoo.com
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Still today Boro Bazaar is the main economic hub for the city that controls the total retail and wholesale market and plays the most significant role in the economy after the industrial sector. During 1950s and 1960s the city got importance as an industrial city with many industries like newsprint mills. Khulna was converted as a municipality from a formal township in 1884 during the British colonial regime. Of course all the urban problems are different and unique to a particular city based on the city growth pattern. The locational advantages . Therefore urban regeneration is likely to be particular to a specific location and characteristic of the city (Roberts 2000). All the cities are complex in nature and dynamic. As the same time location of a city has an important role to make the city unique both in social and economical perspective. jute bailing presses. The domination economy in the developing countries is commercial. Therefore urban regeneration takes place as an active planning tool to meet the growing economic demand and to accommodate the population flux. The city was developed as a medium scale industrial city since 50’s because of locational suitability and the availability of raw materials for the industrial development. economical and environmental forces that change the urban from with the time and need. economic and social character. an higher ecological strain of the environment. Therefore it could be said that urban regeneration is an out come of all or any of those driving forces of the urban system. Usually the major dynamic driving forces of developing cities are economic and social forces to change the urban system with the growing demand of population and urbanization.existence of informal settlement as repercussions. Khulna is a linier shaped city along the rivers the Rupsha and the Bhairab in Bangladesh supported with river based trade economy. Since the British colonial period Boro Bazaar has developed in an unplanned way and in a form of mixed commercial zone. The second largest sea port in Bangladesh is also in Khulna region to support the industrial development and trade. In the year 1990 the Khulna Municipality was turned as a City Corporation (Murtaza 2002). Before the industrial development in 50’s the city economy was completely based on river based trade and the city developed around the river port locally named “Boror Bazaar” means big market place. The dynamic urban system reflects many driving forces like social. Urban regeneration takes place through those driving forces to reform the urban system to meet with the present time and demand. medium scale industrial and informal sector rather heavy industries. hardboard mills. match factories. Boro Bazaar has established along the river Bhairab during the British colonial regime to operate and control the local retail and wholesale business. Those economical factors act as pull factor for internal rural-urban migration for developing countries and change the existing urban pattern. etc. jute mills. shipyard.

As Boro Bazaar is the main economic hubs in the city centre. Following is the locational map of Khulna City. so it needs to be more dynamic to response to the city economy and its growth pattern.85 million populations within 59.develop the Boro Bazaar as a mixed zone like residential and commercial zone and a highly congested zone. Therefore it is now become an important concern of the Khulna City corporation to rearrange the whole Boro Bazaar area under urban regeneration process to make the location a better place for the residents and could able to handle the commercial activities more efficiently to manage the city economy and the growth.2 million from the year 1991 to 2002. Figure location of Khulna City (Islam and Karim 2006) 01: The .62 million to 1. considering the heritage and the existing condition.57 square kilometer (KCC 2010). 1. Khulna is located in the south-western part of the country between 22 0 47’ 16” to 22052’ north latitude and 89031’36” to 89034’35” east longitude (Nahiduzzaman et al. The growing industrial economy and increase in seaport-based trade resulted in a sharp increase in city population from 0. 2004). This paper is trying to find the possible approaches under urban regeneration techniques for Boro Bazaar area to make the area an efficient commercial centre with a better living environment for the residents and better land mark for the city.STUDY AREA: Khulna is the third largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh with industrial economic characteristics and 0.

57 sq. The changing city form gave Boro Bazaar the shape of mixed use zone rather solely commercial or business zone.1 Boro Bazaar area: Since the British colonial period Boro Bazaar was the main commercial and trade center. Boro Bazaar area Figure 02: Locatioanl pattern of Boro Bazaar area (Ahsan and Rahman 2005). more on industrial based rather commercial. km. railways and . economical and urban fabric of Khulna city. km with 0. The international (Indian & Bangladesh) and the divisional highways. 1.In 1884 Khulna was as a municipality with 6000 population with an area of 4. During 1950 to 1970 the trade multiplies effect of rapid industrialization in Khulna region transform the social.85 million (KCC 2010).86 sq. and after 100 years later the city becomes the third City Corporation of Bangladesh with an area of 59. The following diagram shows Boro Bazaar area and the locational advantages of the area to be city centre.

Following is the land use map in Boro Bazaar area. Over the decades Boro Bazaar has developed along the river Bhairab as a local river port and trade centre and developed haphazardly to keep the pace with the growing economic demand in Khulna city. Therefore the redevelopment and regeneration now become a core issue to make the Boro Bazaar area more economically viable.00 1.20 19.00 12. Therefore the area has developed with narrow roads. Type Residential Commercial Retail Wholesale Service Storage Other commercial (mixed)* Industrial Squatter settlement Road (in sq ft) Open space( in sq ft) No of Structures 158 87 115 8 65 144 1 36 57024 ft2 76840 ft2 Percentage 18. residential hotels and residential areas.50 0. *Other commercial (mixed) use normally covers residential and commercial use or commercial and storage or residential hotel and commercial in one place sharing the same structure.00 15. congested building and shops.50 4. Table 01: Land distribution in Boro Bazaar are according to landuse type.15 3. The over all land use pattern makes the area in efficient to response the growing economy of the city and to meet the living standard for the local residents.25 9. 2. a better living environment for the residents and an urban landmark for Khulna city. vulnerable informal structures along the river side and with low urban facilities like drainage water supply and other urban services.90 Source: Shamima 2005. According to table 01 mixed land use cover the maximum land share in the Boro Bazaar and that is about 20 percent of the land and next is the residential area that covers 18 percent of the total land. EXISTING LAND-USE IN BORO BAZAAR AREA: The existing landuse pattern in Boro Bazaar area is completely mixed use type.inter districts water ways cross over Boro Bazaar and that trade link makes this area highly potential and important for nationally and international trade and commerce.50 3. The landuse pattern is composed of mainly trade commerce. Followings are the broad classification of existing landuse pattern in the Boro Bazaar area. .

Temporary construction 34% Permanent structuers 18% SemiPermanent concrete 48% Figure 04: Existing structural pattern in Boro Bazaar area.Figure 03: Existing land use pattern in Boro bazaar area (Shamima 2005). (Shamima 2005). Most of the temporary structures are constructed along the river side and serve as retail shops. The following . made of tin. asbestos and indigenous construction materials like bamboos. Most of building structures in the Boro Bazaar area are temporary and semi-permanent structures. Some mixed use commercial buildings are constructed by concrete tin and asbestos. different structural types and concentric growth make the whole Boro Bazaar area a compact urban centre with mixed use pattern. The following diagram shows the existing pattern of the structures and the present landuse in Boro Bazaar area. Unplanned land distribution. The permanent structures are used for wholesale and commercial purpose like banks and insurance companies as well wholesale storages. some are also used as residential hotel purposes and wholesale storages. The semi-permanent structures are mostly used as residential purposes.

Figure 05: Structural patterns in Boro Bazaar area (Shamima 2005). The following map shows the structural pattern in the Boro Bazaar area. Those unauthorized and unplanned development make the whole are congested to provide urban services to ensure better environment as a residential area even as an effective commercial area to meet the economic challenges of the city. At the same time the temporary unauthorized construction along the river side are more vulnerable and introduce the horizontal expansion of the area as well vertical expansion. . The existing building structures are quite old and some of them built during British regime and haven’t been renewed some modern structures are also there and some are renewed recently.photographs are showing the existing setup of Boro bazaar area. But yet there are a big number of unauthorized constructions are in Boro Bazaar area that makes the whole area more congested than expected. Photograph 01: Existing set up of Boro Bazaar area (Ahsan and Rahman 2005).

of As a city center and main economic hub the trade units in Boror Bazaar handle a huge amount of financial flow every month and provide both direct and indirect employment for the urbanites. That causes traffic congestion around the city centre of Khulna city as most of the arterial roads of the city cross Boro Bazaar area. . Storage Services 7% Wholesale 22% 20% Retail 51% Figure 06: Share different trade and commerce units in Boro Bazaar area (Reza 1999).6 Monthly (US$.6 598. Rapid economic growth after 1971 and open government land (by Bangladesh Railway) with low land tax and some time illegal occupancy introduced horizontal expansion of the area.6 250. as it is the CBD.6 Table 02: Financial flow in 2004. Business type Retail Wholesale Total Daily (US$. Boro Bazaar link the Southern part of Bangladesh with other parts to operate and control the wholesale and retails trades.1 Trade and commercial activities in Boro Bazaar: The main trade activates in Boro Bazaar area is wholesale and retail trading.4 29.2.avg) (‘000) 130 68 400. The following tables represent the financial flow and employment market in Boro Bazaar. The service facilities like banks and insurances have a limited share in the area.avg) (‘000) 52.3 Table 03: Employment opportunity 2004 Commercial 168. The wholesale markets are also established on the open area owned by the Bangladesh Railway Authority under long-term leasing around the Boror Bazaar area. According to the figure 06 the maximum number of trade units in Boro Bazaar area is retail shops then the wholesales trade units followed by the storage capacity. Most of the wholesale shops are with storage facilities therefore they need more land and arranged along the river side to handle the goods.6 3 1 US$ = 65 (Taka ) Bangladeshi currency in the year 2005.

000-27. Photograph 02: Using local river ports (Ghat) area of doing export and import business (Ahsan and Rahman 2005) As mentioned that Boro Bazaar is one of the major income source for the local and central government through land and income taxes as well as by leasing the port (Ghat) .000 taxes and land taxes as well Bangladesh Others 1200-2.000 Railway get yearly revenue by log-term land leasing for wholesale and storage. The local government also leases the river port areas (locally called Ghat) to export and import the gds all around the country as well with the neighbour country India.Source: Ahsan and Rahman 2005.000 for the local government through income Indirect 42. Following diagram shows river port areas (Ghat) through which both the wholesale and retail trades control the export and import business and the local and central government earn revenue by long-term leasing policy. Employment type Number of Person The Boro Bazaar area also generate revenue Direct 25.000-48. The following photos show the present status of local river port (Ghat) areas in Boror Bazaar operate export and import business based on water ways and generate revenue for the government. Figure 07: Local river ports area (Ghat) with in Boro Bazaar area (Shamima 2005).

4.3. businessmen and the employers working at the Boro Bazaar.3 Collection in the year 1996-97: 11. Following data are representing the revenues earned by the government from the Boro Bazaar area according to the Khulna City Corporation 1998. 4. 4 .727 US$.1 From wholesale shops yearly revenue is 30. Road networks. In the Khulna City Master plan 1998 also stated a clear guide line for Boro Bazaar redevelopment. Wholesale shops and storages areas II.4 1. Therefore three major areas have been considered in this paper for rearrangement redevelopment under the urban regeneration process for the Boro Bazaar area. Income tax collected by the local government: 2. The road lengths are so narrow to provide fire protection services in case of any fire hazards. The present situation is so congested in Boro Bazaar that it is almost impossible to provide better urban services. Land tax collected by Khulna City Corporation (the local government): 1. Revenue earned by the Bangladesh Railway by leasing their land for wholesale shops and storage. over the decades different redevelopment actions are taken place on Boro bazaar are to make it more efficient to response the growing economic demand and to increase the national and local revenue.1 Collection of income taxes from the shops 1995-96: 43.1 From the Shops along the river banks in 1998: 20 945 US$ 4. From the local port (Ghat) areas in 1998: 22. Therefore it is become an urban challenge to revitalize the area to ensure a better environment. sanitation.426 US$. I.582 US$ 2. URBAN REGENERATION PROCESS IN BORO BAZAAR: Compact development makes the whole area so congested to provide better urban services and to ensure a better living and working environment for the resident. 1. 3.2 Collection in the year 1995-96: 25.831 US$.2 From the storage yearly revenues is 7330 US$. like water.areas. Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Corporation (BIWTC) 4. Wholesale shops and storages: The wholesale and the storages area need to be The data has been taken Khulna City Corporation yearly financial report and currency has converted to USD. 1. 290 US$.1 The expected yearly demand: 72.336 US$ 3. Riverfront development and ensure access facilities III. 3. 1 USD = 55 (taka) Bangladeshi currency in 1998. From passenger ferries in 1998-99: 5014 US$ Because of economic impotence. 3. The three major areas are I.2.

08: Unattended The unattended vacant land owned by the Bangladesh Railway could be the land bank for redevelopment process for the wholesale and storages in Boro Bazaar area. The land could be arranged by using the vacant land by dividing the whole market place in to different blocks based on use and those blocks will organize the vacant land with in the market place. At the same time to meet the growing economic demand further wholesale shops and storages capacity need to extend. The Boro Bazaar area is now expanding horizontally and occupies the land owned by Bangladesh Railway. Figure available vacant land with in the market place (Reza 1999). Existing landuse in the Boro Bazaar area needs to be rearranged for reallocating space for the wholesale and storages sites. The following diagram shows the existing vacant land with in the market place and the open unutilized lands around the Boro Bazaar area owned by the Bangladesh Railway. in a planned way. That could generate revenue for the local government to provide and maintain the urban services in the market place and minimize the congestion. Photograph 03: Unattended vacant land owned by Bangladesh Railway . Furthermore existing unattended vacant land of Bangladesh Railway around the Boro Bazaar area could be used for storages and wholesale shops under a long term lease basis.rearranged in a planned way to minimize the compact development and landuse.

In this plan block G will serve the wholesale and storages purposes. Furthermore those lands also connected with rail and water transport network. Figure 09: Proposed plan for redevelopment of wholesale and storages area in Boro Bazaar. which will ensure revenue for the government and make the market more efficient to handle the city economy.(Ahsan and Rahman 2005) The advantages of doing such development are faster and effective. II. Riverfront development and ensure access facilities with the Boro Bazaar area: A good number of retail shops developed along the river bank just to meet the growing demand in the city. block E and block F will use as retail market place where as block C and D will use for amenities and recreational area for the urbanites. so there will not be extra expenses for transport network development. The area need to be rearrange according to the use and capacity and at the same time tax need to be imposed based on the area and use. Even some wholesale shops are also established along the river side just to minimize the goods handling and transfer cost from the port to their storages. . Moreover the congested developments of the shops make the inner roads and access ways so narrow to move the vehicles for goods or even narrow for the buyers and other users. The following map shows the proposed development in the Boro Bazaar area in different blocks based on different purposes. As the land is owned by the government so the land acquisition and development could be easier. The proposed plan considers the horizontal expansion of Boro Bazaar area that will cover the government vacant land around the Bazaar area and owned by the Bangladesh Railway.

The number of unauthorized ports will also reduce with development control and implementation approach to create more open space and to ensure city aesthetic. Therefore the riverfront along the area has developed has retail shops and goods handling areas.Photograph 04: The narrow passes for the users and other services in Boro Bazaar area (Ahsan and Rahman 2005). The riverfront development would be a long-term process but to meet the future need it needs to be started now. Furthermore the river bank along the Boro Bazaar area mainly used for transporting goods and local ferry service. as well the better facilities will attract more and more business and commercial development in the area. Furthermore the Boro Bazaar area is a mixed . except the port areas. Under the urban regeneration process the riverfront need to be developed as a recreational and urban breathing space. There is no development control along the riverfront side in the area. The following photographs show the current riverfront development and use in the area. Photograph 05: Existing riverfront development in the area (Ahsan and Rahman 2005). The open land that is generated by the redevelopment and rearrangement of the wholesale area would be use for ensuring easy access with in the market place and to make the area a better working place.

so better urban design will provide better urban life to the residents in the area. Figure 10: Riverfront development enhance the aesthetic image of the city and ensure better urban life5. Following sketches show the proposed plan for the riverfront development and to ensure accessibility in the area.use residential area. Figure 11: Better work life in the area. . 5 All the sketches are based on proposed idea and prepared by Ahsan and Rahman 2005.

Figure 12: Ensure better social and community life for the residents. The following diagram shows the major road networks around the Boro Bazaar area. III. Figure 13: Existing road network system in the area (Shamima 2005) The present road networks are also not in a position to support the growing transport demand in the area and narrow enough that cause traffic congestion and provide poor services. The regeneration processes not only take place to meet the economic growth rather also meet the urban demand and to ensure better urban environment. . therefore the revitalization program on the circulation system and traffic movement has to be rearranged to minimize the traffic congestion in the city. Road networks: Boro Bazaar area is connected with three main artillery roads and connected roads. The first focus is to be given on maintaining the hierarchy of roads and separating different form of traffic.

The originality covers the economic importance of the area. Under the Boro Bazaar urban regeneration process it is also important to maintain the originality of the area. The wholesale shops and the storages services should have their own goods handling unit and system to get their products from the loading and unloading zone. Therefore the regeneration process is also related with the urban morphology. the image of the area for Khulna city and how it could accommodate the future growth both population and economy of the city. The proposed plans are focused on the importance of the area and the role it plays in the city morphology. The major issues need to be considered for the road network redevelopment to minimize the traffic congestion are as follows: 1. 4. CONCLUSION: Urban regeneration process is a comprehensive and long-term planning tool that covers not only the physical development but also the economic growth and the future expansion of the city. 3. historical importance and the future growth trend. Therefore under the regeneration process transport network especially the road networks need to be prioritized as the river network will manage by the riverfront development process. 6. . Under the urban regeneration process it is important to consider the importance of the location. Rearrange of road transportation and traffic control New zone of loading and unloading Agglomerate of informal shop New parking zone for consumers who use private mode New zone for temporary dwellers Reorganize the river embankment The main market place need to be free from through traffic flow to minimize the congestion. 5. 2. The process has to protect the mixed use zoning character and the economical importance of the area. Based on those issues three major areas are proposed to consider under the redevelopment process for a better urban life of the resident and to ensure economic importance of the Boro Bazaar.Photograph 06: Existing road networks in the Boro Bazaar area (Sharmin 2005). As well vehicle restriction need to be implanted based on vehicle weight and size with in the market place also in the day time. The road network revitalization process completely depends on policy and command and control approach. therefore and regeneration process has to protect the originality with better service and facilities. the historical value of the area.

Environmental problems in Khulna city. Khulna the third largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh reforming its economic profile from river based commercial trade to industrial to mixed use economy over the century. Reference: Book: Robert. The evaluation. G. 2004. J. The changing city form gave Boro Bazaar the shape of mixed use zone rather solely commercial or business zone.. . Robert.ENDNOTES The major dynamic driving forces of the cities in developing countries are economic and social forces to change the urban system with the growing demand of population and urbanization. H. Unfortunately those supportive divisions yet not up to date with very recent data due to their administrative and organizational support. Saroar. Assessing the urban environmental quality of Khulna city: a multilevel quantitative approach. development and the environment. In Urban regeneration: a handbook. Boro Bazaar needs to be more dynamic to response to the city economy and its growth pattern over the time. Nhaiduzzaman. M. Global Built Environment Review a journal of architecture. 1 (2) (August): 32-37. P. P.. M. The city economy was completely based on river based trade and the city developed around the river port locally named “Boror Bazaar” means big market place. K. Therefore it is become a challenge to revitalize the Boro Bazaar are to meet the urban regeneration targets of the developing countries where economy and growth run together. Sykes.. Journal article: Murtaza.. Bangladesh: a spatiohousehold level study.. London: SEGA Publication. 9-10. 2000. Plans Plus a journal of Planning. Urbanization and Environment1 (2) (September): 79-95. definition and purpose of urban regeneration. Development. S. Limitation: The financial and commercial data in this paper is not that up to date as the source of those data is the local government authority.ed.. and Ahmed. 2001. planning. Though both the researcher of this paper try hard to be as updated as possible and put more focus on urban regeneration process based on economic importance and land use of the study area.

57 km2 (23 sq mi) City Population: 855. Khulna Bangladesh”. So you can update this with this reference. The impact of the small scale real state business on the urbanization patterns of third world cities.php? pid=30&id=21&page=About_KCC Apuni here is the update from latest statistics City Area : 59. RICS research paper series 6 (3) (October). 2006. Shamima. Dhaka Bangladesh.php?pid=30&id=21&page=About_KCC view ed 27th April 2010. Thesis: Reza.202.650 Population Density: 14.6/sq mi) Source Khulna City Corporation web link http://www. “BSc dissertation.org/Content/index. Architecture Discipline Khulna University.364/km2 (37. 2005. R.khulnacity.Conference paper: Ahsan. London SW1P UK. and Rahman.khulnacity. “BSc dissertation. S and Karim. at BRAC University. Others: http://www. Chp-3. Paper read in 1st National Conference on Asian Urban Centre Development 24-16 June. Research paper: Islam. R. 2005. Urban and Rural Planning Discipline Khulna University. Bangladesh. Redevelopment of Boro Bazaar and the riverfront area of Khulna City. H. 1999.. . Khulna Bangladesh”. A. R.org/Content/index. Mixed use development of urban utilities in ward 21: a study on Khulna city. Regulatory involvement and the problems in urban markets: a case study of Boro Bazaar in Khulna city. K.

425 . better to send another one.202.Density 14.Best regards.388. as it is BUET URP they always lost the papers and forget to give you the money receipt about the money you have paid.650 . and update me when you are sending to Musleh.Metro 1.6/sq mi) . Reaz Population (2008 est.City 855.364/km2 (37.)[2] .