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Almond Wonders

MEDICINAL VALUE OF THE INDIAN ALMOND TREE
INDIAN ALMOND TREE TERMINALIA CATAPPA

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Cultivation and uses
Terminalia catappa is widely grown in tropical regions of the world as an ornamental tree, grown for the deep shade its large leaves provide. The fruit is edible, tasting slightly acidic. The wood is red, solid and has high water resistance; it has been utilized in Polynesia for making canoes. in telugu it is called as BADAM CHETTU The leaves contain several flavonoids (like kamferol or quercetin), several tannins (such as punicalin, punicalagin or tercatin), saponines and phytosterols. Due to this chemical richness, the leaves (and also the bark) are used in different traditional medicines for various purposes. For instances, in Taiwan fallen leaves are used as a herb to treat liver diseases. In Suriname, a tea made from the leaves is prescribed against dysentery and diarrhea. It is also thought that the leaves contain agents for prevention of cancers (although they have no demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties) and antioxidant as well as anticlastogenic characteristics. www.sciencearticlesonline.com Keeping the leaves in an aquarium is said to lower the pH and heavy metal content of the water It has been utilized in this way by Betta breeders in Thailand for many years

and amandin-3 are antigenically related and have similar biochemical properties. [2] Researchers studied the flavonol content of 16 almond varieties and they found each of the 16 seedcoat samples exhibited a unique composition. Amandin is not a glycoprotein.Almond Wonders What are the health benefits of almonds? I love diamond and I love to eat almond. uridine. And. kaempferol rutinoside. may contribute to their putative health benefit. and adenosine. daucosterol. Page | 2 . beta-sitosterol. its high contents of antioxidants and fatty acids may be the key factors for its potential health benefits. and kaempferol glucoside. [6] ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES Consumption of tree nuts such as almonds has been associated with benefits of reducing risk of coronary heart disease. [1] Among these flavonol glycosides. aged from 2 to 14 years were treated by phenol in almond oil injection sclerotherapy. amandin-2. All nine patients were cured after one to three injections without any complications. Two out of 4 children with constipation prior to injection therapy had no longer constipation thereafter. isorhamnetin glucoside. found predominantly in the skin of almonds. Flavonoids. isorhamnetin rutinoside was the most abundant flavonol glycoside. [4] Four flavonol glycosides were identified in almond seedcoats: isorhamnetin rutinoside. Amandin is a legumin type protein characterized by a sedimentation value of 14S. [3] Almond also contain a protein called amandin. What does almond contain? Almond contain some important phytochemicals such as sphingolipid. It is composed of two major types of polypeptides with estimated molecular weights of 42-46 and 20-22 kDa linked via disulfide bonds. Amandin-1. Nine children with rectal prolapse. Research studies have suggested that almond may provide health benefits of cardiac protection and cholesterol-lowering. and the total content ranged from 75 to 250 microg/g. [4] WHAT ARE THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ALMONDS? ANORECTAL PROLAPSE A study has shown that phenol in almond oil injection therapy is a simple and safe procedure for anorectal prolapse in children.

10] During chewing. 120. they found intact cotyledonary cells. epicatechin. they all didn't have much effect on High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) and blood Page | 3 .028). cryptochlorogenic acid. researchers from Agricultural Research Service. roasted almond butter or raw almonds? In a study. and 180 min. Researchers examined fecal samples collected from subjects consuming the almond diet. but almond butter did not lower the triglyceride to a statistical significance. in which the cell walls encapsulated intracellular lipid. beta-sitosterol). And. Seed coat cell wall contains a large amount of phenolic compounds while the cell walls are rich in non-starch polysaccharides. Vitamins C and E act in synergy with Almond skin flavonoids to provide benefits of protecting LDL against oxidation in hamsters. [8] CHOLESTEROL-LOWERING ACTIVITIES Guess which one of the following almond products have more benefits to high cholesterol: roasted salted almonds.0% (P = 0. i. They found that at an equivalent concentration (10 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts had higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and sterols (stigmasterol. The concentration of isorhamnetin was significantly elevated in liver at 180 min.e. kaempferol.5%. They found that all forms of almonds in the context of a heart-healthy diet significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) from baseline to the completion of the study. and flavonols (quercetin. Both raw and roasted almonds significantly lowered triglyceride levels. [12] The cell walls of almond seeds reduce lipid bioaccessibility by hindering the release of lipid available for digestion. respectively.Almond Wonders Almond has shown its anti-oxidation activities in various studies. [8. roasted almond butter or raw almonds for four weeks. researchers found that Almond skin flavonoids possess antioxidant capacity in vitro and they are bioavailable. only the first layer of cells at the fractured surface is ruptured and able to release the lipid. the extract mainly contained chlorogenic acid. and isorhamnetin) occurred at 60. particularly arabinose-rich polysaccharides. U. prepared almond hulls (Nonpareil variety) extracts with methanol. disruption of almond tissue. and the in vitro addition of 5. Department of Agriculture. 9] In a study of hamster. Absorbed Almond skin flavonoids enhanced the ex vivo resistance of hamster LDL collected at 60 min to oxidation by 18.5 micromol/L vitamin E synergistically extended the lag time of the 60-min sample by 52. [7. researchers fed 38 human subjects with high cholesterol profiles with heart-healthy diets including 100g of one of three forms of almonds: roasted salted almonds. [7] In another study. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of catechin.S. However.

bark. or roasted almond butter on serum lipoproteins in humans. Antioxidant constituents of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill. J Am Coll Nutr.). 13 Hyson DA et al. They found that fat replacement with either whole almonds and almond oil resulted in a 54% increase in percentage of energy as monounsaturated fat with declines in both saturated fat and cholesterol intake and no significant changes in total energy.135(6):1366-73.Almond Wonders pressure. J Nutr. J Pediatr Surg. Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. 1999 Sep.40(7):1217.52(5):1364-70. A.50(23):6818-22.33(2):222-4. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 8. Sphingolipid and other constituents from almond nuts (Prunus amygdalus Batsch).51(2):496-501. roots. Webb) seeds. [8] Ellis PR et al. Biochemical characterization of amandin. [11] Spiller GA et al.17(5):506-7. 2002 Jul 17. [11] Guess which one has more benefits on plasma lipids: whole-almond or almond oil.50(10):2782-7. total or polyunsaturated fat intake. [6] Angerpointner TA The treatment of rectal prolapse in children with phenol in almond oil injection. the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L. fruit and wood) are used in traditional .22(3):195-200.50(15):4333-41. plasma triglyceride. Analysis of physicochemical property and composition of fatty acid of almond oil Se Pu.80(3):604-13. Researchers supplied 22 healthy subjects with either whole almonds or almond oil for 6-wk periods. J Agric Food Chem. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. 2002 Jul 31. J Agric Food Chem.A. [10] Dourado F et al. [4] Frison S et al. 2005 Jun. Variation in the flavonol glycoside composition of almond seedcoats as determined by maldi-tof mass spectrometry. Effects of plant-based diets high in raw or roasted almonds. 14. 2005 Jul. 4 and 6% respectively. 2002 Apr. whereas HDL cholesterol increased 6%. All parts of the plant (leaves. 2002 Nov 6. J Agric Food Chem. [5] Shi Z et al. 2004 Mar. 2003 Jan 15. Am J Clin Nutr. [13] REFERENCES[1] Frison-Norrie S et al. [12] Takeoka GR et al.) D. total and LDL cholesterol significantly decreased. 2004 Sep. [7] Chen CY et al. Webb] hulls. J Nutr.132(4):703-7.50(16):4709-12. The effects of whole almonds and almond oil on plasma lipids did not differ compared with baseline. Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jun. Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. [2] Sathe SK et al. Effects of almond on D-gal-induced aging rats Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. [3] Sang S et al. [9] Wang H et al. Page | 4 TROPICAL ALMOND TINCTURE (tinctura Terminalia catappa) from AMAZON HERBS® Overview Tropical almond is a medium size tropical tree whose branches form layers of canopy. 2004 Mar 10. J Agric Food Chem. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in almond seedcoats using MALDI-TOF MS.

saponinglycosides. Sickle cell disorders. . Applications Antidiabetic. in reducing travel nausea. Extracts of the (red) fallen leaves against liver disorders and acute liver injury. Dried leaves are used for fish pathogen treatment. dressing of rheumatic joints. cardiac (digitalis). cartenoids. headaches. It also prolonged the clotting time of uncoagulated blood. Pharmacology Punicalagin and punicalin. Extract of the bark is used externally for its astringent action in the treatment of wounds and ulcerations. Externally used. hepato-protective. The leaves have been shown to protect against acute liver injury produced by some hepatotoxicants Page | 5 (chemicals that produce liver damage). A 1. lutein expoxide. In Taiwan fallen leaves are used as an herb to treat liver diseases. Leaves seems to get rid of intestinal parasites.Almond Wonders medicine. glucose. Research suggests that moderate consumption of the seed kernel may be useful in the treatment of men with sexual dysfunctions. both have strong antioxidative activity. such as in dysentery. zeaxanthin. Dosage . Terminalia catappa possesses good antihepatotoxic activity and superoxide radical scavenger activity. effect of the extracts of Terminalia catappa fruit. brevifolin carboxylic acid. (Combretaceae) has been found to inhibit osmotically-induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. corilagin. The leaves also have potential in the management of sickle cell disorders. . it stops the bleeding during teeth extraction . treat eye problems. Tropical almond has strong antibacterial properties and works against Gram positive and Gram negative micro-organisms.0 mg/ml solution of the extract was effective in preventing and reversing the sickling of human µSS¶ erythrocythes induced by 2% sodium metabisulphite solution. tannins (punicalin. pentosans. phenolsbeta carotene. wounds. kamferol). violeoxantin). The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Terminalia catappa was studied. primarily from premature ejaculation. such as premature ejaculation. Leaves have antioxidant as well as anticlastogenic (preventing breakage of chromosomes) properties. The fruit may be helpful in treatment of leprosy. These promising initial results indicate Terminalia catappa leaves may indeed have potential in the management of sickle cell disorders. Punicalagin and Punicalin have also anti-hepatotoxic activity. Terminalia catappa leaves have been shown to protect against acute liver injury produced by some hepato-toxicants. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L. punicalagin). rheumatism. All the extracts produced a significant antidiabetic activity. dysentery and diarrhea. the active components and mechanisms are not completely clear but may related to protection of liver mitochondria and the scavenging action on free radicals. glycosides. from the leaves are used to treat dermatitis and hepatitis. on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis were investigated. catappa water extracts showed antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in the rat liver that was tested. The kernel of the seed has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies. as claimed previously. as an alternative to the use of chemicals and antibiotics. Constituents Pigments (lutein. treating coughs. Treatment with T. ellagic acid. Tropical almond (leave extract) is mostly used for the care of dermatological and rheumatoid afflictions. In view of alleged antidiabetic potential. asthma. flavonoids (quercetin. however. violaxantin. gallic acid.

Kaohsiung Medical College. hence the name. School of Medicine. Page | 6 Reference Hepatoprotective effects of chloroform extract from leaf of Terminalia catappa in relation to the inhibition of liver IL-6 expression Gao J Tang XH. Lin TC. Dharmasiri Department of Zoology. China. Hsu FL. Ratnasooriya. Taiwan. Hsu HY. Ho LK. Thakurdesai. N. Republic of China. ROC Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of punicalagin and punicalin on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Chao TW. The Indian almond is not closely related to the true almond Prunus dulcis. but Indian almond seeds tastes similar to almonds when fully ripe. Zhao XN. Taiwan. Chiang SH. A. Lin CC. Sri Lanka Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits A. University of Colombo. Gao J. It is considered native to tropical Asia and northern Australia. Department of Medical Research. Venkat Rao and Jiwan Singh .4 ml / day (1 . The tree has been widely spread by humans due to its desirable properties. M. Chi CW. Xu Q. Graduate Institute of Natural-Products. Li JH.Almond Wonders Tincture: 1 .4 full droppers daily) Precaution For more details on the farmacology of Tropical almond: go to "MAROWINA FACTS® DATABASE". Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats W. Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Hsu YF. Nagappa. and the exact origin of the species is therefore uncertain. Indian Almond Leaves What is Indian almond? Indian almond is a large tropical tree in the Leadwood tree family. Tsai YC. Institute of Materia Medica. Scientific classification of Indian almond Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Myrtales Family: Combretaceae Genus: Terminalia . Colombo 3. D. Xu LZ. Liu TY. Jiangsu. Nanjing University. P. Nanjing 210093. Modification of mitomycin C-induced clastogenicity by Terminalia catappa L. in vitro and in vivo. N. but is today also common in tropical parts of the Americas. Wang YP. G.

Throughout its native and introduced ranges in the tropics. You can read more about the chemical properties of almond leaves here. including kaempferol and quercetin. Ebelebo and Zanmande.Almond Wonders Species: Terminalia catappa The tree with many names Due to its origin in tropical Asia. Page | 7 . Talisay almond. the Almond tree provides deep shade and has become a beloved ornamental tree in tropical gardens. it is known under a wide range of national or local names. e.g. The leaves Almond tree leaves are quite big. Indian almond leaves contain several different flavonoids. Malabar almond. It is also rich in various tannins. As the tree ages. Thanks to its growth style and large leaves. the crown will become increasingly flattened and eventually take on a vase shape. It grows upright and forms a symmetrical crown with horizontal branches distinctively arranged in tiers. Wild Almond and Umbrella tree are also used. The tree Indian almond trees can reach a height of 35 meters (110 ft). The compounds found in almond tree leaves have made them an integral part of traditional medicine within their native range. Ketapang. parks and along streets. the Indian almond tree will retract the valuable green pigmentation. Before shedding its leaves to survive the dry season. this species is known in English under names such as Indian almond. bitter plant polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or shrink proteins. leaving the leaves pinkish-reddish or yellow-brown. The names Sea almond. The acronym IAL stands for Indian Almond Leaf and is commonly used among aquarists. They are thick and leathery with an ovoid shape and sport a glossy dark green colour. Bengal almond. astringent.5 inches broad). usually 15 to 25 centimetres long and 10 to 15 centimetres broad (6-10 inches long and 4-5. and of course Tropical almond. and local communities in the Americas have also adopted them into their collections of home remedies. Singapore almond.

making the aquarium more similar to the habitat from which the fish hails. In Mexico. .4 in) in diameter and quite inconspicuous. The colour varies from white to pale green and there are no petals. Almond tree fruits are corky and highly buoyant. just like the true almond and many other famous plants. the leaves are believed to be effective in treating wounds.4 in). juice of the leaves is used as a folk remedy against various ailments that damages the skin. such as scabies and leprosy. In parts of South-East Asia.Almond Wonders Aquarists who keep fish native to soft. A drupe is a fruit characterized by having an outer fleshy part that surrounds a shell inside which you will find a seed. the leaves are believed to be effective against dysentery. In Thailand. mango. The flowers The Indian almond tree is a simultaneously monoecious species. Both male and female flowers are roughly 1 centimetre (0. e. It tastes similar to almond. plum.g. Siamese Fighting Fish breeders have traditionally used the leaves to create more natural conditions for their captive fish. date. the leaves are said to help stop bleeding when a tooth is extracted. In India and Pakistan. acidic and tannin rich waters ± such as the Betta fish ± commonly use Indian almond leaves to mimic the natural conditions of their species in aquaria. Tannin and a black dye can be extracted from the leaves. In traditional Samoan medicine. fallen leaves are believed to cure or hamper ailments pertaining to the liver. Inside the fruit you will find the seed which is edible when fully ripe. Each fruit is about 5-7 cm (2-3 in) long and 3-6 cm (1. Adding Indian almond leaves to a tank can for instance help trigger spawning since compounds released by the leaves will alter the chemistry of the water. commonly referred to as pit. In various parts of South America. apricot. (The petals are produced on axillary or terminal spikes. young leaves are believed to help get rid of colic in babies. while the leaves themselves are used to dress rheumatic joints. In the Philippines. In drupes.) The fruit The Almond tree produces drupe fruits. male and female flowers are found on the same plant at the same time.e.2 -2. the hard shell. i. develops from the ovary wall of the flower. In Taiwan. olive and coffee. the leaves are ingested by people suffering from intestinal parasites. You can find more info about Indian almond leaves and Page | 8 aquariums here. which makes it easy for this salt tolerant species to spread by water. eye problems and rheumatism.

it is used to make canoes in parts of Polynesia. In Brazil. There are also parts of Mexico where the fruit is believed to cure or hamper asthma. coughs. the fruit is considered effective against dysentery. and to make dressings for rheumatic joints. being used especially in the treatment of kidney stones. In parts of Mexico. laxative. the fruit has been used to threat leprosy and headaches. Just like many other fruits and berries. Page | 9 ALMOND WONDERS Almond (Prunus communis): Bitter almonds when distilled yield an essential oil containing about 5% of prussic acid. Little is used for medicinal purposes. In traditional Samoan medicine. including upset stomach. The oil derived from a bitter variety of almond has sedative properties and is sometimes used in cough remedies. The seed is demulcent. the bark is used as a folk remedy against fever and dysentery. easily absorbed. In Mexico. and makes an excellent carrier oil for essential oils. In parts of South-East Asia. but almond flour is sometimes used as sustaining food for diabetics. The wood Almond tree wood is red. In traditional Samoan medicine. then yellow. bark is used in dressings for rheumatic joints. the oil is applied to dry skins and is also often used as a carrier oil in aromatherapy. The oil is popular with masseuses and aromatherapists as it is light. The seed is ready to eat when the fruit turns read. the bark is used to threat a variety of ailments. almonds are also beneficial to the overall health of the body. gallstones and constipation. diarrhoea. Oil extracted from the dried nuts is edible and used in cooking in parts of South America. solid and highly resistant to water. the almond tree fruit is green at first. The bark Tannin and a black dye can be extracted from the bark. Externally. the fruit is believed to relieve coughs. ripe Indian almond fruits are used as a folk remedy against travel nausea. nutritive . and throat and mouth problems. In India and Indonesia. It is helpful for alleviating itchy skin conditions. The fruit and seed are edible. Tannin and a black dye can be extracted from the fruit. the bark is regarded as effective against asthma. Almonds are usually processed to extract almond oil for cosmetic purposes.Almond Wonders hence the name. Because of its reliability and resilience to saltwater. and finally red when ripe. As well as being a tasty addition to the diet. emollient. such as eczema. In traditional Indian medicine. Almond milk is still drunk as a kidney tonic and to ease heartburn.

a substance that has also been called vitamin B17. In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration. The pure substance is almost harmless. improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being. the bark is a remedy for throat and mouth problems. fallen leaves are used to treat liver diseases in Taiwan. the fruits treat leprosy and headaches in India and motion sickness in Mexico. It may be potentially beneficial for overall immune support. When used medicinally. Indian (Terminalia catappa) Extracts from the leaves and bark of the plant have proven anticarcinogenic. The kernel of Indian almond has shown aphrodisiac activity. It has been shown to be of benefit for microbial balancing. liver detoxification and antioxidant support. Ethanol extract of the leaves shown potential in the treatment of sickle cell disorders. rheumatism and wounds in Samoa while they re used to stop bleeding during teeth extraction in Mexico. which has antibacterial properties. The leaves and bark have been used traditionally in the South Pacific. From other countries: the leaves. . a very rapidly acting poison . the fixed oil from the seed is normally employed. They also have a anticlastogenic effect (a process which causes breaks in chromosomes) due to their antioxidant properties. stomach upsets and diarrhea in Samoa and for fever and dysentery in Brazil. but on hydrolysis it yields hydrocyanic acid. but there does not at present seem to be much evidence to support this. it can probably be used in treatment of some forms of sexual inadequacies (premature ejaculation).it should thus be treated with caution. including antidiabetic effects. as a treatment for some forms of liver disorders. Almond. the juice of the leaves is used for scabies. It appears as an anti-sickling agent for those that suffer from sickle cell. anti-HIV and hepatoprotective properties (liver regenerating effects). bark and fruits are used for dysentery in Southeast Asia. This has been claimed to have a positive effect in the treatment of cancer. the leaves eliminate intestinal parasites in the Philippines and treat eye problems. the fruits and bark are a remedy for coughs in Samoa) and asthma in Mexico. as an aid in reducing the effect of several heart conditions . The leaves are Page | 10 used in the treatment of diabetes. The seed contains 'laetrile'. and young leaves for colic in South America. dressing for rheumatic joints in Indonesia and India. skin diseases and leprosy in India and Pakistan. secondary metabolite.Almond Wonders and pectoral. The leaves contain agents for chemo-prevention of cancer and probably have anticarciogenic potential. In Asia it has long been known that the leaves of contain a toxic.. for fungal related conditions. The plant contains the antitumor compound taxifolin. as an aid to lowering high blood pressure and stress.

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