The Noetic Revolution

Toward an Integral Science of Matter, Mind and Spirit

David Paul Boaz
(Dechen Wangdu)

Draft, 2011

©2011 by David Paul Boaz, Copper Mountain Institute. All rights reserved. www.coppermount.org www.davidpaulboaz.org (505) 898-9592

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CONTENTS
Introduction: The Emerging Noetic Revolution...................................................................... 3 The Unified Quantum Vacuum and the Buddhist View of the Great Perfection..............6 Modernity and its Discontents............................................................................................6 Scientific Knowledge and Ontological Relativity: Kuhn, Bohr, Quine and Alan Wallace.....................................................................9 Quine’s Revolution: Epistemological Holism in Science and Philosophy.................12 Bridge Building: Toward a New Paradigm for Science and Spirituality....................15 The Unified Quantum Vacuum: The Union of Science and Spirit?.............................17 Ontological Interdependence: The Problem of Knowledge Revisited........................20 Principia Dharmata: The Buddhist View of the Nature of Mind..................................22 A Glimpse of the Great Perfection...................................................................................27 The End of the Great Search..............................................................................................31 Space and Time From Pythagoras to Einstein..........................................................................34 Light Before Einstein..........................................................................................................34 Special Relativity: Light Energy is the Wisdom of Emptiness.....................................36 The Quantum Revolution............................................................................................................41 The Ultraviolet Catastrophe..............................................................................................41 Being and Time...................................................................................................................43 Post-Quantum Logic: West Meets East..........................................................................45 The Great Quantum Debate: Einstein, Bohr, and a New Ontology...........................47 Toward A Post-Quantum Noetic Ontology..............................................................................53 Being Here: The Perennial Mind-Body Problem and the Middle Way.....................53 Cartesian Meditations: The “Hard Problem of Consciousness” and the Nature of Mind....................................................................................................56 One Truth: The Prior Unity of Quantum Physics and Buddhist Metaphysics.........59 The Secret of Human Happiness?....................................................................................64 Postscript: Notes on Quantum Emptiness, Ontological Interdependence, and Free Will.....65 Causality..............................................................................................................................65 Ontological Interdependence............................................................................................66 A Rose is a Rose: The Paradox of Perception................................................................67 Choosing Reality: Quantum Emptiness and Free Will................................................68 Human Happiness and Free Will.....................................................................................71 Strange Interlude: Reduction, Paradox and Realization...............................................72 Toward a Secular Ethic of Compassion...........................................................................73 Appendix A: Dzogchen, the Great Perfection.............................................................................75 Appendix B: The Idols of the Tribe: The Metaphysics of Science..........................................76 Appendix C: The Structures of Consciousness.........................................................................77 Appendix D: The Non-Meditation That is Happiness Itself...................................................79 Appendix E: Toward an Integral Ecology of Mind..................................................................80 Appendix F: Being Here: Reflections on the Nature of mInd.................................................81 Bibliography.................................................................................................................................. 82 2

Introduction The Emerging Noetic Revolution
For no light matter is at stake. The question concerns the very way that human life is to be lived. - Plato (The Republic, Book I) In the second century CE two great scholar-masters, Nagarjuna in the East and Plotinus in the West, began the nondual knowledge revolution in our great Primordial Wisdom Tradition that is just now emerging as the Noetic Revolution of the Twenty-first Century. (Nondual here means no essential subject-object, matter-spirit separation). As the developmental dialectic of our species’ emotional, spiritual and ethical evolution proceeds, and the ontological estrangement of the present modern/postmodern worldview of scientific materialism/functionalism recedes, this incipient global noetic (mind/spirit) reformation in religion, science and culture has gently reintroduced to humankind an interior, integral and transpersonal knowledge paradigm, discoverable through the contemplative injunctions of the spiritual paths of our Great Wisdom Tradition. This Wisdom Tradition teaches of the profound dialectic of the Two Fundamental Truths—our two ways of being here—the Relative Truth (samvriti satya) of conventional spacetime reality, and the ultimate truth (paramartha satya), the infinite perfectly subjective nondual ultimate reality that transcends, yet embraces it. I will argue herein that this rigorous cognitive coupling of our objective understanding with the deep subjective realization of this momentous principle of the indivisible unity and dimensional interdependence of these two seemingly incommensurable paradigms—the conceptual Two Truths as the trans-conceptual one truth—is the inherent treasure of mind, our heart’s desire, and both origin and aim of all our seeking. A robust, integral science of matter, mind and spirit must utilize this phenomenological “doublet” of both third person objective (science) and first person subjective (spirit) methodologies if it is to guide our conscious evolution—individually and therefore collectively—through the ascending life stages of human psychospiritual development. These primordial wisdom teachings have, at last, been introduced into Western cognitive science, neuroscience, consciousness studies and philosophy of mind to help resolve the “Problem of Consciousness,” the “hard problem” of the “explanatory gap” between the data of exterior objective physical brain states (second and third person data) and the arising of private interior subjective awareness states (introspective first person reports). Do neurobiological brain processes cause subjective awareness states? If so, how? This conundrum is fundamental to understanding the perennial “mind-body problem.” What is the actual relationship of our physical body to our mind? Of matter to spirit? Of science to spirituality? Of science to religion? Are these two paradigms—these two ways of being here—as utterly incommensurable as they seem? Consciousness (first person reports) supervenes or depends upon brain processes, but how? Clearly, the “irreducibility of consciousness” precludes a naive reduction of consciousness to purely physical (third person) brain states or epiphenomena of such states. First person introspective reports of subjective experience cannot be eliminated or reduced to third person objective data or phenomena, for to do so precludes the very possibility of 3

subjective direct first person conscious experience at all. Consciousness then, is necessarily first personal subjective. Merely materialist/functionalist approaches cannot account for subjective experience. Consciousness gets left outside. With what shall we fill this explanatory gap between our outer objective and inner subjective experience? Objective matter? Subjective spirit? Causal neurochemical correlates? The mind of God? We shall see that this explanatory gap that is the paradox of mind is bridged by the full Bodhi of samadhi/moksha that is liberation/enlightenment. Let us remember that the conscious formulation of the “hard problem of consciousness” necessarily requires the very consciousness that is in question. Perhaps then, there is no problem of consciousness at all. The emerging “new science of consciousness” that unifies and includes Western neuroscience and Eastern contemplative science (adhyatmavidya) is an urgent juncture in this perennial “Problem of Knowledge.” Such an incipient unified science is a precursor to a truly integral noetic science of matter, mind, and spirit, and an augury to any fruitful and provident integration of the two paradigms that are science and spirit/spirituality toward a higher, subtler, post-materialist and post-metaphysical unifying synthesis that furthers human happiness and well-being. But more importantly, the “hard problem of consciousness” points to that prior, really hard mind-body problem, namely the primordial dualism, that split between being and nonbeing, form and emptiness, the objective finite existence of our bodymind, and our ultimately subjective infinite sourceground in which, or in whom everything arises. We shall see that it is this primary, separative dualism, this amnesis or forgetting of our actual, ultimate “supreme source”—Tao, our Christ/Buddha Nature—that is the root cause of human evil, the egocentric, then ethnocentric and gendercentric ignorance that is fear, anger and aggression—and their horrible result—despotism, war, genocide and despair. And it is the recognition, then realization of the prior unity of this primal separation of matter and spirit that is our liberation and ultimate happiness. So it is told in the continuity of nondual wisdom traditions that is the primordial Great Wisdom Tradition of our kind. The emerging epistemic and ontic Noetic Revolution in religion, science and culture is nothing less than a global consciousness shift toward the light. This unfolding developmental or evolutionary phase transition is the direct result of the decision, during the past century, by recent and living masters of the primary Eastern wisdom traditions—Buddhism, Veda/Vedanta, Taoism, Sufism—to transmit their hitherto secret nondual view and profound contemplative yogic technologies (first person plus third person data) to prepared teachers and students in both the West and the East. The resulting view and robust, holistic, yet radically pluralistic methodology of this nascent Noetic Revolution now begins the integration of the paradigmatic “Two Truths”— relative/finite and ultimate/infinite—that arise historically as the mythic pre-modern, the objective modern and the subjective postmodern wisdom of our Great Wisdom Tradition. Thus it is told by the masters of this tradition: realization of the perfectly subjective ultimate nature of reality, the very Nature of Mind abides in our relationship to the infinite, that essential ontological interdependence of our painful finite existence, and this always present, aware numinous matrix of all being. This realization is being Tao, “The Bright” Kham Brahm of the old Vedas, Christos/logos, our indwelling Christ nature, and the “innermost secret” presence 4

is “Happiness Itself” (paramananda. The urgent task now of our inchoate Noetic Revolution is the integration of the subjective nondual wisdom and compassion of this primordial tradition with the objective and pragmatic knowledge of the physical. Plato—teach that it is this infinite primordial womb. according to our great Tradition. Yes. mahasukka). then realize. As this. we must recognize. And wonder of wonders. the fruitful ambiguity that is the ultimate “hard problem” of knowledge and happiness for our species as we participate together in the emerging new integral Noetic Revolution? 5 . The result. What then. including we beings who experience and try to understand it. the happiness that cannot be lost. Yet. and the nondual Buddhist view of the Great Perfection to the resolution of this.(vidya/rigpa) of primordial Dzogchen. in the subtlest nondual view. Indeed. everywhere. That (Tat/Sat) is who we actually are—our supreme identity—undreamt of in the thoughtful slumber of human reason and belief. a most amazing paradox. is the contribution of relativistic quantum field theory and quantum cosmology. then perfect it through compassionate activity in our everyday lifeworld conduct. “already accomplished. Pathagoras. this profound epistemic/ontic syntheisis is. Astonishingly. this is the nondual “innermost secret” primordial wisdom—by whatever name—that pervades the highest or subtlest teaching of the primary traditions that comprise our nondual Great Wisdom Tradition. Why? For the benefit and ultimate happiness of all beings. Lao Tzu. spontaneously.” deep within us. our Great Wisdom Tradition arises in the Axial Age (800 to 200 BCE) the great axial sages—Buddha. biological and cognitive sciences. from the exoteric relative view we must do something. utterly ineffable nondual Spirit that is Reality Itself that embraces. the Buddhist Madhyamaka Great Perfection that is our supreme sourceground. enfolds and in whom arises all unfolding finite appearing spacetime reality. at the spiritual Heart (hridyam) of each human being.

embedded as they are in our concept and belief systems.” Theory (concept and belief) defines and determines what we observe. scientific imperialism/Scientism). “. through “vertical spiritually empirical” (yogic) contemplative technologies. . .” that is. We think and believe what we are culturally conditioned to think and believe. Einstein to Heisenberg: “What we see depends on the theories we use to interpret our observations. Wilding 1982). Our semiotic conceptual structures do not directly correspond to any external. Modernity: the tyranny of objectivity. . It has now become very difficult to argue that we can know the world objectively. Brunier 1986). the conceptual semantic topology of language with its cultural assumptions. it’s a mixed bag. and none correspond in any straight-forward way to objective objects existing in their own right independent of our experience. “All raw data are theory laden” (Quine). our preconscious. but as we are at the moment of their arising. as we shall see. materialist ideology became the common belief system. Our knowledge is perspectival. the “langue” or “background theory” of the prevailing Western physicalist materialist paradigm (epistemological Realism. It is descended from the unproven and unprovable metaphysical assumption of Monistic Physicalism. as we shall see. This monistic objectivist. . The appropriate description for a given input is highly dependent on the way the perceiver chooses to process it. Descartes and Galileo. The cognitive sciences.” (J. Our conscious experience is dictated in large part by our “cognitive unconscious. perception. The perceiving. Theories are underdetermined by their evidence. Alan Wallace (1996) This advent of a new awareness of the inherent subjectivity of our cognitive life is the good news of the Postmodern reformation. beliefs and expectations. Our observation. In light of such discoveries. knowing subject is always part of the equation.M. independent reality. .B. Things appear in the world not so much as they actually are.an instrument of the world as we have structured it by our expectancies” (J. the ontology that the 6 . All of our observations are theory laden. The Western intellectual tradition has largely failed to understand that there are realms of knowledge and meaning that lie prior to the natural limit of human reason.The Unified Quantum Vacuum and the Buddhist View of the Great Perfection Modernity and Its Discontents Prelude: seeing is believing. consciousness studies and philosophy of mind agree: “Perception is . Empirical observation statements are theory-dependent. Alas. The very notion of unmediated observation now seems highly questionable. The Modernist scientific pretension to rationality that is the dogma of the contemporary cult of Scientific Materialism arose as the 17th Century Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution with Bacon. intersubjective deep cultural background concepts. the phrase ‘seeing is believing’ takes on new meaning: the very act of observation already entails a belief system that is not based simply on some hypothetical bare data. . Can we step outside this intersubjective cultural “web of belief?” Yes. . conception and belief are infected with the unconscious deep subjective cognitive baggage of the cultural tradition in which we arise and participate.

perceiving subject from the object known thereby undermining realization of the higher truth of the symbiosis. hierarchy. This monolithic Western epistemic paradigm—our culture imaginaire— whose roots we find in the dualistic physicalist/ realist ontology of the pre-Socratic atomists. individualistic and relativistic “hermeneutics of suspicion” (Paul Ricoeur’s term) toward holistic metanarratives. distinct and separate from the consciousness of perceiving. antinomian. of objective matter and subjective mind/spirit. exoteric and esoteric religion. but it is the widely held. poet master Valentinus. anthropomorphize and thereby idolize the perfect subjectivity of nondual non-theistic God. or natural/ rational—and spirituality. The Postmodern Reformation. Scientism has reduced the seed of truth in religion—subjective indwelling spirit/spirituality—with its inherent unity of nonseparate. and the Christian Age of Faith. This myth presumes that sense experience may serve as a realist epistemological foundation for objectively certain knowledge.whole of reality is merely and only physical. separate. knowing subjects. and tacitly. usually unconscious belief of the naive realism of most scientists and the non-philosophical public. sociocultural and historical. assumes the existence of an objective. nonreducible dimensional orders: physical/chemical. Most philosophers of science. radically perspectivist Nietzschian skepticism. non-conceptual direct experiences of our primordial source condition. Copernicus. biological. The Modernity of the 17th and 18th Century Enlightenment was an ideological flight to reason and rationality from the tradition and authority. This is one important difference between exoteric theistic religion—whether revealed/transcendental/ supernatural. The great exceptions to this Modernist materialist metaphysics that became the Western Tradition are Pythagoras. beyond belief. the prior unity of knowing subject and the object known. and nondual spirituality. and the excesses of the Classical Tradition. a pathologically pluralistic. Why must our ontology of nature be physicalist? It’s merely a belief. to objectify. Galileo and Newton. mental/emotional. and the Modernist mechanics of Descartes. mind and religion have rejected the myth of the given. Postmodernity was a reaction to this Modernist tyranny of reason and objectivity. The “masters of suspicion” 7 . nondual Spirit Itself. the Christian Gnostics Theodus (disciple of Paul) and his great disciple. This inherent nondual primordial unity is reduced by Physicalist Materialism (Scientism) to mere separate physical matter (scientific reductionism). As to the religious consciousness. Plato. independently existing reality (Scientific Realism) of exclusively physical objects (materialism) given to sense perception—Wilfrid Sellers “myth of the given”—through the medium of “sense data” (hyle). In the Twentieth Century the Postmodern Western mind rejected the crude Modernist Materialist ontology with its requisite radical objectivist epistemology. Plotinus. jnana. toward Platonic transcendence and unity. and rejected Greek material foundationalist Realism while acknowledging a relative conventional ontologically pluralistic Kosmos or souceground of interdependently arising (bathos/pratitya samutpada). replacing it with a reactionary subjectivist. Such exclusively representational cognition can be destructively dualistic for it essentially splits the knowing. to an objective attempt to possess God. Aristotle. non-transcendent Godhead. toward holarchy. “And thus has philosophy been ruined” (Whitehead). and yes. the very sourceground (cittadhatu) in which or in whom we and everything else arises. yeshe). These masters realized and transmitted our naked nondual Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis.

The pragmatists in particular. Noetic Revolution reconstructs the nihilistic pathological pluralism of the Postmodern outlook and restores the subjectivity of our Great Wisdom Tradition. and spontaneously expresses as compassionate conduct in individuals. William James. Paul Ricoeur (1978) suggests that such a hermeneutics of suspicion may liberate us (liberation theology) from the logocentric false idols that are the transcendental absolutes of Western monotheism. besides Nietzsche. toward our Great Wisdom Tradition’s compassionate “pure vision” (p.” The Postmodern mind will not transcend its signs. Heidegger. and serves as a bridge from the separative absolutism of the Modernist scientific paradigm and the counter-ethical relativistic nihilism of the Postmodern response. John Dewey. naturalistic countervoice to centuries of invidious metaphysical paradigmatic bickering among the foundational realist/idealist and rationalist/empiricist ideologies of the Western Canon. the very paradigm of reason and rationality has a theory laden dogmatic. seem unable to move beyond the limits of habitual reason toward the emerging noetic (mind/spirit) paradigm that synthesizes. non-rational cultural core that it cannot escape (See Appendix B: The Idols of the Tribe: The Metaphysics of Science). namely the Deconstructionists Derrida and Foucault.S. Let us now turn to the epistemological and ontological holism that emerged at midcentury. These Postmodern philosophers correctly rejected the 400 year hegemony of the Western “final vocabulary” (Rorty) that is “Foundationalist” Material Realism. 8 . Dewey’s historicosociological approach in his Reconstruction in Philosophy offers methods useful to the emerging rapprochement between the ostensibly incommensurate paradigms of science and spirituality. the mature pragmatic Wittgenstein. programmatic rejection of all metanarratives is itself a metanarrative that may not survive its own logical deconstruction.were Nietzsche. Modernist unity and the philosophy of the subject/self is replaced by relativistic otherness/difference/ differance/ diversity. namely. and in theology. even these Postmodern ideologues. Indeed. its meta-language to any subtler or deeper meaning or reality. offered a practical “radically empirical” (James). the discontents of the Modernist. The emerging integral. then utilizes both of the defining qualities of human being in form.V. we must here remember that the dogmatic. thereby opening a way to the divine that abides within each human being. Quine. the fruition of an integral noetic science of mind (adhyatmavidya) is the reconstruction and transformation of the despair of the relational trauma and conflict inherent in the narcissistic personal and social politics of dualistic “normal neurotic” perception.32). Karl Barth. include the new skeptics. The nihilistic antirealist ideologues of this post-structural. Marx and Freud. demonstrating that science. John Dewey on the Postmodern mind: “The despair of any integrated outlook and attitude is the chief intellectual characteristic of the present age. materialist rationality of the Enlightenment Project. to the emerging pragmatic view that integrates the “Two Truths”—the two paradigms—that are dualistic relative-conventional science. For the postmodern mind perceptual and conceptual experience is relativistic and perspectival—merely my relative perspective embodied in the intersubjective sociocultural spacetime of history. and the Pragmatists C. Postmodern outlook. Peirce. Feuerbach. Jergen Habermas and Richard Rorty. and through that. Regarding this Postmodern project. and nondual ultimate spirit. and the antirealist Neopragmatists W. institutions. Yet. dualistic reason and nondual spirit—objective rationality and compassionate subjective spirituality.

” This precipitates a “scientific crisis” of confidence and an openness to a competing alternative paradigm. scientific research is not. In 1962. Logical Positivism (with the help of Wittgenstein and Quine). opinions and expectations. As this new paradigm ascends. The Western scientific materialist tradition is seen as the triumphal result of cumulative scientific progress. logically defensible knowledge. Here then is the dialectic: a crisis in a scientific paradigm causes a scientific revolution. With incommensurability follows the untenability of scientific reduction. as exemplified by philosopher of science Karl Popper. There can be no paradigm-neutral observation.” that is. Kuhn utilized a close reading—not of the philosophy of science. Quine and Alan Wallace When we try to pick out anything by itself we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. and is not cumulative or progressive. antirealist sociological account of science demonstrated that scientific knowledge is not rational and objective. Against Method: Kuhn’s holistic paradigm paradigm. The dogmatism in the revolutionary new paradigm eventually generates the next crisis and its revolution. Such unsolved puzzles cause a “breakdown of the paradigm. but dogmatic and close-minded as to its fundamental metaphysical assumptions. along with science’s primary explanatory ideology. on Kuhn’s accord. Bohr. For example. knowledge. other than in an instrumental intraparadigm sense.Scientific Knowledge and Ontological Relativity: Kuhn. “Mature science”—the “hard” physical and biological sciences—are not divergent but convergent with its own unconscious material realist worldview. and so forth. These paradigms then become ideologically entrenched and dogmatically defended. is that scientific method is the apotheosis of rational. so much evidentiary as dogmatic. physicist and historian of science Thomas Kuhn shattered this idealized view of objective scientific rationality. The Standard Model of contemporary physics is a case in point. This represents a “paradigm shift” or “gestalt shift. the old paradigm recedes and finally a “scientific revolution” occurs. making inter-paradigm comparisons exceedingly difficult. Here.” Competing paradigms are “incommensurable. Building upon the work of Alexandre Koyré. 9 . Unbiased communication across paradigms cannot occur. This tradition outpictures the profound intellectual tension between traditional and historical hermeneutics. Cases in point: the transcend and include dialectic of Newtonian mechanics to relativistic mechanics to quantum mechanics. Eventually “anomalies” arise—problems or “puzzles” that cannot be resolved within the established paradigm. and progress. -John Muir Discourse on Method Science’s view of science. with his immensely influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Newton’s conception of mass is incommensurate with Einstein’s. they cannot be evaluated by neutral or common methods. Such normal science is always governed by a “paradigm.” Kuhn’s deflationary.” a temporary general consensus among a community of practitioners about current methodology and foundational and fundamental principles. and not of the heroic breakthroughs of science—but of the natural history of everyday “normal science.

and truth as correspondence with appearances. the “Uncertainty Principle”—and Bohr understood that the Quantum Theory makes 10 . is called instrumentalism. Modernity’s rational.” Here both Derrida and Rorty have sacked the entire modern Enlightenment ideal. Both Werner Heisenberg—the author of the other essential principle of the Quantum Theory. but not across paradigms. cognitive “gestalt shifts” across competing paradigms are akin to a religious conversion.” Because of inevitable dogmatic attachment to the current constituting theories.” What scientists (and the rest of us) observe is a function of what we believe and expect to see. reason and epistemological. objectivist scientific knowledge continues the cynical. (or operationalism. author of the holistic quantum Principle of Complementarity concluded that the purpose of scientific theory is not the discovery of intrinsic truths about a representational pre-given pre-existing independent reality “mirror of nature. there is no necessary “real world out there” (RWOT) independent of the nomic theoretical contents of the paradigm. antinomian and subjectivist postmodern critique of Modernity’s dogmatic. I will argue here that this recovery is nothing less than a new reformation in religion. It opposes the Neorealism of Einstein and the “hidden variables” realists (p. ideology and idiom of the paradigm.” A scientific paradigm finally succumbs when the old school believers die off and a new vanguard achieves academic tenure. romantic idealization of scientific objectivity. anti-realist new Noetic Revolution—with quantum field theory and quantum cosmology. has been a radical anti-realist reassessment of this modernist “Enlightenment Project” with its idealization of Realism. particles. philosophy of mind and Madhyamaka Buddhist epistemology as vanguards of the way. This vital antirealist alternative philosophy of physics.53ff) The Western mind is now in recovery from the nihilism of the Postmodern metaphysical pretension to skepticism.—are merely pragmatic descriptive instruments. consciousness studies. All observation and belief is theory dependent and theory is always “underdetermined by its evidence. Scientific knowledge occurs within paradigms. leaving a Faustian legacy of geopolitical viciousness. not independently existing “real” things. 1934). that the theoretical constructs of physics—waves. Further.48). There is no extra-paradigmatic reality. free of the invidious rationalist Modernist meaning constructions of Beauty. and from the empiricist metaphysics of its Modernist precursor. Goodness and Truth. antifoundationalist. political and scientific “progress. materialist project resulted in the unspeakable horror of the first half of the Twentieth Century. scientific observation within a paradigm is “theory laden. realist.” but rather to clarify and explore the relationship of our cognitive perceptual frameworks—our consciousness—to the quantum information bits (qubits) arising from this presumed atomic reality (Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature. science and culture—a pragmatic. forces etc. arguing instead for a nihilistic and skeptical utopian ideal.Thus. Moreover. Believers on each side participate in “different worlds. neurobiology. or nominalism). Kuhn’s profound deflation and reconstruction of realist. insecurity and terror. The Postmodern reformation then. the obsessive proto-religion of objectivist functionalist Scientific Materialism (Scientism) with its infernal “taboo of subjectivity. Is there a middle Way? (p.” Indeed. There is no ideal of objective scientific evidence independent of theory. Ontological relativity. fields. Niels Bohr.

Indeed. the Buddhist Madhyamaka Prasangika and Dzogchen view. about the cognitive relationship of the consciousness of the experimenter/observer to the measurement of quantum event information. “The Bright” that is the outshining (abhasa) clearlight awareness of mind. is devoid of its own inherent nature.” This is of course. Introducing his seminal “Theory of Ontological Relativity” Wallace states: There is one truth that is invariant (absolute) across all cognitive frames of reference. . most verily the ultimate nature of Reality Itself. or identity. In other words. For Method. and should not prescriptively pretend to describe the ontological nature or essence of appearing objects. To penetrate this ostensible barrier we utilize “spiritual empirical” estoerically objective. Scientific laws give us left brain. and physicists. interdependent whole in which they arise. . nomic conventional explanations of the behavior of phenomena arising through the ultimately subjective noumenon. not a science of a world that exists prior to and independent of information. . exoteric. Such is the emerging view and method of the epistemic Noetic Revolution that is now upon us. there is no way to separate the universe we know from the information we have about it. This revolutionary nondual view—introduced in the first Noetic Revolution in the Second Century by Nagarjuna and Plotinus—simultaneously cognizes the prior unity of the objective scientific study of nature/matter with the direct 11 . This whole is necessarily closed by the Planck limit and the quantum uncertainty relations to such theoretical conceptual penetration.” beyond the exoteric “ambiguity barrier” created by the phenomenological limit of discursive theory. persons. He concludes that there is a “broad consensus among psychologists. .. Kuhn. Quine and other philosophers of science (physics.” Plato’s “first principle. nor the subjective depth of the unbroken. Alan Wallace agrees. Natural science is a science of information. Bohr. Schödinger’s “collapse of the wave function” (the state-vector reduction) at the instant of a measurement (or of a perception) by a consciousness. Such idealized models are limited by their mathematical formalism and cannot causally enrich speculative ontology. but is rather. as we shall see. independent of the means by which it is known.. first person contemplative yogic technologies. be a bit of unbridled ontological speculation— not for the metaphysically squeamish—upon this one “truth” that is.. neuroscientists. In his excellent Hidden Dimensions (2007).. everything that we apprehend. and do not descriptively. be it microscopic particles or macroscopic cats. whether perceptually or conceptually.no assumptions about an inherently existing “real” objective physical reality. or observable entities. [that] perceived objects. the very essence or Nature of Mind. biology and psychology) have pointed out that the laws of physics are highly idealized nomological cognitive constructs that describe the behavior of appearing objects within the context of a theoretical model. exist relative to the sensory faculties or systems of measurement by which they are detected—not independently in the objective world. trees and stars. the matrix base that is the Platonic/Kantian diaphanous “thing-in-itself. Nothing exists by its own nature. or the objective existence of its elementary particles. concept and belief. Let our next stop then. is the persistent quantum “measurement problem” that abides at the margin between subjective “virtual” reality and ostensibly objective physical reality.

Organized religion seeks this ground through exoteric ritual. In this regard I will attempt not to reify. that is. namely that these apparent dimensional strata and states are nondual and non-separate from the dualistic consciousness that apprehends them. in due course. the hypothesis “All copper conducts electricity” is neither verifiable nor falsifiable in isolation. The entities or objects of the object language are relative to and supervene or are dependent upon the prior subjective “coordinate grid” that are the assumptions and beliefs of the meta-language. It makes no sense to inquire about the absolute meaning of a statement or object. through the modalities of matter/mind/ spirit. if dualistically explored and confirmed by the “vertical/spiritual empiricism” (Ken Wilber) of the masters.) In his seminal “Ontological Relativity” (1969) Quine develops his thesis that when a theory postulates its existent entities in a given language—its “object language”—it does so by translating its theory’s propositions (statements) about those entities into a “metalanguage” or background matrix or web of prior assumptions and beliefs. concept and belief. that is nothing less than psychospiritual liberation. Rather. Quine’s Revolution: Epistemological Holism in Science and Philosophy Ontological Relativity. theory and practice. entify or posit metaphysical/ontological entities—”transcendental signified” logocentric absolutes arising to consciousness—whether propositionally or mythologically/metaphorically. This raises the problem of “auxiliary hypotheses. Ontology is relative to our conventional cultural and scientific concept and belief systems. “those who know” and teach the various meditative contemplative injunctions.knowing (vidya/rigpa/epinoia) of our perfectly subjective sourceground (cittadhatu). What makes ontological questions meaningless when taken absolutely is not universality but circularity. our ultimate individual and. to the subjective deep background assumptions in our individual and collective “web of belief. We will then return to a less metaphysically ambitious.’ The answer makes only relative sense: sense relative to the uncritical acceptance of ‘G’ “ (Ontological Relativity 1969) Thus the ontological status of phenomenal reality is relative to something prior. We need auxiliary hypotheses from our basis of prior assumptions and beliefs regarding electrical conductance. and its fruition. His Ontological Relativity (indeterminacy of reference) is the thesis that ontology— ”what there is”—is relative to language. Therefore a proposition cannot be empirically tested and shown to be true or false without referring to prior deep background assumptions and beliefs in the meta-language matrix. and in whom everything arises. poiesis and praxis. collective happiness.” (Epistemology is how we know what there is. Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000) is considered by many in the philosophy trade to be the most important Western philosopher of the Twentieth Century. I will follow a post-Kantian. post-metaphysical noetic methodology. somewhat critical inquiry into this radically empiricist methodology. its contemplative injunctions. 12 .” For example. and may be fruitfully. allembracing nondual Spirit that transcends yet embraces nature. A question of the form ‘What is an F’ can be answered only by recourse to a further term: “An F is a G. Esoteric spirituality experiences it directly.

Scientific propositions or statements are a web of interconnected. the Big Bang. In Quine’s web of belief the data of 13 .” namely epistemological Realism. without the epistemological staff of a foundational “first philosophy. prior causes and conditions.e. empirical evidence in isolation is not an adequate criterion of decidability as to theory vindication. no hypothesis is testable in isolation from the whole. appearing entities of our conceptually reified reality are non-objective.conductance meters. or truth. This radical epistemological holism or “confirmational holism” leads to refreshing consequences fantasque. statements that ultimately constitute the whole of science. the atomic number of copper. Therefore our perception and cognition face the vast crucible of Reality Itself nakedly. reduced meaning to immediately observable experience. provided we modify other pertinent internal components—auxiliary hypotheses— within the theoretical system. theories or beliefs. Conversely. If the propositions our theories generate about what exists in appearing reality are underdetermined by the empirical evidential data of our senses.” (Donald Davidson. The Quine-Duhem Thesis. not independently. and 2) all theory is “underdetermined” by its evidential data. The two basic precepts of Quine’s holism are 1) interpretation of an empirical observation is “theory laden” or theory dependent. Meaning then. Quine asserts that ultimately it is the whole of science. Quine here builds upon the broad contextual shoulders of the great logician Gottlob Frege (1848-1925).” The Logical Positivists. is context dependent and arises only interdependently. Holistic assault on objectivity. no belief is protected from revisions. Therefore. Objectivity necessarily refers us to a prior subjective base or source. and also that empirical evidence is suitable to adjudicate theory validity. Says Quine. is also a holism of meaning. “Comprehending a proposition means comprehending a language” (Philosophical Investigations). 1967). As Wittgenstein pointed out. etc. “the unit of measure of empirical meaning is all science in its globality. that is. i. This radical holism regarding theory testability and verification. if not the whole of Reality Itself. interdependent. the arising. Quine’s radical naturalistic epistemological holism undermines both common sense/naive Realism and Scientific Realism. on Qunie’s account. verification. acupuncture meridians—without falling into spooky metaphysics. not mere propositions. “A sentence has meaning only in the context of a whole language. What was needed was a theory that accounts for unobserved phenomena—quarks. Since the primary metaphysical assumption—the ontology—of science is foundational Scientific Realism which holds that scientific knowledge consists of an ontic commitment to real theory-independent phenomena. that is. Thus. Thus the Quine-Duhem Thesis states that any proposition can be asserted to be true regardless of the data. in isolation from the whole of the base or metalanguage. then empirical observation cannot logically require any changes to a theory. it is dependent upon prior assumptions. fearing metaphysical statements. copper wire. In Quine’s “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”—the most celebrated philosophical essay of the Twentieth Century—he develops his radical epistemological holism (“confirmation holism” that is also a semantic holism). In place of the reductionism (meaningful statements are reducible to observation statements) of the Logical Positivists. whose holistic “Context Principle” states that a word or phrase derives its meaning only from the entire context of a sentence. that verify our theories and our paradigms. namely related hypotheses and theories. There will always be multiple theories supported by the data.

For example. Logical Positivism (Logical Empiricism. and between speculative philosophy and objective science has. Are these paradigms then truly incommensurable? Is there a Middle Way (p. These “Two Dogmas” are the two epistemological pillars of Modern and Postmodern Scientific Empiricism with its Twentieth Century incarnation. Quine and Wittgenstein demonstrates that the “paradigm.” and serve no valuable scientific or philosophical purpose. science and culture that is our radically holistic new Noetic Revolution. evaluation and communication across paradigms. Quine’s holistic Naturalism is not an epistemological Relativism for he believed that our theories could and should be guided by “simplicity” (parsimony.45)—are subject to revision. In his revolutionary ”Two Dogmas of Empiricism” Quine reveals that Modern empiricism has been conditioned in large part by two dogmas. One is the belief in some fundamental cleavage between truths which are analytic. meaning. Ockham’s Razor). these resist translation. Both are ill founded (Quine 1951).” or “web of belief. The notion of cognitive paradigms introduced by Kuhn. It is this Quine-Duhem Thesis that is the basis of Quine’s world changing contention that Kant’s foundational analytic/synthetic and apriori/aposteriori distinctions. The demon of the scientific pretension to perfect rationality and objectivity is slain. the Quantum Principle of Uncertainty seems to violate the ”Law of Excluded Middle” of the Western logical canon.” or “form of life” in which one is cognitively embedded determines truth. along with modern empiricist Reductionism are “ill founded. The traditional destructive separation in our collective web of belief between scientific objectivity and subjective metaphysical speculation.53ff)? 14 . Quine informs us that in abandoning these “Two Dogmas” we will observe “a blurring of the supposed gap between speculative metaphysics and natural science. Logical Atomism). The other dogma is reductionism: the belief that each meaningful statement is equivalent to some logical construct upon terms which refer to immediate experience. Thus Quine is a bridge from the absolutism of the objectivist Scientific Realism and Scientific Materialism (Scientism) of Classical and Modernist ontology (and the fuzzy Romantic and skeptical nihilist Postmodern reactions thereto). as with the science and spirituality paradigms. been logically subdued. And thus has philosophy been saved. Another effect is a shift toward pragmatism” (Quine 1951). Quine is a bridge. intelligibility and worldview for the participants in the paradigm. Quine’s essay constituted a devastating refutation of Logical Positivism. and “conservatism” (retain the best of the original theory). or grounded in meaning independently of matters of fact and truths which are synthetic. the preeminent anti-metaphysical scientific physicalist realist theory of the first half of the century. All sectors of our web of belief— even the laws of logic (p. However. And.empirical experience interfaces only with the surface boundary of the whole system. or grounded in fact. at long last. So we can distribute the cognitive force of inconsistent empirical insults through the conceptual tweaking of other propositional constituents deeper within the system. to the emerging pragmatic reformation in religion.

With the failure of the traditional representational correspondence and coherence theories of truth to pass epistemological muster.” endless “concealer truths” (avidya/vikshepa) that are the mass-energy phenomena interdependently arising (pratitya samutpada) in and as the “Interbeing” of empirical spacetime reality. appearing objects are nominally. the warp that runs throughout the entire fabric of the “innermost secret” teaching of the major traditions of our Great Wisdom Tradition. with Ultimate Truth” (paramartha satya). whether as logically valid or invalid concepts. An integral ecology of mind. Cantor’s Aleph.” and dualistic and nondual Vedanta (“nondual”—advaya/gnyis med—means no essential separation).Bridge Building: Toward a New Paradigm for Science and Spirituality The inseparability of the two truths. that golden thread of radical. infinite Consciousness-Being-Itself (cittata/sems nyid) continuously becoming (karma) finite particulars. which is merely our concepts and beliefs about the non-conceptual Absolute that enfolds everything that arises and appears. Chögyal Namkahi Norbu) The Two Truths are one taste. This relative truth reveals conceptual relative conventional. the “perfect sphere” of Dzogchen. Thus the Two Truths are Buddhist “emptiness and form.Kunjed Gyalpo (trans. absolute and relative. We live in two dimensions at once! These Two Truths define the way in which phenomena appear. which is not the way that they appear. relative-conventionally real. and their actual ultimate nature.’ . empirical causal truths while concealing their nondual ultimate nature. Ein Soph. Buddhist emptiness (shunyata). the Great Perfection. This ultimate reality transcends yet embraces the dimension of “Relative Truth. is called ‘primordial Buddha. 15 . this all-embracing “one truth” arises and presents as two levels or dimensions of reality. denpa-nyis) of the unbounded whole that is Reality Itself. Nirguna Brahman— is nothing less than the infinite dance of geometry: involution and evolution.” the “truth that conceals. On the account of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. the perennial “Two Truths” (satyadvaya. nondual truth.22). The never-ending dialectic of these fundamental “Two Truths” of the nondual. Every one of the Yoga Systems of the Hindu Sanatana Dharma. Tao.” yet that includes both. this “one truth” may be viewed less objectively and more pragmatically. This one truth is the nondual. This one unifying truth is simply the transconceptual unbroken whole. The relative truth of perceptual and conceptual mind. cloaks (vikshepa/avidya maya) the great primordial nondual one truth. According to Mahayana/Vajrayana Buddhism. and each of the four Buddhist Schools—the Hinayana (Vaibhashika and Sautrantika) and Mahayana (Chittamtra and Madhyamaka)—subscribe to some variation of the Two Truths. Tao. Yet. but not intrinsically or ultimately real (p. This Perennial Wisdom conceptual duality of relative and ultimate dimensions is resolved in the nonconceptual “one truth. the one truth also transcends and embraces Ultimate or Absolute Truth. discursively unelaborated ontologically prior unity of our Great Wisdom Tradition’s Relative Truth (samvriti satya). non-conceptual one truth that is Ultimate Reality Itself —Dharmakaya. the set that includes all sets. devoid of its own inherent nature. as the meaning of truth for the ancients—aletheia—the uncovering or uncloaking (vikshepa) activity that reveals the Real that abides just prior.

This is the process of “the eternal return” to nondual Spirit. transcends and embraces the unfolding “Many” that is the luminous plurality and multiplicity of the merely physical spacetime cosmos. phylogeny)—through the unconscious horizontal and conscious vertical spiritual paths—again to nondual Spirit. but abide as a timeless nondual unity.) These forces are of course. All arising spacetime phenomena participate in the 16 .. The Supreme Source (trans.. phenomena arising from this vast primordial sourceground (gzhi. Telos. the nature shines clear. and universes of the infinite oscillating Metaverse. is the vast primordial emptiness (shunyata) potential in whom arises the cyclic non-local interdependent connectedness (pratitya samutpada) of this bright primordial aboriginal stuff becoming matter. Although lacking self-nature everything exists clearly. the relative particles and waves that we have come to know and love—photons (light) and bosons (force)—of arising relative spacetime reality. Nondual Spirit is both pinnacle and base. our supreme source (Appendix E: Toward an Integral Ecology of Mind). (Kosmos is the Pathagorean.) So. All the phenomena of existence. spirit and matter have never separated. this one truth—unnameable ultimate reality by whatever name—is the conceptually but not contemplatively ineffable monadic source or matrix. Tao) that is perfectly subjective ultimate Consciousness Being Itself. “What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of infinite space” (Schrödinger).This process is viewed dualistically as the descent (Plato’s Eros. interdependently inter-connected prior unity. stars. abide in the supreme source in a condition of birthlessness. pure and total consciousness. non-entity that is ultimate subjectivity (the prior unity of all subjects and objects). in due course evolves a witnessing intelligence/ consciousness that recognizes the fundamental nonlocal. the pinnacle of psychospiritual development. This non-material. galaxies. chos nyid. In terms of the source. by any name would smell as sweet. and the all inclusive base or sourceground of all that arises therein. “Form is emptiness. Apeiron. in the nondual view. Kosmos) of our formless primordial awareness matrix sourceground—Absolute Spirit—into the broken symmetries of the relative forms of empirical spacetime (cosmos). kadag. the root of all phenomena. As the supreme source (Samantabhadra). However. without exception. dharmata. ontogeny. Ultimate Reality Itself. then the ascent or “eternal return”(agape. minds. the divine “One” of Plotinus that enfolds. beings. including we sentient beings. According to our Great Wisdom Tradition. I am the mirror in which all phenomena are reflected. evolution. without need for a view. the very unbounded whole of Kosmos. Namkhai Norbu 1999) This non-physical or metaphysical sourceground of Reality—Kosmos— subsumes the Quantum Vacuum that is cosmology’s material and physical “Zero-Point Field”/”Akashic Field” that is physical/material cosmos. (This rose. This is the great understanding! -Kunjed Gyalpo. Understanding the essential unborn condition is not an object to observe dualistically. the ”Zero Womb” of the primordial Goddess that generates all of the force fields that give rise to material bodies and their forces. there is no such thing as an observer and an object to observe. Emptiness is form” said the Buddha in his Heart Sutra. while abiding in a relationship of identity with all of the parts.

-Ervin Laszlo (2006) Physicist Paul Dirac attempts a noble description of this luminous quantum emptiness that is the “zero womb” that enfolds everything and in whom everything arises: 17 . a field that conserves and conveys information and thus connects and correlates. The Akashic Field is a universal field. I have called the unifying principle of this non-conceptual “one truth” the Principle of Ontological Interdependence. There is a vast oneness (longchen. joining the four universal fields of physics: the G-Field (the gravitational field). this one truth is the nondual monadic. holistic paradigm in physics and cosmology. the Great Perfection. the EM-field (the electromagnetic field) and the strong and the weak short-range fields that create attraction and repulsion among the particles of the atomic nucleus. interdependent and nondual.V. nonlocal. This ontologically necessary yet epistemologically contingent prior unity must be the fundamental principle of any theory of ontological relativity—Alan Wallace’s Theory of Ontological Relativity or David Finkelstein’s Universal Relativity Principle. Quine’s Ontological Relativity (p. whose precursor is the antirealist Quantum Field theory. Again. There is a deeper reality in the cosmos. an ontologically prior unity.12)—and of any “Theory of Everything” (TOE). this primordial awareness (jnana/yeshe) whose spontaneous presence (lhundrub) abides within all things. Thus the relationship is. svabhava). and galaxies throughout the universe. .“primordial purity” (kadag) of this vast consciousness base (gzhi). -Basho Philosopher and physicist Ervin Laszlo views Relativistic Quantum Field Theory’s Quantum Vacuum—the vacuum state or the “zero-point energy”—as the basis of all relative spacetime reality. We will then explore Buddhist epistemology and ontology through the view of the Great Perfection and its potential impact upon the emerging. at once. a field that “connects organisms and minds in the biosphere. 2003) or W. Let us then briefly consider the Unified Quantum Vacuum that is the zero point energy field. prior ontological unity of the conceptual perennial Two Truths. and particles. (Wallace. the “plenum void” that is the “Akashic Field” (manakasha/namkhah). there can be no essential separation. in its relation to this “primordially present” one truth that for the nondual Buddhist View is the “self-perfected state” of the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. although “spacelike separation” of the participating parts of the unbroken whole obtains. stars. The Unified Quantum Vacuum: The Union of Science and Spirit? The trouble with most poetry is that it is either objective or subjective. This unity. this “one taste” is a most profound subtle ecology of mind. . Thus.” This view is apparently shared by Alan Wallace (“Vacuum States of Consciousness”). relative and ultimate.

and cosmology’s Cosmological Constant. If we determine the particle’s momentum we cannot know its position. So. This dark energy is the reincarnation of Einstein’s Cosmological Constant (“The worst blunder I ever made”). we cannot determine its momentum.. This Zero Point Energy Field—the “energy of empty space”— Bohm’s “Zero Point Order” or “Implicate Order. particles and antiparticles to enter and exit spacetime reality. but permits momentary electromagnetic waves.” The ether theory was rejected by Einstein in his Special Relativity theory.” This unifying fifth force would be the ground state or substrate (alayavijnana) of the entire physical cosmos. namely the Casimir Effect.” is the leading candidate for cosmology’s mysterious dark energy. then it emerged again as his “cosmological constant.Paul Dirac (in Huston Smith. Heisenberg’s uncertainty. or more accurately. 1976) In 1927 Dirac objectively supports this poetic metaphysical conjecture by unifying the Quantum Theory with Relativity Theory—and predicting the existence of antimatter in the bargain—with the sublime mathematical formalism of his Dirac Equation. The vacuum state is then.” the root and primary cause of all phenomenal reality.. and represents a major explanatory challenge for the Standard Model. and vice versa. We can measure precisely a particle’s position or momentum. and by both Planck and Einstein. If we precisely locate the particle in a quantum system. as the “Luminiferous Ether. indeterminacy is not a function of measurement or of instruments. the strong and the weak interactions (the fourth force is gravity). It’s not that everything is uncertain. it is intrinsic to the very nature of apparently physical reality. The root explanation for Zero Point Energy is Heisenberg’s quantum uncertainty relations—the Uncertainty Principle—which states that the more precise the measurement of a particle’s position. but is rather. . the less precise is the measurement of its momentum (its mass times its velocity).” was anticipated by the ancients. and this has quantifiable effects.All matter is created out of some perceptible substance not accurately described as material since it uniformly fills all space and is undetectable by any observation.out of which all matter is created. possibly the long sought unification of the four forces in a non-objective “fifth force. This wave equation became Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) or Relativistic Electrodynamics and fully integrated classical Special and General Relativity with the post-classical Quantum Theory.” “Empty space is not empty” (John Wheeler). . . This description of the momentary particles of the Quantum Vacuum is reminiscent of Buddhist Kalachakra tantra’s empty “space particles. the electromagnetic. Quantum Field Theory predicts that all of space is filled with the Zero Point Energy of the three basic forces of nature.O. That uncertainty.E. undetectable. Zero Point Energy is the paradoxical. “spooky” residue of a quantum system when it is “compactified.” This Zero Point Energy. must explain. Unification? This Unified Quantum Vacuum. as we shall see. but not both. the “Zero Womb” (Bohm) matrix of the birth of all universes in the cyclic oscillating “metaverse. inherent in the wave-like nature of the light of the Zero Point Energy Field itself. Laszlo’s “plenum void” is suspected by many physicists 18 . It appears as nothingness— immaterial. which any viable T. a zero point energy state with a non-zero potential. and omnipotent. It is not an empty void.

this totality of all information of the “three 1 This Unified Quantum Vacuum of physics and cosmology is analogous to the clearlight Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. subjectively what lies therin. the Absolute Basic Space of the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. for the private abode of information—clever. The end of consciousness for gross concept-mind is not the end of the primordial wisdom consciousness abiding as the very heart (hridyam) of human consciousness. subtler strata of knowledge becoming wisdom does not cease at the empirical limit of conceptual philosophical surrender. the weak force and the gravity force—into a hubristic “Grand Unified Field. the grail of the union of science and spirit that is the precursor of a “complete physics”? Although Professor Laszlo identifies the Quantum Vacuum with the Hindu “Akashic Record” and Mahayana Buddhist Alaya. yeshe) of our contemplative tradition. jnana.” the godlike supreme human intellect’s desideratum devoutly to be wished. skeptical and process oriented (events. from the limited view of perceptual and conceptual relative conventional truth. Both must be utilized in the emerging integral approach of the Noetic Revolution (p. nonlocal quantum connectedness (quantum entanglement). to metaphysics (unobservables that may exist before or beyond the observable data of physics). empirical. This quantum “energy of empty space” offers a potential for a new. in the mandatory hermeneutic fluidity of intellectual chaos that our awareness of our original wisdom begins.1 Alas. and to the vast expanse of Dharmadhatu. not things). the Great Perfection in whom all phenomenal reality arises (p27ff). the nondual emptiness matrix or base of all arising phenomena. We must not however be downcast. all that has actually occurred is that the “Akashic Field” has set a zero point limit— the Planck Scale—beyond which the human conceptual mind and its reductionist physics cannot penetrate. Indeed. and the Middle Way ontological interdependence (pratitya samutpada) and emptiness (shunyata) of Buddhism’s Madhyamaka Prasangika. for those with a fearless ear to hear. However. physical reality with its objectively vexing. the prerequisite for the final view and practice of Ati Dzogchen. the Quantum Field Theory’s quantum vacuum/zero-point Akashic Field is the analogical key to understanding the relationship between instantaneous. Ultimate Reality Itself. Here. the Great Perfection. both the “scientific method” and Buddhist (Madhyamaka) epistemology are rational. the strong force. objective. The alternative is skepticism.59) p in the sky? Is this quantum vacuum then.to be that fifth force that finally unifies the other four forces—electromagnetism. even brilliant conceptually fabricated apparently objective knowledge—is not the last word. 19 . often less than compelling ontological speculations. Thus we are led. Thus do we transcend material. the union of science and spirit? Is the Unified Quantum Vacuum of quantum cosmology the Ultimate Truth that is nondual Absolute Spirit. or even—yikes!—mysticism (direct non-conceptual meditative experience of the simultaneous unity of the Two Truths that are relative and ultimate truth).” As we shall see. demystified “Two Truths” paradigm— analogous to the Buddhist Madhyamaka Two Truths (relative and ultimate)—to resolve science’s dogmatic objectivist presumption of absolute matter—its problem of subjectivity—in its quest for ultimate coherence in a “theory of everything. Suzuki Roshi’s relative “Small Mind” is subsumed in ultimate “Big Mind. pragmatic. it is here.” an overdrawn “Theory of Everything.” This assent to the indwelling higher. necessarily. This conceptual limit is the utterly ineffable estate of the noumenon. and experience directly.

exoteric relative or esoteric ultimate. Who am I? We are all inherently the ultimate Buddha Reality (Dharmakaya). utterly empty of attributes. That (Tat) is who we actually are. yeshe). Why not? The answer depends on the view. jnana. relative-conventional world of physical matter is merely an aspect or dimension of an organizing physical or material Unified Quantum Vacuum? Yes. Advaita Vedanta) is quite clear on this urgent point. physical.” The greater esoteric or “innermost secret” view is that appearing spacetime reality with its perceiving beings already is Absolute Spirit Itself that is the nondual one truth. nondual one truth that is the primordial union of the Two Truths. future) is not considered by these traditions to be the non-conceptual.” Rather.”everything is Buddha Nature. nondual primordial Spirit? We concluded above that it is not. Perhaps we are not yet realized Buddhas. There is no essential separation. Is this quantum “Zero Point Field” the ontologically prior unity of Absolute Truth and Relative Truth that is the one truth that is the emptiness matrix of non-conceptual. all-embracing reality of Ultimate Truth. The quantum vacuum with its quasiobjective spacetime reality arises in or through nondual perfectly subjective Spirit.” “All is Brahman. present. “The Bright” Kham Brahm. jnana. unelaborated. Again. the surreal mindscape that is the reality of spacetime phenomenal particulars arising therein—are always an ontologically “prior unity” that is the non-conceptual one truth. It’s not that “everything has Buddha Nature. or the nonlocal quantum vacuum potential. located in. So it is told by the masters of our Great Tradition’s nondual Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. Essence Mahamudra. After all. The Unified Quantum Vacuum. but we are always Buddha. The primordial awareness (gnosis. we must not conflate the ultimate explanatory principle of merely physical cosmos with the original wakefulness that is the Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. and abide in a relation of identity with it (pantheism). deities. and the realm of Relative Truth. and spiritual relative spacetime phenomena. I have written elsewhere that “Nondual Ultimate Reality that is Absolute Spirit cannot be reduced to. gods. perfectly subjective Kosmos. our intrinsic nature. Does this mean that the empirical. are not “physical” and “spiritual” different in kind? Are not samsara and nirvana different modal realities? Or is there a sameness (samata) here? Let’s see. yeshe) that is nondual Spirit is “always already” the actual inherent nature of everything (panpsychism). the furniture of the dimension of conventional. the Ultimate truth of Reality Itself that is Absolute Spirit. not even gurus. Ontological Interdependence: The Problem of Knowledge Revisited There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana. Saijojo Zen. . jnana. The radical nondual teaching of our Great Wisdom Tradition (Dzogchen. We are Atman.times” (past. That is our original face. empirical Relative Truth—our perceptual and conceptual reality interpretations and designations—are all “located” in Absolute Spirit (a nontheistic panentheism).Nagarjuna We have seen that our Principle of Ontological Interdependence informs us that the conceptual Two Truths of our Great Wisdom Tradition—the unbroken whole that is nondual. Nirguna Brahman. beyond discursive concept-mind. or identified with finite physical spacetime particulars.” rather. yeshe) that pervades our consciousness—all-embracing. Tao. “From the beginning all beings are Buddha” (Hui Neng). all physical/mental reality is nondual Spirit. Is this weird? Yes! Is this the crux of the matter? Yes! 20 . mental.

the “innermost secret. intention and conduct (karuna. This Primordial Wisdom “presence always present” is the gnosis (jnana. according to this great universal teaching. If. eudaemonia. This principle of the Two Truths is the key to understanding the emerging paradigm shift that is the resolution of the “explanatory gap” between mind and matter (the “mind-body problem”). merely part of the total Reality equation. As to the experience of these hidden dimensions. transcends. nyingpo) of each being. pratitya samutpada). that is.Thus. shekina) that is inherently present within all beings. it is most important to maintain the understanding awareness that these dimensional reality realms—these “many mansions of the Father’s house”—arise in a relationship of interdependence with one another and with the whole. the Great Perfection. whether conceptual dianoia. non-conceptual. epinoia. namely. And from this wisdom of kindness arises—not so spontaneously—a non-oligarchic democratic political economy and with it the empirical possibility of the free pursuit of both hedonic material happiness (felicitas) and ultimate happiness (mahasukka. nyingje. the finite objective relative-conventional empirical reality with its physical and mental phenomena.” and finally the ineffable nondual which is ultimate Reality Itself. 21 . hesed/charis. This world of Relative Truth includes the dyad of outer exoteric and inner esoteric reality dimensions. paramananda. all inclusive. Could it be.” Indeed. the nondual wisdom Base or Source that transcends yet embraces the material world is the “spiritual” presence (vidya. we relinquish the metaphysical dogma of Physicalism (Materialism). wonder of wonders. beatitude). and between science and spirituality that is the “hard problem” of consciousness with its urgent need of an integrative principle between the third person methodologies of Western science and the first person modes of inquiry of Vedic/Buddhist contemplative science. our nondual Great Tradition views all objective and subjective entities as ultimately empty of inherent existence (shunyata. or direct contemplative epinoia/gnosis. and Ultimate or Absolute Truth (paramartha) the infinite. This does not however. hiranyagarbha. after all. 2 Our perennial Great Wisdom Tradition teaches of the dialectic of the “Two Truths”: Relative Truth (samvriti). and includes all objective physical matter. ahimsa. Absolute Spirit. and therefore possess no inherent. and the Problem of Governance. the requisite metaphysics of our prevailing Western ontology of Scientific Materialism (Scientism) that currently precludes any provident rapprochement of science and spirituality. whether or not it is recognized. I have elsewhere referred to the great prior unity of these none too tidy epistemological dualities as the “Principle of Ontological Interdependence. nondual perfectly subjective unbounded whole. the Ultimate Reality that transcends yet embraces the phenomenal world of Relative Truth. independent existence in themselves. rigpa. tonglen. deny them their reality status as objectively real objects in the realm of Relative Truth that is empirical. yeshe) driving the intersubjective methodology of our emerging Noetic Revolution. that this desideratum is “already accomplished?” Let us then consider the Middle Way Buddhist view that is the foundation of Dzogchen.2 So the physical Quantum Vacuum—David Bohm’s “implicate order” that enfolds the “explicate order” of all arising phenomena participates in. nondual ultimate knowledge. the divine seed (tatagatagharba. christos. Materialism is. this radical. the Unified Quantum Vacuum. The realization of these ascending levels of knowledge is a function of the psycho-spiritual lifestage development of the spiritual aspirant or knower. not even the nondual Ultimate Reality itself. in this Primordial Awareness Wisdom of our contemplative Great Tradition tentatively rests the ontological foundation for the resolution of the three problems of human knowledge and conduct: The Problem of Knowledge. the nondual one truth that is the prior unity of the conceptual Two Truths—ultimate and relative—subsumes. Thus it is. Here then. including spacetime’s very organizing principle. the Problem of Morals. indeed already is the one truth that is Kosmos. spontaneously arises the moral imperative—compassionate feeling. christos/logos) abiding now at the spiritual heart (hridyam hsin/kokoro. relative-conventional spacetime reality. altruism) for the benefit of all sentient beings. “Science” must come to know this. primordial nondual Ultimate Spirit. And from this primordial wisdom of emptiness. and all subjective mental phenomena. This esoteric dimension then includes yet deeper or subtler strata of hidden dimensions.

(It) does not imply non-existence of phenomena but the emptiness of phenomena . empty awake mind. . being or thing.H. as “dependent arising” or “Interbeing. No phenomenon exists with an independent or intrinsic identity. The Dalai Lama.. -Mipham Rinpoche The crux of the matter. anything that exists and has an identity does so only within the total network of everything that has a possible or potential relation to it. entity. there are no subjects without the objects by which they are defined. it’s not some kind of [entity] out there somewhere. (H.. H.form’s ultimate nature . It exists merely conventionally. 2002 How then does emptiness exist? Emptiness is established by relative conventional minds. it is not a metaphysical logocentric idol or “false absolute” existing unconditioned and independently as an unknowable “other” transcendent creator God.” a timeless infinitely vast causal nexus of arising interconnected causes and conditions (vasana/quantum qubits). future.H. and its foundation in Madhyamaka Prasangika.. as the dependent arising of form. . intrinsic existence because they exist only in dependence 22 .its ultimate mode of being . The Dalai Lama terms this ultimate paradox the “emptiness of emptiness. even the Ultimate Truth that is fundamental great emptiness (mahashunyata) is not a frozen absolute.H. phenomena are absent any separate. phenomena arise in mutual interdependence of parts and the unbroken whole. all phenomena arise in dependence upon prior causes and conditions. Therefore emptiness does not exist ultimately. . Fall. that is. .Principia Dharmata: The Buddhist View of the Nature of Mind Without past.” It is important for us to avoid the misapprehension that emptiness is an absolute reality from which the illusory world emerges. all conditional things and events in the world come into being only as a result of the interaction of causes and conditions. In the Buddhist view of Dzogchen. The Dalai Lama. abiding interdependently. His Holiness explains the seminal relationship of the Buddha’s Dependent Arising (pratitya samutpada) and Emptiness: First. .. present. there is mutual dependence between parts and the whole: without parts there can be no whole. 2005) The forms of emptiness. fully formed. Thus. . emptiness is a relativized absolute. there are no objects without subjects to apprehend them. .. the Great Perfection. Thus.the basis that allows form [to] arise as emptiness. Rather. Third. They don’t just arise from nowhere. . . . . or some vast substrate.. Buddhadharma Quarterly. without a whole it makes no sense to speak of parts. H.emptiness must be understood as ‘empty of intrinsic or independent existence’. Second. .

of inherent existence is their ultimate nature. form is emptiness. Independently existing phenomena. no emptiness. but as a self—our bodymind—arising as an interdependent process. “Emptiness is form. Nagarjuna says that things and events. Buddhadharma. In this holistic Middle Way view the 23 . but merely by relative intersubjective conventional designation. Here we see the equation between dependent origination and emptiness. . In other words. as the Buddha’s Heart Sutra expresses. . and this absence of an independent nature is emptiness. No form. . p. . a causal nexus of prior causes and conditions. scientific and noetic (mind/spirit) analysis. karma. their emptiness base (gzhi) or primordial sourceground (cittata. [He] concludes there is nothing that is not empty. Things and events are said to be absent of inherent or intrinsic existence because they exist only in dependence on other factors. This absence. intrinsic reality. . the path of the Middle Way. are empty. . no form. anything that depends on other factors is devoid of its own independent nature. the Dalai Lama. Winter 2004. This is not the full argument. It is critical to understand that Madhyamaka does not say that things are absent of inherent existence mainly because they cannot be found when sought through critical analysis.” The Buddhist view sees the individual not as an independent ego. Cause and effect—the Principle of Causality—and its subset. This is the ultimate mode of being for all the interdependent things and beings of the dimension of Relative Truth (samvriti satya). They lack any discrete. No emptiness. not from its own side. for there is nothing that is not dependently originated. independent of prior causes and conditions is not logically or empirically possible. According to Buddhist practitioner and philosopher of science Alan Wallace. which transcends the extremes of absolutism and nihilism. they exist only by way of reified perceptual and conceptual attribution. or emptiness. Relative phenomena arise interdependently only from the vast expanse of their prior causal nexus. . and thus are also dependently designated. from nothing. cittadhatu).H.on related factors: this absence is emptiness. . this “intersubjectivity lies at the very heart of the Buddhist worldview and its path to spiritual awakening. They exist. is possible only in a Kosmos whose phenomena is interdependently arisen and therefore empty of intrinsic existence.” Emptiness and the dependent arising of form are a prior unity. imputation and designation. which are dependently originated. If the objective and subjective phenomena of reality do not ultimately exist and are ultimately ”unfindable” after twenty-five hundred years of philosophical. Thus. that is. arising ex nihilo.20 How then do phenomena exist? The world is real. but not in the manner in which we perceive them. Thus all phenomena are dependently and conceptually designated. we must ask how it is that phenomena appear to exist.H. This supreme source is Ultimate Truth (paramartha satya) that is Reality Itself (dharmata/chos nyid). . . The question is not whether they exist but how they exist. .

or self. But the Buddha’s Great Emptiness (mahashunyata) is not ultimately a non-affirming negative. we must negate objective and subjective arising phenomena. the affirming luminosity of the clear light (‘od gsal/prabhasvara). Therefore. a subtler outshining luminosity as the vast expanse of the Madhyamaka Great Emptiness manifests itself from the “primordial purity” (kadag) of the primordial ground or base (gzhi). And this is the “emptiness of emptiness. 3) both existence and non-existence. www. Tsongkhapa—refute the Svatantrika Madhyamika and Cittamatra charges of nihilism and skepticism? Once again.” utterly devoid of any essential or intrinsic existence. This “wisdom realizing emptiness. 2006. In the highest view of the nondual tantras—the view of Dzogchen and Highest Yoga Tantra—negated phenomena appearing to a self as relativeconventional reality are replaced by subjective emptiness (nay lug). nor in non-being. How then do the Prasangika Madhyamikas—Nagarjuna. Chandrakirti. the very essence or Nature of Mind (sems nyid). (Mipham Rinpoche). If we negate too little we fall into the opposite extreme of absolutism. Dzogchen. if we negate too much we depart the Middle Way and fall into dark nihilism where our compassionate ethical precepts and conduct are compromised. 2) nihilistic non-existence. the three Buddha Bodies or the “Trikaya of the Base” that is our supreme source (cittata. Nagarjuna’s “tetralemma refutation” refutes 1) reified existence. not permanently nor absolutely. “Within the essence original wakefulness which is primordially pure (kadag) manifests the nature. 24 .3 Objective emptiness or the “objective luminosity” is a “non-affirming negative phenomenon. its Nature is luminosity (luminous clarity gsal ba). is liberation from suffering—Ultimate Happiness Itself (mahasuka/paramananda).” whose complementary is the Madhyamaka Great Compassion (mahakaruna). For Tibetan Buddhists. its Energy emanates continuously as light/motion/form (tsal/rolba). through its own conceptual imputation and designation. as Tsongkhapa reminds us. So there remains. Dependently arising phenomena really do exist conventionally.org. a radiance which is spontaneously present” (lhundrub).ego-I exists. (See Appendix A. introspection and insight practices. and 4) neither existence nor non-existence. quiescence. ©David Paul Boaz. The Buddhist View: Sutra. but only nominally and relatively. yet are devoid of any intrinsic absolute existence.” the absence or negation of any independent or intrinsic existence.davidpaulboaz. Our awareness of the separate self3 For the finer points of this teaching see The Natute of Mind. and in human conduct as wisdom/compassion (thugs re). reifying then clinging to phenomena and failing to accomplish the nondual wisdom of emptiness. Ultimately however. nihilism is avoided by accomplishing the delicate balance between negating too much (nihilism) and negating too little (absolutism). this fundament of clearlight ground luminosity is the ultimate nature of Reality Itself (cho-nyid/dharmata). The Great Perfection). all the phenomena of reality are “empty of self-nature. as with all phenomena. But. there is inherent existence neither in being. the nature of primordial consciousness. the nondual cognitive-emotive direct experience presence (vidya/rigpa) of the pure bright clarity of the emptiness of form. Regarding the Dzogchen view of this ultimate base. So. kunjed gyalpo): its Essence is emptiness (shunyata). His Holiness further distinguishes between objective emptiness and subjective emptiness.” Emptiness objective and subjective. Tantra and Dzogchen. after the negation of objective and subjective gross and subtle forms encountered through the form and formless mindfulness.

nor by the “attentional stability. From this ground it all arises. and return again to emptiness. our ostensible development on the Path. Madhyamaka and Dzogchen traditions agree: nondual realization and perfection of the ultimate truth of the Nature of Mind (sems nyid). wherever we go. whatever we do. 2000). . the independently existing ego-I. “madhya” or middle also connotes a negation. the nature of reality itself. the ontological relativity of the self-sense of the ego-I— the “no-self of the individual”—so important? Because it is the defence of the attachments and aversions of this non-essential self that causes the negative afflictive emotions— anger/aggression. . impermanent and relative existence. with compassionate conduct. All limbs of the Buddha’s teaching have this one purpose—to lead us to the nondual primordial wisdom. Klien) Let us then remember. Ultimate Reality Itself (chos nyid).sense.NM 2002. The non-conceptual realization of the state of this transcendent perfection of wisdom (prajnaparamita)—the wisdom of emptiness—is decidedly not mere conceptual speculation. Kant’s “moral law within us. According to H. But this self cannot be an independent. This is the true nature of arising phenomena. Santa Fe. It is rather. Anne C.” This sense of a permanent self serves as a vehicle for managing our relative conventional existence. The Dalai Lama. Knowing and feeling: the unity of wisdom and compassion. it’s always here. Absolute Bodhicitta can be accomplished neither by the ambulations of common conceptual mind. bears the fruit of liberation or Buddhahood. H. The Buddhist Muhamudra. all states of consciousness—negative or positive—indeed all phenomena are pervaded by this clear light luminosity that is the “wish fulfilling jewel” of Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis/jnana/ yeshe) (H. and into this it all returns. The Dalai Lama. . But let us remember. According to the highest or subtlest Madhyamaka and tantric teachings. The weight of our entire contemplative Wisdom Tradition grounds this view in the practice of meditative quiescence (shamatha) and penetrating insight (vipashyana) which.H. It participates in and pervades all views and paths for one who is capable of accessing it. “The fruit is no different at the pinnacle of enlightenment than it is at the primordial base” (Adzom Rinpoche). This is dependent arising . trans. dwells. permanently existing entity. a dependently arising. with no essential separation at all. brilliant clarity and joy” of contemplative quiescence practices. the root cause of human suffering and unhappiness. fear and suffering of this world is the result of attachment to the self” (Shantideva). so the Madhyamaka is the Middle Way path that is no-path. Thus we cannot even cling to the Middle Way. is at first necessary to develop our view and ethical sense. . desire/ attachment/greed that is ignorance (avidya/marigpa). -Adzom Paylo Rinpoche (Upaya Retreat. the dynamic display of the mind. All things flow from emptiness. Thus do the Madhyamaka schools of the Mahayana seek a Middle Way between the two extremes of absolutism and nihilism. “All the evil. even realized contemplative quiescence (realized shamatha) is not altogether free of conceptual grasping and contrivance (ignorance/advidya)—though it is often 25 . Why is the ontological negation. pride/envy. moment to moment. luminous emptiness (shunyata).

All thought. As this Primordial Awareness Wisdom (jnana. This is “The Bright” of the Upanishads (“Upanishadic Monism”). As these “two legs of enlightenment”—wisdom and compassion—are unified. directed toward sentient beings. Happiness Itself. the potential of everything that arises. Indeed. 4 In the Middle Way (Madhyamaka) Mahayana there are three kinds of compassion. eternal. this reality is the prior unity of emptiness and awareness that is the very ground luminosity. our own ultimate happiness (beatitude/mahasukha/paramananda). and the utter absence (shunya) of it in space. in the latter instance. habitual material and conceptual grasping is transcended and realization of the utterly unmediated awareness continuum that is the always already present primordial base or ground may be accomplished. Through compassion. The indwelling innate. 2004). This compassion without an object is the unity of compassion and the wisdom of emptiness. From emptiness compassion spontaneously arises. gnosis) becomes truly manifest in the lifeworld as the wisdom of kindness. The ultimate perfection of this process is Buddhahood. or in the future. No essential difference. p. everything that arises from the purity of the Base is already self-liberated and utterly free of conceptual elaboration and corruption—empty in essence. and with great devotion to a qualified master. The on-going failure of realization in the former instance I have termed objective dualism. For esoteric wholeness fundamentals see Anne C.230ff. The third is absolute. Mind training in conceptual understanding. 26 . devotion) of liberation. Balancing the Mind.” The first is relative. yeshe. lhundrub) of this wisdom happiness is who we are now. even our negative emotions are apertures opening into the depth of its primordial purity (kadag)—if that is. gnosis. and his The Attention Revolution. Klein’s Unbounded Wholeness. the equanimity of resting in the nondual state of presence of the Supreme Source. It cannot be found outside. and also in quiescence must be unified with the compassionate heartmind of relative bodhicitta—the “mind of enlightenment”—and with the parallel wisdom of penetrating insight (vipashyana). 2006. according to the greater esoteric or nondual “innermost secret” Buddhist View—Dzogchen and Essence Mahamudra—this emptiness residue of self cannot be nihilistic nothingness or utter non-being. then realize and perfect this vast emptiness Nature of Mind—the clear light of the mind beyond the “web of belief” that is the mind’s mere cognitive contents—is to realize the temporal impermanence (anitya) of ego-self in time. subjective dualism. toward the ignorance (avidya/marigpa) that causes the suffering of beings. The result is the two aspects of ignorance (avidya). grasping at phenomena as substantial. radiant essential clearlight basic mind nature itself. 2005. These two are primary ignorance or clinging to the sense of self (the ego-I) in space and time. Rather.. Alan Wallace. and then permanent and profound loving compassion (karuna) for the welfare of living beings. exoteric/outer. 2006.mistaken to be so. in direct proportion to that. permanent. attained through the noetic contemplative analysis of insight practice under the guidance of. we can surrender these concepts at the instant of their arising. emptiness is realized. and secondary ignorance.) To “spiritually” recognize. (For extensive documentation see B.4 This is the feeling or emotional aspect (ishta. esoteric/inner. or “missing the mark” (hamartia/sin). luminous clarity by nature. it becomes. The second. intrinsic presence (vidya/rigpa. This then is the knowing aspect of liberation. Therefore. and spontaneously compassionate in its expression. bliss. and greater esoteric or nondual “innermost secret. absolute or ultimate (Boaz. bhakti.

. post-transcendent. inner. selflessness (anatman). and substantial everyday reality. utterly free of conceptual elaboration. That’s it. According to His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche (1991) this unity of the absolute space of arising phenomena (dharmadhatu/bying) with primordial consciousness itself. permanent. the Self-Perfected State. . then conceptually designate (maya/ignorance/ajnana/marigpa) these appearances as the seemingly substantial phenomena of a reified. non-conceptual understanding was perfectly expressed 800 years ago by Soto Zen patriarch Dogen: Midnight. . the Great Perfection. And that is the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. The nature of mind is clear light. this realm of Relative Truth (samvriti satya)— form (objective reality) and formless form (mental and subjective experience)—arises from its primordial energy (jnana prana) within the perfectly subjective pristine cognition of the vast expanse of Reality Itself (dharmadhatujnana/chos-bying yeshe). and The Buddhist View: Sutra. the very nature of mind (cittata/sems nyid). This is the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. Yet all such instantiation of phenomenal consciousness is “always already” illumined by the radiant original face of the primordial awareness wisdom (jnana/yeshe) that is their (our) intrinsic actual nature. Tantra and Dzogchen ©David Paul Boaz. On the account of the subtlest view of the Buddhist teaching that is Ati Dzogchen.Garab Dorje Buddha cognition.” A Glimpse of the Great Perfection5 The nature of mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. 2006. then reify. Dzogchen. 5 See Appendix A. 27 . a Dzogchen master softly speaks to his heart son: “Do you see it? That is what you seek. -Shakyamini Buddha Now is the time to enter into it. secret and innermost secret (nondual) understanding of the emptiness (shunyata). No waves No Wind. impermanence (anitya) and interdependence (pratitya samutpada) of our Great Tradition’s gradual yet always “already accomplished” path to liberation from the ignorance (avidya) that is suffering (dukkha). imputed. The empty boat Flooded with moonlight.These two—luminous knowing and feeling—pervade the unity of outer. Somewhere in Tibet. Such a post-metaphysical. is the luminosity of clearlight primordial awareness wisdom (gnosis/jnana/yeshe). the Great Perfection (Essence Mahamundra and the Madhyamaka of the Definitive Meaning are essentially the same as to the View). This Ultimate Reality (dharmata/cho nyid) is the Madhyamaka luminous emptiness (shunyata) that is the inherent nature of relative spacetime phenomena (dharma/chos) whose apparitional or illusory face (dharmin/cho can) emerges from its primordial purity (kadag) of the emptiness base (gzhi) as the limited consciousness of sentient beings who perceive.

In this profound and subtle “practice of Ati Yoga, which is also secret such that only the fortunate can understand it,” Buddhahood (Buddha-nature/buddhadhatu) is accomplished when the fundamental, primal intrinsic awareness (vidya/rigpa) of the Buddha Body of Reality Itself (dharmakaya/chos-ku) is liberated, exactly as it is, directly here and now through the recognition—”brief moments many times”—realization and perfection of the primordially pure body of Samantabhadra (Kuntazangpo), the Dharmakaya Buddha, who is none other than the pristine cognition of the supreme reality that is dharmadhatu, the vast Absolute Space of all arising phenomena, beyond belief, always already present in whatever arises in this very moment now, here in this very human body of light (rang rig/rang rigpa). This clearlight (‘od gsal) absolute space (bying) of phenomena that is Ultimate Truth must not be conflated with the material, contingent relative dimension of spacetime that arises within and through it. The prior unity of these conceptual “Two Truths” that is the nonconceptual one truth, the perfect nondual sphere of Dzogchen, is ontologically prior, subsuming, transcending yet embracing and pervading the physical spacetime dimension, including the “space particles” of the ground state of the quasi-physical Unified Quantum Vacuum. The great paradoxical conclusion then is this: ultimately there is no difference! In the pristine cognition of equality—Buddha cognition (samatajnana /nyam-nyid yeshe—the Two Truths are equal. One and the same. A unity. The primal duality of the conceptual binary that is the Two Truths resolved in this one great nondual truth. “There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana” (Nagarjuna). The Quantum Vacuum and the Great Perfection. Thus, from this ultimate view, the Zero Point Energy of the Quantum Vacuum arises from the alayavijnana, the substrate consciousness that arises from the primordial wisdom consciousness (jnana/yeshe) that is not other than the emptiness base (gzhi). And from the Quantum Vacuum arises chitta/sems, the human bodymind along with the entire spacetime mansion of Relative Truth. These are the three consciousness dimensions—citta, alaya and jnana—of the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist view. O wonder of wonders, all beings are Buddha, samsara and nirvana are One! And all this, always here, now outshines perfectly just as it is, the natural state, “natural mind” the very nature of your mind. Mahasuka, great joy. Nothing special (wu shin). As we begin to see this post-metaphysical, post-mystical “ordinary mind” as the very Nature of Mind, we wake up. “Now we spontaneously generate the love that is truly a refuge for all living beings.” (Vimalakirti). The great 14th Century Nyingma Dzogchen Master Longchen Rabjam (Longchenpa) transmits this primordial wisdom (gnosis, jnana, yeshe) that is the very nature of Kosmos, Reality Itself: Self arising wisdom is rigpa that is empty, clear and free from all elaboration, like an immaculate sphere of crystal . . . It does not analyze objects. . . By simply identifying that non-conceptual, pristine, naked rigpa, you realize there is nothing other than this nature. . . This is nondual self-arising wisdom. . . Like a reflection in a mirror, when objects and perceptions manifest to rigpa, that pristine and naked awareness which does not proliferate into thought is called the inner power (tsal), the responsiveness that is the ground (gzhi) for all the arising of things . . . For a yogin who realizes the naked meaning of Dzogpachenpo, rigpa is fresh, pure and naked, and objects may manifest and appear within rigpa, but it does not lose itself externally to those objects. 28

-Longchen Rabjam, The Treasury of the Dharmadhatu (Commentary), Adzom Chögar edition According to recent Tibetan Dzogchen rime master Tulku Urgen Rinpoche, the two innermost principles of Dzogchen are Basic Space (bying/dhatu) and Awareness (rigpa/vidya). This Basic Space is pregnant luminous emptiness, the unity of emptiness (shunyata) and the clearlight luminosity (‘od gsal). In Dzogchen, the innermost secret realization of Basic Space is klong, the infinite “vast expanse” of Reality Itself, transcending all conceptual elaboration, judgement and bias, beyond even the subtlest subject-object duality, beyond objective and subjective emptiness, beyond ground and path luminosity (Boaz, 2004). As space pervades, so awareness pervades. . .like space, rigpa is allencompassing. . . Just as beings are all pervaded by space, rigpa pervades the minds of beings. . . . Basic space is the absence of mental constructs, while awareness is the knowing of this absence of constructs, recognizing the complete emptiness of mind essence. . . The ultimate dharma is the realization of the indivisibility of basic space and awareness [that is] Samantabhadra. -Tulku Urgyen (As It is, Vol. I, 1999 and Rainbow Printing, 1995) The Supreme Source. The primary Dzogchen tantra, The Kunjed Gyalpo (The Supreme Source), must surely be considered one of humankind’s great spiritual treasures. According to Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, this supreme nondual teaching has been transmitted from master to disciple directly, heartmind to heartmind, for thousands of years. Historical Dzogchen wisdom dates from the teaching of Garab Dorje in the Second Century CE. The Kunjed Gyalpo tantra arises in the Eighth Century and is the fundamental tantra of the Dzogchen semde (mind)teaching series. This version of the great nondual primordial teaching is derived from Buddhist sutra and tantra understanding of the Nature of Mind, yet its truth essence runs, like a golden thread through the grand tapestry of humankind’s primordial great Wisdom Tradition. Kunjed Gyalpo, The Wise and Glorious King is Samantabhadra (clarity) and Samantabhadri (emptiness) in inseparable yabyum embrace—androgynous skylike primordial Adi Buddha—the union of clarity and emptiness that is none other than our original Buddha nature, Supreme Source, Basis, primordial womb of everything. Sambantabhadra, this Dharmakaya Buddha speaks to the Logos, Vajrasattva, Sambhogakaya Buddha: The essence of all the Buddhas exists prior to samsara and nirvana. . . it transcends the four conceptual limits and is intrinsically pure; this original condition is the uncreated nature of existence that always existed, the ultimate nature of all phenomena. . . It is utterly free of the defects of dualistic thought which is only capable of referring to an object other than itself. . .it is the base of primordial purity. . . Similar to space it pervades all beings. . . The inseparability of the two truths, absolute and relative is called the 29

‘primordial Buddha’. . . If at the moment the energy of the base manifests, one does not consider it something other than oneself. . . it self-liberates. . . Understanding the essence . . . one finds oneself always in this state . . .dwelling in the fourth time, beyond past, present and future. . .the infinite space of self-perfection. . . pure dharmakaya, the essence of the vajra of clear light. - Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, The Supreme Source (Kunjed Gyalpo), 1999 Thus do the sutras and the tantras of Buddha’s teaching and the binary dualities of the path—objective and subjective, self and other, observer and data, true and false, relative and ultimate—abide in the prior unity of the dependently arisen perfect sphere of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, ultimate mind nature, luminous innate clearlight mind that is always already the unity of awareness and emptiness. Who is it, that I am? All the masters of the three times have told it. This infinite vast expanse of the primordial awareness wisdom continuum is who we actually are. Tat tvam ami. That, I Am! That is our supreme identity, great perfection of our always present Buddha Nature, deep heartseed presence of ultimate happiness that is both origin and aim of all our seeking. H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche’s Comments on Garab Dorje’s Three Vajra Verses or The Three Essential Statements of the Dzogchen View, Meditation and Conduct (translated by John Reynolds): Verse I: Recognize your own true nature (The Base and View) “This fresh immediate awareness of the present moment, transcending all thoughts related to the three times (past, present, future), is itself that primordial awareness or knowledge (yeshe) that is self-originated intrinsic awareness (rig pa).” From this View arises the Semde teaching series. Verse II: Choose the state of presence, beyond doubt (The Path and Meditation) “Whatever phenomena of samsara or nirvana may manifest, all of them represent the play of the creative energy or potentiality of one’s own immediate intrinsic awareness (rig pa’i rtsal). One must decide upon this unique state for oneself and know that there exists nothing other than this.” From The Meditation arises the Longde teaching series. Verse III: Continue in the state with confidence in liberation (The Fruit and Conduct) “Whatever gross or subtle thoughts may arise, by merely recognizing their nature, they arise and self-liberate simultaneously in the vast expanse of Dharmakaya, where Emptiness and Awareness are inseparable (gsal stong gnyis med).” From the Fruit arises the Secret Upadesha (Mengagde), or heart essence (nyingthig) teaching series. And from Jigme Lingpa, author of the Longchen Nyingthig Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse, on the nondual Dzogchen view at play in the world:

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No Buddhas, no beings, beyond existence and non-existence Intrinsic Awareness Itself is absolute Guru, Ultimate Truth. By resting naturally, beyond fixaton in that inherently free perfect innate Bodhi-mind, I take refuge and actualize Bodhicitta. - Jigme Lingpa, Longchen Nyingthig “The perfect explanation of Dzogchen,“ according to contemporary Dzogchen master Chögyal Namkhai Norbu is voiced in these profound words of Gautama Shakyamuni, the historical Nirmanakaya Buddha: All that arises is essentially no more real than a reflection, transparently pure and clear, beyond all definition or logical explanation. Yet the seeds of past action, karma, continue to cause further arising. Even so, know that all that exists is ultimately void of self-nature, utterly non dual! The End of the Great Search You will not find Happiness until you stop seeking it. -Chuang Tzu What you seek is already present. -Jesus of Nazareth The nature of mind is Buddha from the beginning... Realizing the purity essence of all things, to remain there without seeking is the meditation. - Garab Dorje (The Three Vajra Verses) View, Path and Result. The wisdom teachings that have arisen within the primordial Great Wisdom Tradition of human history have a View (darshana, theory) which explains the Ground, the great Source of all appearing reality, and a Path (marga) which establishes the Meditation (bhavana) that seeks the continuity of recognition of the Ground leading to the Result or Fruition of the practice. This endpoint is “the Fruit” that is ultimate realization of our 31

In Buddhism this blissful Result of the wisdom of emptiness is Buddhahood. we can only be happy. indwelling.” the ultimate “transcendental signified. Practice that.” This recognition is after all. the nonidealized happiness that cannot be lost. the teaching is generally presented exoterically. union with the whole—our inherent primordial urge and impulse toward spirit. all beings are Buddha. if not the cause of human happiness. secret. from the very beginning. and naturally self-liberated (rang bzhin gyis mya ngan las ‘das pa) from the very beginning. it may be either gradual (zengo. and in the highest nondual teaching of each tradition as ultimate Happiness Itself (paramananda. our primordial buddhahood—by whatever name—that is fully awake. but you do not know it. paradoxically “already accomplished” and “always already” present at the spiritual heart (hridyam) of each human being. contrived or deconstructed by the mind because all that arises from the primordial purity (kadag) of the base (gzhi)—negative. we can only be enlightened.” “Wonder of wonders. Regarding the View. “We cannot become happy.” We cannot become enlightened. mahasuka). direct tongo. “Does Buddhahood Have a Cause?”). nothing to be fabricated. as knowledge deepens to wisdom in the “advanced” practitioner the teaching becomes more and more esoteric (inward. moment to moment. naked pristine awareness of the nondual presence (vidya/rigpa) “already present. The Paradox of Seeking. the very definition of religion—religare/religio. neutral—is always already spontaneously present (lhundrub) and self-perfected (rang grol). Emptiness is the path. and be supremely happy (Appendix D). 32 . 2006. prior to the cyclic suffering of the endless painful dualities that this flesh is heir to. the unbroken whole that is our “supreme identity” and “supreme source. Thus our seeking motive is destroyed and we enter in the immediate. Actor and action are not separate. Our Great Wisdom Tradition teaches that this paradox of the path—the paradox of seeking—is that the happiness we desire through all our seeking strategies is already here. rim-gys-pa). In the “pure view” (dag nang) of the Ati Yoga of Dzogchen there is nothing to be transformed or transcended. The Path is the confusion of the gradual seeking strategies to this “goal” of liberation enlightenment. perfectly awake. Thus our liberation from the endless suffering strategies of seeking happiness is right here now our ultimate happiness. yoga/zygon. and the “gradual/non-gradual” dualism becomes a false dichotomy.” prior to all signification and idolotry. We need not cling to the existence or non-existence of anything at all. “The seeker and that sought are one and the same” (Padmasambhava).” the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. Regarding the View of the Fruition (result/realization) of the path. caught and grasped by a knowing subject. “The path is emptiness. This final realization is seen as the essence. nondual). That is the continuity of the great (chen) completion (dzog) or perfection of the natural state. timeless. Simply relax into That (Tat/Sat). positive. if unrecognized.inherently nondual primordial wisdom sourceground that is. Meditator and meditation are not separate.” “What you seek is already present. cig-car-ba). some state or thing to be sought. Why? Because seeking happiness to avoid suffering is a form of suffering. Liberation from suffering—Happiness Itself—is not a separate reality. We make the goal the path (Boaz. natural ordinary mind that is “the Bright” of the light of the mind and everything appearing therein. Thus. always arising from primordial purity that is the very ground of being. In actual practice these two are interdependent. the ignorance (avidya) that causes suffering. or non-gradual (sudden. the Great Perfection.

You have always been one with the Buddha. Let it be as it is. exactly as they are” (Shakyamuni Buddha). nor inside. Surrender to the wisdom of emptiness. Ultimate Reality Itself. and just relax into it. Buddha is within you. you could know that it can never be attained by effort. Can we really be that presence. so do not pretend you can attain this oneness by various practices. So there is no need to try to become something else. That happiness you seek is “always already” present. our Buddha Nature (tatagatagarbha). . of our nondual Great Wisdom Tradition. there is nothing other than this. and indeed. just for a moment. and to be happy? Who is it that is afraid and angry? Who is it that is born.. not seeking something outside. -Huang Po (Kraft.you would now be the Buddha Mind. right here now. In a carefree way. Thus do we create our individual and thereby collective destiny. primordial wisdom nature (gnosis. not our original sin. all the way to the end of it. nondual. our supreme identity.. Why must we do all this? To realize—wonder of wonders—that “it is already accomplished” (Garab Dorje). the very nature of our mind—our original goodness. Now there is nothing to do. so that everything we do is selfless. This is the primordial wisdom teaching of Ati Dzogchen. Zen Tradition. wu-wei (aporia). and all that arises spontaneously self-liberates at the very instant of its arising. and rest your weary mind. vast emptiness there is nothing to construct and nothing to do.. this space of sky. the teaching. This is the perennial paradoxical truth of non-action. self and other. non-separate Spirit. our Christ Nature (christos). . in this very instant. “Leave it as it is. clear and bright and vast as space. already transcends yet includes and embraces both subject and object. forever liberated and fully awake? 33 . is inherent right here within the continuum of our mental-emotional nature at the very heart (hridyam... your seeking is doomed to failure. suffers and dies? Who is it that shines through the mind and abides at the heart of all beings. by whatever name. . This is the meditation. and the spiritual community. then train the mind in equanimity and compassion through the path (marga/lam) with its meditation practice (bhavana) under the guidance of a qualified master. We can be that because That is our actual original. nyingpo) of the human bodymind. all things are perfect. -Lama Wangdor Rinpoche (Santa Fe Retreat. .Thus it is. Always now (turiya). future—have told it: We take refuge in “The Three Jewels” that are the spiritual master. authentic and kind. jnana. present. yeshe). If. in the chaos of our splendent earth? Yes. not seeking anything at all. This is liberation from unhappiness. Do not seek Buddhahood.. This reality is who we actually are. 2003) Who is it? Who is it that desires to know. So. The heartseed of enlightenment. Thus do we choose our reality. kokoro. A most unusual paradox. Now then. rest in That. How do we do this? The masters of the three times—past. the truth is revealed. according to the nondual view of the wisdom traditions. let it be as it is. non-seeking. All the masters have told it. 1988) In this very act of seeking. try to change anything. In this quiet.

the continuous change of position of an object (with its waves and particles) relative to some frame of reference with respect to the consciousness of an observer. to the “spooky” nonlocal primordial emptiness of the Quantum Theory and the related Buddhist view of the Great Perfection. if the laws of mechanics are valid in reference frame “A. Plato and Aristotle. time. As we have seen. the personal and the transpersonal. utterly ignoring the subjectivity of the human mind—consciousness—and its perfectly subjective primordial base. “qualitative” from science. permitting only the quantifiable objective. the Stoics and Descartes. science and culture as the fundamentalist protoreligion that is Scientific Materialism (Scientism). the Realist Materialist/ Physicalist worldview has been visited upon modern and postmodern religion. a very brief history of spacetime. to Galileo. 1971). in which theory is perfectly and always validated by experiment. Consciousness is the key. but modes in which we think. . of realism and idealism. and energy. Objectivist. It was the postmodern reaction to this tyranny of objectivity of the old Modernist paradigm that begat the emerging Noetic Revolution that is nothing less than an incipient reunion of physics and metaphysics. exoteric (left brain). From Pythagoras. of science and spirituality.Albert Einstein Light Before Einstein Let us now consider certain recent theoretical developments in Relativity Theory and the Quantum Theory with its Unified Vacuum Quantum which offer a bridge of understanding from the Materialist Realist paradigm or world view of Aristotle.Space and Time From Pythagoras to Einstein Space and time are not conditions in which we live. Energy is light and arises from the still luminous emptiness of its primordial source or base as motion. Liebniz. determinist science and philosophy and the cultural worldview that follows therefrom continues to labor under this logocentric false idol of the attainability of a perfect objective certainty. First then. Subjectivist. all inclusive ultimate Reality Itself. The classical mechanics of Galileo. So. esoteric (right brain) attempts to unify these realities have been offered by the contemplative yogic. of the prepersonal. Newton and Einstein. postulated a relativity theory—the Principle of Galilean Relativity—adopted later by Newton and Einstein in which an absolute “inertial” reference frame the laws of mechanics (motion) are always valid. Motion is change. Galileo. metaphysical and even mystical religious formulas of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. and Newton clarified this idea of relative motion.” they are valid in all other reference frames moving in uniform 34 . matter. according to the classical view of Galileo and Newton. who first proscribed value and the subjective. philosophy and religion have been concerned with the four fundamental aspects of appearing reality: space. a romantic perfect-world theory hungering after the grail of absolute objective certainty. attempts to understand and unify these apparently separate aspects of reality have focused on mathematics and physics (Boaz. both exoteric and esoteric physics. And thereby the scientific study of the mind was marginalized under the ensuing procrustean “taboo of subjectivity.” Contemporary mechanistic.

semantic and even contemplative understanding of emptiness? We have seen that it does not. the objectivist quest of classical mechanics for absolute non-motion as a basis for coordinate reference systems has yet to emerge. intergalactic gravitational effects. The ether concept has now reincarnated as cosmology’s Quantum Vacuum. Buddhist epistemology. more bad news.14ff. According to recent relativity theory. Moreover. and the inherent limits of a two valued. would doom the Newtonian view. Complementarity. neurobiology. Thus.6 and give rise to the Postmodern worldview with its Special and General Relativity and later. undetectable “sea” that permeates everything and though which all particles. the earth cannot be an inertial reference system. invisible. And this perfectly subjective base or source (Brahman/ shunyata/emptiness) is forever veiled to limited human conceptual objective understanding by the inherent subjectivity of the quantum uncertainty relations. The laws of classical mechanics were derived therefore. All reference frames are equally valid. the BohmBell-Aspect nonlocality. The death of the idea of an absolutely non-moving privileged reference frame gave birth to Einstein’s Special Relativity. the Principles of Quantum Uncertainty and Complementarity of the Quantum Theory. along with Planck’s and Einstein’s discovery of the quantum nature of light. consciousness studies. and the new physics of the zero-point energy field (the quantum vacuum) have set the epistemological stage for a Twenty-first Century integral noetic revolution in religion. science and culture that is an incipient rapprochement of science and spirituality.). Only the great depth of our ultimately subjective source (the emptiness of Tao) is changeless and still. not even the earth is privileged. The ancient theory of the ether provided such and ad hoc solution. Then. accurately describe interactions in the realm of the very small—the microworld of particle physics—in the macro realm of the very large. It got us to the moon and back. 35 . constant change. and in the realm of the very dense—quasars and black holes. recent advances in the cosmology of the ocillating metaverse. not accelerated motion. Classical mechanics had no foundation! What was needed theoretically was something which was absolutely still to provide an inertial co-ordinate system or frame of reference in which the laws of mechanics are valid. and through which light propagates.motion (constant velocity) relative to “A. fields and objects in the universe move. in 1887 the “null result” of the Michelson-Morley experiment “disproved” the ether theory (although Einstein thought that it was salvageable). Do the cognitive conceptual limits of the quantum theory and the bivalent logical syntax of language preclude the arising of an atavistic. It does not however. unmoving. and philosophy of mind. Arising light-energy is continuous motion. Unfortunately for classical mechanics. 6 Newtonian mechanics works perfectly well in the mesoworld. The incompleteness of Galilean-Newtonian relativity and Maxwell’s and then Einstein’s new relativistic principle of the absolute velocity of light left a gaping theoretical hole in classical modernist physics which. The bad news for this classical Newtonian mechanics is that the laws of mechanics are not valid for non-uniform inertial reference frames (co-ordinate systems) attached to the earth. semiotic (intersubjective). No reference frame.” Newton’s laws of motion are identical for all reference frames moving in uniform. truth functional logic to describe a nondual ultimately subjective reality. The ultimately subjective emptiness base of reality may be penetrated by the contemplative yogic technologies of our Great Wisdom Tradition (p. from a co-ordinate system which has never been observed. The “luminiferous ether” is a absolutely still.

-Ts’ai-ken t’an Special Relativity: Light Energy is the Wisdom of Emptiness Something lives within you that lives longer than the suns. This nondual non-conceptual. plus the temporal dimension of time. Light-energy is motion. The motion or speed of light (c) is constant. Minkowski and Lorentz developed what was published by Einstein in 1905 as “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and became known as the Special Theory of Relativity whose postulates unified the four fundamental realities—space. the discovery of quantum non-locality— quantum entanglement—is the ultimate unifying theory in the history of science. -Chandogya Upanishad Special Relativity. there is a luminous emptiness. The laws of physics—the laws of nature—are the same in all inertial reference systems. is invariant (absolute) in all inertial reference systems. . stillness. There is no reference frame or system in which light is at rest. This radical Principle of Relativity—this “affront to common sense” (London Times)—established a new paradigm in science and philosophy that transcended. It abides at the place in the heart. the fundamental principle of relativity.e. the dreams that stuff is made of. a vast openness inherent in this movement of energy as it arises from its infinite “supreme source” as finite spacetime phenomena. the three dimensions or co-ordinates of space. 36 . Einstein. yet included the previous Newtonian scientific paradigm. The Tao that can be named is not the true Tao.According to quantum physicist Henry Stapp. invariant. 2007). always the same when measured in relative motion. Einstein accepted Minkowski’s four dimensional spacetime continuum. And it is this nondual knowing—primordial wisdom/gnosis/jnana—that is the primary truth of our perennial Great Wisdom Tradition. And this postulate is derived from Einstein’s first postulate. The speed of light cannot be relative. energy—in a left-brain. noetic cognition (noetos) is present to human contemplative understanding (Begley. it is absolute in all sensoryperceptual frames of reference. Yet. i. matter. The uncertainty relations of the Quantum Theory is the veil of maya to our merely discursive conceptual knowing of the ultimate nature of Reality. It is present at both the microphysical and cosmological dimensions of the unbounded whole of Reality Itself.Tao te Ching The stillness in the Tao is not the true stillness. time. that the laws of physics—the laws of mechanics and the laws of electromagnetism—must be the same for any observer in any reference frame anywhere in the physical cosmos. It is stillness in motion that is the Tao that pervades heaven and earth. exoteric scientificphilosophical model. Einstein preferred the name “Theory of Invariants” for the new principle because the second of the two basic postulates of Special Relativity asserts that the spacetime separation of two “spacelike” events (events connected by a light signal) is the same.

not just Newton’s laws of mechanics. These two aspects of ultimately subjective Reality Itself are the “Two Truths” of our perennial Great Wisdom Tradition. will not be simultaneous in all frames of reference.43). the light source. the same for all observers. Paradoxically. The end of time. which is absolute or invariant. but is merely a creative conventionally reified dependent array of causes and conditions. Two observers in relative motion to one another see the others’ clock “run slow” with no contradiction. Special Relativity has demonstrated (not proven) in a left-brain verbal-analytic modality (relative truth) the Primordial Wisdom truth that the inherent nature of all arising relative phenomena is light energy. Of the great unbounded whole of appearing reality. present and future are absent any absolute reality. light disregards the (Lorentz) transformation laws of classical mechanics altogether. arising from an infinitely vast “causal nexus. Time is dependent upon a particular reference frame. apart from the relative operations of the mind. by intersubjective convention and conceptual designation. but probabilistic. And all of this is relative to 37 . Time has no essential independent or absolute reality. it has no independent existence. entropy may increase or decrease. in 1915 Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity would generalize his Special Relativity to include accelerated reference systems. are relative to the motion or velocity of light ( c). Human reference systems or frames of reference are perceptually and conceptually fabricated relative spacetime constructions of the consciousness—the cognition—of the perceiving subject. Later. and of direction. and thereby define a new gravity (p. Nomically. Simultaneity is relative (cf. We can do the same mathematics and physics anywhere in the physical cosmos. position. Past. Therefore. And this resulted in the constancy of the velocity of light (c). relative spacetime reality.” Time exists only relatively. According to our Great Wisdom Tradition. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is not deterministic. The privileged reference frame of Maxwell’s “luminiferous ether” is denied. a thinking-conceptual mind. the fundamental nature of kosmos (ultimate reality) and cosmos (physical and mental reality arising therefrom) is empty. Events that occur simultaneously at separate locations in one frame of reference. This postulate generalizes the Galilean/Newtonian relativity principle to include Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism (but not gravity). Temporal relations are not absolute. Indeed. the forward flow of time—the thermodynamic “arrow of time”—is illusory. Thus. the reference system of “the observer” (believer) is not privileged. there exist sentient beings whose perception or consciousness of systems of reference regarding the energy-motion of objects arising in the spacetime therein that reality.38). and relative mind (“Small Mind”) arising therein. That is. Thus Boltzmann’s temporal asymmetry: the laws of mechanics do not preclude the arrow of time from moving in either direction. Let us then further explore this radical kosmic relationship.” not even ours on the earth. Newton’s absolute. In Special Relativity. our primordial sourceground by whatever name. changeless and absolute.No observer’s reference frame is privileged or “special. it is through the operations of mind that we reify. all reference frames are equally privileged. Linear causality is kaput. designate and construct our local. and do not exist a priori in nature. There is nothing that causes entropy to increase. one directional time is refuted. But the mental and physical phenomenal particulars arising and filling the world with light arise in and are relative to that great unbroken whole. and time. We have absolute mind (“Big Mind”). Time is relative. Kant understood this a hundred years before Einstein. p.

No consciousness.” the instantaneous. The force of gravity was included by Einstein in the General Theory of Relativity (1915) and applies to all observers whether in uniform interial motion or accelerated motion. and of gravity. Spacetime is curved by local matter and energy. Special Relativity (1905) is “special” because it applies only for inertial systems in which gravitational forces (acceleration) are not present. time. Again. So. What may appear to an observer relative to the reference frame of the earth as twenty-five years. Both relativity theories assert classical realist “locality. systems that move in uniform. Therefore. Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance. no arising appearing reality. Yet this matrix source may be recognized. an observer in each reference frame will perceive the motion differently. Indeed. Both of Einstein’s relativity theories are classical theories in that they are incompatible with the post-classical Uncertainty Principle of the Quantum Theory. A most amazing paradox. superluminal (faster than light) propagation of light. (More on this in the Quantum Theory below. Neither relativity theory addresses the problem of non-locality. Both observers are 38 . i. gravity is nothing more than the curvature of spacetime. a universal constant. not accelerated motion relative to one another. plus 10 mph. but a local result of gravity in curved spacetime. non-causal nature of hitherto “objective” appearing reality (p. the zen of spacetime. This is known as a classical (Lorentz) transformation. a geometric generalization of Special Relativity that includes Galileo’s and Newton's classical theory as a limiting case.59ff). by definition. no classical theory can. this ultimately subjective source of objective light-energy-mass of the E=mc2 equation. But two critical Newtonian relations. no phenomena. the same for observers in both frames.49).” that no signal can propagate faster than the velocity of light. What is relative is the spacetime arising appearances to a perceiving consciousness. Alain Aspect and many others have confirmed this paradoxical non-local. the velocity of light and the universality of the laws of physics have been “absolutized. superluminal connectedness (quantum entanglement) of quantum reality. and are relative to that reference frame.the subjective Absolute in whom arises objective light-energy-motion whose velocity in the Quantum Vacuum is absolute. Definitive theorems and experiments by John Bell. some of the relations which deterministic Galilean-Newtonian mechanics had held to be invariant or absolute—spatial distance. the essence of General Relativity.) General Relativity. explain the mysterious nonlocal. Therefore. No conscious observer. (Classical Galilean. Einstein assumed that the speed of light (c) moving between the two reference frames was constant. Einstein’s Principle of Equivalence. Appearing phenomena are dependent on the state of motion of the observer.” Therefore it is a mistake to assert that Special Relativity claims everything to be relative. Newtonian and Einsteinian relativity limit particle interactions to the speed of light). The General Theory— arguably the greatest intellectual accomplishment in human history—is a speculative theory of gravity. subsumed accelerated motion under gravitation making gravity not a force acting at a distance as Newton would have it. ipso facto beyond physics—metaphysics—and is therefore not objectively knowable to the conceptual mind. A person running down the aisle of a train appears to be moving at the speed of the train. the velocity of an object in motion can be determined only relative to the consciousness of an observer. mass—have been relativized. may appear to an observer moving at near the speed of light as one year (the “twins paradox”). that is.e. by whatever name is. then subjectively realized by a trained contemplative consciousness (p. As we have seen.

but also to thermal. neither created nor destroyed.simultaneity is relative. The great mind of Isaac Newton anticipated this truth in his Optiks when he asked. (The classical mind reifys absolute entities and does not discern quantum event moments arising from the process of reciprocal cognitive coupling of observer and that observed. This notion leads to the paradoxical result of time dilation. Time interval between two events is relative to the motion of an observer. 39 . only the astonishing syncretic genius of Aristotle would compare.) But this view did not hold up to Special Relativity and was therefore. The second balance principle is the principle of the conservation of mass. Throughout the conversions. transcended and included in the principle of the conservation of energy which had. time is not absolute. developed by Einstein between 1905 and 1907 when he published it. This paradigm shift creates an entirely different conception of mass than that produced by the “web of belief” of Newton.”Moving clocks run slow.” The great contemplative minds of the Buddhas and Mahasiddhas notwithstanding. as Einstein put it. this famous equation—E=mc2—was actually a footnote to Special Relativity. “which reference frame is really correct. chemical and electromagnetic energy. So now mass (matter) and energy are equivalent as mass-energy. combustion converts stored chemical energy into thermal energy which may in turn be converted to kinetic energy to run a generator which produces the electrical energy that lights our homes. Actually moving clocks do not really run slow. that is. Energy is conserved through all possible changes. energy is conserved. to be sure. yet only a few months will have passed in the reference frame of the space traveller. We have seen in the “twins paradox” that a space traveller moving at near the velocity of light (c) would be away for many earth years. Galilean/Leibnizian/Newtonian relativity is the principle of the conservation of energy. E=mc2. Just so. A most amazing paradox. at the velocity of light. mass appeared to classical theorists to be the essential. that is. Remember. No reference frame is privileged. mass and energy are not separate but constitute mass-energy. which states that arising primordial energy cannot be created or destroyed. only changed in form. invariant or absolute quality of matter. Primordial light energy arising from its utterly ineffable source is always conserved. that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content. as space and time are not separate but constitute the continuum of spacetime. we cannot ask. “Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another. its mass becomes infinite.” Clocks moving at the speed of light stop. Einstein later developed this hypothesis into his famous E=mc2 .correct! There can be no privileged reference frame which is really correct. Another result of Special Relativity is that the mass of a body in motion increases with its velocity until. Again. a fabulous result. The first of what Einstein termed the two “balance principles” of classical. Synchronized clocks of any two observers in different reference frames will read differently. energy is liberated matter. but relative. (A moving clock does not run slower or stop compared to the clock of an observer at rest. not even yours). Classical physicists extended the first of these principles to include not only mechanical energy. “previously swallowed up” the other energy fields. to all physical fields.” Hume referred to this greatest of all intellects as “the greatest and rarest that ever arose for the ornament and instruction of the species. Again. Regarding the second principle. Thus. Mass is solidified energy. For example. A third clock must be used.

Einstein explains simply (1952): The mass of a body is the measure of its energy content.the spontaneously arising play of this energy .So. ch’i) arising from vast primordial emptiness/matrix/ sourceground. (gross. E=mc2 demonstrates that all matter. a huge number. but an atemporal. the “supreme source” (kunjed gyalpo. The most profound example of the equivalence of energy and mass is “pair production. self-perfected state. shakti. thermal. if the energy changes by L. causal... pneuma. 1999 E=mc2. continuous emanation. which make up . the physical cosmos is not simply a linear. This occurs in particle accelerators. Spirit). Mind. all of material reality is actually light-energy (prana. and “c2 “ is the velocity of light squared (multiplied by itself). of all-inclusive Kosmos. the state of Dzogchen..may be enjoyed as such by an individual who remains integrated with his or her essential inherent condition. This equation represents the mathematical formula for the conversion of mass (matter) to energy that occurs in the nuclear reactions of stars.the whole material dimension . subtle. “m” is mass (quantity of matter). between the vexing modernist dualism of the Cartesian/Newtonian objective worldview.to produce the elements themselves. there is enormous energy contained in the smallest bit of matter. the Primordial Emptiness. 40 . chemical and electromagnetic. material chain of cause and effect from the “Big Bang” (“First Cause”) to the present. Tantras and many other teachings of our Great Wisdom Tradition have told from the very beginning.” the pair creation of particles of matter and antimatter arising from the Quantum Vacuum that is the pure primordial energy base of the physical cosmos. and the inherent subjectivity of the quantum and Buddhist worldviews. From this urgent synthesis now arises the incipient integral world reformation of the TwentyFirst Century that is the very foundation of the emerging Noetic Revolution. E=mc2 is the mathematical formulation of the Theory of Special Relativity to express the fundamental equivalence of matter and energy. in the self-liberating. Therefore.. the mass changes in the same sense by L/9x1020. Brahman of our Great Wisdom Tradition. along with the inherent emptiness of such matter in the Quantum Theory. and the mass in grams. lung. According to Tibetan Dzogchen scholar and meditation master Chögyal Namkhai Norbu: It is the inherent nature of the primordial state to manifest as light. objectification or solidification of light-energy from its great timeless. but to all energy transformations.. physics and metaphysics. The E=mc2 equation applies not just to nuclear reactions. the energy being measured in ergs. nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs. But first. which in turn manifests as the five colors. ultimately or perfectly subjective. The wisdom of emptiness. with its light energy (motion matter). cittadhatu). nondual aspects of the reality demensions of Body. utterly ineffable base or source. where “E” is energy. manifestation. -Chögyal Namkhai Norbu. has bridged the gap. between space and time. just as the Vedas. Tao. On the account of our Great Tradition then.. the Quantum Revolution. the essences of the elements .. black holes and the Big Bangs that create the many universes of the oscillating “Metaverse” (Multiverse).. analogically.

-William Earle Then.all require reinterpretation. German theoretical physicist Max Planck made a world shattering discovery. matter and spirit. Transcending his objectivist predilections. the “ultraviolet catastrophe” struck the great theoretical estate that was the Modernist objectivist worldview. . But the Copernican Revolution quantified. and that it is somehow separate from the mental and spiritual dimensions of our nature. and Plato all speculated. Hebrew. and Eastern wisdom traditions was sacked in a zealous Apollonian objectivist quest to measure and quantify everything. suddenly and without warning. Hindu and Chinese traditions as well as indigenous shamanism. Time.The Quantum Revolution The progress of science has now reached a turning point. not in a continuous wave of electromagnetic energy as Thomas Young’s wave theory (1801) 41 . . an Aristotelian strategy to “save the appearances” from the spectre of Platonic and Neoplatonist transcendence. no science. The primordial unity of the knowing subjective observer-perceiver and the apparently separate perceived object was thereby formally split into the duality of observer and that “other” object observed. were all based upon speculative subjective metaphysical systems with no organized objective methodology. the Hindus. . Ptolemy. Western science and philosophy have assumed—without empirical proof—the metaphysical presumption that all appearing reality is only physical (monistic Physicalism or Materialism). In 1900. appearance and reality. By 1900 it was commonly assumed that the whole of appearing reality could be neatly reduced to little purely physical subatomic billiard balls whose behavior could be perfectly described and deterministically predicted by the sovereign classical mechanics of Sir Isaac Newton. Planck correctly formulated the mathematical description of ultraviolet radiation emitted from a perfect “black body” absorber proving that energy was absorbed and emitted. Plotinus and Nagarjuna speculated. This represents an absolute epistemological dualism of subject and object. space. From about 1600.” -Albert North Whitehead (1967) Prelude: It’s only physical. Prior to the 16th and 17th century discoveries of Copernicus. . all the way into subatomic particles (plus charges and minus charges). Hebrew Kabbalistic. the presumed ultimate constituents of phenomenal reality. matter . the Buddhists. The stable foundations of physics have broken up. Roman Cynics and Stoics. unity and mystical and spiritual subjectivism. observer and data. Aristotle. The Taoists. The history of Western science and philosophy since has been an objectivist/rationalist epistemological quest for the grail of absolute objective certainty. The Ultraviolet Catastrophe Only the whole is completely objective. humanity’s worldview was essentially subjective. classified and qualified. Kepler and Galileo. The early Greek. The great contemplative subjectivist knowledge paradigm that included the Greek Hermetic.

The theorem is E=hf where E is atomic vibrational energy. epistemology. Galileo. but smooth and continuous. However. billiard ball theory of Aristotelian and modernist atomic continuity required. Upon measurement. namely Planck’s Constant (h). could both be explained by his new “quantum of action.” All submicroscopic phenomena—including not only photons. light behaves like a pointlike particle. This fundamental “graininess” of all physical reality has profound implications for the development of microphysics. but at the atomic level as well. Niels Bohr replaced the Rutherford atomic model with his own. p. which explained the other two nails in the coffin of Newtonian mechanics. But how can a point-like particle be a wave spread out in space? Before a measurement. Planck’s great discovery became the foundation of the new. nondeterminist and non-objectivist Quantum Field Theory. and h is the new constant (10-33) a minuscule quantity of measure of the microphysical graininess of the physical cosmos. but electrons—exhibit such quantization.” This discovery is nothing less than a new constant of nature. by 1925 the dual wave-particle nature of light was firmly established in modern and contemporary physics. a paradox that collapsed the old classical physics of Aristotle. Galileo and Newton. the photoelectric effect. post-classical. In the first decade of the Twentieth Century. If this tiny constant were zero the universe would be not granular. cosmology. Newton’s theory of light was also a particle theory. wave or particle? The western logical canon states as its Law of Excluded Middle that “Either A or not-A” (contradictories cannot both be false). for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921.69) Well. So which is it? Bohr’s Principle of Complementarity of the Quantum Theory replies that it is both. Thus the behavior of light is not contradictory. As noted above. Again. recent particle physics is trending toward a wave theory of light (footnote 12. light is wavelike and demonstrates wave interference. Thus. and metaphysical ontology. in 1924 Prince Louis de Broglie proved that such quantization obtains not only at the subatomic level. Thus energy or light was proven to be both particle-like and wave-like. 7 Planck demonstrated that both the “ultraviolet catastrophe.7 Yet particles in motion also need Young’s related wave motion to fully describe their subatomic behavior.” that the atomic vibrational energy of a photon is quantizied arising in multiples of discrete “wave packets. the continuity of Aristotle. and the problem of discreet atomic spectral emissions.” which he named “quanta. nor in a continuous stream of individual atoms as the classical. postmodern. Descartes and Newton. double-slit experiment in 1801. But by 1925 it was clear that the strict determinism of classical Newtonian mechanics was inadequate to explain the apparent dual wave/particle nature of light. Physics just gets weirder and weirder. In 1905—the prolific year he developed and published the Special Theory of Relativity— Einstein firmly established the particle-photon nature of light using it to explain the photoelectric effect. f is frequency.required. Indeed. namely the hitherto dubious physical existence of the atom. which is it. to fully understand the behavior of light we need both wave and particle descriptions and equations. but in a discontinuous emission of photons as discrete particle-like energy “packets. 42 . and won him the Nobel Prize in 1918.” and another nail in the coffin of Newtonian physics. it’s complementary. Thomas Young had previously established the wave-like nature of light with his ingenious.

He expressed to his friend and colleague Max Born in 1948. Newtonian Modernist Enlightenment worldview. in 1905 Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity. Particles are no longer separate. This exoteric truth of the timeless (not eternal) subjectivity of consciousness is the analog (but not reducible to) the right brain esoteric truth of our nondual primordial Great Wisdom Tradition: Tat tvam asi (That thou art). and 2500 years of deterministic epistemological and ontological materialist and realist dualistic separation of relative appearances from ultimate reality. mind and body. of perceiving/ knowing subject and its separate perceived object. -Anon. and the objectivist linear Principle of Causality of the classical. p. and with it the epistemological dualism of appearance and reality. “If one abandons the assumption that what exists in different parts of space has its own. “It is the theory which decides what we can observe” (Einstein). acts of empirical observation and cognition. absolute space. These great discoveries led in 1926 to Max Born and Erwin Schrödinger’s 1926 ingenious wave equation and the development of Wave Mechanics where the electron becomes a probability wave. Continuing our very brief history of time. objectivist physics with its objective linear—directional and durational—arrow of time. Werner Heisenberg’s 1927 formulation of Matrix Mechanics (a particle mechanics) with its catastrophic (to classical dualistic subject-object determinist objectivism) Uncertainty Principle (the Principle of Indeterminacy) led to Niels Bohr’s Principle of Complementarity. material realist. then I simply cannot see what it is that physics is meant to describe. Observer and observed are no longer separate. and Plotinus in the West. The end of time. This duality is the behavior of matter (the position and momentum of its ultimate particles).Being and Time Time is nature’s way of preventing everything from happening at once. and its physical constitution (light wave or particle?) Thus ended 400 years of classical and modernist. Heisenberg’s post-classical Quantum Theory expresses the left-brain exoteric philosophical truth that the observing subject and the object observed arise not separately in time. Einstein’s classical Special and General Relativity assume that Aristotle’s uncoupled absolutes of time and space are the spacetime continuum. and the attendant ontological dualism of spirit and matter. of spacetime matter from the immediate now of its timeless Spirit Source. That is our 43 . the theoretical unity of time and space (cf. but as a timeless atemporal relationship of interdependence (Buddhist pratitya samutpada or Interbeing) through acts or processes of consciousness. independent.37). as we shall see. that is to say. All of this made Albert Einstein very unhappy. Spiritual practitioner and nondual godhead are no longer separate. real existence.” The Quantum Revolution has now firmly established the urgency of the new global nondual Noetic Revolution that began with the great Second Century sages Nagarjuna in the East. Together these two quantum mechanical principles comprise the “Copenhagen Interpretation” of the Quantum Field Theory which demonstrates an inherent duality and atemporal subjectivity at the very heart of physical reality. “Subject and object are only one” (Schrödinger). In 1924 de Broglie discovered that matter has a wavelike character. and in 1915 his General Theory of Relativity. These two great principles of the Quantum Theory have effectively demolished foundationalist epistemological and scientific Realism: absolute time.

” Time is “in here. the non-relativized absolute objective time of classical mechanics—from Aristotle to Newton—is a logocentric “false absolute. So our objective experience of time is not definitive. Thus emerges the Twenty-first Century new reformation in religion. or unrelated to relative. We perceive such objects in what appears to be an external objective linear time. within the interval/bardo of this subjective now of the present moment lives the infinite/eternal Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis.“supreme identity. Remembering the paradigmatic “Two Truths” of nondual ultimate Reality Itself we’ve seen that the present experience of spacetime reality in our mindstream. Thus our ontology of interdependence has an objective cause and effect relative-conventional level. but lives in a relation of interdependence with it. in the present moment of our internal memory and imagination. Thus. vast expanse of the atemporal unbroken whole. conventionally arising phenomenal particulars. and methodological pluralism. usually unrealized state of being (turiyatita) that is the already present immediate. science and culture—our new Noetic Revolution. According to our Great Wisdom Tradition—including Quantum Field Theory and its scientific and philosophical descendants—the subjective observer is not separate from the object observed. a potential. of changeless Being Itself always in process of becoming. Thus the Quantum Revolution effectively ended the Modernist. This fourth time. beyond the foundationalist false absolute—materialism—of the Western metaphysical tradition. although 2 44 .9). dwelling and decay of phenomenal appearance to a sentient nervous system. the past and the future necessarily occur now. Einstein’s Special Relativity and our Great Wisdom Tradition agree: contrary to Galileo’s and Newton’s classical mechanics. here and now and nowhere else. ontological relativity (p. jñana/yeshe) of the “fourth time” (turiya). rationalist Enlightenment Project and began the postmodern age that is now yielding to post-critical. direct atemporal subjective level (the Two Truths).” the secret place where the outshining luminosity (abhasa) of the primordial clear light (prabhasa) arises and enters in. a sensory-conceptual superimposition upon this vast perfectly subjective timeless process of change.” in the mind of the beholder. is an emptiness of perceiver and perceived. to present to future (as codified in the second law of thermodynamics—entropy increases). Why? Events in time are perceptually and conceptually constituted or constructed only in relation to the process of change—relative motion—experienced by a sentient bodymind located in an objective relative-conventional spacetime reference frame (t= vt = vc x L = Lv). there can be no objective. timeless nondual witness presence (christos. Now is the time. Yet. Time—our sense of time—is then. and esoteric Christianity’s “upper room.” So time is no longer “out there. and a subtler. vidya/rigpa) of the infinite expanse of Spirit that we always already actually are. But where in here is it? According to Vedanta and Buddhist Middle Way wisdom.” is then subjective. as this “eternal present. unconceived. I have termed this Ontological Interdependence. post-metaphysical integral holism.” That is who we actually are. the moment now. the “supreme source” (cittadhatu) in whom we all arise and participate. universal or absolute time independent of. This is Tibetan Buddhism’s ozel ling. Change is c c c the moment-to-moment causal arising. Time. So it is told by the masters of our Great Tradition. Parmenedes and Heraclitus together at last. atman. We’ve seen that this conventional “arrow of time” moves in a causal chain of quantum event moments (vasana) from past. We are not ultimately separate from this great.

Is Aristotle’s syllogistic logic the last word? In this purely deductive logic. a context or ultimate causal matrix of radical. but are logically deduced from the definition of contradictories as stated in the 45 .” and not something other. Implications of this astonishing result for the realist-idealist duality. and a wave spread out in space. tendrel). separate. All relative spacetime relationships among events and beings are fundamentally. namely the Law of Contradiction. woman and man. the Pleroma (fullness) of the still silence. The Tempest). becoming and being.objectively “real” by our conventional conceptual designations. This vast fullness/depth is also the womb-source of our Great Goddess Mother. clarity of the “sky-like” non-dual or transcendent Primordial Awareness Wisdom. all the apparent binary dualities of relative-conditional contingent existence in time are already a timeless perfectly subjective prior unity! The two complementary streams of any binary—of all conventional dualistic reality—meet and merge in radically open emptiness (shunyata). -Zen Pith Neils Bohr’s Fundamental Principle of Complementarity that yields the wave-particle duality of the Copenhagen Interpretation of the Quantum Theory appears to violate two of Aristotle’s three “Laws of Thought. and our little life is rounded with a sleep” (Shakespeare. mutually interdependent. If an object is A. timeless. the freedomdeterminism duality. situated together in Relationship (hetu. Let us now explore this noetic logic of reality. is merely heuristic and “merely metaphorical” (Goethe)—it has no independent. coemergent. Whether it is the Law of Excluded Middle or the Distributive Law that is violated. God and humanity. this untidy “quantum measurement problem” is only a problem if one insists on the primacy of the Western Logical Canon. perfectly subjective primordial openness/emptiness (not nihilistic. atheistic nothingness). prior to a measurement that “collapses the wave function” the electron is in two places at once! In other words the electron is both A and not-A. and the Law of the Excluded Middle.values. and whether or not Bohr’s Principle of Complementarity saves the Excluded Middle. Waves and particles are distinct objective entities. “A is A. coextensive and interconnected. the Law of Contradiction and the Law of Excluded Middle are not apriori true assumptions. This proposition represents the essential ambiguity of quantum mechanical logic and ostensibly violates the law of Excluded Middle. Post-Quantum Logic: West Meets East Open mouth. and for an integral noetic epistemology and science are profound: appearance and reality. ineffable feminine principle. Nirguna Brahman. in quantum mechanics. a particle—an electron—may exist in an ineffable “super position. Tao. The Law of Excluded Middle—”either A or not-A” (contradictories cannot both be false)—is also violated because light must be either a particle or a wave. objective existence.) The Law of Contradiction—”Not both A and Not-A (A cannot be not-A) or contradictories cannot both be true—is violated because light cannot be both a point-like particle. self and other. the “hard problem” of the mind-body relation. (Aristotle’s first law is the “Law of Identity. Moreover. form and emptiness. already a mistake. + and .” that is. it cannot also be B. the Gnostic Depth (Bathos). infinite. subject and object. but not both.” the foundational laws of Western logic and mathematics. “We are such stuff as dreams are made on.

the existence of anything at all. yin and yang that is the very light that creates the five elements (wu-hsing) from which evolve all of material spacetime reality. even deductive logic is conventional and cannot be a path to objective certainty. both a point-like particle (after a measurement). with this urgent logical enrichment. as Quine and Duhem have shown. This law is replaced with the unifying Law of Connection. semiotic semantics. bipolar view of reality that logically excludes the holism of both A and not A? This dichotomous. But in the Eastern logical canon the truth of a statement is not logically equivalent to the falsity of its contradictory. Neils Bohr’s coat of arms was the tai chi—the yin-yang symbol that outpictures the primordial emptiness ground (Wu) of Ultimate Reality (Tao) in whom arises these two primordial energies. This dialectic of the Tao of emptiness includes both ”is and is not. “Both A and not-A. from this fearful habitual quest for the totemic. primordial light is. Frege and Russell—thereby revealing the ontologically prior. supreme source that is “the stillness in motion that pervades heaven and earth. logocentric idol of absolute objective certainty—the limit of the logical syntax of language—to an atavistic. and its complementary. is in principle compatible with the Law of Connection—both A and not-A. is truly wu-wei” (Lao Tzu). “Neither A nor not-A.” “The wu-wei that does not aim at wu-wei. and a wave spread out in space (before a measurement). wayless non-seeking conceptual surrender. science and culture—and we’re not even aware of it! Let us monitor—moment to moment in our mindstream— this logical pretense to knowledge.” (“Everything is connected with all other things”).” “both/and.Law of Contradiction itself. So. all things spontaneously and effortlessly (te) as wu-wei (aporia). without contradiction. entirely bound by the logical syntax of this binary purely deductive.” These two together permit the ontological interdependence. without contradiction. flowing return (fu) again to the light. always present unity of the perennial Two Truths that is the one great truth that must be included in any theory of ontological or universal relativity. Tao/emptiness is the interdependent arising (pratitya samutpada) of all phenomena. This Law of Connection defies the Western logical orthodoxy—the great legacy of Aristotle. permits a unified. Is the human mind then. or may be. this pernicious. von Pauler) deny Aristotle’s Western Law of Excluded Middle. even a meditative contemplative integral understanding where the “modal mismatch“ of mathematical logical necessity and the radical contingency of the Quantum Theory and Buddhist Dzogchen are subsumed in their interdependent ontic prior unity? Both Hindu and Buddhist logicians in the East. the non-separateness of all arising phenomena—the “Interbeing” of Buddhist “dependent arising” (pratitya samutpada)—and do not assume or presuppose the existence of A. Thus. black and white mode of thinking.” The wave-particle duality of the Quantum Theory then. and the European Intuitionists (Brouwer. and in any “theory of everything. that is. How do we move then. 46 . East/West logic that allows.” both being and non-being. our fundamental Principle of Ontological Interdependence upon which turns the new post-material.” “both A and not A. merely two valued truth-functional logic? Are we forever yoked to a bivalent. as we shall see. Wu-wei. This then. and unconscious intersubjective mythos of dualism has infected the history of ideas in the West—religion. post-metaphysical theories of ontological and universal relativity explored below.

if true. Here. Unfortunately. Such a synthesis will relativize the logocentric idols of General Relativity. and the “Problem of Consciousness” (the problem of subjectivity) are the new clouds on the horizon that portend at Experimental results from Fermilab’s MINOS experiment. or explain away the mystical Dark Matter and Dark Energy (the Cosmological Constant Problem) that together constitute about 96 percent of the known physical universe. String Theory mathematics is in yes.The Great Quantum Debate: Einstein. They appear to have different masses.8 along with Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Perhaps the greatest problem facing theoretical physics today is the incompleteness of the “Standard Model” and its Quantum Theory. This neutrino sector revelation. demonstrates the limits of the Standrd Model and the need of a fundamentally new paradigm in physics. There have been two great revolutions in science.T. especially if there is no cat. By 1980 theoretical physics had established the quantitatively robust Standard Model. It is now the “old paradigm” scientific orthodoxy. non-materialist. on the cusp of the Twenty-first Century we enter the new Noetic Revolution. namely absolute spacetime and absolute locality. the values of which define the properties of particles (their masses and the strengths of the forces). the Copernican Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. candidates cling to epistemological Realism and thus to absolute spacetime and absolute locality. Superstring Theory and Super Gravity. The problem is intimately linked to the lack of a unifying Quantum Gravity that quantizes General Relativity unifying it with the Quantum Theory. It is unable to explain the Quantum Uncertainty Principle and quantum nonlocality (entanglement). Philosophers of physics generally agree that there have been no real breakthroughs since. There is presently a glaring inadequacy of the Standard Model to explain 1) its free constants. and the nonzero mass of the neutrino. and others. mind. Clearly. and a New Ontology It is difficult to locate a black cat in a dark room. inter-paradigm project. the Standard Model and its theoretical quantum gravity candidates. which violates Einstein’s Special Relativity. What is needed is a cognitively courageous theoretical leap from this scientific fundamentalism toward a non-realist. the absolute dynamics of pre-quantum physics is yielding to the interactive dynamics of the interdependent epistemology and ontology of the emerging Noetic Revolution. chaos. The incomplete Standard Model is now in the “scientific crisis” that precedes a “scientific revolution” and a “paradigm shift”. The emerging integral science of matter. which violates the Standard Model’s CPT symmetry of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory. -Confucius Prelude: Physics in trouble. the establishment of a science of consciousness—the long neglected study of the mind beyond or prior to the brain. indeed all of the G. non-local new physics paradigm. Now. the Standard Model with its quantum mechanical description of nature is in dire need of that next more inclusive theory. 2) the non-zero mass of the nutrino (CPT symmetry violation). yet include its many successes. and the Twentieth Century Quantum Revolution. indicate an asymmetry between neutrinos and antinutrinos. and spirit is an auspicious beginning of this urgent inter-dimensional. Bohr.U. a supreme intellectual achievement. a theory that will transcend its limits. 3) the Higg’s field and 4) the Standard Model’s inability to explain. 8 47 .

the value of the other may be known instantaneously. On this essentialist. independently. Einstein insisted on an epistemologically realist interpretation. Heisenberg. reality must necessarily be only physical. non-instrumental. Schrödinger. “is physics in trouble?” I will here. Thus. The great quantum debate. Bohm—in perennial debate with the nominalist.” asks physicist Lee Smolin. the model that explains nearly nothing about 96 percent of the physical cosmos. The epistemological Scientific Realism of the Hidden Variables interpretation of the Quantum Theory—Einstein. it begs the question—of Physicalism. More on this below. Why must reality be only and ultimately physical? Modern and contemporary physics has resolutely ignored the clues given by the profound stochastic subjectivity of the Quantum Field Theory and Quantum Cosmology. When a measurement is made of one particle of the system. that is. de Broglie.least a radical revision of the Standard Model. that is to say. even “vertical spiritually empirical” phenomena. which corrected yet included the celestial mechanics of Kepler. On the other hand. The “completeness of physics” here assumes without proof—that is. Einstein’s “Inner Realist” required that properties of material objects (1) have an independently “real existence” and (2) all physical effects are local (electromagnetic signals cannot exceed the speed of light). That is to say. the logic of Aristotle. be understood as an incomplete description of physical reality. and Galilean radical objectivity. both Heisenberg and Bohr rejected the foundationalist defences of the realist. “Why. Einstein and the realists claim that it fails to offer a non-statistical. ideological attachment to a foundationalist Material Realist orthodoxy. the dogmatic presumption of monistic Physicalism (Materialism) with its effective denial of subjective. a pair of particles—can separate into two “spacelike” (separated by a light signal) entities moving apart from each other while their quantities (position and momentum) remain a single “entangled” entity. If physicalist physics is a complete explanation of reality. anti-realist Copenhagen Interpretation of the Quantum Theory—Bohr. the Standard Model of physics is incomplete. instrumentalist. 48 . and absolutely nothing about consciousness. again argue that theoretical physics has at last “hit the wall” fabricated by its petrified. which included Galilean Mechanics. the “Problem of Consciousness.” and Buddhist advaitic (nondual) epistemology. essentially real entities just as they appear and are given to us by the medium of our sense perception (the “myth of the given”). Copernicus and Aristotle. the non-physical or metaphysical subjectivity that is Kosmos Itself! That “next more inclusive theory” will transcend yet include the many truths of the Standard Model with its Quantum Theory. intersubjectively fixed for the Western mind by Apollonian measure. The Copenhagen Interpretation allegedly violates this common sense realism of locality in that an individual quantum system—say. representational account the objects appearing to the senses exist as objective. The Quantum Theory must therefore. realist description of the real objective existence of the furniture of spacetime physical reality. there’s an objective observer-independent “real world out there” (RWOT) existing independently from we separate observing subjects with our instruments. the particle pair seem to interact non-locally. mechanistic determinism of both Einstein’s and Newton’s classical physicalist worldview. Born—deny that the Quantum Theory is complete. just as Relativity Theory included Newtonian Mechanics. This is the logocentric metaphysical false idol that is the sinister “myth of the given” with its denial of consciousness. grounded in the metaphysical assumption that the whole of reality is pre-given to the senses as an objective purely physical reality.

after all. but only in an ideal experimental context—was not at all satisfying to Einstein and the naive atomistic Realism of the hidden variables neorealists. stop telling God what to do. Rosen). The EPR argument assumes the “locality assumption”—no particle interaction can be nonlocal—and argues that a measurement can be made that proves that a particle in a correlated quantum system at one location in space cannot be influenced by a measurement of a particle at another location. Thus the cause of determinist scientific Material Realism is furthered. necessarily.superluminally. reality must necessarily be nonlocal. the Material Realism of classical and relativistic physics is disproved.” Einstein further argued that if the Quantum Theory is complete it must apply not only to micro-particles. Further proof argued by Einstein: “God does not play dice with the universe. Lee Smolin argues (New York Review of Books. Well. June 14. that proved that Einstein’s hidden variables are. Einstein’s attempt to “save the appearances”—to salvage the realist “myth of the given”— takes the form of a “thought experiment” challenge to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Bohr and Heisenberg. nonlocal and therefore. Then. that is to say. nominalist Copenhagen School is vindicated. proves. that’s not quite the end of the story. Indeed. but as well to macroscopic phenomena. Let us not foreclose debate just yet. Bell’s Theorem established laboratory experiments—based on the mathematical formalism of”Bell’s inequalities”—wherein the nonlocality of quantum mechanics could be tested and Einstein’s realist interpretation with its locality assumption could be proved or disproved. absurd to conclude that the location of a cat—Schrödinger”s cat. published in 1935. the first particle will have precise simultaneous values as to the particle’s quantities—both position and momentum—a violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. trees and stars. Einstein and the Neorealist atomists are wrong and the holistic anti-realist. Is it not. these experiments were conducted by Alain Aspect.” Bohr responded to this objection of the determinist Einstein to the Copenhagen indeterminist probabilistic view of reality thusly: “Oh Einstein. and later by many others. For the next thirty years the EPR debate chilled. Rather.” a mathematical proof that refutes any model of reality (not just phenomena) that requires the locality assumption. Thickening the plot. Thus. according to EPR. without an experiment to determine a measurement of the particle quantities—position and momentum—the Copenhagen Interpretation holds that the particles are non-existent—not real—a result that Einstein vigorously resisted. in 1964 John Bell published a seminal paper introducing “Bell’s Theorem. any cat—cannot be precisely determined. that is. In the infamous EPR thought experiment (Einstein. Podolsky. cats. instrumentalist anti-realist reply to EPR—that the two-particle quantum system does not exist in reality. not that anti-realist quantum mechanics is false. This conclusion. but that it is incomplete. 2008) that Bell’s experimental result—”Bell’s inequalities”— 49 . it would seem that scientific Material Realism and the anti-realist Quantum Theory are utterly incompatible. via a signal that travels at faster than the speed of light. Such “quantum entanglement” is a violation of the “locality” required by Einstein’s neorealist Special Theory of Relativity. just because its electrons have no precise location? Bohr’s nominalist. That is the current academic and popular “high culture” view. Upon Bell’s untimely death. its description of the particle behavior in the correlated quantum system is not a complete description of the behaviour of the system.

i. Thus Realism necessarily refers us to that ontologically subtler strata of formation—ontologically prior to the purely physical—which lies beyond this essential limit of conceptual understanding. and more completely described by the Transcendental Idealism of the Vedic/ Buddhist tradition. they obey the classical Principle of Special Relativity. Smolin speculates that it is assumption #2. Smolin reminds us that recent experiments in the on-going effort to quantize General Relativity and unify it with the Quantum Field Theory through a more complete and inclusive theory of Quantum Gravity suggest that locality—physical interactions are local.” These are of course. The Quine-Duhem Thesis above p. empiricist. Alain Aspect’s experimental results on Bell’s Theorem ruled out only hidden variables theories that are local. and criticize the stochastic.” (Sounds like Buddhist/Vedanta Idealist metaphysics. For Smolin. thus no particle can exceed the speed of light. will produce that next more inclusive. Rimini and Weber. but not the nonlocal theories above. and the realist Buddhist atomists of the Abidharma. A Super-Duper String Theory that will correct the “problem of infinities” inherent in both theories.” the bizarre nonlocality of quantum connectedness (entanglement) is false. Material Realist theories operate in the epistemic. “There are theories that make the same predictions as quantum mechanics and are fully consistent with Einstein’s notion of realism. epistemologically anti-Realist results of the Copenhagen School as incomplete. unifying realist theory.13). but give up the assumption of locality. These theories give a Material Realist explanation of quantum events.” theories of David Bohm. not superluminal—is a primitive theory that describes quantum behavior arising from a primordial “fundamental reality prior to the spacetime locality of merely physical phenomena. Planck length) and the quantum uncertainty relations. mechanist. without appealing to a quite problematic ad hoc “renormalization” theorem. relative conventionally real spacetime world. de Broglie. Remember. Ghiradi. We have waited twenty-four hundred years for a hidden variable to save Material Realism! The entire edifice of the current world view of Scientific Materialism begs this question of 50 . these are (1) matter has a “real existence” prior to the “wave collapse” resulting from an observation or measurement. and (2) matter’s particle interactions are local. “This assumption can be denied while holding fully to Einstein’s notion of realism.e. nonconceptual realm of Ultimate Truth pointed to by the anti-Realism of the Unified Quantum Vacuum. the “hidden variables.” Thus Smolin’s Neorealistic “attempt to save the appearances” enlists the “special pleading” of the intrepid “hidden variables” argument whose ad hoc variations we may trace back in epistemic time through positivist. Our conceptual understanding is limited by this dimension or modality and cannot penetrate any ineffable ontic Reality that may lie prior to the Planck limit (Planck time. Moreover. The epistemology of Foundational Material Realism—the conceptual realm of Relative Truth—cannot function as an ontological theory of ultimate reality in the subtler. it cannot. materialist/physicalist strategies all the way back to Leucippus and Democritus and the Greek pre-Socratic atomists. that is . “Hope for a miracle.” Alas.) This incompatibility of General Relativity with the present state of the Quantum Field Theory it is assumed. and therefore Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance. Smolin argues. that all particle interactions are mediated by light signals.requires that only one of Einstein’s realist assumptions listed above is incorrect. as per Bell’s inequalities (cf. particle interactions are local—the “locality assumption”—that is incorrect. and recently.

. (H. Begley 2007. greatly inhibited further research. “spooky” void of ultimately subjective Reality Itself. instrumentalist calculations. Any claim for a final theory must be a complete theory of nature. even nascent ontological Idealism of the Copenhagen view points steadily beyond its nominalist. it is clear that with the epistemological failure of Material Realism to provide ontological solace. nonlocal new ontology to explain Smolin’s “unified nature” of arising. the “completeness of physics” and its Quantum Theory begs this question of Physicalism. Penrose 1994. Our weighty Problem of Knowledge—how we know what there is—requires a new noetic ontological approach that transcends algorithmic computational (biomorphic or silicon) decidability and conceptual elaboration. 2008. special pleading of the “hope for a miracle” hidden variable strategy of Reductive Materialism. The brain does not operate like a computer. the metaphysical. Thomas Kuhn would think so. A New Ontology? In any case. deep background ontological reticence to rocking the epistemological boat of the status quo.Lee Smolin. There is no way we can have two theories of nature covering different phenomena. How much longer must we wait? Would it be unfair to assert that this materialist IOU has sold out the Western Tradition from the very beginning? And we’ve all bought it! In any case. Science and its functionalist material realists must become aware of this growing body of scientific literature. post-realist. much less noetic contemplative cognition. apparently unaware that epistemological Material Realism alone is necessarily precluded as an ultimate ontological theory by the conceptual—logical and epistemological—ambiguity barrier of the Planck time (10-33) and the Planck length (10-43). Roger Penrose and others have shown that human conceptual cognition is not computational. It must encompass all we know. Wallace 2007. Perhaps such lettered hubris may best be understood as an unconscious intersubjective. and Scientific Materialism (Scientism) requires a watchful skepticism. Again.” or at least a more inclusive. while the anti-realist.H. these two great physical theories of the twentieth century—General Relativity Theory and the Quantum Theory—require a “final theory. into this great open expanse of “metaphysical” emptiness. spacetime phenomenal reality. In any case. the metaphysical assumption that reality is purely material or physical (Appendix B: The Idols of the Tribe: The Metaphysics of Science). lest we be cast rudely from our verecundiam comfort zone of instrumentalist quantum orthodoxy into that naked. as Smolin points out in his excellent The Trouble With Physics (2006). yet that includes the non-discursive consciousness of the contemplatively trained human subject.” The universe we find ourselves in is interconnected. Eliminative Materialism. the appalling academic suppression of new work on hidden variables—and consciousness and contemplative studies of the Buddhist contemplative cognitive “supernormal”—that dissent from the eristic ethos of the Copenhagen “orthodox ontology” has.Physicalism. Alas. Smolin and other neorealists grasp at this next more inclusive theory. 2006 51 . in that everything interacts with everything else. And this. Dalai Lama 2005.) Nature is in an obvious sense “united. as if one had nothing to do with the other.

at great risk of being cast. The 16th Karmapa). but not necessarily to the highly contemplatively trained mind of the meditation master (Begley. We’ve seen that a purely objectivist. nondual Spirit in whom everything arises. of logical necessity. non-conceptual. “The eye of mind sees everything. non-objective or subjective phenomena that ontologically transcends it. instantiates the psychological truth that we limit our psycho-emotional-spiritual growth and happiness by our preconscious. For this deeper wisdom we must—via contemplative “vertical spiritually empirical” study and practice—leap into the fearful arcanum of the speculative. unfabricated one truth that is luminous nondual Reality Itself. consult the “intellectually lightweight. we enter in the primordial Two Truths. and Ati Dzogchen.” Here we must. a reasonable epistemology in the nominal realm of relative spacetime conventional reality. To penetrate that Upanishadic “Forest of Wisdom” we must find “the light within. Buddhahood—just as Nagarjuna and Plotinus told—still. sudden. once again. non-computational prior unity. Wallace 2007). Such an injunction to venture inside is truly a radical empiricism in the mode of William James.H. non-discursive meditative contemplative leaps into the vast expanse of naked. Let us be clear about this. but cannot see itself” (H. moksha.9 Here.Yes indeed. a primordial urge toward metaphysical knowledge. Our fearful skepticism that there is anything here. into the metaphysical outer darkness. the truth of the epistemological Realism of science and the spacetime reality of Relative Truth. but beyond. but untenable as the ontological ground of a final theory.” “mysterion” primordial wisdom of the ages. While it is true that we utilize the conventional knowledge of the realm of spacetime Relative Truth (samvriti) (objective and subjective reality). realist-physicalist epistemology is necessarily precluded as a method of reaching and explaining such subtle. as it were. Western foundational Material Realism—the Realism that denies the nonlocal nature of quantum reality while clinging to the logocentric absolutes of locality and spacetime—may be the first to go. The mind cannot think itself beyond itself any more than the eye can see itself. in order to gradually accomplish Ultimate Truth (paramartha). conscious and even superconscious attachment to the uncomfortable comfort zones of our conceptual and belief systems. 2007. Mind and body. we remember the paradigmatic incommensurabilty—the duality—of these two conceptual modalities are a prior unity in the utterly non-conceptual. So let us once again. the great nondual wisdom tradition of the Vedic/Buddhist tradition that culminates in relative-conventional spacetime transcendent. contemplative unknown. knowledge of unobservable phenomena and subjective experience. the new Noetic Revolution. It must encompass not only all we know up to Material Realism’s Plank ambiguity limit of conceptual understanding. without tenure. nondual Reality Itself. beyond. So it is told by the masters of our Great Wisdom Tradition. More epistemological and methodological logocentric “idols of the tribe” are sure to fall as we enter our new Noetic Revolution. metaphysical. and the beginning of an inchoate noetic ontolgy. or String Theory. 9 The nondual teaching of the great traditions are no more “mysterion” or metaphysical (beyond physical) than the quantum uncertainty relations. The ultimate nature of reality is an utter mystery to the limited. even brilliant conceptual mind. Once again. Thus ends the Quantum Revolution. Human beings possess an unmistakable innate imprint. or Dark Energy. or the Quantum Vacuum. there must be. enlightenment. 52 . the Great Perfection. forsake empirical representational Material Realism. and the ontological Transcendental Idealism of the Ultimate Truth. spirit and matter are a non-conceptual. utterly nondual Advaita Vedanta.

Can these two hitherto incommensurable knowledge paradigms be integrated? But they were never separate. esoteric (theory). In the uncertainty relations of the Quantum Field Theory this nonduality is expressed as the superposition state—both “is” and “is not”—of the quantum information bits (qubits/vasana) that constitute the elementary particles arising from the Unified Quantum Vacuum that is the quasi-physical matrix of all inclusive kosmos. The perennial Two Truths. -Suzuki Roshi Being Here: The Perennial Mind-Body Problem and The Middle Way The Quantum Revolution is complete. post-mystical nondual one truth. cultural. the Great Perfection with the physics of the Quantum Vacuum of quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology. reason/inference (dianoia). hesed/caris) lifeworld activity. information).our original mind that includes everything within itself. then to explore the pivotal idea of the unity of Buddhist emptiness (shunyata) and “Dependent Origination” (dependent arising. individual. Pretensions to rationality. as this is fundamental to an integral understanding of the relationship of the nondual view of Dzogchen. 53 . that is the essential question of human being (dasein). Bhava) is the alpha and omega of religion and philosophy. Wisdom (sophia. and historical. eka or shunya. Human knowledge is biological. relative and ultimate. contemplative/ mind-spirit understanding (noesis. that are the eternal dialectic between the Material Realism of science (matter). To be or not to be. of human ultimate concern. At the collapse of the quantum wave function during a measurement or a perception this superposition of the nondual being state that is both being and non-being—both one and zero—becomes the apparent—but not actual—duality of either being or non-being. jnana. epinoia). Knowledge develops through three stages: opinion/belief (doxa).” So let us pause a moment to introduce the essential question of human being. secret (knowledge) and innermost secret (nondual primordial wisdom) elements of these four. and the Transcendental Idealism of spirituality are resolved in the prior unity of the post-conceptual. prajna) is knowing the prior unity of the exoteric (facticity. The Standard Model of physics is now undergoing the “scientific crisis” that precedes a “paradigm shift. Our eternal quest for the certainty of being—the classical Problem of Knowledge—quickly becomes the problem of skepticism and nihilism. In the nondual Buddhist view of Dzogchen this perennial duality is transcended in the prior unity of being and not being that is the nondual one truth. sat or asat. but the original essence of mind. This binary equation—is or is not. the classical “mind-body problem” as it arises in both the East and the West. one or zero. Being (Sein. yeshe) with enlightened compassionate (karuna/nyingje. And now we can see it. existence or non-existence—expresses the necessary duality of our relative conventional being in spacetime. This all toward a new integral noetic ontology— Toynbee’s “rising culture”— that furthers the integration of the two paradigms— science and spirit/spirituality that is our ultimate aim. . Liberation/enlightenment is the realization of the prior unity of this primordial nondual wisdom (gnosis. . pratitya samutpada).Toward A Post-Quantum Noetic Ontology Emptiness of mind is not a state of mind.

Is there a middle way between this perennial bivalent. Monistic epistemological Objective Idealism asserts that reality is mental or mind only. Here we have not only a synthesis of Realism and Idealism. asserts that there is a “real world out there” (RWOT) and it is entirely physical. Reality is only mind. spin. Varieties of Buddhist experience. classical foundational Realism—twenty-four hundred foundational years of Aristotle’s physical substance monism—now packaged for world consumption as Scientific Realism and Scientific Materialism (Scientism). This view is opposed by the Buddhist Objective Idealists. “An ontology that requires two radically different forms of reality—one physical. Bradley. physics. And Kant’s Transcendental Subjective Idealism—a duality of objective phenomena and the perfectly subjective unknowable utterly transcendent noumenon—is a Western version of our Primordial Wisdom’s Two Truths. Leibnitz and Locke to pass epistemological muster (the “interaction problem”) Dualism has fallen on hard times. of the nondual ontological view and practice of Ati Dzogchen. Smart). but a profound soteriology—a method of human liberation and ultimate happiness—of the highest possible excellence. With the failure of the mind-body Substance Dualism of Plato (early and middle Dialogues). and the idealist nihilistic negation of it—abides the mean that is the Madhyamaka Prasangika. We are left then with Monism. the very basis. What is urgently needed is an epistemology and ontology that accounts for an ultimate or universal reality in which its particulars (mass. Einstein’s Hidden Variables) with such a middle way. Most Materialists are Reductive Materialists wherein the subjective mental and spiritual phenomena of human consciousness are reduced to objective. charge. Royce—who explain arising material objective reality as diaphanous subjective apparitions (avidya maya) of a perceiving consciousness. Descartes. often assumed the form of the “mind-body problem. according to the Dalai Lama. Between these two extremes—the realist/materialist reification of an absolute and independent physical and mental phenomenal reality.C. the Great Perfection. The Unified Quantum Vacuum is 54 . Aristotle. in both the East and the West.J. the Buddhist Middle Way Consequence School. matter or mind. For the Eastern Mind. Moreover. Idealism is the presiding ontology. Physics has yet to bridge its Nominalism/Realism dichotomy (Bohr’s Quantum Theory vs. waves and particles) arise and participate. the other mental—is quite unbelievable” (J. either physical or mental. with Realism. With the failure of dualism. why monism? The answer lies in unity and economy of explanation. In Buddhism the Abhidharma of Sarvastivada and Vaibhashika Schools argue—with Western functionalist Material Realism—the realist atomistic position wherein reality consists of indivisible physical/material atomic particles that have an ultimately physical. paralyzed by its fear of subjectivity and metaphysics offers no soteriology. believing that reality exists independely and absolutely just as it appears from its own side.” the perennial debate between epistemological Realists and Idealists. bipolar mind-body split? Yes. The creed of monistic Materialism/Physicalism. In the modern and even Postmodern Western Tradition the prevailing scientific and cultural ideology is a fundamentalist. of its own power. Such Realists are essentialists. reality is one substance. objectively real—even absolute and eternal— existence separate or apart from a perceiving mind.Epistemological strategies against these two have. or epiphenomena of merely physical brain states. the Chitamattra or “Mind Only” school—along with Western Objective Idealists—Hegal. purely physical phenomena.

ground or source and abides within itself in a relation of identity. always already present from the very beginning (p. essence or identity independent of related physical and mental causes and conditions. 55 . dependently arising objects of phenomenal reality to the mind are not independent but interdependent (Interbeing).” Again. That is the great nondual realization. perfect (if unrecognized) just as it is. Is there a non-dogmatic reason that a similar interdependent middle way view could not be developed by physics in its transition from realistic materialist/physicalist fundamentalism to a new more inclusive trans-materialist paradigm? For the Buddhist Middle Way then. intrinsically non-separate.science’s inchoate quasi-physical. The Two Truths are one taste. And this all is emptiness. this ultimate. the Nature of Mind is this bright presence. But this reality is merely the nominal contingent relative-conventional reality of the spacetime dimension of Relative Truth.27ff). Emptiness is Dependent Arising. Dependent Arising is emptiness. this paradoxical luminosity of ordinary natural mind. Yes. the numinous consciousness basis—the vast causal nexus—in whom or in which this all arises. The great Nyingma master Mipham Rinpoche teaches that it is the view of this Middle Way Consequence School that is the requisite foundational view for Dzogchen Trekchö (cutting through ego-self) practice (p. Nagarjuna makes it abundantly clear. We need not. they acknowledge Realism by granting an objective existence to appearing reality. The duality of objective and subjective reality—the realm of spacetime Relative Truth—and perfectly subjective mind nature or Ultimate Truth are co-extensive. the contingent. arising phenomenal objects do have an objective reality. However. First. this is the highest or subtlest view of the Buddhist Middle Way. is the view of the Quantum Theory. the Madhyamaka Prasangika the foundation of Ati Dzogchen. like the separate “other” God of the theists. Does this mean that for the Madhyamaka Prasangika and Ati Dzogchen this Ultimate Reality is utterly transcendent and unknowable. So. nonlocal.27ff). interconnected and interdependent nature of appearing reality is conventionally constituted by all dependently arising phenomena (pratitya samutpada/tendrel/nyingpo) from the vast expense of its primordial emptiness base. relative and ultimate.22ff). “There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana” (Garfield 1995). beyond relative spacetime reality? No. This of course. ultimate ground. even metaphysical architecture for such a middle way methodology. indeed we must not try to transcend our ordinary mind of everyday spacetime reality for this natural luminous mind is the very nature of mind. Thus is the Madhyamaka dualism of the Two Truths transcended in its nondual primordial Base (p. This protean reality does not possess —is empty of (shunya)—any intrinsic or essential existence. Matter and mind are co-dependent. In the Vajrayana the foundation of the View—intellectual and contemplative understanding—through the Middle Way Foundational Practice (ngöndro) is absolutely essential to receiving transmission of the Dzogchen Trekcho and the fruitional Togal (direct crossing) teachings of the innermost secret mengagde/upadesha by the Dzogchen master. the nondual view as to Trekcho/Togal is that there is nothing to “cut through” and nothing to “cross over. the Great Perfection. the nondual prior unity of this conceptual dualism. The Prasangikas speak of the Two Truths. one immediate. participating in the unbroken whole that is the one truth. They really are real. Therefore.27). the Great Completion or Perfection (p.

”10 Astonishingly. the spacetime reality of Relative Truth (samvriti satya) is relatively or conventionally real through our reified conventional consciousness imputations and designations. The truth (gnosis/jnana/yeshe) of Primordial Ultimate Consciousness Being Itself (Nirguna Brahman. unequivocally exists! We may doubt everything. for clearly “That I am”—tat tvam ami—in preconscious. the objectivist realist materialist tradition in the West. nondual Being Itself (Interbeing). citta. “I think therefore I am”—the infamous Cartesian Reduction—was intended to refute the nihilism of Skepticism’s doubt that God. Tao. sems nyid) is ontologically prior to the individuated spacetime being-in-form that is our physical and mental support for cognition— attention. but not for the trained contemplative mind. yet there exists that one who doubts. independently. and the Vajrayana Nyingma perfect sphere of Dzogchen. interdependent infinite awareness continuum—by whatever name—is the very source of relative becoming in conditional spacetime reality. splits. transpersonal awareness mindstates (deep sleep. 10 56 . pathologizes or demonizes the subjective reality of the contemplative science. the numinous “I Am” presence. moksha/mukti.” but “I am therefore I think.) For example. I doubt. As we’ve seen. hidden (indirect inferential knowledge. according to our nondual Great Wisdom Tradition. Samsara and nirvana are one and the same (samata). particularly the genius of the Indian mind that produced the great Vedic-Vedanta and Indo-Tibetan Buddhist teachings. Essence precedes existence. therefore I am. cittadhatu. the witness—the indwelling presence of this atavistic Ultimate Reality—is ontologically prior to (transcends yet includes) finite relativeconventional beings that think and reflect. “I am” also when I am not thinking. extremely hidden (subjective spiritual knowledge beyond direct experience and inference for the average consciousness. Ultimate Truth (paramartha satya). Mind Nature. Chandrakirti and Buddhist Madhyamaka epistemology has three classifications of the knowledge of relative conventional phenomenal reality—the realm of Relative Truth: evident (empirical. Indeed. whether or not they realize it. or anything else ultimately exists—the one certain proposition that proves that something— namely the self-aware thinking “I”—most certainly objectively. technology and philosophy of mind of the East. thinking and in dreaming states. cogito ergo sum. prepersonal and super-conscious. while the ultimate nature and source of all empirical spacetime reality is the Madhyamaka luminous emptiness. sems). The one truth that is nondual Buddha cognition (samatajnana) is extremely hidden. our knowledge of Ultimate Truth is hidden. is our bright indwelling actual nature. For the Eastern mind conceptual thought is not the sine qua non of consciousness. whether or not we realize it. That I Am! Cartesian Meditations: The “Hard Problem of Consciousness” and the Nature of Mind Rene Descartes’ dictum. For the Eastern contemplative mind it is not “I think therefore I am. Tat Tvam Ami. And this. just as surely as “I am” in waking. samadhi. There is no difference or separation. reduces. thinking—and its relative-conventional intentional objects and emotional beliefs that are the content of discursive concept-mind (manas. turiya).” Essence precedes existence. feeling. representational knowledge. this perfetcly subjective non-entity that is luminous emptiness is intrinsically aware (rigpa/vidya)! And all beings abide here. the primordial. the “ultimate mode of existing of everything. What “hard problem?” With no science of mind. For the Eastern mind however.—through its infernal taboo of subjectivity—denies.Thus. The realization of this truth is Buddha cognition (samatajnana) that is finally Buddhahood. But in the Middle Way view of the Madhyamaka Prasangika of Nagarjuna. perceiving.

Upanishads and Vedanta. Indeed. abides and passes away. and the nondual view of Shankara’s Advaita Vedanta it is not logically possible to doubt or deny. . rigpa.Adi Da Samraj (1998) The Nature of Mind. Remain awake in the feelingremembrance of the eternally present Divine Being. cittata) that is identical with nondual Spirit Itself. deny or reduce all complex or compound entities and beings. .Tsongkhapa. emotional and physical existence. without contradiction. Concepts about “God” may be doubted. There is then.” the very Gnosis of Light “that lighteth every one that cometh into the world” (Gospel of John). . but not this prior awareness matrix of experience in whom we all appear and participate. vijnana. The doubt or denial of consciousness necessarily requires the very consciousness that is doubted or denied. our reluctance to . and Taoism. right now! How can That (Tat) possibly be doubted? This is the seed of truth in Descartes’ cogito ergo sum. . . obviously. we may doubt. doubted and everything else arises. namely the very awareness or consciousness (chit. Quine’s “web of belief” that is our Great Wisdom Tradition’s nondual Ultimate Spirit. the very nature and sourceground of embodied mind. it is contradictory. This nondual Spirit is the luminous awareness continuum that is Reality Itself. and always an essential wakefulness. if not foolish to deny consciousness. The objects or contents arising in mind and consciousness may be denied. Kham Brahm “The Bright” of the Vedas. pure consciousness of the sourceground primordial awareness of all phenomenal appearance—that presence present in all cognition—that alone cannot be denied. This is the Supreme Source (cittadhatu) of all appearing mental. the very nondual base awareness continuum in whom doubter. God or anything else. The “problem” 57 . . pure primordial awareness (kadag) that suffuses every act of consciousness (lhundrub). but not consciousness itself. the ultimate happiness that cannot be lost. That (Tat/Sat) is the very consciousness of the awareness continuum through which academic philosophers and neuroscientists ponder their “hard problem of consciousness” that is actually this always already present presence. an aware presence or witness to the reflection of the discursive thinking mind that is not reducible to the mere cognitive contents of the mind. That is the Dalai Lama’s “luminous continuity of awareness. . the subjective spirituality—not religion—of the witness presence (vidya. no ultimate “hard problem of consciousness. shespa.” That is vidya. a space of one’s own.become lawfully oriented to infinity . Doubt is simply a reflection of ourselves. Why? Because the mental operation of doubting/denying necessarily participates in that which it denies. atman/saksin) of the very ground (cittadhatu) or basis (gzhi) of the primordial consciousness that is Absolute Spirit—the atman that is Brahman. . That is the “light of Tao that is beyond heaven and earth. Therefore. the Tao that cannot be told. This is the great truth of the Buddhadharma. . Therefore nondual ultimate Spirit. In whom does this doubting. .” There is necessarily. the Sanatanadharma. Absolute Consciousness Being Itself (svabhava) beyond or ontologically prior to our concepts and beliefs about existence. The thought “I think therefore I am” arises as conscious relative-conventional experience within this essential consciousness matrix. but that which is divine and eternal is always perfectly obvious. That is the Real. We all share this same God. thinking “I” or self appear? “In whom does this all arise”? Do you not feel or intuit the presence of a Matrix within which everything is arising? . .

consciousness of a physical or mental object. is our luminous primordial original mind. and everything else appears. Here. at the gross physical energy dimensional limit. Sense and nonsense: the wisdom of uncertainty. C). But here the irony thickens. All acts of consciousness are “intentional. bridging (samadhi/satori) the “explanatory gap” requires subtler lifestage and consciousness dimension (subtle. that nondual Consciousness Being Itself (svabhava). This. adhyasa. without benefit of the yogic. avida-ignorance. Mind Essence. we have seen again and again how the vast expanse of the great consciousness or awareness continuum. war. This is the Buddhist Nature of Mind. in the gloss of contemporary philosophy of mind. dianoiaamnesis. reflecting relative-conditional bodymind. consciousness must be conscious. all states (state processes and operations) of consciousness of our embodied mind—waking. The actual basis or source of morality then. Satan)—is to commit some species of the “reductionist fallacy” and thereby to obscure or “miss the mark” (hamartia-sin) that is our Supreme Source (cittadhatu. Further. is the irreducibility of consciousness. disaggregates and arises again and again. and is a subjective take on Descartes’ objectivist cogito ergo sum. “wisdom goddess” (prajaparamita/nirvakalpa jnana) of pure radiant primordial awareness that is our Supreme Source—Plato’s First Principle and Suzuki Roshi’s Big Mind—is a perfect or ultimate subjectivity that is not reducible to any of its objective qualities or contents. this ultimately subjective consciousness base is the very “theory of everything. exists. embraces yet transcends the Unified Quantum Vacuum that gives rise to the particular consciousness of a perceiving subject dualistically apprehending its intentional object. yet has ideologically precluded through its pathologically rational grasping at absolute objective certainty. Here.” that is. genocide and despair. the contemplative Eastern mind deracinates then expands consciousness to include much more than its objectively conscious contents (kalpana). the luminous emptiness Base (gzhi/kadag) of our thinking. Astonishingly. kunjed gyalpo). the wish fulfilling jewel in whom all of these states and stages can be. despite twenty-five hundred years of material realist epistemic effort. conscious. abides. Its resolution. Contemplative mind includes preconscious sensory attention and superconscious contemplative mindstates as well. To attempt to reduce the ineffable. causal) experience and contemplative training. just as the great transcendental dialecticians—Nagarjuna. However. contemplative technologies of the East. superimpositions and projections of egoic relativeconventional perception and concept-mind (vikshepa-maya. negative emotions (fear/anger/ aggression/ hatred/greed) prevail and our merely rational ethical precepts cannot be kept. Indeed. This reductio ad absurdum argument of Shankara—that the denial of consciousness requires consciousness—is based upon his understanding of Nagarjuna’s dialectic. The result is terror.arises and is perceived conceptually. rational conceptual thought—reason—is the apotheosis of mind and its objects of consciousness. We’ve seen then. deep sleep and the timeless turyia—are necessarily and essentially rooted in this atavistic ontologically interdependent deep background prior primordial awareness continuum that is their very sourceground (App. our inherent indwelling Buddha Nature/Buddha Mind 58 .” the “ultimate organizing principle” that science seeks. consciousness is always directed toward its intentional object. the Base (gzhi) or unbounded whole enfolds. dreaming. Plotinus and Shankara—have always told (Appendix C: The Structures of Consciousness). pure primordial perfectly subjective consciousness Base to its mere objective contents— the theoretically constituted products. For Descartes and the rational Western mind. With this our natural “original mind” missing.

ontology/metaphysics and spiritual wisdom. post-materialist.” including the subtle physicality of the Unified Quantum Vacuum—is subsumed.(samatajnana) that is none other than our ordinary natural mind that is the compassionate wisdom of emptiness. post-analytical ontology to situate and ground its great scientific contributions to the knowledge of our species? Intimations of immortality. we have seen that the legacy of Modernist. and the nominalist. unbounded whole. that the Material Realism (Neorealism) of the Hidden Variables theorists. remembering the “Two Truths” of the post-metaphysical one reality. we see that it is the Supreme Source or Base of Reality that is. those scholars and meditation masters in both the East and the West.) Finally then. the root cause of human evil. as we have seen. This denial becomes thanatos/death.73 “Toward a Secular Ethic of Compassion”. I have argued above. -Suzuki Roshi The Integral Imperative.philosophers. is the essence of mind. often consider the pinnacle of our Great Wisdom Tradition as abiding in the nondual (maha ati) wisdom of Tibetan Buddhist Ati Dzogchen. is the metaconceptual or metacognitive nondual one truth. teachers.” the nihilistic reduction and denial of our perfectly subjective consciousness base. This conceptual unity of the Two Truths then. transcended and embraced in an ontologically prior. The recent lights of this Great Tradition. Alas. (See p. our heart’s desire and the aim of all our seeking. do we surrender to this one great truth? One Truth: The Prior Unity of Quantum Physics and Buddhist Metaphysics That everything is included in your mind. and greater esoteric (secret and innermost secret) texts and commentaries of our Great Wisdom Tradition. anti-realist view of the Copenhagen School of the Quantum Theory—and indeed all of the material reality of the dualistic spacetime dimension of conventional “Relative Truth. To the extent that we keep this recognition—”keep the view” and surrender (wu-wei) to this wisdom of uncertainty (vicikitsa)—to that extent our ethical precepts keep themselves. philosophical and moral questions of our species. to consider what I have called the Integral Imperative: bracket your own paradigm or “web of belief” and review the teaching and injunctions of both Eastern and Western epistemology. quintessential. the Great Perfection. the exoteric. esoteric.” the very grail of objective scientific and philosophical inquiry. How then.” Absolute Spirit. ironically. fundamentalist. Path and Conduct that realizes the one truth that is the bright. perfectly subjective non-eternal. psychologists. the key to a unified subjective-objective “Final Theory of Everything. Might this numinous nondual primordial wisdom yet inform post-quantum physics and cosmology in its quest for a post-realist. nondual ultimate reality—”Ultimate Truth. The outer/exoteric and inner/esoteric understanding—reason/rationality—alone do not reveal the View. This taboo is rooted in the fearful psychospiritual contraction from our primordial life current that is the very ontological Spirit Base of all phenomenal reality arising and appearing through the consciousness of living beings. It is urgently incumbent upon scientists. the very nature of the mind that is our actual “supreme identity” abiding beyond or 59 . and students of religion who presume to engage the great scientific. functionalist Scientism that is the Cartesian-Newtonian objectivist worldview has become the infernal material realist “taboo of subjectivity.

retains a deterministic pessimism. in spite of the indeterminism of the Quantum Theory. not pathology. but qualitative.prior to and as the sourceground. and a literary and philosophical wisdom tradition. the physical emptiness unity of the Zero Point Energy Field—the Unified Quantum Vacuum—as well as our Great Wisdom Tradition’s metaphysical emptiness of all relative spacetime phenomenal reality that is all-embracing sphere of Dzogchen. while Buddhism teaches a promethean optimism as to liberation. We find it beautifully explicated in the wisdom commentaries of Alan Wallace and Ken Wilber. Many are its names” (Rig Veda). subjective positive and compassionate mind states toward the end of realizing the wisdom of emptiness thereby liberating human consciousness from the ignorance (avidya) that results in terrible individual and collective suffering. essence and nature of common discursive mind. We’ve seen that the traditions of our Great Wisdom Tradition agree: this empty and absent. pragmatic and process oriented. empirical. Thomas). physics. yet “always already” present presence of the luminous sourceground abides at the heart of all human beings—that “flower absent from all bouquets” (Mallarme)—the all-embracing sphere of Dzogchen. and in the Neoplatonism of Plotinus and Proclus and in Philo. the Great Perfection. Growing through and beyond such nihilism “is possible only if we identify a new higher order articulating for science and metaphysics a non-dogmatic soteriology” (Bitbol 2003). Chandrakirti (8th Century) and Tsongkhapa (14th Century). contain rigorous systems of logic and education. and we see it fully developed in the Buddhadharma of Buddhist Middle Way Schools. This duality of the Two Truths that are the perfectly subjective nondual one truth is the key to the urgent paradigmatic reconstruction in science that is the challenge of unifying relative “scientific” and ultimate “spiritual” knowledge. Both physics and Buddhist Madhyamaka are epistemologically rational. Buddhist epistemology is empirical and objective in that it emphasizes immediate radically empirical experience through first person “spiritual empirical” introspective reports. We see it in Pythagoras and Plato. We find it in the reluctant panpsychism of leading edge consciousness studies philosopher David Chalmers (1996). particularly the Madhyamaka Prasangika so profoundly elaborated by Nagarjuna (2nd Century). objective. We find intimations of it in Kant’s distinction between phenomena and noumenon. The Buddhist Great Perfection is a likely candidate. science and culture not the great challenge of an urgent new integral noetic ontology? Has this recognition not been the resolution of the perennial problem of the unity of the competing paradigms of objective and subjective knowledge from the very beginning? The dialectic of physics and metaphysics. and in Locke’s “real” and”nominal” essences. We see this wisdom of emptiness as the essence of Ati Dzogchen and Essence Mahamudra of the Nyingma and Kagyu schools. This is the paradoxical truth that makes us happy. Truth is One. Is this urgent nondual recognition of the prior unity of the Two Truths by religion. We have just seen that it arises as the perennial idea of the paradigmatic Two Truths—relative and ultimate—that is the postconceptual liberating nondual one truth of our Great Wisdom Tradition. This radical/nondual noetic ontology is ancient. Alan Wallace points out that both are opposed to dogma. However. It is present in the “Upanishadic Monism” of the Hindu Sanatana Dharma of Advaita (nondual) Vedanta. Buddhist practice emphasizes. naturalistic. Pathology cannot long exist in 60 . Thus for both Buddhism and physics the ontological problem of knowledge of the ultimate nature of reality turns upon this one truth that is at once. and in nondual Greek Hermetic and Coptic Gnostic Christian texts and praxis (Valentinus.

the continued presence of such beneficial mindstates. The semantic reach of science must exceed its current epistimeic grasp. . Science must commit to study consciousness. Science must transcend its objectivist evidential modesty in a new integral explanatory ambition that includes both objective and subjective phenomena.share the same end. paramananda the happiness that cannot be lost—that is always present from the very beginning. is doing this (Luisi 2009.H. Buddhist epistemology can learn from mathematical physics and cosmology. Physics can learn from Buddhist epistemology. . In essence science and spirituality. a physics that refuses to cling to the metaphysics of a Material Realism. Without this it will never be taken seriously by science. This compassionate “mind of enlightenment” (bodhichitta) then recognizes and realizes not the quantitative hedonic felicitas of Western psychology. or placing in abeyance science’s 400 year old obsession with foundational monistic Materialism and Realism. but the qualitative eudaemonic beatitudo that is the ultimate happiness—mahasuka. but to find its own middle way that includes the “phenomenological doublet” of both third person objectivity and the first person subjectivity that is human consciousness. Richard Davidson at the University of Wisconsin. Indeed this is the core liberation teaching of the nondual Great Wisdom Tradition of our kind. science informs metaphysics. Therefore. -H. physics and metaphysics are a continuum. Science must study not just objective physicochemical brain. Such is the arising of the paradigm shift that is the new Noetic Revolution. science must participate in the emerging integral Noetic Revolution by recognizing and utilizing—not marginalizing—the introspective first person methodologies of contemplative science and consciousness studies. Buddhism must continue to utilize the empirical methods of neuroscience to further its contemplative technology. science will remain mired in its epistemic and ontic presumptions of the dogmatic foundationalist metaphysics of Functionalism and Material Realism. In other words. .which is the betterment of humanity. The meditative/contemplative mind training of the practice of the Path removes the negative afflictive emotions that cloak (vikshepa) this prior ultimate happiness. . awake at the spiritual heart (hridyam) of the human being. but the bright noble interior subjectivity that is mind. Without this conceptual and methodological enrichment. The Dai Lama (2005) Metaphysics informs science. 61 . In short. This too is the union of wisdom and compassion. Science must utilize its “epistemic authority. . Further development will require an outshining epoche. contributing little to the emerging integral paradigm that is unifying physics and metaphysics. Both must utilize the Two Truths and find its own unifying middle way. non-essentialist physics. and for a moment. In this largely unexplored noetic mindscape the aboriginal disjuncture of matter and mind cohere. essentially non-different science and spirit hang together. our indwelling Buddha Nature.” not in a materialist rejection of idealist subjectivity that denies or marginalizes consciousness. a decisive bracketing (shoshin/beginner’s mind). Begley 2007). science and spirit. we need a radically empirical (James). The two views are complementary. our bright original face. . with the help of the Dalai Lama and his meditating monks. We are all connected in a journey toward the happiness that is called enlightenment. Indeed.

. a new scientific/noetic paradigm shift occurs. as the ostensibly metaphysical sourceground—the conceptual Two Truths that are the nondual one truth—is gradually.” Bowl and tea and bread again become simply bowl and tea and bread. Integrated methodology. herein again arises the perennial burden of skepticism as the spectre of paradigm shift becomes the metaphysical dread of a defensive scientific materialist orthodoxy now cast in academic political stone. (Metaphysics just means beyond the physics of observable phenomena and includes the non-objective phenomena of the Quantum micro-world and of Quantum Cosmology. “Truth is one. 62 . The domain of wisdom requires both of these methodologies. as I have said. Metaphysics utilizes scientific rationality. And we have noted the timid reticence of neorealist materialist physics (usually embodied in conventionally real. this confusing limit of concept-mind is the very aperture that opens into nondual Spirit. This dialectic extends the reach of science’s empirical observation beyond the narrow limit of immediate empirical sense experience into the realm of unseeable and undecidable first person subjective phenomenal experience. Objectivism. but again become just “mountains and rivers. Physics. Science requires and utilizes metaphysics. thus we are necessarily referred to a more subtle strata of formation. analysis and naturalism. And we have seen that this scary limit of discursive conceptual mind does not mean the end of consciousness. They are. Science has now grown beyond the mere physical appearances. Not to worry. Experience and knowledge is intersubjective. Echoing Aristotle. Appendix B). contemplatively realized by individuals. there can be no nondual ultimate knowledge. if not an antidote. an ultimate subjectivity that is ontologically prior to. the bane of the prevailing retrograde postmodern academic Scientific Materialist orthodoxy. appearance and reality. the contrived duality of physical/metaphysical is transcended in its nondual source condition. and “mountains and rivers” are no longer the body of Buddha. Ultimate Truth. but not ultimately real physicists) to leap into this vast postmaterialist noetic crucible. as the ideology of the cult of Scientism would have us believe. or beyond the mere physicalist reach of realist contemporary physics. limited by the Planck Scale and quantum uncertainty at which the laws of physics break down and the conceptual mind boggles. Alas. metaphysics. Science is deeply grounded in metaphysical assumptions (Physicalism Materialism. Through the focusing power of attention and contemplation. Have a cup of tea. the Closure Principle. How then may we continue to integrate them? From the epistemology you choose. They complement one another. Ultimately. Eighth Century Middle Way Buddhist Scholar-Master Chandrakirti offers. The purely objective God’s eye “view from nowhere” of the old paradigm science was never possible.” No problem at all.) The profound intellectual and hermeneutic tension between objective science and subjective metaphysics. a dialectical continuum (cittasantana) of experience. Realism and anti-Realism must at last bear its integral fruit. an advisory to this perennial problem of skepticism and nihilism. comes the metaphysics you deserve.We have seen that from the Material Realism of the view of spacetime Relative Truth (samvriti satya). then immediately. what you think is what you get. Astonishingly. Ah. Realism. Mysticism just means the meditative experience of the prior unity of objective physical and subjective spiritual. metaphysics. etc. Metaphysics must again become the inward reach of physics. One reality. Knowledge and wisdom ask metaphysical questions that transcend mere observation statements. Science and metaphysics need not be unknown to one another. Science need no longer fear metaphysics.

and rest your weary mind.” That is the realization. The Non-Meditation That is Happiness Itself. (See Appendix D. astonishingly “always already” present and awake right here—at the Heart—in the chaos of our everyday lifeworld. is the perfect sphere of the Great Perfection—by whatever name—and therefore an aperture into. . Until the full bodhi of enlightenment. the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. “It is already accomplished” (Garab Dorje)—that primordial seed of Buddhahood—always awake at the spiritual heart (hridyam/nyingpo) within each human form. moment to moment.Relatively speaking. So leave it as it is. Thus it is. Samsara and nirvana are the same (Samata). negative or positive. Ultimate Truth and Relative Truth. is Dependent Arising (pratitya samutpada). . Emptiness is form. That’s it. the very light energy prana of spacetime phenomena continuously cascading from this original causal matrix ground that is our supreme source. all the way to the end. . And yet. Shakyamuni. All things are perfect. the Dalai Lama). grasp and reveal that subtle ultimate nondual domain that. it is a methodological error to expect more of a modality of explanation than the inherent nature and limit of that modality permits. . the now commensurable paradigmatic Two Truths that are relative science and ultimate spirit continue in a middle way methodology—grounded in an appropriate realist or even nominalist epistemology. empirical Relative Truth (space. exactly as they are. What you will be is what you do now. we utilize the difficulties of the path of Relative Truth to accomplish Ultimate Truth—nondual Spirit Itself—we must again remember. post-quantum physics and cosmology. the nondual truth of the Great Perfection is that the still emptiness of the primordial ground.H. time. The nature of mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. modalities. . the three Buddha Bodies that are the Trikaya of the Base (gzhi). -Shakyamuni Buddha (from the Prajnaparamita literature) 63 . And all the Tatagatas will rejoice. We must not demand that our conceptual elaborations and expectations. from the relative view altogether transcends this reified discursive cognitive dimension of concept and belief. then realization of that luminous ultimate ground that is. . and as Nagarjuna reminds us. and an ontology of interdependence—in support of the new postmetaphysical. This toward our integral noetic understanding of the always already prior unity of matter. The nature of mind is clear light . logic.) Indeed. science and Spirit. are ontologically incommensurable—different orders. these two domains are ontologically distinct and incommensurate modal realities. derived as they are. mind and spirit. “Form is emptiness. the Buddha of our historical time expresses this wisdom of the ages thusly: What you are is what you have been. Can we really do this? “Just open the door and follow the path. causality). paradoxically. and a path toward the recognition. . . Although the Two Truths are one truth. that the ground of all phenomenal arising. Emptiness and form. The perennial Two Truths are a case in point.” (H. or dimensions of being—even though these dualities are rooted and unified in and pervaded by an ultimate nondual reality. Brahman and the world. from the necessary epistemic limits of the domain of dualistic. .

subject and object.” Here. Yet both are necessary aspects of the vast unbounded whole. veridical. the Great Perfection— all such dichotomies abide as an interdependent. between the Quantum Vacuum and primordial emptiness.The Secret of Human Happiness? There is nothing absent from your happiness. yeshe) that is the fruition of nondual greater esoteric (“innermost secret”) contemplative “spiritual” realization. although from the dualistic exoteric view of Relative Truth this nondual view seems utterly panglossian. And so. all the way to the end of it. exoterically viewed there is an inherent modal or dimensional difference or hierarchical (holarchical) separation between the paradigms of the relative knowledge of science (vikalpa. simultaneous cognition (samatajnana) or recognition of the continuous unity of these Two Truths—”brief moments. Yet. pervades and includes the less subtle physical. Only the whole resolves the duality. subjective nature of mind (cittata/sems nyid). the prior absolute or ultimate primordial wisdom (gnosis. That (Tat/Sat) is both the origin and aim of all our seeking. In micro physics and in cosmology they are relative. that is who we actually are from the very beginning. jnana. esoterically. direct non-dual. information. now. is the realization of this one truth that is ultimate Happiness Itself. “Just follow the Path. We must remember and realize this noetic. primordial dialectic. From the nondual view of perfectly subjective Ultimate Reality—the sublime ontological smile of Dzogchen. The paradoxical. contingent. emotional and mental dimensions of the egoic bodymind. The prior. the great Second Century Indian Buddhist sage told. falsifiable. gradualist spiritual practice). “There is no way to realize Ultimate Truth (nondual liberation. doxa. conceptually unfabricated ultimate source (cittadhatu) of all experience holarchically transcends. finite. mind and body. Nagarjuna. and infinite spirit that we are. According to the masters of our Great Wisdom Tradition. many times”—in the very midst of the relative-conventional chaos of our everyday lifeworld. Some of the propositions of science and some of those of religion may be “valid cognition” (pramana). perhaps the very ultimate nature of nondual Reality Itself. -Guy Newland The theories of physics.” Through dualistic concept-mind we utilize the gradual. ontic prior unity. change from time to time. you and me. non-contradictory and worthy of research. great joy. and cannot ultimately be grasped or comprehended by the conceptual self.” But wait! “It is already accomplished. scientific theory) and spirit. This is ontological interdependence. ultimately there is no essential difference or separation between the finite matter that we are. The parts are uncertain. But the map cannot be the reality. relative “spiritual path” to stabilize “the View” and deconstruct the destructive ego-self. realize and perfect the immediate. the wish-fulfilling jewel that is our Christ/Buddha Nature—that presence always present—forever becoming ultimate Consciousness Being Itself. opinion. 64 . paradoxically. except in reliance upon Relative Truth (dualistic. if not the laws of nature. theoretical-conventional maps to comprehend the nature. between samsara and nirvana. between appearance and reality. then to recognize. ultimate happiness). These two participate together in the unbounded whole as different ontological strata of formation. drhsti. -Adi Da Samraj We are happy when we can bring others to happiness. as distinct modal realities. our indwelling seed. the ego-I of the body-mind.

For scientific materialism causation is upward (from elementary particles. For example. in the realm of the very large (intergalactic gravitational effects). the Plenum (Pleroma) that is the primordial sourceground or Base or Depth (Bathos. its karma. The linear. and final (teleological). or linear. local efficient causality principle of the old paradigm functions as a special limiting case of a more comprehensive. Tao) which is. Here. formal. to consciousness). multifactorial and contextual as is Buddhist Madhyamaka causation. an adequate causality. theoretical physics now resembles the contemplative epistemologies of our Great Wisdom Tradition. -Suzuki Roshi Causality. The gradual. yet without essential intrinsic absolute existence or identity. Consciousness Being Itself in whom mind and individual consciousness and all phenomena arise. immediate enlightenment of the non-causal. causal spiritual path is bottomup. things arise as a result of prior causes and conditions in a vast interdependent causal nexus. Newton's theory of gravity (the gravitational constant) functions causally in the realm of the "middle dimensions" (molecular to solar system distances) as a special limiting case of Einstein's relativistic mechanics. non-reductionist. but there is no primordial first cause. efficient cause and effect. and the Quantum Theory with its inherently subjective Quantum Vacuum. old paradigm physics is based. and all the arising phenomena of mind are causally relatively or conventionally real. in the realm of the very small. The mere efficient causality of biology and physics is not. to electro-physical brain states. The Buddhist Madhymaka non-linear contextual causal view of interdependent origination (dependent arising. the Uncertainty Principle (Heisenberg) and the Principle of complementarity (Bohr) of the Quantum Theory’s Copenhagen School have demolished absolute time and the linear Principle of Causality. pratitya-samutpada) is at root. The sudden. Wu.). contextual view. For our Great Wisdom Tradition causation is downward (from thought and pure non-physical nondual consciousness to physical matter). the divine fullness. Arising reality is rather. and Free Will Our original mind includes everything within itself. Here the acausal 65 . I Am). Causality now looks more like the Buddhist beginningless or infinite causal continuum. and without a first cause. luminous emptiness (Shunyata. the efficient causality upon which the classical. Ontological Interdependence. and anitya or impermanence. A complete account of causality must include Aristotle’s four causes—material. There is no one unique causal explanation for anything. paradoxically. Causation is complex. just after the “Big Bang”) the efficient causality of physics is precluded. From this follows the view of anatman or no-self.Postscript Notes on Quantum Emptiness. at or near the Planck distance (10-33 cm. luminous emptiness (shunyata). Causality may be non-linear. With the advent of General Relativity. no Big Bang or theistic genesis. nonlocal. As we have seen. and in the realm of the very brief (Plank time 10-43 sec. not-gradualist path is top-down. Both the apparent self. alone. But. The Principle of Non-Reductionist Causality. Causal correlation and Hume’s “constant conjunction” have failed as a theory of causal explanation.

we become the fearful. or most elegant. M Theory. hopeful advocates of the developmental limits of our current lifestage conceptual and belief systems. Superstring Theory. The third person method of inquiry—the scientific method— does not obtain here. we have just seen that such computational excess has hit the wall of the Planck Scale ambiguity barrier beyond which merely conceptual mathematical knowledge is necessarily. Shankara and Nagarjuna have demonstrated. or most integral. Whitehead. a false. the concept-mind boggles and new methodologies and geometries are required. Wallace 2005. It is hoped that a quantum theory of gravity can somehow penetrate this essential limit of conceptual causal understanding by finally unifying General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory. Kant.” (a species of Francis Bacon’s “Idols of the Mind”). beyond the physical/material and the merely computational. and precluded by David Finklestein’s “Universal Relatively Principle” which precludes all grand unified theories (GUTs) and final theories of everything (TOEs). The marvellous enterprise that is physics will indeed produce that “next more inclusive theory. 11 However. A successful theory is a relative. Alas. points out that the purpose of a theory or model is to evolve a more subtle. based on 20 years measurement of the orbital decay of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar.” yet the ultimate nature of mind necessarily remains non-algorithmic and non-computational.11 In any case. energy or time at which all of our concepts of causality—matter-energy and space-time—the very laws of physics break down. Hegal. Quantum Loop Gravity and Super-Symmetry are the unlikely candidates. Finklestein. paraphrasing Einstein. all of these refuse to surrender their metaphysical attachment to foundational Realism which must be a prerequisite for a unifying theory of anything. the Planck Scale represents the distance. Thus we are introduced to the non-classical. an improvement over the Quantum Field Theory which is accurate to 1011 . 2006). meditative/ contemplative modes of knowing arise (Luisi 2009. logocentric absolute which cannot be corrected within the phenomenological or epistemological modality or context of the theory. Ontological interdependence. This noetic Principle of Universal Relativity—our Principle of Ontological Interdependence—agrees with the teaching of Mahayana Madhyamaka (Middle Way) Buddhism regarding seeking. As to this holy grail of grand unification. that first person methodologies—noetic introspective intuitive. it is but the latest idol in the modernist quest for absolute objective certainty. Through such ideational grasping. a theory—not even the highest. temporary position which eventually becomes an “idol of the tribe. S-Matrix Topology. grasping and clinging at anything—a belief. Any unifying theory must utilize the “phenomenological doublet” of both first person and third person methodologies as we have seen above. At this scale of reality General Relativity and the Quantum Theory are incompatible and contradictory. It is at this ontological strata of formation. as the great dialecticians Gödel. tacit. noetic Problem of Knowledge. 66 . General Relativity has now been tested to be correct to one part in 1014. knowable only through first person contemplative technologies. logically precluded.stochastic predictions of quantum mechanics are more accurate than either Newton's or Einstein's classical theories. With the exception of the Quantum Field Theory. elegant and inclusive theory or model.

a logocentric false absolute. which did the same for Special Relativity. eon to eon in the life of the mind of all sentient beings. of plus and minus charges. Kepler’s. with the fall of the old tired idols and the rise of the next more inclusive paradigm. of spirit and matter. yet transcended in a subjective. Where else could it go? According to our Great Wisdom Tradition. e. time and spacetime. ultimate nondual Transcendental Idealism. throughout all worlds and all times. yeshe)—is ultimately dependent upon everything else. And such a theory.’ and Aristotle’s logocentric idols of space. relative Material Realism embraced. is not other than the luminous emptiness (shunyata) of the vast expanse or depth (bathos) of this Supreme Source (cittadhatu). into that next more subtle. unquestioned. moment to moment. the Large Number Hypothesis of the Anthropic Principle). Now generalize this consideration to include all arising phenomena. 67 . spiritual (body. mechanism. spirit)—are reducible to. Galileo’s. along with General Relativity. As we have seen. and the destructive dualism of absolutely separate observer/subject from it’s perceived object. through such ontological inquiry and noetic analysis (vipashyana). yet includes the protoreligious totemic idol that is Scientific Materialism (Neorealism). the infinite continuum of Consciousness Being Itself—Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. elegant theory i. of course. and explainable in terms of electro-physical brain. The Quantum Theory transcends yet includes the worn out epistemological idols. its essential nature therefore.e. material realism. intersubjective. jnana. of mind and body. i. and the phoenix-like rising of a noetic integral ontology. (The exoteric mathematical analogs of this deep esoteric truth are described by the mathematics of complexity.g. inclusive and elegant theory. the post-classical Quantum Theory—the “non-objective physics”—extended relativity and transcended yet included the objective classical absolutes of General Relativity. in need of relativizing by that next more subtle. as it is subsumed. we recognize that this continuous process of the vast causal nexus. Copernicus. Consider the lovely rose arising in spacetime. a post-quantum dualistic objective. requires an Ontology of Interdependence that subsumes mere relative-conventional realistic epistemologies. past. the S-matrix topology of Jeffry Chew’s Bootstrap Theory. This assumption becomes an unconscious. A Rose is a Rose: The Paradox of Perception. inclusive. mind. is the perennial Two Truths that are one truth—”one taste”—of nondual Buddhism and Vedanta. Eventually. From whence has it come? Where will it go? As it dwells with us for a time our senses rejoice in its impermanent reality. that everything is physical. the very essence or nature of what is—the very Nature of Mind (cittata/sems nyid) that is Basic Mind essence. all arising in absolute space and absolute time. Just so. present and future. Indeed the next idol to be relativized by the wisdom of ontological relativity—emptiness and dependent arising—will be the now unstable Standard Model with its Quantum Theory of particle interactions. mental.e. The paradigm shifts—the revolutions—in the sciences have been just such relativizations in prevailing theory and ideology. which did the same for Newton’s. and transcends. Then it returns to its ineffable source. we are now witnessing the demise of the twenty-five hundred year old foundational metaphysics of Material Realism. the monistic absolutes of reductive physicalism.The metaphysical assumption of Realist Scientific Materialism that all phenomena— physical. This. as we have seen. the “butterfly effect” of Chaos Theory. is a case in point. a dualism of appearance and reality. deep background idol.

“Brahman is also the world. our awareness here and now with its spacetime relative-conventional phenomenal content. It is this “primordially pure” (kadag) emptiness potential in whom the interdimensional co-emergent light energy (lhundrup) of matter. Realists and Materialists (usually physicalists) believe it is the external physical appearance that is real. Nihilists deny that any of it is real. This precludes free will. it is not 68 . the luminous sourceground or potential existence of our rose. post-theoretical contemplative ultimate truth (paramartha) that transcends yet embraces it. given enough objective knowledge. Do we have a choice? Choosing reality: quantum emptiness and free will. or its apparently material objective physical object? The immediate internal cognitive/mental experience of our rose. Again. even our present choices. spacetime phenomena and all perceiving beings abide in an infinite causal matrix that is non-local. or its external apparently physical attributes? Epistemological idealists believe the internal mental or cognitive idea is the primary reality. mind. This liberation is the ultimate potential of every sentient being. in this way the relative duality of absolutism and nihilism. wonder of wonders. This is the “error” of spiritual materialism and of religious provincialism. awareness or consciousness does not arise from phenomenal existence. perfectly subjective matrix or context of fundamental openness or emptiness. non-dual Spirit Itself. existence arises from primordial awareness. the egoic false absolutes of spacetime located phenomena or beings. according to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. not even avatars or gods. from the Prajnaparamita literature). However. life. participates in and is identical in essence to the non-dual infinite continuity of awareness of the essential Nature of Mind. soul and free ethical activity arise. is the greater. Again.” and “Emptiness is also form.Thus. “True mind is not dualistic mind. rather. non-dual Spirit Itself. future events can be predicted and everything is pre-determined. and of everything else that arises and appears to our perception. Another result of quantum mechanics (along with the transistor. the microprocessor and the laser) is a tentative theoretical rescue of human freedom. the perceiving ego-I of the self is real. If the universe is just a great mechanical clock (the Cartesian-Newtonian classical view) then theoretically. The Nature of Mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. This unhappy result has been called Laplace’s Demon after the 18th Century Newtonian physicist who first described it. our understanding situates the relative-conventional spacetime reality of exterior and interior cause and effect into an acausal. Ultimate Spirit cannot be reduced to independently “real” conceptual entities." from the determinist grip of Newtonian mechanics. enlightened beings. more inclusive truth that provides a resolution to the perennial dualism of the epistemological “mind-body” problem arising from this paradox of perception: since the perceived object is dependent upon the cognition of a perceiving subject—which is the real— this perceived subjective mental idea. the Buddha. Yet. Rather. This then. and the immediate potential—the happy recognition of indwelling spirit presence—of each self-aware human being. ultimate Reality Itself. This is the liberation of highly realized. Therefore. "free will. Solipsists believe that only the subject. of existence and non-existence (samvriti) is resolved in the “protean encounter” with non-conceptual. Our finite bodymind. The Nature of mind is clear light” (Shakyamuni.” This Spirit is the great non-dual Ultimate Truth (paramartha) that is actualized through full bodhi—the realization of the presence (vidya/rigpa) of Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis/jnana).

our choices. This of course is precisely the Madhyamaka (Middle Way) Buddhist view. concepts. without substance. even during particle interactions. observation or measurement. Subjectivity enters the picture as the consciousness and cognition (perceptions. it’s that the particle does not even have these values before a measurement. We cannot accurately measure both. Nor can they be observed. Thus the wave nature. Kant’s notion of the perennial “Two Truths” is that the phenomena of relative spacetime reality. x or p for a particle. And if the sub-quantum particles of the aboriginal stuff of reality are. As Kant pointed out. unknowable to the theoretical conceptual mind. much less a quark. in principle. Material phenomena are mere relativeconventional cognitive relations between perception.possible. 12 69 . even in principle. seems to be prior. it’s not that we don’t know the precise values. and then finally our conceptual-theoretical value laden interpretation choices about these observations. Moreover. But the particle aspect is not present when the experiment is set up to observe the wave. non-linear networks within networks. may be the ultimate foundation of matter. the ultimate nature of physical reality is. According to the quantum theory. Einstein and Schrödinger may have been right after all. even in principle. there isn't any! Just an infinity of particles within particles. Mu. empty of inherent existence (shunyata). are “empirically real” because they appear to our experience. our physiological sensory-perceptual apparatus. even the most basic. Quantum uncertainty and complementarity have demonstrated that it is both12. For example. no quantum object may have a definite location and a definite momentum before a measurement. For example. What we observe of that which appears depends upon our consciousness. and its extension by means of measuring instruments. as we pursue our exploration of matter to its ultimate depth we discover that ultimately. Yet these subjective purely theoretical entities are given arbitrary mathematical values and physical attribution. an electron has never been observed. there is an ambiguity barrier (Planck scale. According to the quantum uncertainty relations the observer must choose that which is to be measured. In 1920 Einstein proved the particle-like nature of light. either a particle's momentum (p) or its position (x). not both. divine ignorance. The wave. Afshar has shown by experiment that when the particle aspect is observed. or a graviton. human reason cannot transcend phenomena to the ultimate reality of that that is the noumenon. The wave behavior of the Zero Point Energy Field of the Quantum Vacuum seems to support this thesis. Reality is but the totality of phenomenal relationship and has no intrinsic independent existence. the wave aspect is also present. It is the consciousness of the observer that determines the nature of the reality observed. not the particle. how can macroscopic sentient observers be otherwise? This understanding of course. yet their ultimate nature is not ultimately knowable. As we have seen. without attributes (nirguna). A recent experiment by physicist Shahriar Afshar has cast doubt on Bohr’s sacrosanct Principle of Complementarity. We have seen that. and therefore are not excluded from scientific study as objective data representing objectively “real” entities arising and appearing in or to the mind. in their essential nature. So. beliefs) of an observer who is always a participant in the process of the perception. Thomas Young's ingenious double slit experiment of 1801 proved the wave-like nature of light. there can be no purely objective observation by an independent observer. the barrier of the supreme nondual teaching of the Chan/Zen Patriarchs) which the discursive concept-mind cannot penetrate. to ever know enough about the present state of the universe to accurately or completely predict any future event. Due to wave diffraction. concept and the ultimately ineffable “thing in itself” (ding an sich). For Kant and the neo-Kantians.

Suzuki Roshi’s “Big Mind” that is the primordial consciousness base in whom arises “Small Mind. deus-theos (transcendent-immanent). from the view of ultimate truth. Uncommon Wisdom. mere conceptual elaboration. Consciousness Being Itself. (in Capra. eros-agape. The things of the spacetime dimension of Relative Truth are real. observation and theory are interdependent. That is the flaw of the present situation. Here observer and observed are not separate. experienced physical and mental reality (light) is constituted of physical and mental/conceptual complementary opposites: wave-particle. Coherent. the objective reality of phenomena is nominally real from the view of relative-conventional truth. body and mind. but intrinsically connected. implicate order of the whole. 1988) The observer then. but nature exposed to our method of questioning" (Heisenberg 1958). Physicist Geoffrey Chew on the quantum emptiness at the micro level of reality: There is no continuous space-time atomic reality as described in terms of isolated events that are causally connected but are not embedded in continuous space-time. the dance of geometry that is our relative spacetime mindstream.” relative. Tao. all dualities. at least in the conventional realm of the “relative truth” of empirical. Both aspects are necessary to explain its behavior. Yet. perceptions. interconnected designations and imputations—creations of the mind—ascending and descending each moment each breath from the depth of the plenum. You should not try to express the principles of quantum mechanics in an apriori accepted space-time. "Our experience contributes to causing particles to emerge from a reality extended in space-time" (Bernard d'Espagnat). empirical phenomenal spacetime reality. negativepositive. all binaries. Here is the complementarity of the Two Truths of Reality Itself. autopoiesis. our “structural coupling” with the physical Unified Quantum Vacuum. in a word. nondual Spirit. memories" (Erwin Schrödinger 1958). Such a philosophical generalization from the microscopic world of quarks and leptons to the macroscopic world of cats. illusion. illusory in the mode which the ancient Vedas. yin-yang.parallels the nondual view of our Great Wisdom Tradition. this all is maya. ultimately. trees and stars seems justified. objective and subjective. great primordial nondual sourceground or matrix of all that is. "What we observe is not nature itself. but there is no implication of a microscopic space-time continuum. quark-lepton. and its prior metaphysical unbroken whole. "An independent reality in the ordinary physical sense can be ascribed neither to the phenomena nor to the agencies of observation" (the physical mechanisms of 70 . Physical and mental phenomenal reality is "a construct of our sensations. consciousness. Space-time is introduced macroscopically. Upanishads and Tantras have told for millennia. What is experienced through the appearances is the process of consciousness that is our deep intersubjective interrelatedness. appearance and reality. "Mind and world arise together" (Humberto Maturana 1987). does not directly experience physical reality. imputation and reification by an impermanent self absent any inherent intrinsic existence. Observer. in connection with experimental apparatus. relative energy structures. Once again. objective spacetime reality. free will and determinism. matter and spirit. Ultimate Truth. We have seen that the contribution of Niels Bohr's quantum Principle of Complementarity is that the nature of light is both particle-like and wave-like.

Causal determinism and acausal volitional free will are a complementary process. thought and action. unpredictable and free. both the subjective non-causal (free will) and the objective causal (determinism) are necessarily complementary modalities of adequate explanation. Both are necessary.H. is what you have been. intrinsic existence. or even of the neuronal level of reality is correct. causally and structurally determined (biomorphically). "You become (or duplicate the qualities of) whatever you meditate on or whatever you identify with via the surrender that is attention itself" (Adi Da Samraj). Human happiness and free will. Psychospiritual growth lies in opening to the use of whatever is given here. according to the Dalai Lama. both views are complementary descriptions or explanations of the same coherent phenomena. emotion. yet we are free to choose a way to liberation. However. in a left-brain exoteric modality. the shoshin response) in order to transcend the dualism in the bigger picture.” psychospiritual practice under the guidance of a qualified master. subjectobject. as wave-particle. Yet.” and thus to 71 . This “Way” is represented by our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition's “View. is a subset of the Causal Principle. Reality Itself (light/mind/spirit) arises in spacetime dualistically. now. the more general Law of Cause and Effect. this does not necessarily allow for free will at the macro-level of human action and behavior. Can human beings freely choose to act in the face of scientific determinism? Our sense or feeling of free will or volition seems to be supported by Heisenberg's discovery that an essential indeterminacy exists at the very heart of nature. Thus. reaping what is sown which. is what you do now" (Shakyamuni Buddha). We must see both poles without attaching to either (the phenomenal “bracketing” of the transcendental epoche. The Dalai Lama). Laplace’s Demon—a clockwork determinism— is slain. each human being creates a destiny by his/her choices of the placement of attention. Moreover. What you choose is what you get! Although the burden of past actions (karma) is profound. 1934). (Niels Bohr 1934).perception and the scientific instruments that extend that perception). if the indeterminist interpretation of mechanics at the quantum level. Is it selfless. that the integral holism of our Great Wisdom Tradition is correct—the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. We create or designate our reality by our participation or observation or placement of attention (cognition). “Volition and causality are equally indispensable elements in the relation between subject and object which forms the core of the problem of knowledge" (Bohr. The purpose of the choices of the practice of the spiritual path is to “know thyself. In Bohr's words. more importantly. but “there is a mutual dependence between parts and the whole” (H. independent.” The path is now. Nor is free will precluded even if some of our actions are shown to be determined. arising observable phenomenal thoughts and objects are a nonlocal. “Make the path the goal. Our behavior is objectively. it has demonstrated that there are no independently existing inherently separate parts at all! As our Principle of Ontological Interdependence asserts. "What you are. the quantum level of reality. “What you do now” results precisely in your future. So quantum theory has demonstrated. Path and Result. interconnected pattern or network of relationships with no separate. at the macro-level of behavior. yet externally. whether the self is empty of inherent existence or not. the non-dual view of our absolute emptiness base or matrix source in whom the entire enfolded process unfolds and arises for us. subjectively causally undetermined. Back to free will. What you will be. plus-minus charges. psychologically. authentic and kind? This Perennial Wisdom truth has been called the law of karma. Remembering the Principle of Non-Reductionist Causality. the parts.

Although it takes “ego strength” to deconstruct the ego or self-sense.realize the ultimate freedom that is Happiness Itself (mahasukka.” now present and awake at the heart of each human form. Hegel. vidya. and may arise through the gradual practice of the path (“brief moments. However. The mystery or mystical bliss is not itself however.” While its results may be experienced. often has positive affect. the primordial nondual state of “immediate spontaneous pure presence” is not a concept and not an experience. It remains a fallacy (the "reductionist fallacy") to attempt to logically derive or "reduce" assertions from one dimension or phenomenological level to those of another. What is it then? All that can be said conceptually is that it is non-conceptual. we cannot logically or mathematically derive or deduce macrocosmic qualitative (value) principles (psychology. That the Quantum Field Theory aids our metaphysical understanding does not however. Yet. For example. ethics. includes. The subtle defences of the ego-self are prodigious. religion. Aristotle. pervades. Kant. try as we may. but cannot be proven to be so by the logical or ontological rules of either dimension (Gödel. And this result appears confusing.” generous and kind. Nor are meditative. fear. 72 . the desideratum of the moment to moment nondual contemplative state of presence. free will) from the principles of the quantitative behavior of subatomic microcosmic events. “We need a teacher because it is impossible to study ourselves by ourselves” (Suzuki Roshi). Remember the prior unity of the “Two Truths. Our Great Wisdom Tradition is quite clear on this urgent point. indeed. the Supreme Source of all of this arising. mahananda). mystical transcendental experiences (nyams). materialistic mind states. mean that physics "proves" the assertions of religion. relatively they are empirically.” Nagarjuna told. pride—are surrendered. logically and ontologically distinct dimensional modalities. dualistic. a most amazing paradox. many times”) as the negative afflictive emotions—anger. to the great benefit of beings.” finite relative-conventional phenomena and the infinite nondual absolute. Liberation is not transcendental. or the truths of our primordial wisdom tradition. mystifying and paradoxical to relative. paradox. even to the practitioner on the path. integrated and compassionately actualized in the lifeworld. one who acts as his/her own guru. greed. paradox and realization. Chandrakirti). Therefore. Ultimately the conceptual Two Truths are the nondual one truth. then nondual spiritual practice on a wisdom tradition path with a qualified master. It is rather the realization of the prior perfection of our natural “ordinary mind. Indeed. “nothing special. and is prior to the physical/mental dimension of phenomena. has a fool for a student. by grace this wisdom is stabilized and ultimately realized. may be directly transmitted or “pointed out” by a master to a prepared student. Then. Meditative contemplation (the contemplative accessing of the nondual wisdom state of presence. “There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana. christos-logos of the primordial source) is the result or fruition of gradual dualistic. And all the while it is always “already accomplished. Nor should mysticism be identified or confused with vertical “spiritual empirical” meditative contemplation. mystification or metaphysics must not be identified or conflated with religious mysticism. The dimension of ultimate reality—noumenon—holarchically transcends. rigpa. Strange interlude: reduction. confusion.

Plato told. is the lifestage developmental path or evolutionary path toward our liberation from alienation and suffering. A positive result cannot come from a negative cause” (H. Compassionate thought.H. whether or not one is aware of it. our thought and conduct creates and determines our future destiny. there can be no egoic “plea for excuses. this time to attend to opening to the great source that links us all together? The primary moral imperative is the wisdom of kindness. Because we are utterly interdependent and interconnected. is what we receive.self-surrender in the 73 . “Ultimately the purpose of religion is to facilitate love and compassion (H. This path. intention and action.H. unbiased. intention. We are free to choose the unbiased and impartial love-wisdom unity path to enlightenment—our step-by-step supreme happiness and liberation from suffering—in direct relation to the process of our gradual recognition. positive and negative. “No small matter is at stake. What we do now. our suffering and our happiness—is caused by our previous thought. . Nothing is lost. and because we all desire happiness and desire to avoid suffering. continuous ego. hesed/charis. we’ve seen that from the interdependent arising of all spacetime phenomenal reality. Interdependent Relationship. This is “the courage to be” that is the wisdom of uncertainly. Non-virtue results “from causing harm to another’s experience or expectation of happiness . intention or act is ethical or morally right. Thus spake the masters of our nondual primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. with all the impermanent conscious beings who perceive it and act in it. gentle and generous activity in the service of all beings (including ourselves and our Mother Earth). the Law of Karma. is the basis of human freedom. Therefore. altruism). What we are now is exactly the result of our past actions. ahimsa. The effect or consequence of an act is inextricably linked to its prior intention-motivation. 1999).” of reaping what we sow. Nevertheless. this “law of karma. All of our major religious-cultural traditions and most secular ethics within these streams have founded their ethic upon human kindness and compassion (karuna. A thought. “What you are is what you have been. maitri. To be or not to be. motivation (deontology) and consequence (teleology) of an act determine the karmic result. Concerning our human conduct and its relation to happiness. Here. As we proceed into our future on the thermodynamic “arrow of time. nyingje. consciously and unconsciously. inexorable timeless truth of interdependent relationship (hetu/tendrel). The Dalai Lama). “We enter the future backwards” (Paul Valery). .” the precise result of our thought and action cannot be foreseen. bodhicitta. an altruistic secular Ethic of Compassion naturally re-emerges from this Great Wisdom Tradition teaching. Our present life situation—our view. emerges the inexorable karmic law of cause and effect. The question concerns the very way in which human life is to be lived” (Republic. what you will be is what you do now” (Shakyamuni. “In the moment of love. then realization and actualization in conduct of the imponderable. the Buddha).” no fudge factor. What we give. What then shall we do with this precious life we’ve been given. Both determine its ethical content. This emerging secular ethic of interdependence requires the practice of wise. based on ”The Good” of happiness—the motivation—and wrong if it causes suffering—the consequences. beyond fear and hope. The Dalai Lama. Simply put. intention and action (conduct) is the very basis of moral virtue. the nature of emptiness dawns nakedly” (Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche).Toward a Secular Ethic of Compassion. Book I).

davidpaulboaz. or perish from the earth.” www. The practical significance of this Moral Imperative for the 21st Century? We learn to transcend ego-ethnocentric hatred—thanatos. and all the suffering comes from serving oneself. without effort. Shaki. All the happiness there is in this world comes from compassionate service to others.fearsome face of emotional-spiritual transformation. “A New Secular Ethic of Compassion.” (the Buddha’s last words to his disciples). This is our choiceless choice (cf. Prajnaparamita. “If you keep your original mind the precepts will keep themselves” (Suzuki Roshi). “Love one another as I have loved you” (Jesus of Nazareth). always present presence. “Make of yourself a light.org). With self-surrender (wu wei. the deadly denial of our primordial Wisdom Mother (Gnosis. This is our Great Wisdom Tradition’s secret of liberation that is Happiness Itself. -Shantideva Clearly. morals (conduct). 74 . Yeshe)—and help one another. and governance (political economy). Here our ethical precepts are lived spontaneously. these primordial truths of our shared Great Wisdom Tradition have great constitutive power in the unfolding of an incipient integral noetic resolution to the pressing problems of knowledge (wisdom). the happiness that cannot be lost. aporia) arises the nondual state of equanimity that is the compassionate Witness Presence—our original mind that is our indwelling. our christ/buddha nature that is who we actually are now.

prajnaparamita. primordial presence demonstrated through The Conduct. (spontaneous presence and primordial purity). Hum. envy) are the five wisdoms. beyond concept. The Great Perfection “The nature of mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. 2. Buddha Vajrasattva. The Fruit or Result with its corresponding Conduct. “Choose the state of presence. Meditation on Body. Adi Buddha Samantabhadra. B. Yeshe Lama. Primordial Energy of the Base arises in spacetime (dependent origination/pratitya samutpada) as the mandala of our own vajra. View: the three aspects.” 3.Shakyamuni Buddha I. The Trikaya of the Base (the Essence Body. From the view of Relative-Conventional Truth Dzogchen is our prior nondual unity of: 1. through shamatha/vipashyana practice. The Secret Upadesha (the master’s pith instruction): The Longchen Nyingthig is the Secret Heart-Essence of the Great Expanse. equanimity (relative bodhicitta). and in human conduct through spontaneous presence as wisdom-compassion (thugs re). It is the very Nature of Mind (sems nyid) nondual and perfect “from the very beginning. Three Gates. Realization of our base/source. crown. Introduction. or Primordial Wisdoms of this emanation Base/Source present in all arising form. joy. compassion. Body: Dharmakaya. The five poisons (ignorance. all phenomena. the identity of primordially pure Essence Nature and Energy of the Supreme Source that is Yeshe. opening heartmind. the fourth time (turiya). prior to concept and belief. Awakening bodhicitita of intention and action. A. Nature. 2. Svabhavikakaya): Absolute Bodhicitta. “Recognize your own true nature. belief fear and hope. the Supreme Source.”. the Nature of Mind. A. Buddha Shakyumuni. Its Nature is Luminosity/Clarity (gsal ba). Its Essence is Emptiness (shunyata). Its Energy rays emanate continuously as light/motion. “Continue in the state with confidence. 3. desire. mother clear light of buddhahood. The Three Times—past. The Two Truths—relative and ultimate— Thee Bodies of the Base. Buddha Nature. Continuity of rig pa. present. the Three Vajras. ©David Paul Boaz. pride. III. wisdom (female) unified. Energy. Om. From “undistracted non-meditation” the search falls away as samadhi of wisdom-compassion-love arises spontaneously. liberation from the suffering of ignorance that is desire-seeking-attachment and fear-anger-aggression. throat. Rainbow body. physical/mental phenomena. The Path with its corresponding Meditation. pervading. beyond doubt. Dzogchen. always present state of presence of our Supreme Source. means (male).org 75 . A. nondual primordial wisdom (jnana. “Descend with the View. heart. IV. Svaha. ascend with the Conduct. B. 3. 1. Trekchö (wisdom/purity) and Togäl (means/presence) practices follow ngöndro. as it is. Development of deep heartmind devotion for the master and all enlightened beings (rigzin).” II. Yeshe/jnana . the primordial state of each being. Voice (speech): Sambhogakaya. transcending. the self-perfected. gnosis) of emptiness. The Base or source with its corresponding View. Purification of misdeeds. 2000. transcends spacetime causality.davidpaulboaz. seeing ignorance/desire of the five skandhas of attachment to conditional existence and its three marks: impermanence (anitya). beings. The Path: Development Stage. or Three Bodies of the Trikaya of the Base. many times”) or Mind Essence. anger. A.” all views condensed in essence to a single point. B. Realization (full bodhi) of the Great Transfer of the Body of Light (ja lus). recognition and stabilization of rig pa/vidya (“brief moments. embracing samasara and nirvana. is a primordially pure whole. From the view of Absolute or Ultimate Truth Dzogchen.” . 1. (tsal/rolba). Obstructions to living the teaching self-liberate into rig pa. Emaho! Mahasukaho! The Great Happiness that cannot be lost. future—are the on-going timeless instant of rig pa. the Four Boundless States/Four Immeasurables: love. our prior unity of awareness and emptiness. and compassion for all unenlightened beings. Realization and integration of the View. the way of practice.” B. Realization of nondual refuge and bodhicitta. Mengagde (upadesha). clearlight mind of spontaneous presence (lhundrup). The Fruit (Result): Perfection Stage. the Great Perfection.” 2. Voice and Mind. Longde. Letting be. Pure vision: abiding without concepts “It is already accomplished” (Garab Dorje). The Three Dzogchen Meditation Series: Semde. The View: The Buddha’s Two Truths are “one taste. Ah.Appendix A Dzogchen. no-self (anatman) and suffering. Essence. Copper Mountain Institute. The Supreme Source. The Two Accumulations: wisdom (prajna) and merit (means/upaya) as compassion (karuna). the vast causal nexus. Heart Mind (wisdom mind): Nirmanakaya. a single all-inclusive sphere. www. the luminous primordial awareness wisdom of their Supreme Source (cittadhatu). views arising in mind (sems). the vast expanse of primordial purity (kadag). the foundation practices. The Base (Ground): Gzhi. a realized unity.

or that it is subjective and spiritual. quantitative scientific observation. its discovery. Owen Barfield. first person. 505-898-9592.org. 5. Neils Bohr. experimenter and experiment. Reality is ultimately objective.) __________________ ©2008 by David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu). The Principle of Physicalism (Material Realism): An essentially pre-given separate and independently existing. The Principle of Reductionism: All subjective experience—private. Willis Harmon. emotional and spiritual events—can be reduced to their objective. These “idols of the tribe” become the “false absolutes” of science that belie the interdependence of subject and object. 1. Adi Da Samraj. This quite unscientific protoreligion is largely responsible for our catastrophic reduction of subjective spirit to mere objective consumable matter. No other views or methodologies can lead to truth.” an epiphenomenon or “artifact” of physical brain and its physical-chemical processes. and no truth or truths discoverable or existant beyond the view of this objectivist material realist “scientific method. 2. These unproven and unprovable metaphysical assumptions and beliefs are the totems or m ana of scientism. The mind’s subjective personal and transpersonal phenomena are not proper study for objective science (the “taboo of subjectivity”) 3. Mind. Richard Tarnas. All rights reserved. God are nothing more or less than an “emergent property. 76 . 6. The Principle of Universalism: The preceding principles are the only correct explanations as to the nature of reality. e-mail info@coppermount. a p rio ri. All differing views are in error. behavior. The validity of any causal explanation beyond the purely physical dimension is implicitly or explicitly denied. assumptions and beliefs. The Principle of Material Substance Monism: There is no reality other than. exclusively p hysical spacetime reality exists as the basis of all appearing phenomena. For example. explanation and interpretation.coppermount. David Finkelstein. If we knew all the initial causal conditions.org. We may now summarize these unexamined exclusionist biases. humanities and our global mass culture. Amit Goswami and the many astute critics of Scientific Materialism. (Thanks to Werner Heisenberg. The Closure Principle: This purely physical realm of all existence is “causally closed” to any non-physical causal explanation. experiment and mathematical analysis (although objective proof has remained unfindable for 400 years). or transcendent to this objective physical reality. independent of observation or experiment by any sentient observer (the “myth of the given”).” mental to physical is ideologically precluded. www. value assumptions and beliefs underlying modern scientific ideology and methodology. “Downward causality. mental.Appendix B The Idols of The Tribe: The Metaphysics of Modern Science Science and its scientists must make conscious their ap rio ri preconscious metaphysical presuppositions. the cult of modern and postmodern scientific materialism that permeates the view of the physical and social sciences. prediction. The Principle of Objectivism: This purely physical reality is ultimately knowable to separate human observers via objective. then we could predict or determine with complete certainty all of the effects (objects/events) in the universe. The Principle of Local Universal Causal Determinism: All events are determined by their local.” 4. Scientific study and research into subjective aspects of mind and consciousness is thereby precluded. not a scientific fact. 7. Ken Wilber. Alan Wallace. the view that the whole of reality is objective and physical. Copper Mountain Institute. experience. Causality is always “upward” from physical to mental. purely physical causes. is a judgement of value. purely physical electrochemical neural correlates.

and thereby the spiritual and moral worldview and its potential realization for the sociocultural whole. Five States Exoteric/Outer. two-valued concept. christos. Deity meditation and Vapashyana or insight meditation. Just so. Non-Dual State/Turiya.” Sambhogakaya.Appendix C The Structures of Consciousness: A Review of The View One Ground. the ascending levels of meditative stability and realization (samadhi). Madhyamaka and Dzogchen. empirical subject-object knowledge (doxa.coppermount. Final fruition stage. concept-belief. body of pure alaya (amalavijnana). Fruition stage. The Bardo of Dharmata/Ultimate Reality. momentarily available directly to each self-conscious being. Subtle Body: Dualistic. Shamatha. Esoteric/Inner. yeshe). mahasiddha Christ-Buddhahood. Quiescence and introspection practice Nirmanakaya. noesis. exoteric/outer conceptual and experiential belief in a separate material reality and a separate God. indirect. namtok. esoteric/inner but separate God. prajna). sophia. ____________________________ *©2008. klishta manovijnana. emotional. are non-ordinary aspects of these five states that result only from the contemplative mind training of the spiritual Path (lam). David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu). Deep Dreamless Sleep State. Greater Esoteric/Innermost Secret. belief and even the subjective bliss of deep contemplative experience. mental). beyond dualistic. This is Svabhavikakaya. Non-Dual “Real God. from the View emerges the Path to the realization of that unbounded whole. quasiconceptual knowledge-wisdom (dianoia. Causal Body: Alayavijnana. Two Truths. Subtle Body energy dimension. “lesser esoteric” form. and its Fruition or result in the everyday lifeworld and ethical conduct of the individual. discriminating. Four Views. Ground stage introduction to the View. Essence Body: Dharmakaya realized through the transcendent witness presence. Empirical spacetime Gross Body energy dimension. supported by their four corresponding energy bodies or dimensions are potentially. Saguna Brahman. opinion. relative-conventional truth. Path stage. prajnaparamita. “Ground Luminosity. The Bardo of Becoming. Waking States. The primordial Tao/emptiness of Absolute or Ultimate Spirit lived with its cognitive. Wisdom of Satchitananda. Dream State. esoteric. vidya/ rigpa. Copper Mountain Institute (505) 898-9592. prior unity of the Trikaya of the Base (gzhi). subject/object. Three Bodies.org. These four views or dimensions display as a prior unity in the unbounded whole. Fruition of Mahamudra. The various levels of understanding of the interdependent relation of these four views of the “two minds” or Two Truths of this one great sourceground—the vast Reality that is non-dual Spirit Itself—constitute both the exoteric-conventional and the more subtle.org. mindfulness meditation practice.” beyond all theistic concept and belief. Realization of the prior unity of the Two Truths (relative and ultimate). The Bardo of living. However. Ishvara. the three kayas and three vijnanas. “Path Luminosity. the gross waking state (physical. third person objective scientific data).contemplative View of this supreme source of all appearing reality for the religious and philosophical wisdom traditions of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. Gross Body: Dualistic. gnosis.” Atman that is Nirguna Brahman. logos. e-mail info@coppermount. These five innate states of consciousness. Plato’s noetic-logoic final development stage). meditative and compassionate ethical conduct finally stabilized and actualized in the lifeworld (transcendent primordial awareness wisdom mind. Manovijnana. information. 77 . Causal Body energy dimension. www. Deity realms. the final non-dual fifth state. Nirmanakaya. turiya “the fourth. meditativedevotional first person subjective recognition of the “state of presence”. This perfectly subjective whole transcends yet embraces all arising objective phenomena (the Two Truths).” realized as turiyatita.

Turiya (“The Fourth”) Parasamgate. Soul. Non-empirical illusory (maya) subjectobject independence. levels. Subject-object separation and dependence. Tao. dualistic conventional religious and beginning mystical seeking. www. “State effects” not yet “trait effects. Maha-rishi. Om Shanti Om. The five skandhas/ sense consciousnesses (panchdvara-vijnana) plus mind (manovijnana) Om. Witness practice. . the lesser esoteric response. ©2005. the Supreme Source. 2. formless and kosmic mysticism. shyunyata/emptiness.. muni. . Om Gate. David Paul Boaz. Mouna. Exoteric. Intellectual and subtle dharma understanding. Subtle Body (sukshma-sarira) (vijnanamaya-kosha) Transcends & embraces previous koshas. Quiescence practice. although the koshas of Vedanta and the vijnanas and kayas of Buddhism generally correlate. Transcends and embraces previous samadhis. Causal Body (karana-sarira) (anandamaya-kosha) Soul. transcendent mental. The integration of conditional self in lifeworld timeless “fourth time. bodies. transcendent and includes the previous relative states. manas desiremind/sense-mind (citta or sems). renunciation and service. A lifeworld devoted to Spiritual completion fruition stage. Essence Sambhogakaya Mahamudra. the Witness (saksin) that is identical to Nirguna Brahman. Tao. final furition. Physical and emotional body of desire. transrational. practice. surrender. Brahman as Virat. Spirit) Gross Body Gross physical matter-energy body (annamaya-kosha). non-dual 7 transcendent Witness) Theocentric Realization (liberation) of personal identity with Spiritual perfection stage.” The Bardo of Becoming. Beginning insight and bhakti/ devotional meditation (dhyana). no all phenomena. the great Peace in the Silence. arhats. compassionate transcendent Witness Presence awareness.. subtle body. wise Worldcentric compassion. Mind. Buddha NatureUltimate Mind Nature(sems nyid/ cittata. Personal to transpersonal. Shamatha mindfulness practice. The Quantum potential. ego-motivated. Conditional self and its identities. Saguna Brahman as prana-vayu or sutratman. . inherent in all beings. Para Gate. Transpersonal. and mindstates. Transcendent Karma ceases only when in turiya (vidya/ rigpa). Kindness. desire-mind awareness. Non-dual Witness practice. Sleepwaiting denial of spirit-presence. Consciousness Dimension/State (avastha) (non-developmental. path of sages arhats. The Mahatman or essence-self recognition. deity. diety practice. Corresponding Energy-Body/Kosha Dimension/Vijnana (Body. lifestages. The unobstructed Pure Alaya (amalavijnana). Realization of Kham gnosis. Buddhi. Lifeworld ruled by fear and hope. The physical and lower mental phenomenal worlds. Supreme Identity. Brahman as Prajapati or Hiranyagarbha. and emptiness hope. untainted divine presence (vidya. Mani. alpha pure non-dual realization. gnosis). Nirmanakaya. higher mental. Fear and hope. 4 Ethnocentric Spiritual development ground and path stage. Transpersonal subtle to greater esoteric response. Brahman. Beginning compassion. Path of the siddhas.. Individuation of lower mind. . Dzogchen. koshas and all conditional experience. Moreover. reflecting and discriminating mind. rishis. Karma ceases. estranged and ignorant (avidya) of non-dual Atman that is Brahman. there is at present. structures. Path of form. Moksha-nirvikalpa samadhi. and even within traditions. Life. rigpa. preconscious. Christ(shunyata) realized through yeshe/ jnana/ Buddhahood. Great compassion. Emotional. . Buddhahood.org 78 . 6 Transpersonal. (The innermost secret. saints and bodhisattvas. Prepersonal to personal. logos). * The multidimensional pie of Spirit descending as phenomenal reality and the ascending realization of its non-dual Source is sliced in slightly different ways by different Wisdom Traditions. full primordial. The Bardo of Living.. transrational. Dualistic material seeking strategies dominate the view and behavior.) Waking State (Exoteric) (vaishvanara/ jagrat) Intentional. the Subjective idealism.” prior unity of (moksha-sahaj samadh). finding the master.davidpaulboaz. Mental Body (manomaya-kosha). conditional savikalpa samadhi. The will. Mental Stage. Klishta-Manovijnana. the root of ego-I. Atman identity with Brahman. behond fear Svabhavakakaya/ Trikaya of the Base. Frequent “clicking” from asleep to awake states. profound. vipashyana causal cognition. non-dual Spirit Itself in whom arises bodhi. subtle body of desire. Empirical reality. Transcends more learning.Appendix C: Part II The Structures of Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism* Life Stage/Mind State (evolutionary. Prana or Emotional Body (pranamaya-kosha). relativeconventional response. bodhisattvas 8th & 9th bhumi. Causal dimension to non-dual Absolute. Dharmakaya. . Insight practice. Spiritual materialism. relativeconventional realism. Objective. Dream State (Esoteric) (svapna) Prepersonal. Alayavijnana Deep Sleep State (Greater Esoteric) (formless sushupti/ prajna) 5. 3 Egocentric Physical. Absolute Reality. Atman The non-dual. Gross ignorance of the essencelessness and impermanence of the five skandhas of existence and the five sense consciousnesses. developmental) 1. The Bardo of Dharmata. citta. no agreement on the definitions and correlation of consciousness dimensions. Path of the yogis/saints (love wisdom). wisdomspirit-bliss.

www. www. Coppermountain Institute. Fragments of the Whole: Selected Essays of David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu) ©1009 David Paul Boaz.coppermount.org. 505-898-9592 79 .org.Appendix D Being the Primordial Awareness Wisdom* The Non-Meditation That is Happiness Itself Now is the moment we abide in primordial essence Luminous nature of mind empty awake awareness itself Whatever experience arises Pleasant neutral unpleasant no need to change it Whatever arises let it be without judgement positive or negative without past or future without attachment or aversion without affirmation or denial without closeness or distance Whatever arises is pure clear light of mind opening into the very ground of being Thus whatever arises is liberated Now let it be exactly as it is Perfect openness Perfect space As it is already accomplished Simply relax into it _________________ * Excerpted from Stromata. All rights reserved. info@coppermount.org.davidpaulboaz.

org. sleepwaiting in the eternal womb of our Great Wisdom Mother. eudaemonia). prana/vayu. purusha. ruach. Longchen (the Great Expanse). mahasuka. We may then come to realize. equanimity and joy that is the heartseed witness presence of our ever-present Christ-Buddha Nature (Christos. Shakti. Subject and object are only one. Tathagatagarbha. the “Big Mind” in whom we all appear and participate. All rights reserved. En Sof. zen. Ta’i Ch’i. Just so. then stabilized realization and ethical fruition of the great mystery of the Word-Logos. Mahamudra. the “unbounded” Whole that is our Supreme Source. This light/life energy of form is ch’i. Rupakaya.Werner Heisenberg What’s in a Name? The normal obscuring sectarian bias regarding our own views. Relative Motion. 80 . These signs symbolize and support our direct. one breath of many voices. logos-christos. Copper Mountain Institute. This is the awareness that is the ultimate truth (paramartha) of our innate. light. Being Here. This is our primordial wisdom mind that continuously recognizes and realizes itself as ultimate essential Mindnature. Zen. our primordial sourceground that is the very Nature of Mind. sem nyid.org. Fitrah. __________________ ©2008 by David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu). cho nyid. then actualize in the world—for oneself and for others—that prior unity of wisdom and compassion that is “Ultimate Happiness Itself” (ananda. pleroma. gnosis). Shunyata (the Great Emptiness). Tathagatagarba). Shakti. whether or not it is recognized by individual participants of this great whole. The ever-present Witness of our primordial sourceground is this pure intrinsic awareness presence of that ultimate reality. ming. Apeiron/Chronos. Who is it? Tat tvam ami! That I Am! Without a single exception. of every sentient being in every dimension of every world system. Fana. Samantabhadra. Samantabhadri. and indeed. This is the great work (sadhana) to be done. then realizes the unbounded whole that is Reality Itself. Wu/Mu. It is That (Tat) according to the masters of humanity’s Great Wisdom Tradition. noetic non-conceptual. an-Nur.coppermount. This great Reality is the prior. Such a realization is. Purusha. ousia. www. Yeshe. This is the presence of our compassionate wisdom mind that recognizes. continuous samhadi of certainty. 505-898-9592. Nirguna Brahman. then realize this great process. Anthropos. haqiqa. Bathos/The Depth. in the turiya of the moment Now. pneuma. e-mail: info@coppermount. eidos ) that is the actual Supreme Identity and potential ultimate happiness of each one of us. Tathata (Suchness). infinite potential of the compassionate. always already spontaneously present and fully awake at the spiritual heart of each human being. it is always the still womb of our Great Mother (Prajnaparamita. and its primordial awareness wisdom through whom we understand. spiritus. Urgrund. fugue of the presence of the source that steadfastly links us to unseparate Ultimate Spirit. recognition. perfectly subjective interdependent non-dual prior unity of all that is. our very Mind Essence (svabhava. Tao. asti. fundamental underlying unity. shekhina. useful archetypes and metaphors for the ultimate truth that is the utterly ineffable great unbounded whole. Dharmakaya. Satchitananda. non-dual transcendent Primordial Awareness Wisdom—Gnosis. atman-saksin. opinions and beliefs may be somewhat mitigated by an awareness that the following key terms of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition are mere conceptual relative-conventional truths. indivisible. this moment now. Jñana. intrinsic primordial awareness that is non-dual Reality Itself. parousia. The Bright. Who Is It? How shall we accomplish this great realization? Through dhyana (meditation. Prajnaparamita. Isis.” . gompa) under the guidance (satsang) of a qualified living master we stride the spiritual path. and the I AM of Abba the primordial Father. kadag/gzhi/The Base. divine. Dharmata. all refer to the ineffable. the fruition of the “innermost secret” View of this great process. This presence is known as vidya-rigpa. Supreme Source or Base of all finite objective and subjective arising phenomenal reality. Maria). Noesis. Although this great awareness continuum is known by these and many other names. the light-energy-motion that appears as the lifeforce of our bodymind with its sentient experience is this continuously arising relative spacetime phenomenal reality descended from our perfectly subjective primordial sourceground. tawhid. tsal/lung. For example. that is the essential Nature of Mind (cittata.Appendix E Toward an Integral Ecology of Mind The barrier between subject and object does not exist.

www. No need to seek it. relative motion in space and time. ever present presence of this supreme source as we ascend again. Here. then realizes. All rights reserved.” This selfless. Thus it is. Wisdom mind understands. not tomorrow. -Dylan Thomas What is this eternal movement? What is the nature or essence of mind who is aware of it? Who is it that moves in this beauty. delighted. then acts in conscious relationship with the whole. Relax now into That and be supremely happy. clear. by whatever name. At our spiritual Heart we may touch it. So it is told by the masters of our Great Wisdom Tradition. from such a ground do we descend. brief moments. How then shall we move from being apart to being this whole? It is told through our Great Wisdom Tradition—that stream of radical truth that flows through all traditions—of the non-dual singularity of this whole there are “Two Fundamental Truths. the very nature of mind. Wisdom trusts this awakening. just as it is. forms falling. it is always fully present and awake at the Heart. views this ground of physical and mental forms unfolding as a primordial unbounded whole in whom is enfolded the perpetual mystery of all that is. Good to practice it. Humanity’s Wisdom Tradition. then actualizes in the world—for oneself and for others—the great happiness. an infinite non-dual subject/object unified field. our all inclusive base of reality—reality itself—is experienced by all human beings. breath of one voice.” the dualistic. This supreme source transcends yet embraces all phenomena arising therein. It is utterly ineffable. and shines awake? In whom does this all arise? The energy that we are arises and descends each moment from its great sourceground as movement. selfless wisdom mind. all embracing non-dual Spirit that is our “Big Mind. Such wisdom naturally intends kindness toward all beings. shines awake through the mind and abides at the Heart of all beings. Calm. That I am. then moment to moment recognition of the all-inclusive unbounded whole that is our origin and aim. No need to improve it. Perception ruled by conceptual mind sees only the parts.org 81 . wonder of wonders. enlightens and delights our everyday relative cause and effect world. However. David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu) ________________ * ©2008 by David Paul Boaz. This bright enlightened Heart essence. perfectly. Yet. is who we are. That force is essence of our being. info@coppermount. bright fugue these many colors. Wisdom knows “Energy is Eternal Delight. This wisdom of kindness arises spontaneously through occasional. innate. pure intrinsic awareness cannot be grasped by the concepts and beliefs of the realm of Relative Truth that is “Small Mind. We live in two worlds at once! Ultimate Truth is the vast expanse of the whole itself. It is profound. This ultimate source or matrix of the light energy that is organized as matter is prior to time. How then shall we awaken to this uncommon wisdom? Primordial Wisdom continually recognizes itself in the paradox of the natural perfection of all our experience. Great beauty of it. then action of our perfect. Without a single exception.Appendix F Being Here Reflections on the Nature of Mind* What does it matter what poetry is? All that matters is the eternal movement behind it. Practice recognizes. Whether or not we recognize it. Wisdom recognizes it. undreamt of in the thoughtful slumber of human reason and belief. Practice is the imperfect intention.coppermount. Copper Mountain Institute. Great joy for us. Who is it? Tat tvam ami. Practice consumes conceptual/emotional veils that seem to obscure its constant presence. each moment return to that in whom this all arises. but here and now this primordial wisdom seed at the Heart. the ultimate unbroken whole—our acausal perfectly subjective source embracing all arising physical and mental objects—informs.org. Here is the happiness that is always present. It has many names. Wisdom delights in kindness. beyond hope and fear this. Here is the happiness that cannot be lost. light steadfastly mirrors our never separate.” Sublime beauty. subject/object separated reality of our perceptual and conceptual knowledge and experience. This prior essential great perfection is the vast love that binds the worlds. including recent quantum physics.” two ways of being here.

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