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The Noetic Revolution

Toward an Integral Science of Matter, Mind and Spirit

David Paul Boaz
(Dechen Wangdu)

Draft, 2011

©2011 by David Paul Boaz, Copper Mountain Institute. All rights reserved. www.coppermount.org www.davidpaulboaz.org (505) 898-9592

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CONTENTS
Introduction: The Emerging Noetic Revolution...................................................................... 3 The Unified Quantum Vacuum and the Buddhist View of the Great Perfection..............6 Modernity and its Discontents............................................................................................6 Scientific Knowledge and Ontological Relativity: Kuhn, Bohr, Quine and Alan Wallace.....................................................................9 Quine’s Revolution: Epistemological Holism in Science and Philosophy.................12 Bridge Building: Toward a New Paradigm for Science and Spirituality....................15 The Unified Quantum Vacuum: The Union of Science and Spirit?.............................17 Ontological Interdependence: The Problem of Knowledge Revisited........................20 Principia Dharmata: The Buddhist View of the Nature of Mind..................................22 A Glimpse of the Great Perfection...................................................................................27 The End of the Great Search..............................................................................................31 Space and Time From Pythagoras to Einstein..........................................................................34 Light Before Einstein..........................................................................................................34 Special Relativity: Light Energy is the Wisdom of Emptiness.....................................36 The Quantum Revolution............................................................................................................41 The Ultraviolet Catastrophe..............................................................................................41 Being and Time...................................................................................................................43 Post-Quantum Logic: West Meets East..........................................................................45 The Great Quantum Debate: Einstein, Bohr, and a New Ontology...........................47 Toward A Post-Quantum Noetic Ontology..............................................................................53 Being Here: The Perennial Mind-Body Problem and the Middle Way.....................53 Cartesian Meditations: The “Hard Problem of Consciousness” and the Nature of Mind....................................................................................................56 One Truth: The Prior Unity of Quantum Physics and Buddhist Metaphysics.........59 The Secret of Human Happiness?....................................................................................64 Postscript: Notes on Quantum Emptiness, Ontological Interdependence, and Free Will.....65 Causality..............................................................................................................................65 Ontological Interdependence............................................................................................66 A Rose is a Rose: The Paradox of Perception................................................................67 Choosing Reality: Quantum Emptiness and Free Will................................................68 Human Happiness and Free Will.....................................................................................71 Strange Interlude: Reduction, Paradox and Realization...............................................72 Toward a Secular Ethic of Compassion...........................................................................73 Appendix A: Dzogchen, the Great Perfection.............................................................................75 Appendix B: The Idols of the Tribe: The Metaphysics of Science..........................................76 Appendix C: The Structures of Consciousness.........................................................................77 Appendix D: The Non-Meditation That is Happiness Itself...................................................79 Appendix E: Toward an Integral Ecology of Mind..................................................................80 Appendix F: Being Here: Reflections on the Nature of mInd.................................................81 Bibliography.................................................................................................................................. 82 2

Introduction The Emerging Noetic Revolution
For no light matter is at stake. The question concerns the very way that human life is to be lived. - Plato (The Republic, Book I) In the second century CE two great scholar-masters, Nagarjuna in the East and Plotinus in the West, began the nondual knowledge revolution in our great Primordial Wisdom Tradition that is just now emerging as the Noetic Revolution of the Twenty-first Century. (Nondual here means no essential subject-object, matter-spirit separation). As the developmental dialectic of our species’ emotional, spiritual and ethical evolution proceeds, and the ontological estrangement of the present modern/postmodern worldview of scientific materialism/functionalism recedes, this incipient global noetic (mind/spirit) reformation in religion, science and culture has gently reintroduced to humankind an interior, integral and transpersonal knowledge paradigm, discoverable through the contemplative injunctions of the spiritual paths of our Great Wisdom Tradition. This Wisdom Tradition teaches of the profound dialectic of the Two Fundamental Truths—our two ways of being here—the Relative Truth (samvriti satya) of conventional spacetime reality, and the ultimate truth (paramartha satya), the infinite perfectly subjective nondual ultimate reality that transcends, yet embraces it. I will argue herein that this rigorous cognitive coupling of our objective understanding with the deep subjective realization of this momentous principle of the indivisible unity and dimensional interdependence of these two seemingly incommensurable paradigms—the conceptual Two Truths as the trans-conceptual one truth—is the inherent treasure of mind, our heart’s desire, and both origin and aim of all our seeking. A robust, integral science of matter, mind and spirit must utilize this phenomenological “doublet” of both third person objective (science) and first person subjective (spirit) methodologies if it is to guide our conscious evolution—individually and therefore collectively—through the ascending life stages of human psychospiritual development. These primordial wisdom teachings have, at last, been introduced into Western cognitive science, neuroscience, consciousness studies and philosophy of mind to help resolve the “Problem of Consciousness,” the “hard problem” of the “explanatory gap” between the data of exterior objective physical brain states (second and third person data) and the arising of private interior subjective awareness states (introspective first person reports). Do neurobiological brain processes cause subjective awareness states? If so, how? This conundrum is fundamental to understanding the perennial “mind-body problem.” What is the actual relationship of our physical body to our mind? Of matter to spirit? Of science to spirituality? Of science to religion? Are these two paradigms—these two ways of being here—as utterly incommensurable as they seem? Consciousness (first person reports) supervenes or depends upon brain processes, but how? Clearly, the “irreducibility of consciousness” precludes a naive reduction of consciousness to purely physical (third person) brain states or epiphenomena of such states. First person introspective reports of subjective experience cannot be eliminated or reduced to third person objective data or phenomena, for to do so precludes the very possibility of 3

subjective direct first person conscious experience at all. Consciousness then, is necessarily first personal subjective. Merely materialist/functionalist approaches cannot account for subjective experience. Consciousness gets left outside. With what shall we fill this explanatory gap between our outer objective and inner subjective experience? Objective matter? Subjective spirit? Causal neurochemical correlates? The mind of God? We shall see that this explanatory gap that is the paradox of mind is bridged by the full Bodhi of samadhi/moksha that is liberation/enlightenment. Let us remember that the conscious formulation of the “hard problem of consciousness” necessarily requires the very consciousness that is in question. Perhaps then, there is no problem of consciousness at all. The emerging “new science of consciousness” that unifies and includes Western neuroscience and Eastern contemplative science (adhyatmavidya) is an urgent juncture in this perennial “Problem of Knowledge.” Such an incipient unified science is a precursor to a truly integral noetic science of matter, mind, and spirit, and an augury to any fruitful and provident integration of the two paradigms that are science and spirit/spirituality toward a higher, subtler, post-materialist and post-metaphysical unifying synthesis that furthers human happiness and well-being. But more importantly, the “hard problem of consciousness” points to that prior, really hard mind-body problem, namely the primordial dualism, that split between being and nonbeing, form and emptiness, the objective finite existence of our bodymind, and our ultimately subjective infinite sourceground in which, or in whom everything arises. We shall see that it is this primary, separative dualism, this amnesis or forgetting of our actual, ultimate “supreme source”—Tao, our Christ/Buddha Nature—that is the root cause of human evil, the egocentric, then ethnocentric and gendercentric ignorance that is fear, anger and aggression—and their horrible result—despotism, war, genocide and despair. And it is the recognition, then realization of the prior unity of this primal separation of matter and spirit that is our liberation and ultimate happiness. So it is told in the continuity of nondual wisdom traditions that is the primordial Great Wisdom Tradition of our kind. The emerging epistemic and ontic Noetic Revolution in religion, science and culture is nothing less than a global consciousness shift toward the light. This unfolding developmental or evolutionary phase transition is the direct result of the decision, during the past century, by recent and living masters of the primary Eastern wisdom traditions—Buddhism, Veda/Vedanta, Taoism, Sufism—to transmit their hitherto secret nondual view and profound contemplative yogic technologies (first person plus third person data) to prepared teachers and students in both the West and the East. The resulting view and robust, holistic, yet radically pluralistic methodology of this nascent Noetic Revolution now begins the integration of the paradigmatic “Two Truths”— relative/finite and ultimate/infinite—that arise historically as the mythic pre-modern, the objective modern and the subjective postmodern wisdom of our Great Wisdom Tradition. Thus it is told by the masters of this tradition: realization of the perfectly subjective ultimate nature of reality, the very Nature of Mind abides in our relationship to the infinite, that essential ontological interdependence of our painful finite existence, and this always present, aware numinous matrix of all being. This realization is being Tao, “The Bright” Kham Brahm of the old Vedas, Christos/logos, our indwelling Christ nature, and the “innermost secret” presence 4

then perfect it through compassionate activity in our everyday lifeworld conduct. everywhere. Plato—teach that it is this infinite primordial womb. mahasukka). enfolds and in whom arises all unfolding finite appearing spacetime reality. in the subtlest nondual view. including we beings who experience and try to understand it. And wonder of wonders. the fruitful ambiguity that is the ultimate “hard problem” of knowledge and happiness for our species as we participate together in the emerging new integral Noetic Revolution? 5 . a most amazing paradox. biological and cognitive sciences. and the nondual Buddhist view of the Great Perfection to the resolution of this. our Great Wisdom Tradition arises in the Axial Age (800 to 200 BCE) the great axial sages—Buddha. That (Tat/Sat) is who we actually are—our supreme identity—undreamt of in the thoughtful slumber of human reason and belief. The result. As this. Yes. this profound epistemic/ontic syntheisis is. is the contribution of relativistic quantum field theory and quantum cosmology. “already accomplished. Lao Tzu. spontaneously. utterly ineffable nondual Spirit that is Reality Itself that embraces. The urgent task now of our inchoate Noetic Revolution is the integration of the subjective nondual wisdom and compassion of this primordial tradition with the objective and pragmatic knowledge of the physical.” deep within us. Yet. from the exoteric relative view we must do something. the happiness that cannot be lost. this is the nondual “innermost secret” primordial wisdom—by whatever name—that pervades the highest or subtlest teaching of the primary traditions that comprise our nondual Great Wisdom Tradition. What then. Why? For the benefit and ultimate happiness of all beings. at the spiritual Heart (hridyam) of each human being. we must recognize. Pathagoras. then realize. according to our great Tradition. Indeed.(vidya/rigpa) of primordial Dzogchen. is “Happiness Itself” (paramananda. Astonishingly. the Buddhist Madhyamaka Great Perfection that is our supreme sourceground.

. The perceiving. beliefs and expectations.” Theory (concept and belief) defines and determines what we observe. knowing subject is always part of the equation. Things appear in the world not so much as they actually are. Wilding 1982). .The Unified Quantum Vacuum and the Buddhist View of the Great Perfection Modernity and Its Discontents Prelude: seeing is believing. “. the “langue” or “background theory” of the prevailing Western physicalist materialist paradigm (epistemological Realism. Descartes and Galileo. Empirical observation statements are theory-dependent. Can we step outside this intersubjective cultural “web of belief?” Yes. conception and belief are infected with the unconscious deep subjective cognitive baggage of the cultural tradition in which we arise and participate. It has now become very difficult to argue that we can know the world objectively. The Western intellectual tradition has largely failed to understand that there are realms of knowledge and meaning that lie prior to the natural limit of human reason. the conceptual semantic topology of language with its cultural assumptions. and none correspond in any straight-forward way to objective objects existing in their own right independent of our experience. . . our preconscious. This monistic objectivist. It is descended from the unproven and unprovable metaphysical assumption of Monistic Physicalism. as we shall see. consciousness studies and philosophy of mind agree: “Perception is . In light of such discoveries. perception. Modernity: the tyranny of objectivity. The appropriate description for a given input is highly dependent on the way the perceiver chooses to process it. The Modernist scientific pretension to rationality that is the dogma of the contemporary cult of Scientific Materialism arose as the 17th Century Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution with Bacon. independent reality.M. We think and believe what we are culturally conditioned to think and believe. . The very notion of unmediated observation now seems highly questionable. it’s a mixed bag. Alan Wallace (1996) This advent of a new awareness of the inherent subjectivity of our cognitive life is the good news of the Postmodern reformation. scientific imperialism/Scientism). through “vertical spiritually empirical” (yogic) contemplative technologies.an instrument of the world as we have structured it by our expectancies” (J. All of our observations are theory laden. materialist ideology became the common belief system. . Our conscious experience is dictated in large part by our “cognitive unconscious.” (J. intersubjective deep cultural background concepts. . Our semiotic conceptual structures do not directly correspond to any external. the phrase ‘seeing is believing’ takes on new meaning: the very act of observation already entails a belief system that is not based simply on some hypothetical bare data. embedded as they are in our concept and belief systems. but as we are at the moment of their arising.” that is. Theories are underdetermined by their evidence. Our observation. the ontology that the 6 . Einstein to Heisenberg: “What we see depends on the theories we use to interpret our observations. Alas. The cognitive sciences. “All raw data are theory laden” (Quine).B. as we shall see. Brunier 1986). Our knowledge is perspectival.

independently existing reality (Scientific Realism) of exclusively physical objects (materialism) given to sense perception—Wilfrid Sellers “myth of the given”—through the medium of “sense data” (hyle). radically perspectivist Nietzschian skepticism. individualistic and relativistic “hermeneutics of suspicion” (Paul Ricoeur’s term) toward holistic metanarratives. Such exclusively representational cognition can be destructively dualistic for it essentially splits the knowing. biological. antinomian. Why must our ontology of nature be physicalist? It’s merely a belief. and tacitly. to objectify. mind and religion have rejected the myth of the given. exoteric and esoteric religion. non-conceptual direct experiences of our primordial source condition. distinct and separate from the consciousness of perceiving. replacing it with a reactionary subjectivist. and the excesses of the Classical Tradition. jnana. Most philosophers of science. a pathologically pluralistic. and rejected Greek material foundationalist Realism while acknowledging a relative conventional ontologically pluralistic Kosmos or souceground of interdependently arising (bathos/pratitya samutpada). Postmodernity was a reaction to this Modernist tyranny of reason and objectivity. assumes the existence of an objective. In the Twentieth Century the Postmodern Western mind rejected the crude Modernist Materialist ontology with its requisite radical objectivist epistemology. The “masters of suspicion” 7 . separate. Plato. The great exceptions to this Modernist materialist metaphysics that became the Western Tradition are Pythagoras. and yes. anthropomorphize and thereby idolize the perfect subjectivity of nondual non-theistic God. the very sourceground (cittadhatu) in which or in whom we and everything else arises. knowing subjects. This is one important difference between exoteric theistic religion—whether revealed/transcendental/ supernatural. the Christian Gnostics Theodus (disciple of Paul) and his great disciple. the prior unity of knowing subject and the object known. The Modernity of the 17th and 18th Century Enlightenment was an ideological flight to reason and rationality from the tradition and authority. sociocultural and historical. This myth presumes that sense experience may serve as a realist epistemological foundation for objectively certain knowledge. nonreducible dimensional orders: physical/chemical. These masters realized and transmitted our naked nondual Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. This inherent nondual primordial unity is reduced by Physicalist Materialism (Scientism) to mere separate physical matter (scientific reductionism). “And thus has philosophy been ruined” (Whitehead). As to the religious consciousness. nondual Spirit Itself. and nondual spirituality. Aristotle. perceiving subject from the object known thereby undermining realization of the higher truth of the symbiosis.whole of reality is merely and only physical. beyond belief. Galileo and Newton. The Postmodern Reformation. toward Platonic transcendence and unity. usually unconscious belief of the naive realism of most scientists and the non-philosophical public. yeshe). toward holarchy. of objective matter and subjective mind/spirit. and the Modernist mechanics of Descartes. This monolithic Western epistemic paradigm—our culture imaginaire— whose roots we find in the dualistic physicalist/ realist ontology of the pre-Socratic atomists. or natural/ rational—and spirituality. Scientism has reduced the seed of truth in religion—subjective indwelling spirit/spirituality—with its inherent unity of nonseparate. Copernicus. and the Christian Age of Faith. Plotinus. to an objective attempt to possess God. hierarchy. but it is the widely held. poet master Valentinus. mental/emotional. non-transcendent Godhead.

Noetic Revolution reconstructs the nihilistic pathological pluralism of the Postmodern outlook and restores the subjectivity of our Great Wisdom Tradition.S. The nihilistic antirealist ideologues of this post-structural.” The Postmodern mind will not transcend its signs. materialist rationality of the Enlightenment Project. demonstrating that science. Quine. Marx and Freud. institutions. non-rational cultural core that it cannot escape (See Appendix B: The Idols of the Tribe: The Metaphysics of Science). These Postmodern philosophers correctly rejected the 400 year hegemony of the Western “final vocabulary” (Rorty) that is “Foundationalist” Material Realism. besides Nietzsche. and nondual ultimate spirit. Heidegger. and the Pragmatists C. thereby opening a way to the divine that abides within each human being. John Dewey. namely. and in theology. and the antirealist Neopragmatists W.were Nietzsche. seem unable to move beyond the limits of habitual reason toward the emerging noetic (mind/spirit) paradigm that synthesizes. toward our Great Wisdom Tradition’s compassionate “pure vision” (p. naturalistic countervoice to centuries of invidious metaphysical paradigmatic bickering among the foundational realist/idealist and rationalist/empiricist ideologies of the Western Canon. to the emerging pragmatic view that integrates the “Two Truths”—the two paradigms—that are dualistic relative-conventional science. William James. Regarding this Postmodern project. the very paradigm of reason and rationality has a theory laden dogmatic. the discontents of the Modernist. Paul Ricoeur (1978) suggests that such a hermeneutics of suspicion may liberate us (liberation theology) from the logocentric false idols that are the transcendental absolutes of Western monotheism. For the postmodern mind perceptual and conceptual experience is relativistic and perspectival—merely my relative perspective embodied in the intersubjective sociocultural spacetime of history. Dewey’s historicosociological approach in his Reconstruction in Philosophy offers methods useful to the emerging rapprochement between the ostensibly incommensurate paradigms of science and spirituality. Peirce. The emerging integral. its meta-language to any subtler or deeper meaning or reality. and serves as a bridge from the separative absolutism of the Modernist scientific paradigm and the counter-ethical relativistic nihilism of the Postmodern response. and through that. Jergen Habermas and Richard Rorty. Feuerbach. the mature pragmatic Wittgenstein. Indeed. Let us now turn to the epistemological and ontological holism that emerged at midcentury. we must here remember that the dogmatic. programmatic rejection of all metanarratives is itself a metanarrative that may not survive its own logical deconstruction. and spontaneously expresses as compassionate conduct in individuals. Postmodern outlook. John Dewey on the Postmodern mind: “The despair of any integrated outlook and attitude is the chief intellectual characteristic of the present age. dualistic reason and nondual spirit—objective rationality and compassionate subjective spirituality. then utilizes both of the defining qualities of human being in form.V. the fruition of an integral noetic science of mind (adhyatmavidya) is the reconstruction and transformation of the despair of the relational trauma and conflict inherent in the narcissistic personal and social politics of dualistic “normal neurotic” perception. include the new skeptics. even these Postmodern ideologues. Modernist unity and the philosophy of the subject/self is replaced by relativistic otherness/difference/ differance/ diversity.32). 8 . Yet. The pragmatists in particular. Karl Barth. offered a practical “radically empirical” (James). namely the Deconstructionists Derrida and Foucault.

As this new paradigm ascends. These paradigms then become ideologically entrenched and dogmatically defended. “Mature science”—the “hard” physical and biological sciences—are not divergent but convergent with its own unconscious material realist worldview. -John Muir Discourse on Method Science’s view of science. Cases in point: the transcend and include dialectic of Newtonian mechanics to relativistic mechanics to quantum mechanics. Such unsolved puzzles cause a “breakdown of the paradigm. scientific research is not. In 1962. making inter-paradigm comparisons exceedingly difficult. with his immensely influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” This precipitates a “scientific crisis” of confidence and an openness to a competing alternative paradigm. is that scientific method is the apotheosis of rational. This represents a “paradigm shift” or “gestalt shift. Unbiased communication across paradigms cannot occur. other than in an instrumental intraparadigm sense. antirealist sociological account of science demonstrated that scientific knowledge is not rational and objective. Such normal science is always governed by a “paradigm. Quine and Alan Wallace When we try to pick out anything by itself we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. Against Method: Kuhn’s holistic paradigm paradigm.” Competing paradigms are “incommensurable. physicist and historian of science Thomas Kuhn shattered this idealized view of objective scientific rationality. Kuhn utilized a close reading—not of the philosophy of science. logically defensible knowledge. knowledge. There can be no paradigm-neutral observation. and not of the heroic breakthroughs of science—but of the natural history of everyday “normal science. For example. along with science’s primary explanatory ideology. The dogmatism in the revolutionary new paradigm eventually generates the next crisis and its revolution. Building upon the work of Alexandre Koyré. and progress. 9 . Logical Positivism (with the help of Wittgenstein and Quine). and is not cumulative or progressive.” a temporary general consensus among a community of practitioners about current methodology and foundational and fundamental principles. Eventually “anomalies” arise—problems or “puzzles” that cannot be resolved within the established paradigm. and so forth. as exemplified by philosopher of science Karl Popper.” that is. the old paradigm recedes and finally a “scientific revolution” occurs.” Kuhn’s deflationary. but dogmatic and close-minded as to its fundamental metaphysical assumptions. on Kuhn’s accord. Newton’s conception of mass is incommensurate with Einstein’s. they cannot be evaluated by neutral or common methods. The Western scientific materialist tradition is seen as the triumphal result of cumulative scientific progress. This tradition outpictures the profound intellectual tension between traditional and historical hermeneutics.Scientific Knowledge and Ontological Relativity: Kuhn. Here. The Standard Model of contemporary physics is a case in point. Bohr. so much evidentiary as dogmatic. With incommensurability follows the untenability of scientific reduction. Here then is the dialectic: a crisis in a scientific paradigm causes a scientific revolution. opinions and expectations.

or nominalism). there is no necessary “real world out there” (RWOT) independent of the nomic theoretical contents of the paradigm. There is no ideal of objective scientific evidence independent of theory. and from the empiricist metaphysics of its Modernist precursor. The Postmodern reformation then. scientific observation within a paradigm is “theory laden. author of the holistic quantum Principle of Complementarity concluded that the purpose of scientific theory is not the discovery of intrinsic truths about a representational pre-given pre-existing independent reality “mirror of nature. Both Werner Heisenberg—the author of the other essential principle of the Quantum Theory. particles. forces etc. Niels Bohr. materialist project resulted in the unspeakable horror of the first half of the Twentieth Century.” but rather to clarify and explore the relationship of our cognitive perceptual frameworks—our consciousness—to the quantum information bits (qubits) arising from this presumed atomic reality (Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature. is called instrumentalism. fields.” A scientific paradigm finally succumbs when the old school believers die off and a new vanguard achieves academic tenure. leaving a Faustian legacy of geopolitical viciousness. neurobiology. All observation and belief is theory dependent and theory is always “underdetermined by its evidence. philosophy of mind and Madhyamaka Buddhist epistemology as vanguards of the way. but not across paradigms. Scientific knowledge occurs within paradigms. ideology and idiom of the paradigm.” What scientists (and the rest of us) observe is a function of what we believe and expect to see. has been a radical anti-realist reassessment of this modernist “Enlightenment Project” with its idealization of Realism. free of the invidious rationalist Modernist meaning constructions of Beauty. cognitive “gestalt shifts” across competing paradigms are akin to a religious conversion. Ontological relativity. There is no extra-paradigmatic reality. It opposes the Neorealism of Einstein and the “hidden variables” realists (p. I will argue here that this recovery is nothing less than a new reformation in religion. anti-realist new Noetic Revolution—with quantum field theory and quantum cosmology.—are merely pragmatic descriptive instruments. consciousness studies. reason and epistemological. Moreover. Kuhn’s profound deflation and reconstruction of realist. Goodness and Truth. antinomian and subjectivist postmodern critique of Modernity’s dogmatic.” Here both Derrida and Rorty have sacked the entire modern Enlightenment ideal.48). romantic idealization of scientific objectivity.” Because of inevitable dogmatic attachment to the current constituting theories. science and culture—a pragmatic. insecurity and terror. realist.” Indeed. not independently existing “real” things. antifoundationalist. (or operationalism. arguing instead for a nihilistic and skeptical utopian ideal. objectivist scientific knowledge continues the cynical.53ff) The Western mind is now in recovery from the nihilism of the Postmodern metaphysical pretension to skepticism. Is there a middle Way? (p. that the theoretical constructs of physics—waves. Modernity’s rational. 1934). Further. the obsessive proto-religion of objectivist functionalist Scientific Materialism (Scientism) with its infernal “taboo of subjectivity. the “Uncertainty Principle”—and Bohr understood that the Quantum Theory makes 10 . This vital antirealist alternative philosophy of physics.Thus. Believers on each side participate in “different worlds. and truth as correspondence with appearances. political and scientific “progress.

“The Bright” that is the outshining (abhasa) clearlight awareness of mind. and physicists. is devoid of its own inherent nature.no assumptions about an inherently existing “real” objective physical reality. exoteric. Bohr. This whole is necessarily closed by the Planck limit and the quantum uncertainty relations to such theoretical conceptual penetration. about the cognitive relationship of the consciousness of the experimenter/observer to the measurement of quantum event information. but is rather. biology and psychology) have pointed out that the laws of physics are highly idealized nomological cognitive constructs that describe the behavior of appearing objects within the context of a theoretical model. For Method. Indeed. the Buddhist Madhyamaka Prasangika and Dzogchen view. trees and stars. Quine and other philosophers of science (physics. To penetrate this ostensible barrier we utilize “spiritual empirical” estoerically objective. Nothing exists by its own nature. Natural science is a science of information. neuroscientists. In his excellent Hidden Dimensions (2007). . be a bit of unbridled ontological speculation— not for the metaphysically squeamish—upon this one “truth” that is. not a science of a world that exists prior to and independent of information. In other words. or identity. nomic conventional explanations of the behavior of phenomena arising through the ultimately subjective noumenon. everything that we apprehend. He concludes that there is a “broad consensus among psychologists. is the persistent quantum “measurement problem” that abides at the margin between subjective “virtual” reality and ostensibly objective physical reality. be it microscopic particles or macroscopic cats. exist relative to the sensory faculties or systems of measurement by which they are detected—not independently in the objective world. Kuhn. as we shall see.” This is of course. Scientific laws give us left brain.. [that] perceived objects. persons. Let our next stop then. . and should not prescriptively pretend to describe the ontological nature or essence of appearing objects. . most verily the ultimate nature of Reality Itself. the matrix base that is the Platonic/Kantian diaphanous “thing-in-itself. concept and belief. independent of the means by which it is known. there is no way to separate the universe we know from the information we have about it. or the objective existence of its elementary particles. Such idealized models are limited by their mathematical formalism and cannot causally enrich speculative ontology. interdependent whole in which they arise. and do not descriptively. Introducing his seminal “Theory of Ontological Relativity” Wallace states: There is one truth that is invariant (absolute) across all cognitive frames of reference.. This revolutionary nondual view—introduced in the first Noetic Revolution in the Second Century by Nagarjuna and Plotinus—simultaneously cognizes the prior unity of the objective scientific study of nature/matter with the direct 11 ..” Plato’s “first principle. Such is the emerging view and method of the epistemic Noetic Revolution that is now upon us. nor the subjective depth of the unbroken.” beyond the exoteric “ambiguity barrier” created by the phenomenological limit of discursive theory. Alan Wallace agrees. first person contemplative yogic technologies. .. Schödinger’s “collapse of the wave function” (the state-vector reduction) at the instant of a measurement (or of a perception) by a consciousness. the very essence or Nature of Mind. or observable entities. whether perceptually or conceptually.

12 .” (Epistemology is how we know what there is. Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000) is considered by many in the philosophy trade to be the most important Western philosopher of the Twentieth Century. This raises the problem of “auxiliary hypotheses. namely that these apparent dimensional strata and states are nondual and non-separate from the dualistic consciousness that apprehends them. allembracing nondual Spirit that transcends yet embraces nature. We will then return to a less metaphysically ambitious. “those who know” and teach the various meditative contemplative injunctions.knowing (vidya/rigpa/epinoia) of our perfectly subjective sourceground (cittadhatu). Rather. poiesis and praxis. collective happiness. the hypothesis “All copper conducts electricity” is neither verifiable nor falsifiable in isolation. What makes ontological questions meaningless when taken absolutely is not universality but circularity. We need auxiliary hypotheses from our basis of prior assumptions and beliefs regarding electrical conductance.” For example. entify or posit metaphysical/ontological entities—”transcendental signified” logocentric absolutes arising to consciousness—whether propositionally or mythologically/metaphorically. and in whom everything arises. somewhat critical inquiry into this radically empiricist methodology. if dualistically explored and confirmed by the “vertical/spiritual empiricism” (Ken Wilber) of the masters. that is. and may be fruitfully. and its fruition. concept and belief. through the modalities of matter/mind/ spirit. our ultimate individual and. Esoteric spirituality experiences it directly. Therefore a proposition cannot be empirically tested and shown to be true or false without referring to prior deep background assumptions and beliefs in the meta-language matrix.) In his seminal “Ontological Relativity” (1969) Quine develops his thesis that when a theory postulates its existent entities in a given language—its “object language”—it does so by translating its theory’s propositions (statements) about those entities into a “metalanguage” or background matrix or web of prior assumptions and beliefs. Ontology is relative to our conventional cultural and scientific concept and belief systems. in due course. post-metaphysical noetic methodology.’ The answer makes only relative sense: sense relative to the uncritical acceptance of ‘G’ “ (Ontological Relativity 1969) Thus the ontological status of phenomenal reality is relative to something prior. that is nothing less than psychospiritual liberation. In this regard I will attempt not to reify. theory and practice. its contemplative injunctions. Quine’s Revolution: Epistemological Holism in Science and Philosophy Ontological Relativity. I will follow a post-Kantian. The entities or objects of the object language are relative to and supervene or are dependent upon the prior subjective “coordinate grid” that are the assumptions and beliefs of the meta-language. to the subjective deep background assumptions in our individual and collective “web of belief. A question of the form ‘What is an F’ can be answered only by recourse to a further term: “An F is a G. His Ontological Relativity (indeterminacy of reference) is the thesis that ontology— ”what there is”—is relative to language. Organized religion seeks this ground through exoteric ritual. It makes no sense to inquire about the absolute meaning of a statement or object.

appearing entities of our conceptually reified reality are non-objective. empirical evidence in isolation is not an adequate criterion of decidability as to theory vindication. and also that empirical evidence is suitable to adjudicate theory validity. Since the primary metaphysical assumption—the ontology—of science is foundational Scientific Realism which holds that scientific knowledge consists of an ontic commitment to real theory-independent phenomena. prior causes and conditions.” The Logical Positivists. reduced meaning to immediately observable experience. In Quine’s “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”—the most celebrated philosophical essay of the Twentieth Century—he develops his radical epistemological holism (“confirmation holism” that is also a semantic holism).e. without the epistemological staff of a foundational “first philosophy. In Quine’s web of belief the data of 13 . etc. acupuncture meridians—without falling into spooky metaphysics.” namely epistemological Realism. 1967). no hypothesis is testable in isolation from the whole. Says Quine.” (Donald Davidson. the Big Bang. that is. Therefore.conductance meters. i. whose holistic “Context Principle” states that a word or phrase derives its meaning only from the entire context of a sentence. no belief is protected from revisions. and 2) all theory is “underdetermined” by its evidential data. This radical epistemological holism or “confirmational holism” leads to refreshing consequences fantasque. provided we modify other pertinent internal components—auxiliary hypotheses— within the theoretical system. then empirical observation cannot logically require any changes to a theory. “the unit of measure of empirical meaning is all science in its globality. is also a holism of meaning. The two basic precepts of Quine’s holism are 1) interpretation of an empirical observation is “theory laden” or theory dependent. Holistic assault on objectivity. The Quine-Duhem Thesis. If the propositions our theories generate about what exists in appearing reality are underdetermined by the empirical evidential data of our senses. that verify our theories and our paradigms. in isolation from the whole of the base or metalanguage. Conversely. theories or beliefs. is context dependent and arises only interdependently. copper wire. not mere propositions. There will always be multiple theories supported by the data. Objectivity necessarily refers us to a prior subjective base or source. on Qunie’s account. the arising. that is. verification. Scientific propositions or statements are a web of interconnected. What was needed was a theory that accounts for unobserved phenomena—quarks. Quine asserts that ultimately it is the whole of science. This radical holism regarding theory testability and verification. or truth. not independently. Therefore our perception and cognition face the vast crucible of Reality Itself nakedly. Quine’s radical naturalistic epistemological holism undermines both common sense/naive Realism and Scientific Realism. Thus. “Comprehending a proposition means comprehending a language” (Philosophical Investigations). fearing metaphysical statements. As Wittgenstein pointed out. “A sentence has meaning only in the context of a whole language. interdependent. it is dependent upon prior assumptions. Thus the Quine-Duhem Thesis states that any proposition can be asserted to be true regardless of the data. if not the whole of Reality Itself. namely related hypotheses and theories. Quine here builds upon the broad contextual shoulders of the great logician Gottlob Frege (1848-1925). statements that ultimately constitute the whole of science. In place of the reductionism (meaningful statements are reducible to observation statements) of the Logical Positivists. Meaning then. the atomic number of copper.

The notion of cognitive paradigms introduced by Kuhn. In his revolutionary ”Two Dogmas of Empiricism” Quine reveals that Modern empiricism has been conditioned in large part by two dogmas. Quine’s essay constituted a devastating refutation of Logical Positivism. Quine’s holistic Naturalism is not an epistemological Relativism for he believed that our theories could and should be guided by “simplicity” (parsimony. So we can distribute the cognitive force of inconsistent empirical insults through the conceptual tweaking of other propositional constituents deeper within the system. One is the belief in some fundamental cleavage between truths which are analytic. intelligibility and worldview for the participants in the paradigm. And. Quine is a bridge. or grounded in fact. as with the science and spirituality paradigms. or grounded in meaning independently of matters of fact and truths which are synthetic.45)—are subject to revision. It is this Quine-Duhem Thesis that is the basis of Quine’s world changing contention that Kant’s foundational analytic/synthetic and apriori/aposteriori distinctions.” and serve no valuable scientific or philosophical purpose. The traditional destructive separation in our collective web of belief between scientific objectivity and subjective metaphysical speculation. Quine informs us that in abandoning these “Two Dogmas” we will observe “a blurring of the supposed gap between speculative metaphysics and natural science. Ockham’s Razor).” or “web of belief.empirical experience interfaces only with the surface boundary of the whole system. These “Two Dogmas” are the two epistemological pillars of Modern and Postmodern Scientific Empiricism with its Twentieth Century incarnation. And thus has philosophy been saved. The other dogma is reductionism: the belief that each meaningful statement is equivalent to some logical construct upon terms which refer to immediate experience. Another effect is a shift toward pragmatism” (Quine 1951).” or “form of life” in which one is cognitively embedded determines truth. to the emerging pragmatic reformation in religion. evaluation and communication across paradigms. Both are ill founded (Quine 1951). The demon of the scientific pretension to perfect rationality and objectivity is slain. Thus Quine is a bridge from the absolutism of the objectivist Scientific Realism and Scientific Materialism (Scientism) of Classical and Modernist ontology (and the fuzzy Romantic and skeptical nihilist Postmodern reactions thereto). However. Logical Atomism).53ff)? 14 . All sectors of our web of belief— even the laws of logic (p. Logical Positivism (Logical Empiricism. the preeminent anti-metaphysical scientific physicalist realist theory of the first half of the century. and “conservatism” (retain the best of the original theory). along with modern empiricist Reductionism are “ill founded. been logically subdued. at long last. science and culture that is our radically holistic new Noetic Revolution. the Quantum Principle of Uncertainty seems to violate the ”Law of Excluded Middle” of the Western logical canon. and between speculative philosophy and objective science has. Are these paradigms then truly incommensurable? Is there a Middle Way (p. For example. Quine and Wittgenstein demonstrates that the “paradigm. meaning. these resist translation.

According to Mahayana/Vajrayana Buddhism.’ . With the failure of the traditional representational correspondence and coherence theories of truth to pass epistemological muster.” endless “concealer truths” (avidya/vikshepa) that are the mass-energy phenomena interdependently arising (pratitya samutpada) in and as the “Interbeing” of empirical spacetime reality. whether as logically valid or invalid concepts. Chögyal Namkahi Norbu) The Two Truths are one taste. Cantor’s Aleph. This Perennial Wisdom conceptual duality of relative and ultimate dimensions is resolved in the nonconceptual “one truth.” and dualistic and nondual Vedanta (“nondual”—advaya/gnyis med—means no essential separation).” yet that includes both. the Great Perfection. is called ‘primordial Buddha. non-conceptual one truth that is Ultimate Reality Itself —Dharmakaya. the perennial “Two Truths” (satyadvaya. empirical causal truths while concealing their nondual ultimate nature. Tao. This relative truth reveals conceptual relative conventional. An integral ecology of mind. absolute and relative. appearing objects are nominally. infinite Consciousness-Being-Itself (cittata/sems nyid) continuously becoming (karma) finite particulars. and their actual ultimate nature. Tao. as the meaning of truth for the ancients—aletheia—the uncovering or uncloaking (vikshepa) activity that reveals the Real that abides just prior. This ultimate reality transcends yet embraces the dimension of “Relative Truth.22). this all-embracing “one truth” arises and presents as two levels or dimensions of reality. the one truth also transcends and embraces Ultimate or Absolute Truth. cloaks (vikshepa/avidya maya) the great primordial nondual one truth. The never-ending dialectic of these fundamental “Two Truths” of the nondual. Ein Soph. that golden thread of radical. with Ultimate Truth” (paramartha satya). the “perfect sphere” of Dzogchen. Yet.” the “truth that conceals. We live in two dimensions at once! These Two Truths define the way in which phenomena appear. 15 . Every one of the Yoga Systems of the Hindu Sanatana Dharma. Buddhist emptiness (shunyata). devoid of its own inherent nature. this “one truth” may be viewed less objectively and more pragmatically. The relative truth of perceptual and conceptual mind. discursively unelaborated ontologically prior unity of our Great Wisdom Tradition’s Relative Truth (samvriti satya).Bridge Building: Toward a New Paradigm for Science and Spirituality The inseparability of the two truths. This one truth is the nondual. which is merely our concepts and beliefs about the non-conceptual Absolute that enfolds everything that arises and appears.Kunjed Gyalpo (trans. denpa-nyis) of the unbounded whole that is Reality Itself. which is not the way that they appear. the warp that runs throughout the entire fabric of the “innermost secret” teaching of the major traditions of our Great Wisdom Tradition. This one unifying truth is simply the transconceptual unbroken whole. Nirguna Brahman— is nothing less than the infinite dance of geometry: involution and evolution. but not intrinsically or ultimately real (p. relative-conventionally real. the set that includes all sets. nondual truth. On the account of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. and each of the four Buddhist Schools—the Hinayana (Vaibhashika and Sautrantika) and Mahayana (Chittamtra and Madhyamaka)—subscribe to some variation of the Two Truths. Thus the Two Truths are Buddhist “emptiness and form.

evolution. Telos. Tao) that is perfectly subjective ultimate Consciousness Being Itself. All arising spacetime phenomena participate in the 16 . there is no such thing as an observer and an object to observe. Understanding the essential unborn condition is not an object to observe dualistically. According to our Great Wisdom Tradition. our supreme source (Appendix E: Toward an Integral Ecology of Mind). and universes of the infinite oscillating Metaverse. This is the process of “the eternal return” to nondual Spirit. Kosmos) of our formless primordial awareness matrix sourceground—Absolute Spirit—into the broken symmetries of the relative forms of empirical spacetime (cosmos). this one truth—unnameable ultimate reality by whatever name—is the conceptually but not contemplatively ineffable monadic source or matrix. The Supreme Source (trans. transcends and embraces the unfolding “Many” that is the luminous plurality and multiplicity of the merely physical spacetime cosmos. ontogeny. the divine “One” of Plotinus that enfolds.) These forces are of course. and the all inclusive base or sourceground of all that arises therein. Apeiron. interdependently inter-connected prior unity. in the nondual view. (This rose. Although lacking self-nature everything exists clearly. without need for a view. This non-material. the relative particles and waves that we have come to know and love—photons (light) and bosons (force)—of arising relative spacetime reality. but abide as a timeless nondual unity. Emptiness is form” said the Buddha in his Heart Sutra. Nondual Spirit is both pinnacle and base. stars. is the vast primordial emptiness (shunyata) potential in whom arises the cyclic non-local interdependent connectedness (pratitya samutpada) of this bright primordial aboriginal stuff becoming matter. then the ascent or “eternal return”(agape. minds. including we sentient beings. However. in due course evolves a witnessing intelligence/ consciousness that recognizes the fundamental nonlocal.This process is viewed dualistically as the descent (Plato’s Eros. non-entity that is ultimate subjectivity (the prior unity of all subjects and objects). “Form is emptiness. spirit and matter have never separated. the nature shines clear. by any name would smell as sweet. beings. chos nyid. “What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of infinite space” (Schrödinger).. In terms of the source. abide in the supreme source in a condition of birthlessness. (Kosmos is the Pathagorean. the very unbounded whole of Kosmos. All the phenomena of existence. pure and total consciousness.. phylogeny)—through the unconscious horizontal and conscious vertical spiritual paths—again to nondual Spirit.) So. the root of all phenomena. the pinnacle of psychospiritual development. This is the great understanding! -Kunjed Gyalpo. Namkhai Norbu 1999) This non-physical or metaphysical sourceground of Reality—Kosmos— subsumes the Quantum Vacuum that is cosmology’s material and physical “Zero-Point Field”/”Akashic Field” that is physical/material cosmos. kadag. dharmata. galaxies. without exception. Ultimate Reality Itself. I am the mirror in which all phenomena are reflected. while abiding in a relationship of identity with all of the parts. As the supreme source (Samantabhadra). phenomena arising from this vast primordial sourceground (gzhi. the ”Zero Womb” of the primordial Goddess that generates all of the force fields that give rise to material bodies and their forces.

V. (Wallace. -Basho Philosopher and physicist Ervin Laszlo views Relativistic Quantum Field Theory’s Quantum Vacuum—the vacuum state or the “zero-point energy”—as the basis of all relative spacetime reality. although “spacelike separation” of the participating parts of the unbroken whole obtains. Again. holistic paradigm in physics and cosmology. and galaxies throughout the universe. the “plenum void” that is the “Akashic Field” (manakasha/namkhah). 2003) or W. the Great Perfection. interdependent and nondual. Thus. Let us then briefly consider the Unified Quantum Vacuum that is the zero point energy field. -Ervin Laszlo (2006) Physicist Paul Dirac attempts a noble description of this luminous quantum emptiness that is the “zero womb” that enfolds everything and in whom everything arises: 17 . Thus the relationship is.12)—and of any “Theory of Everything” (TOE). This ontologically necessary yet epistemologically contingent prior unity must be the fundamental principle of any theory of ontological relativity—Alan Wallace’s Theory of Ontological Relativity or David Finkelstein’s Universal Relativity Principle. relative and ultimate. This unity. joining the four universal fields of physics: the G-Field (the gravitational field). prior ontological unity of the conceptual perennial Two Truths. stars. We will then explore Buddhist epistemology and ontology through the view of the Great Perfection and its potential impact upon the emerging. There is a deeper reality in the cosmos. this “one taste” is a most profound subtle ecology of mind. The Unified Quantum Vacuum: The Union of Science and Spirit? The trouble with most poetry is that it is either objective or subjective. There is a vast oneness (longchen. at once. this primordial awareness (jnana/yeshe) whose spontaneous presence (lhundrub) abides within all things. there can be no essential separation. the EM-field (the electromagnetic field) and the strong and the weak short-range fields that create attraction and repulsion among the particles of the atomic nucleus. a field that conserves and conveys information and thus connects and correlates. Quine’s Ontological Relativity (p. . and particles. I have called the unifying principle of this non-conceptual “one truth” the Principle of Ontological Interdependence. an ontologically prior unity.” This view is apparently shared by Alan Wallace (“Vacuum States of Consciousness”). whose precursor is the antirealist Quantum Field theory. a field that “connects organisms and minds in the biosphere. The Akashic Field is a universal field. nonlocal. this one truth is the nondual monadic. svabhava). . in its relation to this “primordially present” one truth that for the nondual Buddhist View is the “self-perfected state” of the perfect sphere of Dzogchen.“primordial purity” (kadag) of this vast consciousness base (gzhi).

This Zero Point Energy Field—the “energy of empty space”— Bohm’s “Zero Point Order” or “Implicate Order. then it emerged again as his “cosmological constant. This dark energy is the reincarnation of Einstein’s Cosmological Constant (“The worst blunder I ever made”). as the “Luminiferous Ether. we cannot determine its momentum. “spooky” residue of a quantum system when it is “compactified. and vice versa.” “Empty space is not empty” (John Wheeler). It appears as nothingness— immaterial.” was anticipated by the ancients. the less precise is the measurement of its momentum (its mass times its velocity). This description of the momentary particles of the Quantum Vacuum is reminiscent of Buddhist Kalachakra tantra’s empty “space particles. the electromagnetic. Quantum Field Theory predicts that all of space is filled with the Zero Point Energy of the three basic forces of nature. . namely the Casimir Effect. and this has quantifiable effects. The vacuum state is then. or more accurately.” is the leading candidate for cosmology’s mysterious dark energy. which any viable T.All matter is created out of some perceptible substance not accurately described as material since it uniformly fills all space and is undetectable by any observation. and cosmology’s Cosmological Constant.Paul Dirac (in Huston Smith. the strong and the weak interactions (the fourth force is gravity). must explain. the “Zero Womb” (Bohm) matrix of the birth of all universes in the cyclic oscillating “metaverse. and by both Planck and Einstein. This wave equation became Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) or Relativistic Electrodynamics and fully integrated classical Special and General Relativity with the post-classical Quantum Theory.” the root and primary cause of all phenomenal reality. It’s not that everything is uncertain. The root explanation for Zero Point Energy is Heisenberg’s quantum uncertainty relations—the Uncertainty Principle—which states that the more precise the measurement of a particle’s position. Heisenberg’s uncertainty. 1976) In 1927 Dirac objectively supports this poetic metaphysical conjecture by unifying the Quantum Theory with Relativity Theory—and predicting the existence of antimatter in the bargain—with the sublime mathematical formalism of his Dirac Equation. It is not an empty void.out of which all matter is created. So. Unification? This Unified Quantum Vacuum..E. If we determine the particle’s momentum we cannot know its position.” The ether theory was rejected by Einstein in his Special Relativity theory. but is rather.” This Zero Point Energy. possibly the long sought unification of the four forces in a non-objective “fifth force. a zero point energy state with a non-zero potential. indeterminacy is not a function of measurement or of instruments. undetectable. Zero Point Energy is the paradoxical. . That uncertainty. it is intrinsic to the very nature of apparently physical reality. Laszlo’s “plenum void” is suspected by many physicists 18 . and omnipotent.” This unifying fifth force would be the ground state or substrate (alayavijnana) of the entire physical cosmos. We can measure precisely a particle’s position or momentum. but not both. inherent in the wave-like nature of the light of the Zero Point Energy Field itself. particles and antiparticles to enter and exit spacetime reality. and represents a major explanatory challenge for the Standard Model. but permits momentary electromagnetic waves.O. . If we precisely locate the particle in a quantum system. as we shall see..

for the private abode of information—clever. the strong force.” the godlike supreme human intellect’s desideratum devoutly to be wished. subjectively what lies therin. the Absolute Basic Space of the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. 19 . This conceptual limit is the utterly ineffable estate of the noumenon. it is here. the union of science and spirit? Is the Unified Quantum Vacuum of quantum cosmology the Ultimate Truth that is nondual Absolute Spirit. and experience directly. all that has actually occurred is that the “Akashic Field” has set a zero point limit— the Planck Scale—beyond which the human conceptual mind and its reductionist physics cannot penetrate. and to the vast expanse of Dharmadhatu.” This assent to the indwelling higher. from the limited view of perceptual and conceptual relative conventional truth. or even—yikes!—mysticism (direct non-conceptual meditative experience of the simultaneous unity of the Two Truths that are relative and ultimate truth). We must not however be downcast. This quantum “energy of empty space” offers a potential for a new.” As we shall see. Thus we are led.” an overdrawn “Theory of Everything. Indeed.1 Alas. the Quantum Field Theory’s quantum vacuum/zero-point Akashic Field is the analogical key to understanding the relationship between instantaneous. physical reality with its objectively vexing. in the mandatory hermeneutic fluidity of intellectual chaos that our awareness of our original wisdom begins. However. the prerequisite for the final view and practice of Ati Dzogchen. pragmatic. both the “scientific method” and Buddhist (Madhyamaka) epistemology are rational. nonlocal quantum connectedness (quantum entanglement). and the Middle Way ontological interdependence (pratitya samutpada) and emptiness (shunyata) of Buddhism’s Madhyamaka Prasangika. the grail of the union of science and spirit that is the precursor of a “complete physics”? Although Professor Laszlo identifies the Quantum Vacuum with the Hindu “Akashic Record” and Mahayana Buddhist Alaya. empirical. demystified “Two Truths” paradigm— analogous to the Buddhist Madhyamaka Two Truths (relative and ultimate)—to resolve science’s dogmatic objectivist presumption of absolute matter—its problem of subjectivity—in its quest for ultimate coherence in a “theory of everything. the nondual emptiness matrix or base of all arising phenomena. The end of consciousness for gross concept-mind is not the end of the primordial wisdom consciousness abiding as the very heart (hridyam) of human consciousness.to be that fifth force that finally unifies the other four forces—electromagnetism. objective. jnana.59) p in the sky? Is this quantum vacuum then. the Great Perfection in whom all phenomenal reality arises (p27ff). Thus do we transcend material. The alternative is skepticism. subtler strata of knowledge becoming wisdom does not cease at the empirical limit of conceptual philosophical surrender. not things). yeshe) of our contemplative tradition. even brilliant conceptually fabricated apparently objective knowledge—is not the last word. for those with a fearless ear to hear. Both must be utilized in the emerging integral approach of the Noetic Revolution (p. often less than compelling ontological speculations. Suzuki Roshi’s relative “Small Mind” is subsumed in ultimate “Big Mind. necessarily. Here. to metaphysics (unobservables that may exist before or beyond the observable data of physics). the weak force and the gravity force—into a hubristic “Grand Unified Field. the Great Perfection. Ultimate Reality Itself. this totality of all information of the “three 1 This Unified Quantum Vacuum of physics and cosmology is analogous to the clearlight Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. skeptical and process oriented (events.

” The greater esoteric or “innermost secret” view is that appearing spacetime reality with its perceiving beings already is Absolute Spirit Itself that is the nondual one truth. but we are always Buddha. Who am I? We are all inherently the ultimate Buddha Reality (Dharmakaya). Why not? The answer depends on the view. That (Tat) is who we actually are. physical. we must not conflate the ultimate explanatory principle of merely physical cosmos with the original wakefulness that is the Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. and spiritual relative spacetime phenomena. all physical/mental reality is nondual Spirit. Again. utterly empty of attributes. perfectly subjective Kosmos. Ontological Interdependence: The Problem of Knowledge Revisited There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana.” rather.times” (past. mental. yeshe) that pervades our consciousness—all-embracing. . “From the beginning all beings are Buddha” (Hui Neng). and the realm of Relative Truth. It’s not that “everything has Buddha Nature. relative-conventional world of physical matter is merely an aspect or dimension of an organizing physical or material Unified Quantum Vacuum? Yes. Is this weird? Yes! Is this the crux of the matter? Yes! 20 . all-embracing reality of Ultimate Truth.Nagarjuna We have seen that our Principle of Ontological Interdependence informs us that the conceptual Two Truths of our Great Wisdom Tradition—the unbroken whole that is nondual. not even gurus. The Unified Quantum Vacuum. yeshe). I have written elsewhere that “Nondual Ultimate Reality that is Absolute Spirit cannot be reduced to. and abide in a relation of identity with it (pantheism). the Ultimate truth of Reality Itself that is Absolute Spirit. That is our original face. jnana. The radical nondual teaching of our Great Wisdom Tradition (Dzogchen. the furniture of the dimension of conventional. Saijojo Zen. Is this quantum “Zero Point Field” the ontologically prior unity of Absolute Truth and Relative Truth that is the one truth that is the emptiness matrix of non-conceptual. or the nonlocal quantum vacuum potential. Tao. or identified with finite physical spacetime particulars. The quantum vacuum with its quasiobjective spacetime reality arises in or through nondual perfectly subjective Spirit. exoteric relative or esoteric ultimate. After all. Does this mean that the empirical. nondual one truth that is the primordial union of the Two Truths. are not “physical” and “spiritual” different in kind? Are not samsara and nirvana different modal realities? Or is there a sameness (samata) here? Let’s see.” “All is Brahman. unelaborated. jnana. jnana. our intrinsic nature. “The Bright” Kham Brahm. empirical Relative Truth—our perceptual and conceptual reality interpretations and designations—are all “located” in Absolute Spirit (a nontheistic panentheism). gods. nondual primordial Spirit? We concluded above that it is not. Perhaps we are not yet realized Buddhas. beyond discursive concept-mind. deities. Nirguna Brahman. So it is told by the masters of our Great Tradition’s nondual Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. Essence Mahamudra. Advaita Vedanta) is quite clear on this urgent point.” Rather. There is no essential separation. located in. present. The primordial awareness (gnosis. yeshe) that is nondual Spirit is “always already” the actual inherent nature of everything (panpsychism). the surreal mindscape that is the reality of spacetime phenomenal particulars arising therein—are always an ontologically “prior unity” that is the non-conceptual one truth. We are Atman. future) is not considered by these traditions to be the non-conceptual.”everything is Buddha Nature.

independent existence in themselves. it is most important to maintain the understanding awareness that these dimensional reality realms—these “many mansions of the Father’s house”—arise in a relationship of interdependence with one another and with the whole.Thus. This does not however. eudaemonia. the “innermost secret. Here then. whether conceptual dianoia. in this Primordial Awareness Wisdom of our contemplative Great Tradition tentatively rests the ontological foundation for the resolution of the three problems of human knowledge and conduct: The Problem of Knowledge. altruism) for the benefit of all sentient beings. 2 Our perennial Great Wisdom Tradition teaches of the dialectic of the “Two Truths”: Relative Truth (samvriti). the Problem of Morals. that this desideratum is “already accomplished?” Let us then consider the Middle Way Buddhist view that is the foundation of Dzogchen. christos/logos) abiding now at the spiritual heart (hridyam hsin/kokoro. intention and conduct (karuna. deny them their reality status as objectively real objects in the realm of Relative Truth that is empirical. paramananda. The realization of these ascending levels of knowledge is a function of the psycho-spiritual lifestage development of the spiritual aspirant or knower. rigpa. As to the experience of these hidden dimensions. christos. This principle of the Two Truths is the key to understanding the emerging paradigm shift that is the resolution of the “explanatory gap” between mind and matter (the “mind-body problem”). and includes all objective physical matter. all inclusive. and Ultimate or Absolute Truth (paramartha) the infinite. yeshe) driving the intersubjective methodology of our emerging Noetic Revolution. the Unified Quantum Vacuum. wonder of wonders. after all. spontaneously arises the moral imperative—compassionate feeling. tonglen. I have elsewhere referred to the great prior unity of these none too tidy epistemological dualities as the “Principle of Ontological Interdependence. Could it be. ahimsa. the divine seed (tatagatagharba. not even the nondual Ultimate Reality itself. transcends. that is. and between science and spirituality that is the “hard problem” of consciousness with its urgent need of an integrative principle between the third person methodologies of Western science and the first person modes of inquiry of Vedic/Buddhist contemplative science. the Great Perfection. If. pratitya samutpada). And from this wisdom of kindness arises—not so spontaneously—a non-oligarchic democratic political economy and with it the empirical possibility of the free pursuit of both hedonic material happiness (felicitas) and ultimate happiness (mahasukka. primordial nondual Ultimate Spirit. This Primordial Wisdom “presence always present” is the gnosis (jnana. “Science” must come to know this. 21 . the finite objective relative-conventional empirical reality with its physical and mental phenomena. or direct contemplative epinoia/gnosis. relative-conventional spacetime reality. and all subjective mental phenomena. and the Problem of Governance. This esoteric dimension then includes yet deeper or subtler strata of hidden dimensions. we relinquish the metaphysical dogma of Physicalism (Materialism).2 So the physical Quantum Vacuum—David Bohm’s “implicate order” that enfolds the “explicate order” of all arising phenomena participates in. this radical. including spacetime’s very organizing principle.” and finally the ineffable nondual which is ultimate Reality Itself. the requisite metaphysics of our prevailing Western ontology of Scientific Materialism (Scientism) that currently precludes any provident rapprochement of science and spirituality. according to this great universal teaching. This world of Relative Truth includes the dyad of outer exoteric and inner esoteric reality dimensions. epinoia.” Indeed. Absolute Spirit. And from this primordial wisdom of emptiness. Materialism is. hesed/charis. beatitude). our nondual Great Tradition views all objective and subjective entities as ultimately empty of inherent existence (shunyata. shekina) that is inherently present within all beings. and therefore possess no inherent. non-conceptual. the nondual wisdom Base or Source that transcends yet embraces the material world is the “spiritual” presence (vidya. namely. hiranyagarbha. merely part of the total Reality equation. Thus it is. the nondual one truth that is the prior unity of the conceptual Two Truths—ultimate and relative—subsumes. nyingje. the Ultimate Reality that transcends yet embraces the phenomenal world of Relative Truth. nondual perfectly subjective unbounded whole. nondual ultimate knowledge. indeed already is the one truth that is Kosmos. nyingpo) of each being. whether or not it is recognized.

The Dalai Lama terms this ultimate paradox the “emptiness of emptiness.. intrinsic existence because they exist only in dependence 22 . that is.(It) does not imply non-existence of phenomena but the emptiness of phenomena . No phenomenon exists with an independent or intrinsic identity..” It is important for us to avoid the misapprehension that emptiness is an absolute reality from which the illusory world emerges. It exists merely conventionally.form’s ultimate nature . it is not a metaphysical logocentric idol or “false absolute” existing unconditioned and independently as an unknowable “other” transcendent creator God. anything that exists and has an identity does so only within the total network of everything that has a possible or potential relation to it.emptiness must be understood as ‘empty of intrinsic or independent existence’. all phenomena arise in dependence upon prior causes and conditions. Thus. as “dependent arising” or “Interbeing. . H. it’s not some kind of [entity] out there somewhere. . phenomena are absent any separate. .. future. -Mipham Rinpoche The crux of the matter. empty awake mind.its ultimate mode of being . abiding interdependently.H. H. even the Ultimate Truth that is fundamental great emptiness (mahashunyata) is not a frozen absolute. Buddhadharma Quarterly. there are no subjects without the objects by which they are defined. . Therefore emptiness does not exist ultimately.. Third. . The Dalai Lama. Second. . Fall. .the basis that allows form [to] arise as emptiness. emptiness is a relativized absolute.H. . They don’t just arise from nowhere.H. 2002 How then does emptiness exist? Emptiness is established by relative conventional minds. fully formed. as the dependent arising of form. present.Principia Dharmata: The Buddhist View of the Nature of Mind Without past.” a timeless infinitely vast causal nexus of arising interconnected causes and conditions (vasana/quantum qubits). . In the Buddhist view of Dzogchen. phenomena arise in mutual interdependence of parts and the unbroken whole. being or thing. there are no objects without subjects to apprehend them.. 2005) The forms of emptiness. without a whole it makes no sense to speak of parts. Thus. all conditional things and events in the world come into being only as a result of the interaction of causes and conditions. and its foundation in Madhyamaka Prasangika. (H.. . The Dalai Lama. entity. or some vast substrate. His Holiness explains the seminal relationship of the Buddha’s Dependent Arising (pratitya samutpada) and Emptiness: First. the Great Perfection. . . Rather. there is mutual dependence between parts and the whole: without parts there can be no whole.

the path of the Middle Way. are empty. . karma. we must ask how it is that phenomena appear to exist. No emptiness. The question is not whether they exist but how they exist. Here we see the equation between dependent origination and emptiness. but merely by relative intersubjective conventional designation. they exist only by way of reified perceptual and conceptual attribution. Things and events are said to be absent of inherent or intrinsic existence because they exist only in dependence on other factors.on related factors: this absence is emptiness. They lack any discrete. scientific and noetic (mind/spirit) analysis. “Emptiness is form.H. a causal nexus of prior causes and conditions. from nothing. Independently existing phenomena. not from its own side. that is. . and thus are also dependently designated. independent of prior causes and conditions is not logically or empirically possible. According to Buddhist practitioner and philosopher of science Alan Wallace. Nagarjuna says that things and events. This is the ultimate mode of being for all the interdependent things and beings of the dimension of Relative Truth (samvriti satya). the Dalai Lama. It is critical to understand that Madhyamaka does not say that things are absent of inherent existence mainly because they cannot be found when sought through critical analysis. anything that depends on other factors is devoid of its own independent nature. Winter 2004. Thus. . . cittadhatu). which transcends the extremes of absolutism and nihilism. No form. and this absence of an independent nature is emptiness. as the Buddha’s Heart Sutra expresses. Thus all phenomena are dependently and conceptually designated.H. In this holistic Middle Way view the 23 . no emptiness.” Emptiness and the dependent arising of form are a prior unity. intrinsic reality. . which are dependently originated. . . This supreme source is Ultimate Truth (paramartha satya) that is Reality Itself (dharmata/chos nyid). This is not the full argument.” The Buddhist view sees the individual not as an independent ego. . p. this “intersubjectivity lies at the very heart of the Buddhist worldview and its path to spiritual awakening.20 How then do phenomena exist? The world is real. imputation and designation. or emptiness. Buddhadharma. If the objective and subjective phenomena of reality do not ultimately exist and are ultimately ”unfindable” after twenty-five hundred years of philosophical. but as a self—our bodymind—arising as an interdependent process. arising ex nihilo. their emptiness base (gzhi) or primordial sourceground (cittata. . [He] concludes there is nothing that is not empty. but not in the manner in which we perceive them. . This absence. . Relative phenomena arise interdependently only from the vast expanse of their prior causal nexus. for there is nothing that is not dependently originated. They exist. Cause and effect—the Principle of Causality—and its subset. In other words. of inherent existence is their ultimate nature. form is emptiness. is possible only in a Kosmos whose phenomena is interdependently arisen and therefore empty of intrinsic existence. no form.

through its own conceptual imputation and designation. But the Buddha’s Great Emptiness (mahashunyata) is not ultimately a non-affirming negative. 2006. Therefore.” Emptiness objective and subjective. His Holiness further distinguishes between objective emptiness and subjective emptiness. is liberation from suffering—Ultimate Happiness Itself (mahasuka/paramananda). as with all phenomena. if we negate too much we depart the Middle Way and fall into dark nihilism where our compassionate ethical precepts and conduct are compromised.davidpaulboaz. Tantra and Dzogchen.3 Objective emptiness or the “objective luminosity” is a “non-affirming negative phenomenon. there is inherent existence neither in being. the affirming luminosity of the clear light (‘od gsal/prabhasvara). “Within the essence original wakefulness which is primordially pure (kadag) manifests the nature. the very essence or Nature of Mind (sems nyid). after the negation of objective and subjective gross and subtle forms encountered through the form and formless mindfulness. but only nominally and relatively. the nondual cognitive-emotive direct experience presence (vidya/rigpa) of the pure bright clarity of the emptiness of form. Our awareness of the separate self3 For the finer points of this teaching see The Natute of Mind. 2) nihilistic non-existence. For Tibetan Buddhists. yet are devoid of any intrinsic absolute existence. (See Appendix A. reifying then clinging to phenomena and failing to accomplish the nondual wisdom of emptiness. Dzogchen. How then do the Prasangika Madhyamikas—Nagarjuna. The Buddhist View: Sutra. The Great Perfection). Tsongkhapa—refute the Svatantrika Madhyamika and Cittamatra charges of nihilism and skepticism? Once again. In the highest view of the nondual tantras—the view of Dzogchen and Highest Yoga Tantra—negated phenomena appearing to a self as relativeconventional reality are replaced by subjective emptiness (nay lug). But. Regarding the Dzogchen view of this ultimate base. This “wisdom realizing emptiness. 24 .ego-I exists. www. or self. So. not permanently nor absolutely. all the phenomena of reality are “empty of self-nature. as Tsongkhapa reminds us. So there remains. its Nature is luminosity (luminous clarity gsal ba). a radiance which is spontaneously present” (lhundrub). nihilism is avoided by accomplishing the delicate balance between negating too much (nihilism) and negating too little (absolutism). introspection and insight practices. Nagarjuna’s “tetralemma refutation” refutes 1) reified existence. the nature of primordial consciousness. the three Buddha Bodies or the “Trikaya of the Base” that is our supreme source (cittata. nor in non-being.” utterly devoid of any essential or intrinsic existence.” the absence or negation of any independent or intrinsic existence. If we negate too little we fall into the opposite extreme of absolutism.” whose complementary is the Madhyamaka Great Compassion (mahakaruna). quiescence. kunjed gyalpo): its Essence is emptiness (shunyata). 3) both existence and non-existence. and in human conduct as wisdom/compassion (thugs re). (Mipham Rinpoche). this fundament of clearlight ground luminosity is the ultimate nature of Reality Itself (cho-nyid/dharmata). Dependently arising phenomena really do exist conventionally. Ultimately however. and 4) neither existence nor non-existence. Chandrakirti. And this is the “emptiness of emptiness. a subtler outshining luminosity as the vast expanse of the Madhyamaka Great Emptiness manifests itself from the “primordial purity” (kadag) of the primordial ground or base (gzhi). its Energy emanates continuously as light/motion/form (tsal/rolba). ©David Paul Boaz.org. we must negate objective and subjective arising phenomena.

Knowing and feeling: the unity of wisdom and compassion. “madhya” or middle also connotes a negation. . whatever we do. According to the highest or subtlest Madhyamaka and tantric teachings.NM 2002. . and return again to emptiness. the dynamic display of the mind. All limbs of the Buddha’s teaching have this one purpose—to lead us to the nondual primordial wisdom. Thus we cannot even cling to the Middle Way. impermanent and relative existence. But this self cannot be an independent. dwells. . “All the evil. moment to moment. Why is the ontological negation. The Dalai Lama. fear and suffering of this world is the result of attachment to the self” (Shantideva). is at first necessary to develop our view and ethical sense. with compassionate conduct. so the Madhyamaka is the Middle Way path that is no-path.H. The weight of our entire contemplative Wisdom Tradition grounds this view in the practice of meditative quiescence (shamatha) and penetrating insight (vipashyana) which. the independently existing ego-I. Klien) Let us then remember. our ostensible development on the Path. brilliant clarity and joy” of contemplative quiescence practices. Ultimate Reality Itself (chos nyid). the ontological relativity of the self-sense of the ego-I— the “no-self of the individual”—so important? Because it is the defence of the attachments and aversions of this non-essential self that causes the negative afflictive emotions— anger/aggression. -Adzom Paylo Rinpoche (Upaya Retreat. Santa Fe. and into this it all returns. From this ground it all arises. This is dependent arising . the nature of reality itself. . nor by the “attentional stability. But let us remember. trans.sense. All things flow from emptiness. Kant’s “moral law within us.” This sense of a permanent self serves as a vehicle for managing our relative conventional existence. bears the fruit of liberation or Buddhahood. all states of consciousness—negative or positive—indeed all phenomena are pervaded by this clear light luminosity that is the “wish fulfilling jewel” of Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis/jnana/ yeshe) (H. the root cause of human suffering and unhappiness. Absolute Bodhicitta can be accomplished neither by the ambulations of common conceptual mind. with no essential separation at all. a dependently arising. The Buddhist Muhamudra. Madhyamaka and Dzogchen traditions agree: nondual realization and perfection of the ultimate truth of the Nature of Mind (sems nyid). Anne C. It participates in and pervades all views and paths for one who is capable of accessing it. This is the true nature of arising phenomena. wherever we go. H. luminous emptiness (shunyata). pride/envy. The non-conceptual realization of the state of this transcendent perfection of wisdom (prajnaparamita)—the wisdom of emptiness—is decidedly not mere conceptual speculation. even realized contemplative quiescence (realized shamatha) is not altogether free of conceptual grasping and contrivance (ignorance/advidya)—though it is often 25 . Thus do the Madhyamaka schools of the Mahayana seek a Middle Way between the two extremes of absolutism and nihilism. it’s always here. “The fruit is no different at the pinnacle of enlightenment than it is at the primordial base” (Adzom Rinpoche). The Dalai Lama. According to H. 2000). permanently existing entity. It is rather. desire/ attachment/greed that is ignorance (avidya/marigpa).

As this Primordial Awareness Wisdom (jnana. The third is absolute. (For extensive documentation see B. according to the greater esoteric or nondual “innermost secret” Buddhist View—Dzogchen and Essence Mahamudra—this emptiness residue of self cannot be nihilistic nothingness or utter non-being. then realize and perfect this vast emptiness Nature of Mind—the clear light of the mind beyond the “web of belief” that is the mind’s mere cognitive contents—is to realize the temporal impermanence (anitya) of ego-self in time. and then permanent and profound loving compassion (karuna) for the welfare of living beings. esoteric/inner. For esoteric wholeness fundamentals see Anne C. exoteric/outer. the equanimity of resting in the nondual state of presence of the Supreme Source. grasping at phenomena as substantial. Balancing the Mind. and with great devotion to a qualified master. Therefore. The indwelling innate. we can surrender these concepts at the instant of their arising. emptiness is realized. directed toward sentient beings. it becomes. 4 In the Middle Way (Madhyamaka) Mahayana there are three kinds of compassion. bliss. intrinsic presence (vidya/rigpa. Through compassion.) To “spiritually” recognize. even our negative emotions are apertures opening into the depth of its primordial purity (kadag)—if that is. our own ultimate happiness (beatitude/mahasukha/paramananda).4 This is the feeling or emotional aspect (ishta. radiant essential clearlight basic mind nature itself. 2005. subjective dualism. As these “two legs of enlightenment”—wisdom and compassion—are unified. The second. and greater esoteric or nondual “innermost secret. and also in quiescence must be unified with the compassionate heartmind of relative bodhicitta—the “mind of enlightenment”—and with the parallel wisdom of penetrating insight (vipashyana). gnosis) becomes truly manifest in the lifeworld as the wisdom of kindness. this reality is the prior unity of emptiness and awareness that is the very ground luminosity.. yeshe. in the latter instance.” The first is relative. The on-going failure of realization in the former instance I have termed objective dualism. bhakti. Mind training in conceptual understanding. From emptiness compassion spontaneously arises. 2004). Happiness Itself. 26 . permanent. absolute or ultimate (Boaz. This compassion without an object is the unity of compassion and the wisdom of emptiness. The ultimate perfection of this process is Buddhahood. eternal. gnosis. and his The Attention Revolution. All thought. Rather. or in the future. This then is the knowing aspect of liberation. toward the ignorance (avidya/marigpa) that causes the suffering of beings. and spontaneously compassionate in its expression. luminous clarity by nature. It cannot be found outside. 2006. p.mistaken to be so. Indeed. Alan Wallace. habitual material and conceptual grasping is transcended and realization of the utterly unmediated awareness continuum that is the always already present primordial base or ground may be accomplished.230ff. everything that arises from the purity of the Base is already self-liberated and utterly free of conceptual elaboration and corruption—empty in essence. The result is the two aspects of ignorance (avidya). 2006. Klein’s Unbounded Wholeness. and the utter absence (shunya) of it in space. and secondary ignorance. This is “The Bright” of the Upanishads (“Upanishadic Monism”). attained through the noetic contemplative analysis of insight practice under the guidance of. the potential of everything that arises. No essential difference. in direct proportion to that. devotion) of liberation. lhundrub) of this wisdom happiness is who we are now. These two are primary ignorance or clinging to the sense of self (the ego-I) in space and time. or “missing the mark” (hamartia/sin).

Tantra and Dzogchen ©David Paul Boaz. imputed. The nature of mind is clear light. That’s it. secret and innermost secret (nondual) understanding of the emptiness (shunyata). post-transcendent. No waves No Wind. 5 See Appendix A.” A Glimpse of the Great Perfection5 The nature of mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. . utterly free of conceptual elaboration. -Shakyamini Buddha Now is the time to enter into it. the Great Perfection (Essence Mahamundra and the Madhyamaka of the Definitive Meaning are essentially the same as to the View). And that is the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. selflessness (anatman). Yet all such instantiation of phenomenal consciousness is “always already” illumined by the radiant original face of the primordial awareness wisdom (jnana/yeshe) that is their (our) intrinsic actual nature. then conceptually designate (maya/ignorance/ajnana/marigpa) these appearances as the seemingly substantial phenomena of a reified.These two—luminous knowing and feeling—pervade the unity of outer. . the Self-Perfected State. impermanence (anitya) and interdependence (pratitya samutpada) of our Great Tradition’s gradual yet always “already accomplished” path to liberation from the ignorance (avidya) that is suffering (dukkha). permanent. and The Buddhist View: Sutra. 27 . On the account of the subtlest view of the Buddhist teaching that is Ati Dzogchen. inner. then reify. According to His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche (1991) this unity of the absolute space of arising phenomena (dharmadhatu/bying) with primordial consciousness itself. is the luminosity of clearlight primordial awareness wisdom (gnosis/jnana/yeshe). this realm of Relative Truth (samvriti satya)— form (objective reality) and formless form (mental and subjective experience)—arises from its primordial energy (jnana prana) within the perfectly subjective pristine cognition of the vast expanse of Reality Itself (dharmadhatujnana/chos-bying yeshe). 2006. a Dzogchen master softly speaks to his heart son: “Do you see it? That is what you seek. Somewhere in Tibet. This Ultimate Reality (dharmata/cho nyid) is the Madhyamaka luminous emptiness (shunyata) that is the inherent nature of relative spacetime phenomena (dharma/chos) whose apparitional or illusory face (dharmin/cho can) emerges from its primordial purity (kadag) of the emptiness base (gzhi) as the limited consciousness of sentient beings who perceive. Dzogchen. . and substantial everyday reality. the very nature of mind (cittata/sems nyid). This is the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. non-conceptual understanding was perfectly expressed 800 years ago by Soto Zen patriarch Dogen: Midnight. Such a post-metaphysical. the Great Perfection. The empty boat Flooded with moonlight.Garab Dorje Buddha cognition.

In this profound and subtle “practice of Ati Yoga, which is also secret such that only the fortunate can understand it,” Buddhahood (Buddha-nature/buddhadhatu) is accomplished when the fundamental, primal intrinsic awareness (vidya/rigpa) of the Buddha Body of Reality Itself (dharmakaya/chos-ku) is liberated, exactly as it is, directly here and now through the recognition—”brief moments many times”—realization and perfection of the primordially pure body of Samantabhadra (Kuntazangpo), the Dharmakaya Buddha, who is none other than the pristine cognition of the supreme reality that is dharmadhatu, the vast Absolute Space of all arising phenomena, beyond belief, always already present in whatever arises in this very moment now, here in this very human body of light (rang rig/rang rigpa). This clearlight (‘od gsal) absolute space (bying) of phenomena that is Ultimate Truth must not be conflated with the material, contingent relative dimension of spacetime that arises within and through it. The prior unity of these conceptual “Two Truths” that is the nonconceptual one truth, the perfect nondual sphere of Dzogchen, is ontologically prior, subsuming, transcending yet embracing and pervading the physical spacetime dimension, including the “space particles” of the ground state of the quasi-physical Unified Quantum Vacuum. The great paradoxical conclusion then is this: ultimately there is no difference! In the pristine cognition of equality—Buddha cognition (samatajnana /nyam-nyid yeshe—the Two Truths are equal. One and the same. A unity. The primal duality of the conceptual binary that is the Two Truths resolved in this one great nondual truth. “There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana” (Nagarjuna). The Quantum Vacuum and the Great Perfection. Thus, from this ultimate view, the Zero Point Energy of the Quantum Vacuum arises from the alayavijnana, the substrate consciousness that arises from the primordial wisdom consciousness (jnana/yeshe) that is not other than the emptiness base (gzhi). And from the Quantum Vacuum arises chitta/sems, the human bodymind along with the entire spacetime mansion of Relative Truth. These are the three consciousness dimensions—citta, alaya and jnana—of the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist view. O wonder of wonders, all beings are Buddha, samsara and nirvana are One! And all this, always here, now outshines perfectly just as it is, the natural state, “natural mind” the very nature of your mind. Mahasuka, great joy. Nothing special (wu shin). As we begin to see this post-metaphysical, post-mystical “ordinary mind” as the very Nature of Mind, we wake up. “Now we spontaneously generate the love that is truly a refuge for all living beings.” (Vimalakirti). The great 14th Century Nyingma Dzogchen Master Longchen Rabjam (Longchenpa) transmits this primordial wisdom (gnosis, jnana, yeshe) that is the very nature of Kosmos, Reality Itself: Self arising wisdom is rigpa that is empty, clear and free from all elaboration, like an immaculate sphere of crystal . . . It does not analyze objects. . . By simply identifying that non-conceptual, pristine, naked rigpa, you realize there is nothing other than this nature. . . This is nondual self-arising wisdom. . . Like a reflection in a mirror, when objects and perceptions manifest to rigpa, that pristine and naked awareness which does not proliferate into thought is called the inner power (tsal), the responsiveness that is the ground (gzhi) for all the arising of things . . . For a yogin who realizes the naked meaning of Dzogpachenpo, rigpa is fresh, pure and naked, and objects may manifest and appear within rigpa, but it does not lose itself externally to those objects. 28

-Longchen Rabjam, The Treasury of the Dharmadhatu (Commentary), Adzom Chögar edition According to recent Tibetan Dzogchen rime master Tulku Urgen Rinpoche, the two innermost principles of Dzogchen are Basic Space (bying/dhatu) and Awareness (rigpa/vidya). This Basic Space is pregnant luminous emptiness, the unity of emptiness (shunyata) and the clearlight luminosity (‘od gsal). In Dzogchen, the innermost secret realization of Basic Space is klong, the infinite “vast expanse” of Reality Itself, transcending all conceptual elaboration, judgement and bias, beyond even the subtlest subject-object duality, beyond objective and subjective emptiness, beyond ground and path luminosity (Boaz, 2004). As space pervades, so awareness pervades. . .like space, rigpa is allencompassing. . . Just as beings are all pervaded by space, rigpa pervades the minds of beings. . . . Basic space is the absence of mental constructs, while awareness is the knowing of this absence of constructs, recognizing the complete emptiness of mind essence. . . The ultimate dharma is the realization of the indivisibility of basic space and awareness [that is] Samantabhadra. -Tulku Urgyen (As It is, Vol. I, 1999 and Rainbow Printing, 1995) The Supreme Source. The primary Dzogchen tantra, The Kunjed Gyalpo (The Supreme Source), must surely be considered one of humankind’s great spiritual treasures. According to Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, this supreme nondual teaching has been transmitted from master to disciple directly, heartmind to heartmind, for thousands of years. Historical Dzogchen wisdom dates from the teaching of Garab Dorje in the Second Century CE. The Kunjed Gyalpo tantra arises in the Eighth Century and is the fundamental tantra of the Dzogchen semde (mind)teaching series. This version of the great nondual primordial teaching is derived from Buddhist sutra and tantra understanding of the Nature of Mind, yet its truth essence runs, like a golden thread through the grand tapestry of humankind’s primordial great Wisdom Tradition. Kunjed Gyalpo, The Wise and Glorious King is Samantabhadra (clarity) and Samantabhadri (emptiness) in inseparable yabyum embrace—androgynous skylike primordial Adi Buddha—the union of clarity and emptiness that is none other than our original Buddha nature, Supreme Source, Basis, primordial womb of everything. Sambantabhadra, this Dharmakaya Buddha speaks to the Logos, Vajrasattva, Sambhogakaya Buddha: The essence of all the Buddhas exists prior to samsara and nirvana. . . it transcends the four conceptual limits and is intrinsically pure; this original condition is the uncreated nature of existence that always existed, the ultimate nature of all phenomena. . . It is utterly free of the defects of dualistic thought which is only capable of referring to an object other than itself. . .it is the base of primordial purity. . . Similar to space it pervades all beings. . . The inseparability of the two truths, absolute and relative is called the 29

‘primordial Buddha’. . . If at the moment the energy of the base manifests, one does not consider it something other than oneself. . . it self-liberates. . . Understanding the essence . . . one finds oneself always in this state . . .dwelling in the fourth time, beyond past, present and future. . .the infinite space of self-perfection. . . pure dharmakaya, the essence of the vajra of clear light. - Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, The Supreme Source (Kunjed Gyalpo), 1999 Thus do the sutras and the tantras of Buddha’s teaching and the binary dualities of the path—objective and subjective, self and other, observer and data, true and false, relative and ultimate—abide in the prior unity of the dependently arisen perfect sphere of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, ultimate mind nature, luminous innate clearlight mind that is always already the unity of awareness and emptiness. Who is it, that I am? All the masters of the three times have told it. This infinite vast expanse of the primordial awareness wisdom continuum is who we actually are. Tat tvam ami. That, I Am! That is our supreme identity, great perfection of our always present Buddha Nature, deep heartseed presence of ultimate happiness that is both origin and aim of all our seeking. H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche’s Comments on Garab Dorje’s Three Vajra Verses or The Three Essential Statements of the Dzogchen View, Meditation and Conduct (translated by John Reynolds): Verse I: Recognize your own true nature (The Base and View) “This fresh immediate awareness of the present moment, transcending all thoughts related to the three times (past, present, future), is itself that primordial awareness or knowledge (yeshe) that is self-originated intrinsic awareness (rig pa).” From this View arises the Semde teaching series. Verse II: Choose the state of presence, beyond doubt (The Path and Meditation) “Whatever phenomena of samsara or nirvana may manifest, all of them represent the play of the creative energy or potentiality of one’s own immediate intrinsic awareness (rig pa’i rtsal). One must decide upon this unique state for oneself and know that there exists nothing other than this.” From The Meditation arises the Longde teaching series. Verse III: Continue in the state with confidence in liberation (The Fruit and Conduct) “Whatever gross or subtle thoughts may arise, by merely recognizing their nature, they arise and self-liberate simultaneously in the vast expanse of Dharmakaya, where Emptiness and Awareness are inseparable (gsal stong gnyis med).” From the Fruit arises the Secret Upadesha (Mengagde), or heart essence (nyingthig) teaching series. And from Jigme Lingpa, author of the Longchen Nyingthig Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse, on the nondual Dzogchen view at play in the world:

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No Buddhas, no beings, beyond existence and non-existence Intrinsic Awareness Itself is absolute Guru, Ultimate Truth. By resting naturally, beyond fixaton in that inherently free perfect innate Bodhi-mind, I take refuge and actualize Bodhicitta. - Jigme Lingpa, Longchen Nyingthig “The perfect explanation of Dzogchen,“ according to contemporary Dzogchen master Chögyal Namkhai Norbu is voiced in these profound words of Gautama Shakyamuni, the historical Nirmanakaya Buddha: All that arises is essentially no more real than a reflection, transparently pure and clear, beyond all definition or logical explanation. Yet the seeds of past action, karma, continue to cause further arising. Even so, know that all that exists is ultimately void of self-nature, utterly non dual! The End of the Great Search You will not find Happiness until you stop seeking it. -Chuang Tzu What you seek is already present. -Jesus of Nazareth The nature of mind is Buddha from the beginning... Realizing the purity essence of all things, to remain there without seeking is the meditation. - Garab Dorje (The Three Vajra Verses) View, Path and Result. The wisdom teachings that have arisen within the primordial Great Wisdom Tradition of human history have a View (darshana, theory) which explains the Ground, the great Source of all appearing reality, and a Path (marga) which establishes the Meditation (bhavana) that seeks the continuity of recognition of the Ground leading to the Result or Fruition of the practice. This endpoint is “the Fruit” that is ultimate realization of our 31

cig-car-ba). nothing to be fabricated. Thus our seeking motive is destroyed and we enter in the immediate.” This recognition is after all. Emptiness is the path. 32 . the nonidealized happiness that cannot be lost. secret. “The seeker and that sought are one and the same” (Padmasambhava). indwelling. the ignorance (avidya) that causes suffering. We need not cling to the existence or non-existence of anything at all. Practice that. The Paradox of Seeking. union with the whole—our inherent primordial urge and impulse toward spirit. we can only be happy. we can only be enlightened. and in the highest nondual teaching of each tradition as ultimate Happiness Itself (paramananda. moment to moment. the very definition of religion—religare/religio. as knowledge deepens to wisdom in the “advanced” practitioner the teaching becomes more and more esoteric (inward. yoga/zygon. if not the cause of human happiness.” “What you seek is already present. some state or thing to be sought. contrived or deconstructed by the mind because all that arises from the primordial purity (kadag) of the base (gzhi)—negative.” We cannot become enlightened. In the “pure view” (dag nang) of the Ati Yoga of Dzogchen there is nothing to be transformed or transcended. In actual practice these two are interdependent.inherently nondual primordial wisdom sourceground that is. and the “gradual/non-gradual” dualism becomes a false dichotomy. natural ordinary mind that is “the Bright” of the light of the mind and everything appearing therein. neutral—is always already spontaneously present (lhundrub) and self-perfected (rang grol). Liberation from suffering—Happiness Itself—is not a separate reality. direct tongo. The Path is the confusion of the gradual seeking strategies to this “goal” of liberation enlightenment. the teaching is generally presented exoterically. all beings are Buddha. it may be either gradual (zengo. always arising from primordial purity that is the very ground of being. perfectly awake. Why? Because seeking happiness to avoid suffering is a form of suffering. timeless. mahasuka). the Great Perfection. and be supremely happy (Appendix D).” “Wonder of wonders. Actor and action are not separate. naked pristine awareness of the nondual presence (vidya/rigpa) “already present. “We cannot become happy. rim-gys-pa). “The path is emptiness. but you do not know it. if unrecognized. 2006.” the ultimate “transcendental signified. positive. Regarding the View. Simply relax into That (Tat/Sat). In Buddhism this blissful Result of the wisdom of emptiness is Buddhahood. nondual). and naturally self-liberated (rang bzhin gyis mya ngan las ‘das pa) from the very beginning. the unbroken whole that is our “supreme identity” and “supreme source. caught and grasped by a knowing subject.” the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. or non-gradual (sudden. Meditator and meditation are not separate. our primordial buddhahood—by whatever name—that is fully awake. Regarding the View of the Fruition (result/realization) of the path. Our Great Wisdom Tradition teaches that this paradox of the path—the paradox of seeking—is that the happiness we desire through all our seeking strategies is already here. Thus. paradoxically “already accomplished” and “always already” present at the spiritual heart (hridyam) of each human being. That is the continuity of the great (chen) completion (dzog) or perfection of the natural state. prior to the cyclic suffering of the endless painful dualities that this flesh is heir to. from the very beginning. This final realization is seen as the essence. Thus our liberation from the endless suffering strategies of seeking happiness is right here now our ultimate happiness. “Does Buddhahood Have a Cause?”).” prior to all signification and idolotry. We make the goal the path (Boaz.

jnana.. 1988) In this very act of seeking. future—have told it: We take refuge in “The Three Jewels” that are the spiritual master. rest in That. non-separate Spirit. Buddha is within you.you would now be the Buddha Mind. not seeking anything at all. our Buddha Nature (tatagatagarbha)..Thus it is. . and just relax into it. is inherent right here within the continuum of our mental-emotional nature at the very heart (hridyam. there is nothing other than this.. of our nondual Great Wisdom Tradition. Thus do we choose our reality. Do not seek Buddhahood. In a carefree way. you could know that it can never be attained by effort. not seeking something outside. our supreme identity. present. -Lama Wangdor Rinpoche (Santa Fe Retreat. This is liberation from unhappiness.. already transcends yet includes and embraces both subject and object. This is the primordial wisdom teaching of Ati Dzogchen. authentic and kind. That happiness you seek is “always already” present.. vast emptiness there is nothing to construct and nothing to do. in the chaos of our splendent earth? Yes. and the spiritual community. nondual. and all that arises spontaneously self-liberates at the very instant of its arising. the truth is revealed. . . Surrender to the wisdom of emptiness. suffers and dies? Who is it that shines through the mind and abides at the heart of all beings. primordial wisdom nature (gnosis. according to the nondual view of the wisdom traditions. How do we do this? The masters of the three times—past. Can we really be that presence. right here now. If. You have always been one with the Buddha. Thus do we create our individual and thereby collective destiny. Why must we do all this? To realize—wonder of wonders—that “it is already accomplished” (Garab Dorje). Now then. This reality is who we actually are. so do not pretend you can attain this oneness by various practices. and rest your weary mind. forever liberated and fully awake? 33 . self and other. 2003) Who is it? Who is it that desires to know. Let it be as it is. the very nature of our mind—our original goodness. just for a moment. in this very instant. -Huang Po (Kraft.. nyingpo) of the human bodymind. let it be as it is. our Christ Nature (christos). by whatever name. This is the perennial paradoxical truth of non-action. . then train the mind in equanimity and compassion through the path (marga/lam) with its meditation practice (bhavana) under the guidance of a qualified master. clear and bright and vast as space. “Leave it as it is. So there is no need to try to become something else. the teaching. kokoro. exactly as they are” (Shakyamuni Buddha). and indeed. all the way to the end of it. Ultimate Reality Itself. nor inside. all things are perfect. This is the meditation. and to be happy? Who is it that is afraid and angry? Who is it that is born. The heartseed of enlightenment. yeshe). so that everything we do is selfless. We can be that because That is our actual original. not our original sin. All the masters have told it. non-seeking. try to change anything. So. Always now (turiya). your seeking is doomed to failure. this space of sky. A most unusual paradox. Now there is nothing to do. Zen Tradition. In this quiet. wu-wei (aporia).

who first proscribed value and the subjective. First then. Motion is change. of science and spirituality.Space and Time From Pythagoras to Einstein Space and time are not conditions in which we live. Liebniz. the personal and the transpersonal. And thereby the scientific study of the mind was marginalized under the ensuing procrustean “taboo of subjectivity. according to the classical view of Galileo and Newton. Galileo. both exoteric and esoteric physics. Consciousness is the key. attempts to understand and unify these apparently separate aspects of reality have focused on mathematics and physics (Boaz. Objectivist. all inclusive ultimate Reality Itself. science and culture as the fundamentalist protoreligion that is Scientific Materialism (Scientism). philosophy and religion have been concerned with the four fundamental aspects of appearing reality: space. exoteric (left brain). As we have seen. matter. a romantic perfect-world theory hungering after the grail of absolute objective certainty. . time. Newton and Einstein. metaphysical and even mystical religious formulas of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. but modes in which we think. permitting only the quantifiable objective. the continuous change of position of an object (with its waves and particles) relative to some frame of reference with respect to the consciousness of an observer. the Stoics and Descartes. Subjectivist. of realism and idealism.Albert Einstein Light Before Einstein Let us now consider certain recent theoretical developments in Relativity Theory and the Quantum Theory with its Unified Vacuum Quantum which offer a bridge of understanding from the Materialist Realist paradigm or world view of Aristotle. to the “spooky” nonlocal primordial emptiness of the Quantum Theory and the related Buddhist view of the Great Perfection.” Contemporary mechanistic. in which theory is perfectly and always validated by experiment. if the laws of mechanics are valid in reference frame “A. “qualitative” from science. utterly ignoring the subjectivity of the human mind—consciousness—and its perfectly subjective primordial base. and Newton clarified this idea of relative motion. to Galileo. It was the postmodern reaction to this tyranny of objectivity of the old Modernist paradigm that begat the emerging Noetic Revolution that is nothing less than an incipient reunion of physics and metaphysics. So. esoteric (right brain) attempts to unify these realities have been offered by the contemplative yogic. the Realist Materialist/ Physicalist worldview has been visited upon modern and postmodern religion. of the prepersonal. From Pythagoras. a very brief history of spacetime. and energy. determinist science and philosophy and the cultural worldview that follows therefrom continues to labor under this logocentric false idol of the attainability of a perfect objective certainty.” they are valid in all other reference frames moving in uniform 34 . Plato and Aristotle. 1971). The classical mechanics of Galileo. postulated a relativity theory—the Principle of Galilean Relativity—adopted later by Newton and Einstein in which an absolute “inertial” reference frame the laws of mechanics (motion) are always valid. Energy is light and arises from the still luminous emptiness of its primordial source or base as motion.

Do the cognitive conceptual limits of the quantum theory and the bivalent logical syntax of language preclude the arising of an atavistic. semantic and even contemplative understanding of emptiness? We have seen that it does not. in 1887 the “null result” of the Michelson-Morley experiment “disproved” the ether theory (although Einstein thought that it was salvageable). accurately describe interactions in the realm of the very small—the microworld of particle physics—in the macro realm of the very large. not even the earth is privileged. invisible.14ff. Moreover. fields and objects in the universe move. and in the realm of the very dense—quasars and black holes. intergalactic gravitational effects. Complementarity. and through which light propagates. neurobiology. All reference frames are equally valid. and the new physics of the zero-point energy field (the quantum vacuum) have set the epistemological stage for a Twenty-first Century integral noetic revolution in religion. The ether concept has now reincarnated as cosmology’s Quantum Vacuum. more bad news.motion (constant velocity) relative to “A. science and culture that is an incipient rapprochement of science and spirituality. The ancient theory of the ether provided such and ad hoc solution. According to recent relativity theory. No reference frame. constant change. the earth cannot be an inertial reference system. Unfortunately for classical mechanics. The “luminiferous ether” is a absolutely still. It does not however. The incompleteness of Galilean-Newtonian relativity and Maxwell’s and then Einstein’s new relativistic principle of the absolute velocity of light left a gaping theoretical hole in classical modernist physics which. The bad news for this classical Newtonian mechanics is that the laws of mechanics are not valid for non-uniform inertial reference frames (co-ordinate systems) attached to the earth. from a co-ordinate system which has never been observed. The ultimately subjective emptiness base of reality may be penetrated by the contemplative yogic technologies of our Great Wisdom Tradition (p. consciousness studies.6 and give rise to the Postmodern worldview with its Special and General Relativity and later. 6 Newtonian mechanics works perfectly well in the mesoworld. It got us to the moon and back. not accelerated motion. The death of the idea of an absolutely non-moving privileged reference frame gave birth to Einstein’s Special Relativity. Arising light-energy is continuous motion. Thus. Only the great depth of our ultimately subjective source (the emptiness of Tao) is changeless and still. the Principles of Quantum Uncertainty and Complementarity of the Quantum Theory.). Buddhist epistemology. And this perfectly subjective base or source (Brahman/ shunyata/emptiness) is forever veiled to limited human conceptual objective understanding by the inherent subjectivity of the quantum uncertainty relations. undetectable “sea” that permeates everything and though which all particles. the BohmBell-Aspect nonlocality. unmoving.” Newton’s laws of motion are identical for all reference frames moving in uniform. the objectivist quest of classical mechanics for absolute non-motion as a basis for coordinate reference systems has yet to emerge. Then. along with Planck’s and Einstein’s discovery of the quantum nature of light. 35 . semiotic (intersubjective). would doom the Newtonian view. and philosophy of mind. The laws of classical mechanics were derived therefore. truth functional logic to describe a nondual ultimately subjective reality. and the inherent limits of a two valued. Classical mechanics had no foundation! What was needed theoretically was something which was absolutely still to provide an inertial co-ordinate system or frame of reference in which the laws of mechanics are valid. recent advances in the cosmology of the ocillating metaverse.

the discovery of quantum non-locality— quantum entanglement—is the ultimate unifying theory in the history of science. Yet. It is stillness in motion that is the Tao that pervades heaven and earth. is invariant (absolute) in all inertial reference systems. 36 . -Ts’ai-ken t’an Special Relativity: Light Energy is the Wisdom of Emptiness Something lives within you that lives longer than the suns. energy—in a left-brain. i. Einstein accepted Minkowski’s four dimensional spacetime continuum. plus the temporal dimension of time. 2007). exoteric scientificphilosophical model. Light-energy is motion. invariant. the three dimensions or co-ordinates of space. the fundamental principle of relativity. yet included the previous Newtonian scientific paradigm. Minkowski and Lorentz developed what was published by Einstein in 1905 as “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and became known as the Special Theory of Relativity whose postulates unified the four fundamental realities—space.Tao te Ching The stillness in the Tao is not the true stillness. noetic cognition (noetos) is present to human contemplative understanding (Begley. The speed of light cannot be relative. This radical Principle of Relativity—this “affront to common sense” (London Times)—established a new paradigm in science and philosophy that transcended. Einstein preferred the name “Theory of Invariants” for the new principle because the second of the two basic postulates of Special Relativity asserts that the spacetime separation of two “spacelike” events (events connected by a light signal) is the same. . The laws of physics—the laws of nature—are the same in all inertial reference systems. There is no reference frame or system in which light is at rest. And it is this nondual knowing—primordial wisdom/gnosis/jnana—that is the primary truth of our perennial Great Wisdom Tradition. the dreams that stuff is made of. stillness. it is absolute in all sensoryperceptual frames of reference. always the same when measured in relative motion. time. a vast openness inherent in this movement of energy as it arises from its infinite “supreme source” as finite spacetime phenomena. The Tao that can be named is not the true Tao. It is present at both the microphysical and cosmological dimensions of the unbounded whole of Reality Itself. It abides at the place in the heart. And this postulate is derived from Einstein’s first postulate.According to quantum physicist Henry Stapp. matter. that the laws of physics—the laws of mechanics and the laws of electromagnetism—must be the same for any observer in any reference frame anywhere in the physical cosmos. there is a luminous emptiness. The motion or speed of light (c) is constant. Einstein. This nondual non-conceptual. -Chandogya Upanishad Special Relativity. The uncertainty relations of the Quantum Theory is the veil of maya to our merely discursive conceptual knowing of the ultimate nature of Reality.e.

Kant understood this a hundred years before Einstein. In Special Relativity. and relative mind (“Small Mind”) arising therein. We can do the same mathematics and physics anywhere in the physical cosmos. Events that occur simultaneously at separate locations in one frame of reference. These two aspects of ultimately subjective Reality Itself are the “Two Truths” of our perennial Great Wisdom Tradition. designate and construct our local. We have absolute mind (“Big Mind”). Special Relativity has demonstrated (not proven) in a left-brain verbal-analytic modality (relative truth) the Primordial Wisdom truth that the inherent nature of all arising relative phenomena is light energy. Let us then further explore this radical kosmic relationship. There is nothing that causes entropy to increase. Of the great unbounded whole of appearing reality. light disregards the (Lorentz) transformation laws of classical mechanics altogether. present and future are absent any absolute reality. Indeed. the light source. Later. According to our Great Wisdom Tradition. Time is dependent upon a particular reference frame. it has no independent existence. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is not deterministic. the reference system of “the observer” (believer) is not privileged. not just Newton’s laws of mechanics. Past. entropy may increase or decrease. Two observers in relative motion to one another see the others’ clock “run slow” with no contradiction. And this resulted in the constancy of the velocity of light (c).” Time exists only relatively. Simultaneity is relative (cf. Time is relative. relative spacetime reality. the fundamental nature of kosmos (ultimate reality) and cosmos (physical and mental reality arising therefrom) is empty. a thinking-conceptual mind. one directional time is refuted. Thus. Temporal relations are not absolute. apart from the relative operations of the mind. And all of this is relative to 37 . the same for all observers.” not even ours on the earth.38). Human reference systems or frames of reference are perceptually and conceptually fabricated relative spacetime constructions of the consciousness—the cognition—of the perceiving subject. and time. and of direction. But the mental and physical phenomenal particulars arising and filling the world with light arise in and are relative to that great unbroken whole. and do not exist a priori in nature. This postulate generalizes the Galilean/Newtonian relativity principle to include Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism (but not gravity). it is through the operations of mind that we reify. are relative to the motion or velocity of light ( c). in 1915 Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity would generalize his Special Relativity to include accelerated reference systems. and thereby define a new gravity (p. arising from an infinitely vast “causal nexus. The privileged reference frame of Maxwell’s “luminiferous ether” is denied. by intersubjective convention and conceptual designation. Nomically. all reference frames are equally privileged. our primordial sourceground by whatever name.43). the forward flow of time—the thermodynamic “arrow of time”—is illusory. Time has no essential independent or absolute reality. but probabilistic. but is merely a creative conventionally reified dependent array of causes and conditions. Therefore. That is.No observer’s reference frame is privileged or “special. p. position. which is absolute or invariant. Paradoxically. Thus Boltzmann’s temporal asymmetry: the laws of mechanics do not preclude the arrow of time from moving in either direction. there exist sentient beings whose perception or consciousness of systems of reference regarding the energy-motion of objects arising in the spacetime therein that reality. Linear causality is kaput. The end of time. changeless and absolute. will not be simultaneous in all frames of reference. Newton’s absolute.

Special Relativity (1905) is “special” because it applies only for inertial systems in which gravitational forces (acceleration) are not present. No consciousness. then subjectively realized by a trained contemplative consciousness (p. ipso facto beyond physics—metaphysics—and is therefore not objectively knowable to the conceptual mind. a universal constant.59ff). (More on this in the Quantum Theory below. Einstein assumed that the speed of light (c) moving between the two reference frames was constant. superluminal connectedness (quantum entanglement) of quantum reality. and are relative to that reference frame. no classical theory can. The force of gravity was included by Einstein in the General Theory of Relativity (1915) and applies to all observers whether in uniform interial motion or accelerated motion. not accelerated motion relative to one another. The General Theory— arguably the greatest intellectual accomplishment in human history—is a speculative theory of gravity. Newtonian and Einsteinian relativity limit particle interactions to the speed of light). Indeed. the velocity of light and the universality of the laws of physics have been “absolutized. Appearing phenomena are dependent on the state of motion of the observer. Therefore. Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance.” the instantaneous. As we have seen. Spacetime is curved by local matter and energy. no phenomena. What may appear to an observer relative to the reference frame of the earth as twenty-five years.) General Relativity. no arising appearing reality. explain the mysterious nonlocal. that is. the essence of General Relativity. Therefore. Both of Einstein’s relativity theories are classical theories in that they are incompatible with the post-classical Uncertainty Principle of the Quantum Theory. the velocity of an object in motion can be determined only relative to the consciousness of an observer. non-causal nature of hitherto “objective” appearing reality (p. this ultimately subjective source of objective light-energy-mass of the E=mc2 equation. some of the relations which deterministic Galilean-Newtonian mechanics had held to be invariant or absolute—spatial distance. What is relative is the spacetime arising appearances to a perceiving consciousness. plus 10 mph. No conscious observer. gravity is nothing more than the curvature of spacetime. Definitive theorems and experiments by John Bell. (Classical Galilean. Neither relativity theory addresses the problem of non-locality. A person running down the aisle of a train appears to be moving at the speed of the train.” Therefore it is a mistake to assert that Special Relativity claims everything to be relative. by whatever name is. the same for observers in both frames. Alain Aspect and many others have confirmed this paradoxical non-local. the zen of spacetime. A most amazing paradox.the subjective Absolute in whom arises objective light-energy-motion whose velocity in the Quantum Vacuum is absolute. But two critical Newtonian relations. may appear to an observer moving at near the speed of light as one year (the “twins paradox”).49). Einstein’s Principle of Equivalence. Again. subsumed accelerated motion under gravitation making gravity not a force acting at a distance as Newton would have it. an observer in each reference frame will perceive the motion differently. time. and of gravity. superluminal (faster than light) propagation of light.e. Yet this matrix source may be recognized. by definition.” that no signal can propagate faster than the velocity of light. systems that move in uniform. So. Both relativity theories assert classical realist “locality. Both observers are 38 . mass—have been relativized. i. but a local result of gravity in curved spacetime. a geometric generalization of Special Relativity that includes Galileo’s and Newton's classical theory as a limiting case. This is known as a classical (Lorentz) transformation.

simultaneity is relative. For example. Classical physicists extended the first of these principles to include not only mechanical energy. neither created nor destroyed.” The great contemplative minds of the Buddhas and Mahasiddhas notwithstanding. “previously swallowed up” the other energy fields. that is. its mass becomes infinite.correct! There can be no privileged reference frame which is really correct. This paradigm shift creates an entirely different conception of mass than that produced by the “web of belief” of Newton. (A moving clock does not run slower or stop compared to the clock of an observer at rest. Primordial light energy arising from its utterly ineffable source is always conserved. yet only a few months will have passed in the reference frame of the space traveller. The second balance principle is the principle of the conservation of mass. but relative. only the astonishing syncretic genius of Aristotle would compare. A third clock must be used. energy is conserved. 39 . No reference frame is privileged. to be sure. Remember. not even yours). to all physical fields. (The classical mind reifys absolute entities and does not discern quantum event moments arising from the process of reciprocal cognitive coupling of observer and that observed.” Clocks moving at the speed of light stop. E=mc2. The great mind of Isaac Newton anticipated this truth in his Optiks when he asked. this famous equation—E=mc2—was actually a footnote to Special Relativity. that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content. Throughout the conversions. only changed in form. time is not absolute. This notion leads to the paradoxical result of time dilation. which states that arising primordial energy cannot be created or destroyed. combustion converts stored chemical energy into thermal energy which may in turn be converted to kinetic energy to run a generator which produces the electrical energy that lights our homes. mass and energy are not separate but constitute mass-energy. Actually moving clocks do not really run slow. We have seen in the “twins paradox” that a space traveller moving at near the velocity of light (c) would be away for many earth years. at the velocity of light. we cannot ask. “Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another. A most amazing paradox. but also to thermal. Mass is solidified energy. a fabulous result. Another result of Special Relativity is that the mass of a body in motion increases with its velocity until. as space and time are not separate but constitute the continuum of spacetime. transcended and included in the principle of the conservation of energy which had. “which reference frame is really correct. The first of what Einstein termed the two “balance principles” of classical.” Hume referred to this greatest of all intellects as “the greatest and rarest that ever arose for the ornament and instruction of the species. Thus. Synchronized clocks of any two observers in different reference frames will read differently. Again. Again. as Einstein put it. Einstein later developed this hypothesis into his famous E=mc2 . Regarding the second principle. Galilean/Leibnizian/Newtonian relativity is the principle of the conservation of energy. developed by Einstein between 1905 and 1907 when he published it. Just so. Time interval between two events is relative to the motion of an observer.) But this view did not hold up to Special Relativity and was therefore. invariant or absolute quality of matter. chemical and electromagnetic energy. that is. So now mass (matter) and energy are equivalent as mass-energy. energy is liberated matter.”Moving clocks run slow. mass appeared to classical theorists to be the essential. Energy is conserved through all possible changes.

-Chögyal Namkhai Norbu. lung. Mind. objectification or solidification of light-energy from its great timeless. between space and time. Einstein explains simply (1952): The mass of a body is the measure of its energy content.. and “c2 “ is the velocity of light squared (multiplied by itself). the state of Dzogchen. but to all energy transformations..the spontaneously arising play of this energy . the essences of the elements . where “E” is energy. thermal. the Primordial Emptiness.to produce the elements themselves. shakti. On the account of our Great Tradition then. continuous emanation. and the mass in grams. utterly ineffable base or source. just as the Vedas. which in turn manifests as the five colors. between the vexing modernist dualism of the Cartesian/Newtonian objective worldview. has bridged the gap. with its light energy (motion matter). cittadhatu). pneuma. Tao.. This occurs in particle accelerators. Brahman of our Great Wisdom Tradition. (gross.. ultimately or perfectly subjective.. the energy being measured in ergs. self-perfected state. This equation represents the mathematical formula for the conversion of mass (matter) to energy that occurs in the nuclear reactions of stars. analogically. The most profound example of the equivalence of energy and mass is “pair production. material chain of cause and effect from the “Big Bang” (“First Cause”) to the present. “m” is mass (quantity of matter). if the energy changes by L. The wisdom of emptiness. of all-inclusive Kosmos. But first. causal.may be enjoyed as such by an individual who remains integrated with his or her essential inherent condition. a huge number. chemical and electromagnetic. Spirit). black holes and the Big Bangs that create the many universes of the oscillating “Metaverse” (Multiverse).the whole material dimension . E=mc2 demonstrates that all matter. 40 . From this urgent synthesis now arises the incipient integral world reformation of the TwentyFirst Century that is the very foundation of the emerging Noetic Revolution. along with the inherent emptiness of such matter in the Quantum Theory. manifestation.So. the mass changes in the same sense by L/9x1020. subtle. and the inherent subjectivity of the quantum and Buddhist worldviews. the physical cosmos is not simply a linear. nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs. all of material reality is actually light-energy (prana. According to Tibetan Dzogchen scholar and meditation master Chögyal Namkhai Norbu: It is the inherent nature of the primordial state to manifest as light.. The E=mc2 equation applies not just to nuclear reactions.. 1999 E=mc2. the “supreme source” (kunjed gyalpo. Tantras and many other teachings of our Great Wisdom Tradition have told from the very beginning. ch’i) arising from vast primordial emptiness/matrix/ sourceground. E=mc2 is the mathematical formulation of the Theory of Special Relativity to express the fundamental equivalence of matter and energy.. there is enormous energy contained in the smallest bit of matter. physics and metaphysics. Therefore. which make up .” the pair creation of particles of matter and antimatter arising from the Quantum Vacuum that is the pure primordial energy base of the physical cosmos. the Quantum Revolution. in the self-liberating. nondual aspects of the reality demensions of Body. but an atemporal.

From about 1600. . The primordial unity of the knowing subjective observer-perceiver and the apparently separate perceived object was thereby formally split into the duality of observer and that “other” object observed. . the presumed ultimate constituents of phenomenal reality.The Quantum Revolution The progress of science has now reached a turning point. . This represents an absolute epistemological dualism of subject and object. By 1900 it was commonly assumed that the whole of appearing reality could be neatly reduced to little purely physical subatomic billiard balls whose behavior could be perfectly described and deterministically predicted by the sovereign classical mechanics of Sir Isaac Newton. not in a continuous wave of electromagnetic energy as Thomas Young’s wave theory (1801) 41 . Ptolemy. The Ultraviolet Catastrophe Only the whole is completely objective. suddenly and without warning. The early Greek. Transcending his objectivist predilections. the “ultraviolet catastrophe” struck the great theoretical estate that was the Modernist objectivist worldview. the Buddhists. humanity’s worldview was essentially subjective. Kepler and Galileo. space.” -Albert North Whitehead (1967) Prelude: It’s only physical. In 1900. classified and qualified. matter . the Hindus. observer and data. an Aristotelian strategy to “save the appearances” from the spectre of Platonic and Neoplatonist transcendence. were all based upon speculative subjective metaphysical systems with no organized objective methodology. Prior to the 16th and 17th century discoveries of Copernicus. German theoretical physicist Max Planck made a world shattering discovery. Roman Cynics and Stoics. matter and spirit. -William Earle Then. and that it is somehow separate from the mental and spiritual dimensions of our nature. The history of Western science and philosophy since has been an objectivist/rationalist epistemological quest for the grail of absolute objective certainty. all the way into subatomic particles (plus charges and minus charges). Aristotle. Hebrew Kabbalistic. no science. Plotinus and Nagarjuna speculated. The great contemplative subjectivist knowledge paradigm that included the Greek Hermetic. appearance and reality. The Taoists. But the Copernican Revolution quantified. Hebrew. Hindu and Chinese traditions as well as indigenous shamanism. and Eastern wisdom traditions was sacked in a zealous Apollonian objectivist quest to measure and quantify everything. Planck correctly formulated the mathematical description of ultraviolet radiation emitted from a perfect “black body” absorber proving that energy was absorbed and emitted. Time.all require reinterpretation. and Plato all speculated. . The stable foundations of physics have broken up. unity and mystical and spiritual subjectivism. Western science and philosophy have assumed—without empirical proof—the metaphysical presumption that all appearing reality is only physical (monistic Physicalism or Materialism).

Galileo. the photoelectric effect. but electrons—exhibit such quantization. and h is the new constant (10-33) a minuscule quantity of measure of the microphysical graininess of the physical cosmos. and metaphysical ontology. Thomas Young had previously established the wave-like nature of light with his ingenious.” This discovery is nothing less than a new constant of nature.69) Well. In 1905—the prolific year he developed and published the Special Theory of Relativity— Einstein firmly established the particle-photon nature of light using it to explain the photoelectric effect.” that the atomic vibrational energy of a photon is quantizied arising in multiples of discrete “wave packets. for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. recent particle physics is trending toward a wave theory of light (footnote 12. light behaves like a pointlike particle. p. But by 1925 it was clear that the strict determinism of classical Newtonian mechanics was inadequate to explain the apparent dual wave/particle nature of light. Physics just gets weirder and weirder. Galileo and Newton. Thus the behavior of light is not contradictory. the continuity of Aristotle. However. in 1924 Prince Louis de Broglie proved that such quantization obtains not only at the subatomic level.” All submicroscopic phenomena—including not only photons. Upon measurement. a paradox that collapsed the old classical physics of Aristotle. could both be explained by his new “quantum of action. Again. If this tiny constant were zero the universe would be not granular. nondeterminist and non-objectivist Quantum Field Theory. billiard ball theory of Aristotelian and modernist atomic continuity required. namely the hitherto dubious physical existence of the atom. Indeed. Niels Bohr replaced the Rutherford atomic model with his own.” and another nail in the coffin of Newtonian physics. 7 Planck demonstrated that both the “ultraviolet catastrophe. nor in a continuous stream of individual atoms as the classical. epistemology. wave or particle? The western logical canon states as its Law of Excluded Middle that “Either A or not-A” (contradictories cannot both be false). So which is it? Bohr’s Principle of Complementarity of the Quantum Theory replies that it is both. and won him the Nobel Prize in 1918. Thus energy or light was proven to be both particle-like and wave-like. by 1925 the dual wave-particle nature of light was firmly established in modern and contemporary physics. The theorem is E=hf where E is atomic vibrational energy. Newton’s theory of light was also a particle theory. Thus. As noted above. to fully understand the behavior of light we need both wave and particle descriptions and equations. which is it. postmodern. f is frequency.required. namely Planck’s Constant (h). Planck’s great discovery became the foundation of the new. cosmology. and the problem of discreet atomic spectral emissions. but in a discontinuous emission of photons as discrete particle-like energy “packets. 42 . but smooth and continuous. which explained the other two nails in the coffin of Newtonian mechanics. but at the atomic level as well. Descartes and Newton. double-slit experiment in 1801. In the first decade of the Twentieth Century. it’s complementary. But how can a point-like particle be a wave spread out in space? Before a measurement. light is wavelike and demonstrates wave interference.7 Yet particles in motion also need Young’s related wave motion to fully describe their subatomic behavior. post-classical. This fundamental “graininess” of all physical reality has profound implications for the development of microphysics.” which he named “quanta.

Being and Time Time is nature’s way of preventing everything from happening at once. Together these two quantum mechanical principles comprise the “Copenhagen Interpretation” of the Quantum Field Theory which demonstrates an inherent duality and atemporal subjectivity at the very heart of physical reality. These two great principles of the Quantum Theory have effectively demolished foundationalist epistemological and scientific Realism: absolute time. All of this made Albert Einstein very unhappy. and in 1915 his General Theory of Relativity.37). and with it the epistemological dualism of appearance and reality. -Anon. acts of empirical observation and cognition. independent. and Plotinus in the West. absolute space. objectivist physics with its objective linear—directional and durational—arrow of time. mind and body. This duality is the behavior of matter (the position and momentum of its ultimate particles). p.” The Quantum Revolution has now firmly established the urgency of the new global nondual Noetic Revolution that began with the great Second Century sages Nagarjuna in the East. the theoretical unity of time and space (cf. Observer and observed are no longer separate. These great discoveries led in 1926 to Max Born and Erwin Schrödinger’s 1926 ingenious wave equation and the development of Wave Mechanics where the electron becomes a probability wave. Einstein’s classical Special and General Relativity assume that Aristotle’s uncoupled absolutes of time and space are the spacetime continuum. and the attendant ontological dualism of spirit and matter. That is our 43 . of perceiving/ knowing subject and its separate perceived object. Continuing our very brief history of time. and its physical constitution (light wave or particle?) Thus ended 400 years of classical and modernist. He expressed to his friend and colleague Max Born in 1948. that is to say. This exoteric truth of the timeless (not eternal) subjectivity of consciousness is the analog (but not reducible to) the right brain esoteric truth of our nondual primordial Great Wisdom Tradition: Tat tvam asi (That thou art). then I simply cannot see what it is that physics is meant to describe. and the objectivist linear Principle of Causality of the classical. as we shall see. Spiritual practitioner and nondual godhead are no longer separate. in 1905 Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity. The end of time. material realist. Newtonian Modernist Enlightenment worldview. In 1924 de Broglie discovered that matter has a wavelike character. of spacetime matter from the immediate now of its timeless Spirit Source. “If one abandons the assumption that what exists in different parts of space has its own. “Subject and object are only one” (Schrödinger). but as a timeless atemporal relationship of interdependence (Buddhist pratitya samutpada or Interbeing) through acts or processes of consciousness. Particles are no longer separate. “It is the theory which decides what we can observe” (Einstein). Heisenberg’s post-classical Quantum Theory expresses the left-brain exoteric philosophical truth that the observing subject and the object observed arise not separately in time. Werner Heisenberg’s 1927 formulation of Matrix Mechanics (a particle mechanics) with its catastrophic (to classical dualistic subject-object determinist objectivism) Uncertainty Principle (the Principle of Indeterminacy) led to Niels Bohr’s Principle of Complementarity. real existence. and 2500 years of deterministic epistemological and ontological materialist and realist dualistic separation of relative appearances from ultimate reality.

dwelling and decay of phenomenal appearance to a sentient nervous system. is an emptiness of perceiver and perceived. vidya/rigpa) of the infinite expanse of Spirit that we always already actually are. in the present moment of our internal memory and imagination. a sensory-conceptual superimposition upon this vast perfectly subjective timeless process of change.9). the non-relativized absolute objective time of classical mechanics—from Aristotle to Newton—is a logocentric “false absolute. but lives in a relation of interdependence with it. within the interval/bardo of this subjective now of the present moment lives the infinite/eternal Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis.” in the mind of the beholder. the “supreme source” (cittadhatu) in whom we all arise and participate. jñana/yeshe) of the “fourth time” (turiya). timeless nondual witness presence (christos. ontological relativity (p. atman. as this “eternal present. This fourth time. beyond the foundationalist false absolute—materialism—of the Western metaphysical tradition. the moment now.” the secret place where the outshining luminosity (abhasa) of the primordial clear light (prabhasa) arises and enters in. So our objective experience of time is not definitive.” Time is “in here. vast expanse of the atemporal unbroken whole. science and culture—our new Noetic Revolution. We perceive such objects in what appears to be an external objective linear time. here and now and nowhere else. and methodological pluralism. or unrelated to relative. Thus. Parmenedes and Heraclitus together at last. usually unrealized state of being (turiyatita) that is the already present immediate.” is then subjective. and esoteric Christianity’s “upper room. Time—our sense of time—is then. Thus the Quantum Revolution effectively ended the Modernist. We are not ultimately separate from this great. conventionally arising phenomenal particulars. Now is the time. Yet. Thus emerges the Twenty-first Century new reformation in religion. there can be no objective. and a subtler. Thus our ontology of interdependence has an objective cause and effect relative-conventional level. This is Tibetan Buddhism’s ozel ling. rationalist Enlightenment Project and began the postmodern age that is now yielding to post-critical. Time. According to our Great Wisdom Tradition—including Quantum Field Theory and its scientific and philosophical descendants—the subjective observer is not separate from the object observed. Why? Events in time are perceptually and conceptually constituted or constructed only in relation to the process of change—relative motion—experienced by a sentient bodymind located in an objective relative-conventional spacetime reference frame (t= vt = vc x L = Lv).” So time is no longer “out there. of changeless Being Itself always in process of becoming. Change is c c c the moment-to-moment causal arising. But where in here is it? According to Vedanta and Buddhist Middle Way wisdom. the past and the future necessarily occur now. Remembering the paradigmatic “Two Truths” of nondual ultimate Reality Itself we’ve seen that the present experience of spacetime reality in our mindstream. direct atemporal subjective level (the Two Truths). So it is told by the masters of our Great Tradition. to present to future (as codified in the second law of thermodynamics—entropy increases). We’ve seen that this conventional “arrow of time” moves in a causal chain of quantum event moments (vasana) from past. unconceived. universal or absolute time independent of. post-metaphysical integral holism. I have termed this Ontological Interdependence. although 2 44 .” That is who we actually are.“supreme identity. a potential. Einstein’s Special Relativity and our Great Wisdom Tradition agree: contrary to Galileo’s and Newton’s classical mechanics.

subject and object.” and not something other. and whether or not Bohr’s Principle of Complementarity saves the Excluded Middle.) The Law of Contradiction—”Not both A and Not-A (A cannot be not-A) or contradictories cannot both be true—is violated because light cannot be both a point-like particle. the “hard problem” of the mind-body relation. Is Aristotle’s syllogistic logic the last word? In this purely deductive logic. coemergent. the freedomdeterminism duality. objective existence. separate. Whether it is the Law of Excluded Middle or the Distributive Law that is violated.values. Moreover. situated together in Relationship (hetu. it cannot also be B. prior to a measurement that “collapses the wave function” the electron is in two places at once! In other words the electron is both A and not-A. mutually interdependent. this untidy “quantum measurement problem” is only a problem if one insists on the primacy of the Western Logical Canon. ineffable feminine principle. tendrel).objectively “real” by our conventional conceptual designations. clarity of the “sky-like” non-dual or transcendent Primordial Awareness Wisdom. the Gnostic Depth (Bathos). “A is A. the Pleroma (fullness) of the still silence. Post-Quantum Logic: West Meets East Open mouth. coextensive and interconnected. Tao. namely the Law of Contradiction. (Aristotle’s first law is the “Law of Identity. Waves and particles are distinct objective entities. The Law of Excluded Middle—”either A or not-A” (contradictories cannot both be false)—is also violated because light must be either a particle or a wave. self and other. infinite. form and emptiness. a context or ultimate causal matrix of radical. a particle—an electron—may exist in an ineffable “super position. All relative spacetime relationships among events and beings are fundamentally. the Law of Contradiction and the Law of Excluded Middle are not apriori true assumptions. and for an integral noetic epistemology and science are profound: appearance and reality. and the Law of the Excluded Middle. If an object is A. woman and man. and our little life is rounded with a sleep” (Shakespeare. already a mistake.” that is. and a wave spread out in space. is merely heuristic and “merely metaphorical” (Goethe)—it has no independent. “We are such stuff as dreams are made on. in quantum mechanics. but not both.” the foundational laws of Western logic and mathematics. + and . Nirguna Brahman. Implications of this astonishing result for the realist-idealist duality. perfectly subjective primordial openness/emptiness (not nihilistic. This proposition represents the essential ambiguity of quantum mechanical logic and ostensibly violates the law of Excluded Middle. Let us now explore this noetic logic of reality. God and humanity. atheistic nothingness). all the apparent binary dualities of relative-conditional contingent existence in time are already a timeless perfectly subjective prior unity! The two complementary streams of any binary—of all conventional dualistic reality—meet and merge in radically open emptiness (shunyata). -Zen Pith Neils Bohr’s Fundamental Principle of Complementarity that yields the wave-particle duality of the Copenhagen Interpretation of the Quantum Theory appears to violate two of Aristotle’s three “Laws of Thought. The Tempest). but are logically deduced from the definition of contradictories as stated in the 45 . timeless. This vast fullness/depth is also the womb-source of our Great Goddess Mother. becoming and being.

primordial light is. even a meditative contemplative integral understanding where the “modal mismatch“ of mathematical logical necessity and the radical contingency of the Quantum Theory and Buddhist Dzogchen are subsumed in their interdependent ontic prior unity? Both Hindu and Buddhist logicians in the East. even deductive logic is conventional and cannot be a path to objective certainty. semiotic semantics. permits a unified. as Quine and Duhem have shown. and in any “theory of everything. “Both A and not-A. East/West logic that allows. with this urgent logical enrichment. from this fearful habitual quest for the totemic.” The wave-particle duality of the Quantum Theory then. the existence of anything at all. This Law of Connection defies the Western logical orthodoxy—the great legacy of Aristotle. both a point-like particle (after a measurement). or may be.” “The wu-wei that does not aim at wu-wei. and the European Intuitionists (Brouwer. without contradiction. von Pauler) deny Aristotle’s Western Law of Excluded Middle. yin and yang that is the very light that creates the five elements (wu-hsing) from which evolve all of material spacetime reality. flowing return (fu) again to the light. and unconscious intersubjective mythos of dualism has infected the history of ideas in the West—religion. always present unity of the perennial Two Truths that is the one great truth that must be included in any theory of ontological or universal relativity.Law of Contradiction itself. Neils Bohr’s coat of arms was the tai chi—the yin-yang symbol that outpictures the primordial emptiness ground (Wu) of Ultimate Reality (Tao) in whom arises these two primordial energies. bipolar view of reality that logically excludes the holism of both A and not A? This dichotomous. How do we move then. this pernicious. and a wave spread out in space (before a measurement). and its complementary. 46 . merely two valued truth-functional logic? Are we forever yoked to a bivalent. the non-separateness of all arising phenomena—the “Interbeing” of Buddhist “dependent arising” (pratitya samutpada)—and do not assume or presuppose the existence of A. Tao/emptiness is the interdependent arising (pratitya samutpada) of all phenomena. all things spontaneously and effortlessly (te) as wu-wei (aporia). that is.” both being and non-being. This dialectic of the Tao of emptiness includes both ”is and is not. Frege and Russell—thereby revealing the ontologically prior. So. Wu-wei.” “both/and. Is the human mind then. post-metaphysical theories of ontological and universal relativity explored below. is in principle compatible with the Law of Connection—both A and not-A. without contradiction. our fundamental Principle of Ontological Interdependence upon which turns the new post-material.” “both A and not A. is truly wu-wei” (Lao Tzu). “Neither A nor not-A. as we shall see.” These two together permit the ontological interdependence. entirely bound by the logical syntax of this binary purely deductive.” (“Everything is connected with all other things”). black and white mode of thinking. logocentric idol of absolute objective certainty—the limit of the logical syntax of language—to an atavistic. This then. supreme source that is “the stillness in motion that pervades heaven and earth. But in the Eastern logical canon the truth of a statement is not logically equivalent to the falsity of its contradictory. This law is replaced with the unifying Law of Connection. science and culture—and we’re not even aware of it! Let us monitor—moment to moment in our mindstream— this logical pretense to knowledge. wayless non-seeking conceptual surrender. Thus.

and a New Ontology It is difficult to locate a black cat in a dark room. Philosophers of physics generally agree that there have been no real breakthroughs since. 8 47 . Clearly. namely absolute spacetime and absolute locality. Unfortunately. especially if there is no cat. This neutrino sector revelation. yet include its many successes. which violates Einstein’s Special Relativity. the values of which define the properties of particles (their masses and the strengths of the forces). the establishment of a science of consciousness—the long neglected study of the mind beyond or prior to the brain. and the nonzero mass of the neutrino. non-local new physics paradigm. The emerging integral science of matter. It is unable to explain the Quantum Uncertainty Principle and quantum nonlocality (entanglement). indeed all of the G. chaos. Such a synthesis will relativize the logocentric idols of General Relativity. demonstrates the limits of the Standrd Model and the need of a fundamentally new paradigm in physics. the absolute dynamics of pre-quantum physics is yielding to the interactive dynamics of the interdependent epistemology and ontology of the emerging Noetic Revolution. and the Twentieth Century Quantum Revolution. The problem is intimately linked to the lack of a unifying Quantum Gravity that quantizes General Relativity unifying it with the Quantum Theory. 3) the Higg’s field and 4) the Standard Model’s inability to explain. Perhaps the greatest problem facing theoretical physics today is the incompleteness of the “Standard Model” and its Quantum Theory. They appear to have different masses. indicate an asymmetry between neutrinos and antinutrinos. -Confucius Prelude: Physics in trouble. There is presently a glaring inadequacy of the Standard Model to explain 1) its free constants. It is now the “old paradigm” scientific orthodoxy. The incomplete Standard Model is now in the “scientific crisis” that precedes a “scientific revolution” and a “paradigm shift”. What is needed is a cognitively courageous theoretical leap from this scientific fundamentalism toward a non-realist. the Standard Model and its theoretical quantum gravity candidates. or explain away the mystical Dark Matter and Dark Energy (the Cosmological Constant Problem) that together constitute about 96 percent of the known physical universe. 2) the non-zero mass of the nutrino (CPT symmetry violation). and others. the Copernican Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. mind. non-materialist. which violates the Standard Model’s CPT symmetry of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory. String Theory mathematics is in yes. There have been two great revolutions in science.8 along with Dark Matter and Dark Energy.The Great Quantum Debate: Einstein. inter-paradigm project.U. By 1980 theoretical physics had established the quantitatively robust Standard Model. candidates cling to epistemological Realism and thus to absolute spacetime and absolute locality. and spirit is an auspicious beginning of this urgent inter-dimensional. a supreme intellectual achievement. Superstring Theory and Super Gravity. and the “Problem of Consciousness” (the problem of subjectivity) are the new clouds on the horizon that portend at Experimental results from Fermilab’s MINOS experiment.T. a theory that will transcend its limits. the Standard Model with its quantum mechanical description of nature is in dire need of that next more inclusive theory. on the cusp of the Twenty-first Century we enter the new Noetic Revolution. Now. Bohr. Here. if true.

Schrödinger. Copernicus and Aristotle. If physicalist physics is a complete explanation of reality.” and Buddhist advaitic (nondual) epistemology. More on this below. the dogmatic presumption of monistic Physicalism (Materialism) with its effective denial of subjective. On this essentialist. even “vertical spiritually empirical” phenomena. essentially real entities just as they appear and are given to us by the medium of our sense perception (the “myth of the given”). 48 . realist description of the real objective existence of the furniture of spacetime physical reality. The “completeness of physics” here assumes without proof—that is. representational account the objects appearing to the senses exist as objective. non-instrumental. ideological attachment to a foundationalist Material Realist orthodoxy. the “Problem of Consciousness. the model that explains nearly nothing about 96 percent of the physical cosmos. it begs the question—of Physicalism. again argue that theoretical physics has at last “hit the wall” fabricated by its petrified. there’s an objective observer-independent “real world out there” (RWOT) existing independently from we separate observing subjects with our instruments. The epistemological Scientific Realism of the Hidden Variables interpretation of the Quantum Theory—Einstein. and absolutely nothing about consciousness. Einstein insisted on an epistemologically realist interpretation. grounded in the metaphysical assumption that the whole of reality is pre-given to the senses as an objective purely physical reality. Heisenberg. both Heisenberg and Bohr rejected the foundationalist defences of the realist. Bohm—in perennial debate with the nominalist. that is. The Copenhagen Interpretation allegedly violates this common sense realism of locality in that an individual quantum system—say. the value of the other may be known instantaneously. “Why. intersubjectively fixed for the Western mind by Apollonian measure. Why must reality be only and ultimately physical? Modern and contemporary physics has resolutely ignored the clues given by the profound stochastic subjectivity of the Quantum Field Theory and Quantum Cosmology. The great quantum debate. Born—deny that the Quantum Theory is complete.least a radical revision of the Standard Model. instrumentalist. Einstein’s “Inner Realist” required that properties of material objects (1) have an independently “real existence” and (2) all physical effects are local (electromagnetic signals cannot exceed the speed of light). mechanistic determinism of both Einstein’s and Newton’s classical physicalist worldview. that is to say. the particle pair seem to interact non-locally. “is physics in trouble?” I will here. On the other hand. which corrected yet included the celestial mechanics of Kepler. de Broglie. That is to say. independently.” asks physicist Lee Smolin. This is the logocentric metaphysical false idol that is the sinister “myth of the given” with its denial of consciousness. the logic of Aristotle. Einstein and the realists claim that it fails to offer a non-statistical. When a measurement is made of one particle of the system. which included Galilean Mechanics. and Galilean radical objectivity. Thus. be understood as an incomplete description of physical reality. The Quantum Theory must therefore. the Standard Model of physics is incomplete. the non-physical or metaphysical subjectivity that is Kosmos Itself! That “next more inclusive theory” will transcend yet include the many truths of the Standard Model with its Quantum Theory. reality must necessarily be only physical. anti-realist Copenhagen Interpretation of the Quantum Theory—Bohr. just as Relativity Theory included Newtonian Mechanics. a pair of particles—can separate into two “spacelike” (separated by a light signal) entities moving apart from each other while their quantities (position and momentum) remain a single “entangled” entity.

that proved that Einstein’s hidden variables are. after all. Rosen). absurd to conclude that the location of a cat—Schrödinger”s cat. Is it not. Thickening the plot. but only in an ideal experimental context—was not at all satisfying to Einstein and the naive atomistic Realism of the hidden variables neorealists.” a mathematical proof that refutes any model of reality (not just phenomena) that requires the locality assumption. but as well to macroscopic phenomena. 2008) that Bell’s experimental result—”Bell’s inequalities”— 49 . according to EPR. these experiments were conducted by Alain Aspect. that is to say. nominalist Copenhagen School is vindicated. its description of the particle behavior in the correlated quantum system is not a complete description of the behaviour of the system. Such “quantum entanglement” is a violation of the “locality” required by Einstein’s neorealist Special Theory of Relativity. Let us not foreclose debate just yet.” Einstein further argued that if the Quantum Theory is complete it must apply not only to micro-particles.” Bohr responded to this objection of the determinist Einstein to the Copenhagen indeterminist probabilistic view of reality thusly: “Oh Einstein. stop telling God what to do. the Material Realism of classical and relativistic physics is disproved.superluminally. proves. Thus the cause of determinist scientific Material Realism is furthered. For the next thirty years the EPR debate chilled. Well. the first particle will have precise simultaneous values as to the particle’s quantities—both position and momentum—a violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Rather. Podolsky. June 14. instrumentalist anti-realist reply to EPR—that the two-particle quantum system does not exist in reality. it would seem that scientific Material Realism and the anti-realist Quantum Theory are utterly incompatible. not that anti-realist quantum mechanics is false. cats. Indeed. Einstein and the Neorealist atomists are wrong and the holistic anti-realist. but that it is incomplete. Lee Smolin argues (New York Review of Books. just because its electrons have no precise location? Bohr’s nominalist. That is the current academic and popular “high culture” view. Bell’s Theorem established laboratory experiments—based on the mathematical formalism of”Bell’s inequalities”—wherein the nonlocality of quantum mechanics could be tested and Einstein’s realist interpretation with its locality assumption could be proved or disproved. via a signal that travels at faster than the speed of light. The EPR argument assumes the “locality assumption”—no particle interaction can be nonlocal—and argues that a measurement can be made that proves that a particle in a correlated quantum system at one location in space cannot be influenced by a measurement of a particle at another location. Thus. reality must necessarily be nonlocal. in 1964 John Bell published a seminal paper introducing “Bell’s Theorem. that’s not quite the end of the story. published in 1935. Upon Bell’s untimely death. Further proof argued by Einstein: “God does not play dice with the universe. without an experiment to determine a measurement of the particle quantities—position and momentum—the Copenhagen Interpretation holds that the particles are non-existent—not real—a result that Einstein vigorously resisted. any cat—cannot be precisely determined. necessarily. and later by many others. Then. nonlocal and therefore. In the infamous EPR thought experiment (Einstein. This conclusion. Einstein’s attempt to “save the appearances”—to salvage the realist “myth of the given”— takes the form of a “thought experiment” challenge to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Bohr and Heisenberg. trees and stars. that is.

Smolin speculates that it is assumption #2. unifying realist theory.” (Sounds like Buddhist/Vedanta Idealist metaphysics. Planck length) and the quantum uncertainty relations.” Thus Smolin’s Neorealistic “attempt to save the appearances” enlists the “special pleading” of the intrepid “hidden variables” argument whose ad hoc variations we may trace back in epistemic time through positivist. it cannot. “There are theories that make the same predictions as quantum mechanics and are fully consistent with Einstein’s notion of realism. thus no particle can exceed the speed of light. Remember. epistemologically anti-Realist results of the Copenhagen School as incomplete. nonconceptual realm of Ultimate Truth pointed to by the anti-Realism of the Unified Quantum Vacuum. mechanist.” theories of David Bohm.requires that only one of Einstein’s realist assumptions listed above is incorrect. and therefore Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance. “This assumption can be denied while holding fully to Einstein’s notion of realism.” These are of course. “Hope for a miracle. Smolin argues. Alain Aspect’s experimental results on Bell’s Theorem ruled out only hidden variables theories that are local. Rimini and Weber. particle interactions are local—the “locality assumption”—that is incorrect. and more completely described by the Transcendental Idealism of the Vedic/ Buddhist tradition. Thus Realism necessarily refers us to that ontologically subtler strata of formation—ontologically prior to the purely physical—which lies beyond this essential limit of conceptual understanding.) This incompatibility of General Relativity with the present state of the Quantum Field Theory it is assumed. relative conventionally real spacetime world. A Super-Duper String Theory that will correct the “problem of infinities” inherent in both theories. We have waited twenty-four hundred years for a hidden variable to save Material Realism! The entire edifice of the current world view of Scientific Materialism begs this question of 50 . de Broglie. that all particle interactions are mediated by light signals. and (2) matter’s particle interactions are local. that is . i. will produce that next more inclusive. and criticize the stochastic. Ghiradi. these are (1) matter has a “real existence” prior to the “wave collapse” resulting from an observation or measurement. The epistemology of Foundational Material Realism—the conceptual realm of Relative Truth—cannot function as an ontological theory of ultimate reality in the subtler. empiricist. These theories give a Material Realist explanation of quantum events. without appealing to a quite problematic ad hoc “renormalization” theorem. and recently. but not the nonlocal theories above. and the realist Buddhist atomists of the Abidharma. Smolin reminds us that recent experiments in the on-going effort to quantize General Relativity and unify it with the Quantum Field Theory through a more complete and inclusive theory of Quantum Gravity suggest that locality—physical interactions are local. Material Realist theories operate in the epistemic.” Alas.13). The Quine-Duhem Thesis above p. Our conceptual understanding is limited by this dimension or modality and cannot penetrate any ineffable ontic Reality that may lie prior to the Planck limit (Planck time. the “hidden variables. For Smolin. they obey the classical Principle of Special Relativity. materialist/physicalist strategies all the way back to Leucippus and Democritus and the Greek pre-Socratic atomists. as per Bell’s inequalities (cf. not superluminal—is a primitive theory that describes quantum behavior arising from a primordial “fundamental reality prior to the spacetime locality of merely physical phenomena. but give up the assumption of locality. Moreover.e.” the bizarre nonlocality of quantum connectedness (entanglement) is false.

There is no way we can have two theories of nature covering different phenomena. Smolin and other neorealists grasp at this next more inclusive theory. Science and its functionalist material realists must become aware of this growing body of scientific literature. the metaphysical assumption that reality is purely material or physical (Appendix B: The Idols of the Tribe: The Metaphysics of Science). A New Ontology? In any case.H. while the anti-realist. Begley 2007.) Nature is in an obvious sense “united. nonlocal new ontology to explain Smolin’s “unified nature” of arising. greatly inhibited further research. (H. in that everything interacts with everything else. the appalling academic suppression of new work on hidden variables—and consciousness and contemplative studies of the Buddhist contemplative cognitive “supernormal”—that dissent from the eristic ethos of the Copenhagen “orthodox ontology” has. special pleading of the “hope for a miracle” hidden variable strategy of Reductive Materialism. 2006 51 . Alas. yet that includes the non-discursive consciousness of the contemplatively trained human subject. deep background ontological reticence to rocking the epistemological boat of the status quo. 2008. Any claim for a final theory must be a complete theory of nature. as if one had nothing to do with the other. Thomas Kuhn would think so. it is clear that with the epistemological failure of Material Realism to provide ontological solace. lest we be cast rudely from our verecundiam comfort zone of instrumentalist quantum orthodoxy into that naked.Lee Smolin. much less noetic contemplative cognition. Penrose 1994. And this.Physicalism. these two great physical theories of the twentieth century—General Relativity Theory and the Quantum Theory—require a “final theory. and Scientific Materialism (Scientism) requires a watchful skepticism. How much longer must we wait? Would it be unfair to assert that this materialist IOU has sold out the Western Tradition from the very beginning? And we’ve all bought it! In any case. . the “completeness of physics” and its Quantum Theory begs this question of Physicalism. even nascent ontological Idealism of the Copenhagen view points steadily beyond its nominalist. Perhaps such lettered hubris may best be understood as an unconscious intersubjective. spacetime phenomenal reality. Roger Penrose and others have shown that human conceptual cognition is not computational. Wallace 2007. In any case. as Smolin points out in his excellent The Trouble With Physics (2006). into this great open expanse of “metaphysical” emptiness. post-realist. It must encompass all we know. “spooky” void of ultimately subjective Reality Itself. Dalai Lama 2005.” or at least a more inclusive. the metaphysical. apparently unaware that epistemological Material Realism alone is necessarily precluded as an ultimate ontological theory by the conceptual—logical and epistemological—ambiguity barrier of the Planck time (10-33) and the Planck length (10-43). Again. Eliminative Materialism. The brain does not operate like a computer. instrumentalist calculations.” The universe we find ourselves in is interconnected. Our weighty Problem of Knowledge—how we know what there is—requires a new noetic ontological approach that transcends algorithmic computational (biomorphic or silicon) decidability and conceptual elaboration.

and Ati Dzogchen. For this deeper wisdom we must—via contemplative “vertical spiritually empirical” study and practice—leap into the fearful arcanum of the speculative. spirit and matter are a non-conceptual. at great risk of being cast. Human beings possess an unmistakable innate imprint. nondual Reality Itself. Our fearful skepticism that there is anything here. a reasonable epistemology in the nominal realm of relative spacetime conventional reality. More epistemological and methodological logocentric “idols of the tribe” are sure to fall as we enter our new Noetic Revolution.” Here we must. So it is told by the masters of our Great Wisdom Tradition. metaphysical. knowledge of unobservable phenomena and subjective experience. enlightenment. It must encompass not only all we know up to Material Realism’s Plank ambiguity limit of conceptual understanding. of logical necessity. there must be. but not necessarily to the highly contemplatively trained mind of the meditation master (Begley. moksha. the truth of the epistemological Realism of science and the spacetime reality of Relative Truth. So let us once again. non-discursive meditative contemplative leaps into the vast expanse of naked. the new Noetic Revolution.Yes indeed. the great nondual wisdom tradition of the Vedic/Buddhist tradition that culminates in relative-conventional spacetime transcendent. 9 The nondual teaching of the great traditions are no more “mysterion” or metaphysical (beyond physical) than the quantum uncertainty relations. or String Theory.” “mysterion” primordial wisdom of the ages. but beyond. and the beginning of an inchoate noetic ontolgy. non-computational prior unity. or Dark Energy. beyond. 52 . conscious and even superconscious attachment to the uncomfortable comfort zones of our conceptual and belief systems. To penetrate that Upanishadic “Forest of Wisdom” we must find “the light within. non-objective or subjective phenomena that ontologically transcends it. once again. nondual Spirit in whom everything arises. the Great Perfection. We’ve seen that a purely objectivist. unfabricated one truth that is luminous nondual Reality Itself. “The eye of mind sees everything. we remember the paradigmatic incommensurabilty—the duality—of these two conceptual modalities are a prior unity in the utterly non-conceptual. Western foundational Material Realism—the Realism that denies the nonlocal nature of quantum reality while clinging to the logocentric absolutes of locality and spacetime—may be the first to go. forsake empirical representational Material Realism. in order to gradually accomplish Ultimate Truth (paramartha). even brilliant conceptual mind.9 Here. 2007. we enter in the primordial Two Truths. Let us be clear about this. into the metaphysical outer darkness. While it is true that we utilize the conventional knowledge of the realm of spacetime Relative Truth (samvriti) (objective and subjective reality). as it were. contemplative unknown. but cannot see itself” (H. Mind and body. The ultimate nature of reality is an utter mystery to the limited.H. or the Quantum Vacuum. and the ontological Transcendental Idealism of the Ultimate Truth. sudden. Wallace 2007). consult the “intellectually lightweight. realist-physicalist epistemology is necessarily precluded as a method of reaching and explaining such subtle. Thus ends the Quantum Revolution. The mind cannot think itself beyond itself any more than the eye can see itself. but untenable as the ontological ground of a final theory. Once again. Such an injunction to venture inside is truly a radical empiricism in the mode of William James. without tenure. non-conceptual. utterly nondual Advaita Vedanta. a primordial urge toward metaphysical knowledge. Buddhahood—just as Nagarjuna and Plotinus told—still. The 16th Karmapa). instantiates the psychological truth that we limit our psycho-emotional-spiritual growth and happiness by our preconscious.

Bhava) is the alpha and omega of religion and philosophy. information). hesed/caris) lifeworld activity. the classical “mind-body problem” as it arises in both the East and the West. To be or not to be. existence or non-existence—expresses the necessary duality of our relative conventional being in spacetime. reason/inference (dianoia). This binary equation—is or is not. . Wisdom (sophia. individual. relative and ultimate. cultural. jnana. Pretensions to rationality. as this is fundamental to an integral understanding of the relationship of the nondual view of Dzogchen. yeshe) with enlightened compassionate (karuna/nyingje. that is the essential question of human being (dasein). one or zero. of human ultimate concern. 53 . eka or shunya.our original mind that includes everything within itself. the Great Perfection with the physics of the Quantum Vacuum of quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology. post-mystical nondual one truth. epinoia). In the nondual Buddhist view of Dzogchen this perennial duality is transcended in the prior unity of being and not being that is the nondual one truth. and historical. esoteric (theory). And now we can see it. Being (Sein. secret (knowledge) and innermost secret (nondual primordial wisdom) elements of these four. The perennial Two Truths. Liberation/enlightenment is the realization of the prior unity of this primordial nondual wisdom (gnosis. The Standard Model of physics is now undergoing the “scientific crisis” that precedes a “paradigm shift.Toward A Post-Quantum Noetic Ontology Emptiness of mind is not a state of mind. that are the eternal dialectic between the Material Realism of science (matter). and the Transcendental Idealism of spirituality are resolved in the prior unity of the post-conceptual. contemplative/ mind-spirit understanding (noesis. but the original essence of mind. Knowledge develops through three stages: opinion/belief (doxa). sat or asat. -Suzuki Roshi Being Here: The Perennial Mind-Body Problem and The Middle Way The Quantum Revolution is complete. At the collapse of the quantum wave function during a measurement or a perception this superposition of the nondual being state that is both being and non-being—both one and zero—becomes the apparent—but not actual—duality of either being or non-being. prajna) is knowing the prior unity of the exoteric (facticity. pratitya samutpada). In the uncertainty relations of the Quantum Field Theory this nonduality is expressed as the superposition state—both “is” and “is not”—of the quantum information bits (qubits/vasana) that constitute the elementary particles arising from the Unified Quantum Vacuum that is the quasi-physical matrix of all inclusive kosmos. Human knowledge is biological. This all toward a new integral noetic ontology— Toynbee’s “rising culture”— that furthers the integration of the two paradigms— science and spirit/spirituality that is our ultimate aim. . Can these two hitherto incommensurable knowledge paradigms be integrated? But they were never separate.” So let us pause a moment to introduce the essential question of human being. Our eternal quest for the certainty of being—the classical Problem of Knowledge—quickly becomes the problem of skepticism and nihilism. then to explore the pivotal idea of the unity of Buddhist emptiness (shunyata) and “Dependent Origination” (dependent arising.

according to the Dalai Lama. but a profound soteriology—a method of human liberation and ultimate happiness—of the highest possible excellence. With the failure of dualism. Descartes. Is there a middle way between this perennial bivalent. charge. Monistic epistemological Objective Idealism asserts that reality is mental or mind only. Leibnitz and Locke to pass epistemological muster (the “interaction problem”) Dualism has fallen on hard times. The creed of monistic Materialism/Physicalism.” the perennial debate between epistemological Realists and Idealists. the very basis. believing that reality exists independely and absolutely just as it appears from its own side. of its own power. Between these two extremes—the realist/materialist reification of an absolute and independent physical and mental phenomenal reality. Physics has yet to bridge its Nominalism/Realism dichotomy (Bohr’s Quantum Theory vs.Epistemological strategies against these two have.C. Reality is only mind. Such Realists are essentialists. Einstein’s Hidden Variables) with such a middle way. objectively real—even absolute and eternal— existence separate or apart from a perceiving mind. Royce—who explain arising material objective reality as diaphanous subjective apparitions (avidya maya) of a perceiving consciousness. bipolar mind-body split? Yes. We are left then with Monism. In Buddhism the Abhidharma of Sarvastivada and Vaibhashika Schools argue—with Western functionalist Material Realism—the realist atomistic position wherein reality consists of indivisible physical/material atomic particles that have an ultimately physical. And Kant’s Transcendental Subjective Idealism—a duality of objective phenomena and the perfectly subjective unknowable utterly transcendent noumenon—is a Western version of our Primordial Wisdom’s Two Truths. waves and particles) arise and participate. with Realism.J. paralyzed by its fear of subjectivity and metaphysics offers no soteriology. classical foundational Realism—twenty-four hundred foundational years of Aristotle’s physical substance monism—now packaged for world consumption as Scientific Realism and Scientific Materialism (Scientism). reality is one substance. Varieties of Buddhist experience. With the failure of the mind-body Substance Dualism of Plato (early and middle Dialogues). Most Materialists are Reductive Materialists wherein the subjective mental and spiritual phenomena of human consciousness are reduced to objective. matter or mind. What is urgently needed is an epistemology and ontology that accounts for an ultimate or universal reality in which its particulars (mass. For the Eastern Mind. This view is opposed by the Buddhist Objective Idealists. The Unified Quantum Vacuum is 54 . the Chitamattra or “Mind Only” school—along with Western Objective Idealists—Hegal. Idealism is the presiding ontology. Here we have not only a synthesis of Realism and Idealism. “An ontology that requires two radically different forms of reality—one physical. the Buddhist Middle Way Consequence School. Bradley. Aristotle. in both the East and the West. Smart). or epiphenomena of merely physical brain states. purely physical phenomena. why monism? The answer lies in unity and economy of explanation. the other mental—is quite unbelievable” (J. and the idealist nihilistic negation of it—abides the mean that is the Madhyamaka Prasangika. of the nondual ontological view and practice of Ati Dzogchen. either physical or mental. asserts that there is a “real world out there” (RWOT) and it is entirely physical. Moreover. In the modern and even Postmodern Western Tradition the prevailing scientific and cultural ideology is a fundamentalist. often assumed the form of the “mind-body problem. the Great Perfection. spin. physics.

the Madhyamaka Prasangika the foundation of Ati Dzogchen. The duality of objective and subjective reality—the realm of spacetime Relative Truth—and perfectly subjective mind nature or Ultimate Truth are co-extensive. the nondual prior unity of this conceptual dualism. That is the great nondual realization. they acknowledge Realism by granting an objective existence to appearing reality. First. This protean reality does not possess —is empty of (shunya)—any intrinsic or essential existence. participating in the unbroken whole that is the one truth. the numinous consciousness basis—the vast causal nexus—in whom or in which this all arises. Therefore.22ff). is the view of the Quantum Theory. We need not. Yes.” Again. indeed we must not try to transcend our ordinary mind of everyday spacetime reality for this natural luminous mind is the very nature of mind. nonlocal. They really are real. ultimate ground. this paradoxical luminosity of ordinary natural mind.science’s inchoate quasi-physical. relative and ultimate. even metaphysical architecture for such a middle way methodology. ground or source and abides within itself in a relation of identity. Is there a non-dogmatic reason that a similar interdependent middle way view could not be developed by physics in its transition from realistic materialist/physicalist fundamentalism to a new more inclusive trans-materialist paradigm? For the Buddhist Middle Way then. the Great Completion or Perfection (p.27ff). 55 . The Prasangikas speak of the Two Truths. And this all is emptiness. So. Nagarjuna makes it abundantly clear. one immediate. perfect (if unrecognized) just as it is. beyond relative spacetime reality? No. Dependent Arising is emptiness.27). this is the highest or subtlest view of the Buddhist Middle Way. essence or identity independent of related physical and mental causes and conditions. the Nature of Mind is this bright presence. The Two Truths are one taste. like the separate “other” God of the theists. the Great Perfection. the nondual view as to Trekcho/Togal is that there is nothing to “cut through” and nothing to “cross over.27ff). This of course. dependently arising objects of phenomenal reality to the mind are not independent but interdependent (Interbeing). arising phenomenal objects do have an objective reality. “There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana” (Garfield 1995). this ultimate. Does this mean that for the Madhyamaka Prasangika and Ati Dzogchen this Ultimate Reality is utterly transcendent and unknowable. But this reality is merely the nominal contingent relative-conventional reality of the spacetime dimension of Relative Truth. always already present from the very beginning (p. In the Vajrayana the foundation of the View—intellectual and contemplative understanding—through the Middle Way Foundational Practice (ngöndro) is absolutely essential to receiving transmission of the Dzogchen Trekcho and the fruitional Togal (direct crossing) teachings of the innermost secret mengagde/upadesha by the Dzogchen master. However. The great Nyingma master Mipham Rinpoche teaches that it is the view of this Middle Way Consequence School that is the requisite foundational view for Dzogchen Trekchö (cutting through ego-self) practice (p. Emptiness is Dependent Arising. the contingent. intrinsically non-separate. Matter and mind are co-dependent. interconnected and interdependent nature of appearing reality is conventionally constituted by all dependently arising phenomena (pratitya samutpada/tendrel/nyingpo) from the vast expense of its primordial emptiness base. Thus is the Madhyamaka dualism of the Two Truths transcended in its nondual primordial Base (p.

cogito ergo sum. pathologizes or demonizes the subjective reality of the contemplative science. cittadhatu. for clearly “That I am”—tat tvam ami—in preconscious. As we’ve seen. feeling. the witness—the indwelling presence of this atavistic Ultimate Reality—is ontologically prior to (transcends yet includes) finite relativeconventional beings that think and reflect. yet there exists that one who doubts. That I Am! Cartesian Meditations: The “Hard Problem of Consciousness” and the Nature of Mind Rene Descartes’ dictum. turiya). is our bright indwelling actual nature. the “ultimate mode of existing of everything.” Essence precedes existence. prepersonal and super-conscious. splits. hidden (indirect inferential knowledge. thinking and in dreaming states. Tat Tvam Ami. citta. whether or not they realize it. Chandrakirti and Buddhist Madhyamaka epistemology has three classifications of the knowledge of relative conventional phenomenal reality—the realm of Relative Truth: evident (empirical. The realization of this truth is Buddha cognition (samatajnana) that is finally Buddhahood. technology and philosophy of mind of the East. “I am” also when I am not thinking. interdependent infinite awareness continuum—by whatever name—is the very source of relative becoming in conditional spacetime reality. particularly the genius of the Indian mind that produced the great Vedic-Vedanta and Indo-Tibetan Buddhist teachings. this perfetcly subjective non-entity that is luminous emptiness is intrinsically aware (rigpa/vidya)! And all beings abide here. samadhi. whether or not we realize it. reduces. 10 56 . Tao. representational knowledge. according to our nondual Great Wisdom Tradition. or anything else ultimately exists—the one certain proposition that proves that something— namely the self-aware thinking “I”—most certainly objectively. extremely hidden (subjective spiritual knowledge beyond direct experience and inference for the average consciousness. Essence precedes existence.—through its infernal taboo of subjectivity—denies. while the ultimate nature and source of all empirical spacetime reality is the Madhyamaka luminous emptiness. But in the Middle Way view of the Madhyamaka Prasangika of Nagarjuna. the primordial. The truth (gnosis/jnana/yeshe) of Primordial Ultimate Consciousness Being Itself (Nirguna Brahman. our knowledge of Ultimate Truth is hidden. unequivocally exists! We may doubt everything. sems nyid) is ontologically prior to the individuated spacetime being-in-form that is our physical and mental support for cognition— attention. What “hard problem?” With no science of mind. Mind Nature. transpersonal awareness mindstates (deep sleep. just as surely as “I am” in waking. the objectivist realist materialist tradition in the West. “I think therefore I am”—the infamous Cartesian Reduction—was intended to refute the nihilism of Skepticism’s doubt that God. For the Eastern contemplative mind it is not “I think therefore I am. thinking—and its relative-conventional intentional objects and emotional beliefs that are the content of discursive concept-mind (manas. There is no difference or separation. the spacetime reality of Relative Truth (samvriti satya) is relatively or conventionally real through our reified conventional consciousness imputations and designations. and the Vajrayana Nyingma perfect sphere of Dzogchen. Indeed. I doubt. the numinous “I Am” presence. Samsara and nirvana are one and the same (samata). Ultimate Truth (paramartha satya).”10 Astonishingly. And this.” but “I am therefore I think. sems). but not for the trained contemplative mind.Thus. For the Eastern mind however.) For example. The one truth that is nondual Buddha cognition (samatajnana) is extremely hidden. For the Eastern mind conceptual thought is not the sine qua non of consciousness. perceiving. nondual Being Itself (Interbeing). independently. moksha/mukti. therefore I am.

. it is contradictory. This is the Supreme Source (cittadhatu) of all appearing mental. the ultimate happiness that cannot be lost. There is then. Kham Brahm “The Bright” of the Vedas. . Absolute Consciousness Being Itself (svabhava) beyond or ontologically prior to our concepts and beliefs about existence. . The thought “I think therefore I am” arises as conscious relative-conventional experience within this essential consciousness matrix. . without contradiction. our reluctance to . and the nondual view of Shankara’s Advaita Vedanta it is not logically possible to doubt or deny. and Taoism.” the very Gnosis of Light “that lighteth every one that cometh into the world” (Gospel of John). namely the very awareness or consciousness (chit. but not this prior awareness matrix of experience in whom we all appear and participate. and always an essential wakefulness. . the very nondual base awareness continuum in whom doubter. . Indeed. thinking “I” or self appear? “In whom does this all arise”? Do you not feel or intuit the presence of a Matrix within which everything is arising? . the Tao that cannot be told. the very nature and sourceground of embodied mind. vijnana.Adi Da Samraj (1998) The Nature of Mind. the subjective spirituality—not religion—of the witness presence (vidya. abides and passes away. Remain awake in the feelingremembrance of the eternally present Divine Being. cittata) that is identical with nondual Spirit Itself. Quine’s “web of belief” that is our Great Wisdom Tradition’s nondual Ultimate Spirit. That (Tat/Sat) is the very consciousness of the awareness continuum through which academic philosophers and neuroscientists ponder their “hard problem of consciousness” that is actually this always already present presence. if not foolish to deny consciousness. We all share this same God. the Sanatanadharma. pure primordial awareness (kadag) that suffuses every act of consciousness (lhundrub). we may doubt. pure consciousness of the sourceground primordial awareness of all phenomenal appearance—that presence present in all cognition—that alone cannot be denied. That is the Real. In whom does this doubting. Therefore nondual ultimate Spirit. an aware presence or witness to the reflection of the discursive thinking mind that is not reducible to the mere cognitive contents of the mind.” That is vidya. Why? Because the mental operation of doubting/denying necessarily participates in that which it denies. . deny or reduce all complex or compound entities and beings.become lawfully oriented to infinity .” There is necessarily. That is the “light of Tao that is beyond heaven and earth. The objects or contents arising in mind and consciousness may be denied. a space of one’s own. God or anything else. . no ultimate “hard problem of consciousness. That is the Dalai Lama’s “luminous continuity of awareness. . The “problem” 57 . but that which is divine and eternal is always perfectly obvious. emotional and physical existence. right now! How can That (Tat) possibly be doubted? This is the seed of truth in Descartes’ cogito ergo sum. but not consciousness itself. Doubt is simply a reflection of ourselves. The doubt or denial of consciousness necessarily requires the very consciousness that is doubted or denied. Concepts about “God” may be doubted. doubted and everything else arises. This nondual Spirit is the luminous awareness continuum that is Reality Itself. rigpa. shespa. . Upanishads and Vedanta. . atman/saksin) of the very ground (cittadhatu) or basis (gzhi) of the primordial consciousness that is Absolute Spirit—the atman that is Brahman.Tsongkhapa. This is the great truth of the Buddhadharma. obviously. Therefore.

at the gross physical energy dimensional limit. Indeed.” that is. avida-ignorance. Plotinus and Shankara—have always told (Appendix C: The Structures of Consciousness). dreaming. consciousness of a physical or mental object. we have seen again and again how the vast expanse of the great consciousness or awareness continuum. the wish fulfilling jewel in whom all of these states and stages can be. All acts of consciousness are “intentional. this ultimately subjective consciousness base is the very “theory of everything. However. negative emotions (fear/anger/ aggression/ hatred/greed) prevail and our merely rational ethical precepts cannot be kept. just as the great transcendental dialecticians—Nagarjuna. C). Contemplative mind includes preconscious sensory attention and superconscious contemplative mindstates as well. Its resolution. The actual basis or source of morality then. “wisdom goddess” (prajaparamita/nirvakalpa jnana) of pure radiant primordial awareness that is our Supreme Source—Plato’s First Principle and Suzuki Roshi’s Big Mind—is a perfect or ultimate subjectivity that is not reducible to any of its objective qualities or contents. consciousness is always directed toward its intentional object. disaggregates and arises again and again. embraces yet transcends the Unified Quantum Vacuum that gives rise to the particular consciousness of a perceiving subject dualistically apprehending its intentional object. rational conceptual thought—reason—is the apotheosis of mind and its objects of consciousness. despite twenty-five hundred years of material realist epistemic effort. genocide and despair. and is a subjective take on Descartes’ objectivist cogito ergo sum. Here. without benefit of the yogic. conscious.” the “ultimate organizing principle” that science seeks. reflecting relative-conditional bodymind. To attempt to reduce the ineffable. But here the irony thickens. the contemplative Eastern mind deracinates then expands consciousness to include much more than its objectively conscious contents (kalpana). Mind Essence. consciousness must be conscious. Here. abides. yet has ideologically precluded through its pathologically rational grasping at absolute objective certainty. This is the Buddhist Nature of Mind. bridging (samadhi/satori) the “explanatory gap” requires subtler lifestage and consciousness dimension (subtle. causal) experience and contemplative training. is our luminous primordial original mind.arises and is perceived conceptually. This. This reductio ad absurdum argument of Shankara—that the denial of consciousness requires consciousness—is based upon his understanding of Nagarjuna’s dialectic. dianoiaamnesis. For Descartes and the rational Western mind. Sense and nonsense: the wisdom of uncertainty. Further. war. The result is terror. kunjed gyalpo). the luminous emptiness Base (gzhi/kadag) of our thinking. superimpositions and projections of egoic relativeconventional perception and concept-mind (vikshepa-maya. all states (state processes and operations) of consciousness of our embodied mind—waking. With this our natural “original mind” missing. in the gloss of contemporary philosophy of mind. our inherent indwelling Buddha Nature/Buddha Mind 58 . Satan)—is to commit some species of the “reductionist fallacy” and thereby to obscure or “miss the mark” (hamartia-sin) that is our Supreme Source (cittadhatu. exists. and everything else appears. We’ve seen then. pure primordial perfectly subjective consciousness Base to its mere objective contents— the theoretically constituted products. Astonishingly. contemplative technologies of the East. is the irreducibility of consciousness. the Base (gzhi) or unbounded whole enfolds. deep sleep and the timeless turyia—are necessarily and essentially rooted in this atavistic ontologically interdependent deep background prior primordial awareness continuum that is their very sourceground (App. adhyasa. that nondual Consciousness Being Itself (svabhava).

and the nominalist. is the essence of mind. Alas. functionalist Scientism that is the Cartesian-Newtonian objectivist worldview has become the infernal material realist “taboo of subjectivity. to consider what I have called the Integral Imperative: bracket your own paradigm or “web of belief” and review the teaching and injunctions of both Eastern and Western epistemology.” Absolute Spirit.philosophers. often consider the pinnacle of our Great Wisdom Tradition as abiding in the nondual (maha ati) wisdom of Tibetan Buddhist Ati Dzogchen. teachers. that the Material Realism (Neorealism) of the Hidden Variables theorists. I have argued above. and greater esoteric (secret and innermost secret) texts and commentaries of our Great Wisdom Tradition. the key to a unified subjective-objective “Final Theory of Everything. fundamentalist. do we surrender to this one great truth? One Truth: The Prior Unity of Quantum Physics and Buddhist Metaphysics That everything is included in your mind. the root cause of human evil. It is urgently incumbent upon scientists.(samatajnana) that is none other than our ordinary natural mind that is the compassionate wisdom of emptiness. transcended and embraced in an ontologically prior.” the very grail of objective scientific and philosophical inquiry. quintessential. (See p. those scholars and meditation masters in both the East and the West. post-analytical ontology to situate and ground its great scientific contributions to the knowledge of our species? Intimations of immortality. we have seen that the legacy of Modernist. This denial becomes thanatos/death. -Suzuki Roshi The Integral Imperative. anti-realist view of the Copenhagen School of the Quantum Theory—and indeed all of the material reality of the dualistic spacetime dimension of conventional “Relative Truth. To the extent that we keep this recognition—”keep the view” and surrender (wu-wei) to this wisdom of uncertainty (vicikitsa)—to that extent our ethical precepts keep themselves. the exoteric. philosophical and moral questions of our species. the very nature of the mind that is our actual “supreme identity” abiding beyond or 59 . post-materialist. is the metaconceptual or metacognitive nondual one truth. Path and Conduct that realizes the one truth that is the bright. The recent lights of this Great Tradition. This conceptual unity of the Two Truths then. unbounded whole. and students of religion who presume to engage the great scientific. How then. The outer/exoteric and inner/esoteric understanding—reason/rationality—alone do not reveal the View.) Finally then. ironically. Might this numinous nondual primordial wisdom yet inform post-quantum physics and cosmology in its quest for a post-realist. our heart’s desire and the aim of all our seeking. the Great Perfection. remembering the “Two Truths” of the post-metaphysical one reality.” the nihilistic reduction and denial of our perfectly subjective consciousness base. psychologists. perfectly subjective non-eternal.73 “Toward a Secular Ethic of Compassion”. This taboo is rooted in the fearful psychospiritual contraction from our primordial life current that is the very ontological Spirit Base of all phenomenal reality arising and appearing through the consciousness of living beings. as we have seen.” including the subtle physicality of the Unified Quantum Vacuum—is subsumed. nondual ultimate reality—”Ultimate Truth. esoteric. ontology/metaphysics and spiritual wisdom. we see that it is the Supreme Source or Base of Reality that is.

retains a deterministic pessimism. We find it beautifully explicated in the wisdom commentaries of Alan Wallace and Ken Wilber. We have just seen that it arises as the perennial idea of the paradigmatic Two Truths—relative and ultimate—that is the postconceptual liberating nondual one truth of our Great Wisdom Tradition. the physical emptiness unity of the Zero Point Energy Field—the Unified Quantum Vacuum—as well as our Great Wisdom Tradition’s metaphysical emptiness of all relative spacetime phenomenal reality that is all-embracing sphere of Dzogchen. physics. Pathology cannot long exist in 60 . Thomas). subjective positive and compassionate mind states toward the end of realizing the wisdom of emptiness thereby liberating human consciousness from the ignorance (avidya) that results in terrible individual and collective suffering. We find it in the reluctant panpsychism of leading edge consciousness studies philosopher David Chalmers (1996). in spite of the indeterminism of the Quantum Theory. but qualitative. and in nondual Greek Hermetic and Coptic Gnostic Christian texts and praxis (Valentinus. contain rigorous systems of logic and education. Truth is One. and in Locke’s “real” and”nominal” essences. However. while Buddhism teaches a promethean optimism as to liberation. We’ve seen that the traditions of our Great Wisdom Tradition agree: this empty and absent. essence and nature of common discursive mind. Buddhist practice emphasizes. and a literary and philosophical wisdom tradition. Is this urgent nondual recognition of the prior unity of the Two Truths by religion. We see it in Pythagoras and Plato. yet “always already” present presence of the luminous sourceground abides at the heart of all human beings—that “flower absent from all bouquets” (Mallarme)—the all-embracing sphere of Dzogchen. objective. Chandrakirti (8th Century) and Tsongkhapa (14th Century). and in the Neoplatonism of Plotinus and Proclus and in Philo. We see this wisdom of emptiness as the essence of Ati Dzogchen and Essence Mahamudra of the Nyingma and Kagyu schools. This duality of the Two Truths that are the perfectly subjective nondual one truth is the key to the urgent paradigmatic reconstruction in science that is the challenge of unifying relative “scientific” and ultimate “spiritual” knowledge. particularly the Madhyamaka Prasangika so profoundly elaborated by Nagarjuna (2nd Century). and we see it fully developed in the Buddhadharma of Buddhist Middle Way Schools. science and culture not the great challenge of an urgent new integral noetic ontology? Has this recognition not been the resolution of the perennial problem of the unity of the competing paradigms of objective and subjective knowledge from the very beginning? The dialectic of physics and metaphysics. This is the paradoxical truth that makes us happy. Alan Wallace points out that both are opposed to dogma. Many are its names” (Rig Veda). Buddhist epistemology is empirical and objective in that it emphasizes immediate radically empirical experience through first person “spiritual empirical” introspective reports. Thus for both Buddhism and physics the ontological problem of knowledge of the ultimate nature of reality turns upon this one truth that is at once. The Buddhist Great Perfection is a likely candidate.prior to and as the sourceground. We find intimations of it in Kant’s distinction between phenomena and noumenon. It is present in the “Upanishadic Monism” of the Hindu Sanatana Dharma of Advaita (nondual) Vedanta. not pathology. pragmatic and process oriented. the Great Perfection. Both physics and Buddhist Madhyamaka are epistemologically rational. naturalistic. This radical/nondual noetic ontology is ancient. Growing through and beyond such nihilism “is possible only if we identify a new higher order articulating for science and metaphysics a non-dogmatic soteriology” (Bitbol 2003). empirical.

non-essentialist physics. we need a radically empirical (James). Begley 2007). Without this it will never be taken seriously by science. In this largely unexplored noetic mindscape the aboriginal disjuncture of matter and mind cohere.which is the betterment of humanity. science informs metaphysics. contributing little to the emerging integral paradigm that is unifying physics and metaphysics. and for a moment. The two views are complementary. Both must utilize the Two Truths and find its own unifying middle way. -H. In other words. our bright original face. In essence science and spirituality. Buddhism must continue to utilize the empirical methods of neuroscience to further its contemplative technology. a physics that refuses to cling to the metaphysics of a Material Realism. In short. Science must utilize its “epistemic authority. paramananda the happiness that cannot be lost—that is always present from the very beginning. with the help of the Dalai Lama and his meditating monks. Indeed this is the core liberation teaching of the nondual Great Wisdom Tradition of our kind.” not in a materialist rejection of idealist subjectivity that denies or marginalizes consciousness. science and spirit. Without this conceptual and methodological enrichment. Further development will require an outshining epoche. Buddhist epistemology can learn from mathematical physics and cosmology. Richard Davidson at the University of Wisconsin. 61 . We are all connected in a journey toward the happiness that is called enlightenment. science will remain mired in its epistemic and ontic presumptions of the dogmatic foundationalist metaphysics of Functionalism and Material Realism. The Dai Lama (2005) Metaphysics informs science. Science must transcend its objectivist evidential modesty in a new integral explanatory ambition that includes both objective and subjective phenomena. science must participate in the emerging integral Noetic Revolution by recognizing and utilizing—not marginalizing—the introspective first person methodologies of contemplative science and consciousness studies. . Physics can learn from Buddhist epistemology. is doing this (Luisi 2009. Such is the arising of the paradigm shift that is the new Noetic Revolution. but the qualitative eudaemonic beatitudo that is the ultimate happiness—mahasuka. .H. . Indeed. . essentially non-different science and spirit hang together. Science must commit to study consciousness. but the bright noble interior subjectivity that is mind.share the same end. Therefore. .the continued presence of such beneficial mindstates. This compassionate “mind of enlightenment” (bodhichitta) then recognizes and realizes not the quantitative hedonic felicitas of Western psychology. physics and metaphysics are a continuum. or placing in abeyance science’s 400 year old obsession with foundational monistic Materialism and Realism. This too is the union of wisdom and compassion. our indwelling Buddha Nature. Science must study not just objective physicochemical brain. The semantic reach of science must exceed its current epistimeic grasp. . The meditative/contemplative mind training of the practice of the Path removes the negative afflictive emotions that cloak (vikshepa) this prior ultimate happiness. a decisive bracketing (shoshin/beginner’s mind). awake at the spiritual heart (hridyam) of the human being. but to find its own middle way that includes the “phenomenological doublet” of both third person objectivity and the first person subjectivity that is human consciousness.

and “mountains and rivers” are no longer the body of Buddha. Ah. what you think is what you get. an ultimate subjectivity that is ontologically prior to. Science requires and utilizes metaphysics. They complement one another. Have a cup of tea. this confusing limit of concept-mind is the very aperture that opens into nondual Spirit. Ultimately. Science need no longer fear metaphysics. Astonishingly. as the ostensibly metaphysical sourceground—the conceptual Two Truths that are the nondual one truth—is gradually. Integrated methodology. Through the focusing power of attention and contemplation. Metaphysics utilizes scientific rationality.” Bowl and tea and bread again become simply bowl and tea and bread. And we have seen that this scary limit of discursive conceptual mind does not mean the end of consciousness.) The profound intellectual and hermeneutic tension between objective science and subjective metaphysics. Realism and anti-Realism must at last bear its integral fruit. The purely objective God’s eye “view from nowhere” of the old paradigm science was never possible. herein again arises the perennial burden of skepticism as the spectre of paradigm shift becomes the metaphysical dread of a defensive scientific materialist orthodoxy now cast in academic political stone. metaphysics. metaphysics. Not to worry. Experience and knowledge is intersubjective. there can be no nondual ultimate knowledge. Appendix B). They are. Echoing Aristotle. analysis and naturalism. Eighth Century Middle Way Buddhist Scholar-Master Chandrakirti offers. the Closure Principle. then immediately. Realism. (Metaphysics just means beyond the physics of observable phenomena and includes the non-objective phenomena of the Quantum micro-world and of Quantum Cosmology. Mysticism just means the meditative experience of the prior unity of objective physical and subjective spiritual. etc. Science is deeply grounded in metaphysical assumptions (Physicalism Materialism. as I have said. or beyond the mere physicalist reach of realist contemporary physics. if not an antidote. thus we are necessarily referred to a more subtle strata of formation. an advisory to this perennial problem of skepticism and nihilism. contemplatively realized by individuals. Knowledge and wisdom ask metaphysical questions that transcend mere observation statements.We have seen that from the Material Realism of the view of spacetime Relative Truth (samvriti satya). How then may we continue to integrate them? From the epistemology you choose. limited by the Planck Scale and quantum uncertainty at which the laws of physics break down and the conceptual mind boggles. Metaphysics must again become the inward reach of physics. but again become just “mountains and rivers. a dialectical continuum (cittasantana) of experience. The domain of wisdom requires both of these methodologies. “Truth is one. as the ideology of the cult of Scientism would have us believe. This dialectic extends the reach of science’s empirical observation beyond the narrow limit of immediate empirical sense experience into the realm of unseeable and undecidable first person subjective phenomenal experience. comes the metaphysics you deserve. Alas. Objectivism. but not ultimately real physicists) to leap into this vast postmaterialist noetic crucible. a new scientific/noetic paradigm shift occurs.” No problem at all. the contrived duality of physical/metaphysical is transcended in its nondual source condition. the bane of the prevailing retrograde postmodern academic Scientific Materialist orthodoxy. 62 . Physics. One reality. appearance and reality. And we have noted the timid reticence of neorealist materialist physics (usually embodied in conventionally real. Ultimate Truth. Science and metaphysics need not be unknown to one another. Science has now grown beyond the mere physical appearances..

This toward our integral noetic understanding of the always already prior unity of matter. causality). modalities. the very light energy prana of spacetime phenomena continuously cascading from this original causal matrix ground that is our supreme source. all the way to the end. mind and spirit. Ultimate Truth and Relative Truth. . . the nondual truth of the Great Perfection is that the still emptiness of the primordial ground. So leave it as it is. is the perfect sphere of the Great Perfection—by whatever name—and therefore an aperture into. science and Spirit. . The nature of mind is clear light .H. derived as they are. are ontologically incommensurable—different orders. from the relative view altogether transcends this reified discursive cognitive dimension of concept and belief. logic.” That is the realization. post-quantum physics and cosmology. time.Relatively speaking. and a path toward the recognition. grasp and reveal that subtle ultimate nondual domain that. exactly as they are. Emptiness is form. . And yet. the now commensurable paradigmatic Two Truths that are relative science and ultimate spirit continue in a middle way methodology—grounded in an appropriate realist or even nominalist epistemology. . and as Nagarjuna reminds us. then realization of that luminous ultimate ground that is. the perfect sphere of Dzogchen. paradoxically. “It is already accomplished” (Garab Dorje)—that primordial seed of Buddhahood—always awake at the spiritual heart (hridyam/nyingpo) within each human form. empirical Relative Truth (space. . Thus it is. the three Buddha Bodies that are the Trikaya of the Base (gzhi). That’s it. it is a methodological error to expect more of a modality of explanation than the inherent nature and limit of that modality permits. Until the full bodhi of enlightenment. that the ground of all phenomenal arising. Emptiness and form. is Dependent Arising (pratitya samutpada). these two domains are ontologically distinct and incommensurate modal realities. And all the Tatagatas will rejoice. from the necessary epistemic limits of the domain of dualistic.) Indeed. -Shakyamuni Buddha (from the Prajnaparamita literature) 63 . The Non-Meditation That is Happiness Itself. (See Appendix D. All things are perfect. Can we really do this? “Just open the door and follow the path. Brahman and the world. What you will be is what you do now. and rest your weary mind. . negative or positive. or dimensions of being—even though these dualities are rooted and unified in and pervaded by an ultimate nondual reality. . The perennial Two Truths are a case in point. Shakyamuni. Although the Two Truths are one truth. “Form is emptiness. We must not demand that our conceptual elaborations and expectations. moment to moment. the Dalai Lama). astonishingly “always already” present and awake right here—at the Heart—in the chaos of our everyday lifeworld.” (H. Samsara and nirvana are the same (Samata). . we utilize the difficulties of the path of Relative Truth to accomplish Ultimate Truth—nondual Spirit Itself—we must again remember. The nature of mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. the Buddha of our historical time expresses this wisdom of the ages thusly: What you are is what you have been. and an ontology of interdependence—in support of the new postmetaphysical.

The parts are uncertain. if not the laws of nature. emotional and mental dimensions of the egoic bodymind.” But wait! “It is already accomplished. veridical. “There is no way to realize Ultimate Truth (nondual liberation. The prior. We must remember and realize this noetic. then to recognize. Yet. Yet both are necessary aspects of the vast unbounded whole. Some of the propositions of science and some of those of religion may be “valid cognition” (pramana). the wish-fulfilling jewel that is our Christ/Buddha Nature—that presence always present—forever becoming ultimate Consciousness Being Itself. ultimate happiness). simultaneous cognition (samatajnana) or recognition of the continuous unity of these Two Truths—”brief moments. you and me. theoretical-conventional maps to comprehend the nature. the prior absolute or ultimate primordial wisdom (gnosis. primordial dialectic. These two participate together in the unbounded whole as different ontological strata of formation. yeshe) that is the fruition of nondual greater esoteric (“innermost secret”) contemplative “spiritual” realization. many times”—in the very midst of the relative-conventional chaos of our everyday lifeworld. all the way to the end of it. Nagarjuna. -Adi Da Samraj We are happy when we can bring others to happiness. non-contradictory and worthy of research. exoterically viewed there is an inherent modal or dimensional difference or hierarchical (holarchical) separation between the paradigms of the relative knowledge of science (vikalpa. direct non-dual. But the map cannot be the reality. is the realization of this one truth that is ultimate Happiness Itself. realize and perfect the immediate. the great Second Century Indian Buddhist sage told. between samsara and nirvana.” Through dualistic concept-mind we utilize the gradual. From the nondual view of perfectly subjective Ultimate Reality—the sublime ontological smile of Dzogchen. Only the whole resolves the duality. subject and object. information. the Great Perfection— all such dichotomies abide as an interdependent. And so. scientific theory) and spirit. 64 . doxa. except in reliance upon Relative Truth (dualistic. and cannot ultimately be grasped or comprehended by the conceptual self. esoterically. ontic prior unity. paradoxically. change from time to time. between the Quantum Vacuum and primordial emptiness. as distinct modal realities. perhaps the very ultimate nature of nondual Reality Itself. subjective nature of mind (cittata/sems nyid). In micro physics and in cosmology they are relative. contingent. The paradoxical. mind and body. relative “spiritual path” to stabilize “the View” and deconstruct the destructive ego-self. finite. between appearance and reality. ultimately there is no essential difference or separation between the finite matter that we are. and infinite spirit that we are.” Here. According to the masters of our Great Wisdom Tradition.The Secret of Human Happiness? There is nothing absent from your happiness. our indwelling seed. This is ontological interdependence. drhsti. now. that is who we actually are from the very beginning. jnana. falsifiable. pervades and includes the less subtle physical. That (Tat/Sat) is both the origin and aim of all our seeking. “Just follow the Path. the ego-I of the body-mind. gradualist spiritual practice). conceptually unfabricated ultimate source (cittadhatu) of all experience holarchically transcends. although from the dualistic exoteric view of Relative Truth this nondual view seems utterly panglossian. great joy. -Guy Newland The theories of physics. opinion.

The Principle of Non-Reductionist Causality. local efficient causality principle of the old paradigm functions as a special limiting case of a more comprehensive.). theoretical physics now resembles the contemplative epistemologies of our Great Wisdom Tradition. an adequate causality. and all the arising phenomena of mind are causally relatively or conventionally real. Here the acausal 65 . immediate enlightenment of the non-causal. in the realm of the very large (intergalactic gravitational effects). contextual view. Newton's theory of gravity (the gravitational constant) functions causally in the realm of the "middle dimensions" (molecular to solar system distances) as a special limiting case of Einstein's relativistic mechanics. Both the apparent self. The gradual. or linear. alone. the divine fullness. -Suzuki Roshi Causality. yet without essential intrinsic absolute existence or identity. to consciousness). and without a first cause. old paradigm physics is based. luminous emptiness (Shunyata. Causality now looks more like the Buddhist beginningless or infinite causal continuum. the Plenum (Pleroma) that is the primordial sourceground or Base or Depth (Bathos. causal spiritual path is bottomup. For our Great Wisdom Tradition causation is downward (from thought and pure non-physical nondual consciousness to physical matter). The linear. and Free Will Our original mind includes everything within itself. I Am). the efficient causality upon which the classical.Postscript Notes on Quantum Emptiness. no Big Bang or theistic genesis. As we have seen. The sudden. in the realm of the very small. Arising reality is rather. A complete account of causality must include Aristotle’s four causes—material. things arise as a result of prior causes and conditions in a vast interdependent causal nexus. paradoxically. and final (teleological). Tao) which is. and in the realm of the very brief (Plank time 10-43 sec. luminous emptiness (shunyata). With the advent of General Relativity. Causation is complex. but there is no primordial first cause. not-gradualist path is top-down. and the Quantum Theory with its inherently subjective Quantum Vacuum. the Uncertainty Principle (Heisenberg) and the Principle of complementarity (Bohr) of the Quantum Theory’s Copenhagen School have demolished absolute time and the linear Principle of Causality. efficient cause and effect. pratitya-samutpada) is at root. The Buddhist Madhymaka non-linear contextual causal view of interdependent origination (dependent arising. For scientific materialism causation is upward (from elementary particles. But. Wu. to electro-physical brain states. formal. From this follows the view of anatman or no-self. There is no one unique causal explanation for anything. For example. Ontological Interdependence. at or near the Planck distance (10-33 cm. Causal correlation and Hume’s “constant conjunction” have failed as a theory of causal explanation. multifactorial and contextual as is Buddhist Madhyamaka causation. its karma. The mere efficient causality of biology and physics is not. just after the “Big Bang”) the efficient causality of physics is precluded. Here. and anitya or impermanence. Consciousness Being Itself in whom mind and individual consciousness and all phenomena arise. nonlocal. non-reductionist. Causality may be non-linear.

Ontological interdependence. M Theory.” yet the ultimate nature of mind necessarily remains non-algorithmic and non-computational. At this scale of reality General Relativity and the Quantum Theory are incompatible and contradictory. points out that the purpose of a theory or model is to evolve a more subtle. Any unifying theory must utilize the “phenomenological doublet” of both first person and third person methodologies as we have seen above. It is hoped that a quantum theory of gravity can somehow penetrate this essential limit of conceptual causal understanding by finally unifying General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory. Shankara and Nagarjuna have demonstrated. and precluded by David Finklestein’s “Universal Relatively Principle” which precludes all grand unified theories (GUTs) and final theories of everything (TOEs). Finklestein. elegant and inclusive theory or model. Thus we are introduced to the non-classical. tacit. noetic Problem of Knowledge. the concept-mind boggles and new methodologies and geometries are required. an improvement over the Quantum Field Theory which is accurate to 1011 . Quantum Loop Gravity and Super-Symmetry are the unlikely candidates. paraphrasing Einstein. beyond the physical/material and the merely computational. Hegal. or most elegant. As to this holy grail of grand unification. grasping and clinging at anything—a belief. logocentric absolute which cannot be corrected within the phenomenological or epistemological modality or context of the theory. the Planck Scale represents the distance. It is at this ontological strata of formation. temporary position which eventually becomes an “idol of the tribe. 2006). meditative/ contemplative modes of knowing arise (Luisi 2009. 11 However. logically precluded. The third person method of inquiry—the scientific method— does not obtain here. The marvellous enterprise that is physics will indeed produce that “next more inclusive theory.stochastic predictions of quantum mechanics are more accurate than either Newton's or Einstein's classical theories. hopeful advocates of the developmental limits of our current lifestage conceptual and belief systems. A successful theory is a relative. a false. we have just seen that such computational excess has hit the wall of the Planck Scale ambiguity barrier beyond which merely conceptual mathematical knowledge is necessarily. Kant. based on 20 years measurement of the orbital decay of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar. Alas. 66 . Whitehead. we become the fearful. knowable only through first person contemplative technologies. that first person methodologies—noetic introspective intuitive. a theory—not even the highest. it is but the latest idol in the modernist quest for absolute objective certainty. General Relativity has now been tested to be correct to one part in 1014.” (a species of Francis Bacon’s “Idols of the Mind”).11 In any case. all of these refuse to surrender their metaphysical attachment to foundational Realism which must be a prerequisite for a unifying theory of anything. or most integral. With the exception of the Quantum Field Theory. Through such ideational grasping. This noetic Principle of Universal Relativity—our Principle of Ontological Interdependence—agrees with the teaching of Mahayana Madhyamaka (Middle Way) Buddhism regarding seeking. energy or time at which all of our concepts of causality—matter-energy and space-time—the very laws of physics break down. Superstring Theory. as the great dialecticians Gödel. Wallace 2005. S-Matrix Topology.

of mind and body. Eventually. the “butterfly effect” of Chaos Theory. 67 . eon to eon in the life of the mind of all sentient beings. in need of relativizing by that next more subtle. requires an Ontology of Interdependence that subsumes mere relative-conventional realistic epistemologies.’ and Aristotle’s logocentric idols of space. mind. and the destructive dualism of absolutely separate observer/subject from it’s perceived object. mental. is a case in point. Galileo’s. yeshe)—is ultimately dependent upon everything else. elegant theory i. of course. spiritual (body. Just so. of spirit and matter. From whence has it come? Where will it go? As it dwells with us for a time our senses rejoice in its impermanent reality. a logocentric false absolute. yet transcended in a subjective. jnana. of plus and minus charges. relative Material Realism embraced. i. as it is subsumed. we are now witnessing the demise of the twenty-five hundred year old foundational metaphysics of Material Realism. Where else could it go? According to our Great Wisdom Tradition. As we have seen. ultimate nondual Transcendental Idealism. with the fall of the old tired idols and the rise of the next more inclusive paradigm. inclusive and elegant theory. and the phoenix-like rising of a noetic integral ontology. the monistic absolutes of reductive physicalism. And such a theory. and transcends. A Rose is a Rose: The Paradox of Perception. past. Copernicus. Consider the lovely rose arising in spacetime. moment to moment. the post-classical Quantum Theory—the “non-objective physics”—extended relativity and transcended yet included the objective classical absolutes of General Relativity. Kepler’s. we recognize that this continuous process of the vast causal nexus. through such ontological inquiry and noetic analysis (vipashyana). a dualism of appearance and reality. that everything is physical. the Large Number Hypothesis of the Anthropic Principle).e. Now generalize this consideration to include all arising phenomena. yet includes the protoreligious totemic idol that is Scientific Materialism (Neorealism).e. which did the same for Special Relativity. (The exoteric mathematical analogs of this deep esoteric truth are described by the mathematics of complexity. the infinite continuum of Consciousness Being Itself—Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis. throughout all worlds and all times. Then it returns to its ineffable source. This assumption becomes an unconscious. into that next more subtle. as we have seen. the S-matrix topology of Jeffry Chew’s Bootstrap Theory. is the perennial Two Truths that are one truth—”one taste”—of nondual Buddhism and Vedanta. and explainable in terms of electro-physical brain. which did the same for Newton’s. the very essence or nature of what is—the very Nature of Mind (cittata/sems nyid) that is Basic Mind essence. a post-quantum dualistic objective. present and future. The Quantum Theory transcends yet includes the worn out epistemological idols. e.g. material realism. deep background idol. The paradigm shifts—the revolutions—in the sciences have been just such relativizations in prevailing theory and ideology. unquestioned. time and spacetime. Indeed the next idol to be relativized by the wisdom of ontological relativity—emptiness and dependent arising—will be the now unstable Standard Model with its Quantum Theory of particle interactions.The metaphysical assumption of Realist Scientific Materialism that all phenomena— physical. along with General Relativity. intersubjective. all arising in absolute space and absolute time. mechanism. This. inclusive. its essential nature therefore. is not other than the luminous emptiness (shunyata) of the vast expanse or depth (bathos) of this Supreme Source (cittadhatu). spirit)—are reducible to.

the perceiving ego-I of the self is real. even our present choices. rather. Nihilists deny that any of it is real. This then. “True mind is not dualistic mind." from the determinist grip of Newtonian mechanics. "free will.” This Spirit is the great non-dual Ultimate Truth (paramartha) that is actualized through full bodhi—the realization of the presence (vidya/rigpa) of Primordial Awareness Wisdom (gnosis/jnana). Therefore. This is the liberation of highly realized. in this way the relative duality of absolutism and nihilism. life. This unhappy result has been called Laplace’s Demon after the 18th Century Newtonian physicist who first described it. Yet. or its apparently material objective physical object? The immediate internal cognitive/mental experience of our rose. according to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. non-dual Spirit Itself. perfectly subjective matrix or context of fundamental openness or emptiness. awareness or consciousness does not arise from phenomenal existence. This liberation is the ultimate potential of every sentient being. given enough objective knowledge. enlightened beings. not even avatars or gods. it is not 68 . existence arises from primordial awareness. the luminous sourceground or potential existence of our rose. Rather. our understanding situates the relative-conventional spacetime reality of exterior and interior cause and effect into an acausal. of existence and non-existence (samvriti) is resolved in the “protean encounter” with non-conceptual. participates in and is identical in essence to the non-dual infinite continuity of awareness of the essential Nature of Mind. from the Prajnaparamita literature). The Nature of Mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. future events can be predicted and everything is pre-determined. wonder of wonders.Thus. Another result of quantum mechanics (along with the transistor. non-dual Spirit Itself. soul and free ethical activity arise. ultimate Reality Itself. Solipsists believe that only the subject. This is the “error” of spiritual materialism and of religious provincialism. Realists and Materialists (usually physicalists) believe it is the external physical appearance that is real. Do we have a choice? Choosing reality: quantum emptiness and free will. the microprocessor and the laser) is a tentative theoretical rescue of human freedom. Again. However. It is this “primordially pure” (kadag) emptiness potential in whom the interdimensional co-emergent light energy (lhundrup) of matter. and of everything else that arises and appears to our perception. more inclusive truth that provides a resolution to the perennial dualism of the epistemological “mind-body” problem arising from this paradox of perception: since the perceived object is dependent upon the cognition of a perceiving subject—which is the real— this perceived subjective mental idea. Again. post-theoretical contemplative ultimate truth (paramartha) that transcends yet embraces it. “Brahman is also the world. mind. is the greater. our awareness here and now with its spacetime relative-conventional phenomenal content. or its external apparently physical attributes? Epistemological idealists believe the internal mental or cognitive idea is the primary reality. the Buddha. Ultimate Spirit cannot be reduced to independently “real” conceptual entities. This precludes free will. The Nature of mind is clear light” (Shakyamuni. If the universe is just a great mechanical clock (the Cartesian-Newtonian classical view) then theoretically. Our finite bodymind. spacetime phenomena and all perceiving beings abide in an infinite causal matrix that is non-local. the egoic false absolutes of spacetime located phenomena or beings.” and “Emptiness is also form. and the immediate potential—the happy recognition of indwelling spirit presence—of each self-aware human being.

The wave. non-linear networks within networks. there isn't any! Just an infinity of particles within particles. x or p for a particle. Kant’s notion of the perennial “Two Truths” is that the phenomena of relative spacetime reality. Yet these subjective purely theoretical entities are given arbitrary mathematical values and physical attribution. unknowable to the theoretical conceptual mind. yet their ultimate nature is not ultimately knowable. Nor can they be observed. For example. According to the quantum uncertainty relations the observer must choose that which is to be measured. our choices. no quantum object may have a definite location and a definite momentum before a measurement. It is the consciousness of the observer that determines the nature of the reality observed. We have seen that. This of course is precisely the Madhyamaka (Middle Way) Buddhist view. We cannot accurately measure both. the barrier of the supreme nondual teaching of the Chan/Zen Patriarchs) which the discursive concept-mind cannot penetrate. beliefs) of an observer who is always a participant in the process of the perception. seems to be prior. much less a quark. without substance. What we observe of that which appears depends upon our consciousness. there is an ambiguity barrier (Planck scale. 12 69 . an electron has never been observed. how can macroscopic sentient observers be otherwise? This understanding of course. in their essential nature. there can be no purely objective observation by an independent observer. But the particle aspect is not present when the experiment is set up to observe the wave. Reality is but the totality of phenomenal relationship and has no intrinsic independent existence. even the most basic. Subjectivity enters the picture as the consciousness and cognition (perceptions. Thus the wave nature. the ultimate nature of physical reality is. it’s not that we don’t know the precise values. Mu. in principle. the wave aspect is also present. Material phenomena are mere relativeconventional cognitive relations between perception.possible. as we pursue our exploration of matter to its ultimate depth we discover that ultimately. concept and the ultimately ineffable “thing in itself” (ding an sich). divine ignorance. are “empirically real” because they appear to our experience. human reason cannot transcend phenomena to the ultimate reality of that that is the noumenon. and therefore are not excluded from scientific study as objective data representing objectively “real” entities arising and appearing in or to the mind. For Kant and the neo-Kantians. According to the quantum theory. For example. or a graviton. without attributes (nirguna). not the particle. Thomas Young's ingenious double slit experiment of 1801 proved the wave-like nature of light. even in principle. and then finally our conceptual-theoretical value laden interpretation choices about these observations. Afshar has shown by experiment that when the particle aspect is observed. it’s that the particle does not even have these values before a measurement. not both. and its extension by means of measuring instruments. our physiological sensory-perceptual apparatus. So. even during particle interactions. In 1920 Einstein proved the particle-like nature of light. And if the sub-quantum particles of the aboriginal stuff of reality are. concepts. The wave behavior of the Zero Point Energy Field of the Quantum Vacuum seems to support this thesis. Quantum uncertainty and complementarity have demonstrated that it is both12. to ever know enough about the present state of the universe to accurately or completely predict any future event. empty of inherent existence (shunyata). may be the ultimate foundation of matter. As we have seen. As Kant pointed out. even in principle. Einstein and Schrödinger may have been right after all. Moreover. Due to wave diffraction. A recent experiment by physicist Shahriar Afshar has cast doubt on Bohr’s sacrosanct Principle of Complementarity. either a particle's momentum (p) or its position (x). observation or measurement.

matter and spirit. from the view of ultimate truth. We have seen that the contribution of Niels Bohr's quantum Principle of Complementarity is that the nature of light is both particle-like and wave-like. free will and determinism. illusion. Here observer and observed are not separate. Physicist Geoffrey Chew on the quantum emptiness at the micro level of reality: There is no continuous space-time atomic reality as described in terms of isolated events that are causally connected but are not embedded in continuous space-time. eros-agape. "What we observe is not nature itself. The things of the spacetime dimension of Relative Truth are real. but there is no implication of a microscopic space-time continuum. autopoiesis. imputation and reification by an impermanent self absent any inherent intrinsic existence. illusory in the mode which the ancient Vedas. at least in the conventional realm of the “relative truth” of empirical. great primordial nondual sourceground or matrix of all that is. mere conceptual elaboration. experienced physical and mental reality (light) is constituted of physical and mental/conceptual complementary opposites: wave-particle. That is the flaw of the present situation. implicate order of the whole. observation and theory are interdependent. quark-lepton. ultimately.” relative. the objective reality of phenomena is nominally real from the view of relative-conventional truth. yin-yang. Yet. (in Capra. relative energy structures. and its prior metaphysical unbroken whole. Upanishads and Tantras have told for millennia. Physical and mental phenomenal reality is "a construct of our sensations. trees and stars seems justified. "Mind and world arise together" (Humberto Maturana 1987). Space-time is introduced macroscopically. perceptions. Coherent. Suzuki Roshi’s “Big Mind” that is the primordial consciousness base in whom arises “Small Mind. memories" (Erwin Schrödinger 1958). our “structural coupling” with the physical Unified Quantum Vacuum. Consciousness Being Itself. You should not try to express the principles of quantum mechanics in an apriori accepted space-time. nondual Spirit. Uncommon Wisdom. in a word. "An independent reality in the ordinary physical sense can be ascribed neither to the phenomena nor to the agencies of observation" (the physical mechanisms of 70 . all binaries. empirical phenomenal spacetime reality. but nature exposed to our method of questioning" (Heisenberg 1958). deus-theos (transcendent-immanent). objective spacetime reality. but intrinsically connected. this all is maya.parallels the nondual view of our Great Wisdom Tradition. Both aspects are necessary to explain its behavior. appearance and reality. does not directly experience physical reality. all dualities. body and mind. Such a philosophical generalization from the microscopic world of quarks and leptons to the macroscopic world of cats. Here is the complementarity of the Two Truths of Reality Itself. consciousness. interconnected designations and imputations—creations of the mind—ascending and descending each moment each breath from the depth of the plenum. in connection with experimental apparatus. the dance of geometry that is our relative spacetime mindstream. 1988) The observer then. Ultimate Truth. What is experienced through the appearances is the process of consciousness that is our deep intersubjective interrelatedness. objective and subjective. Tao. Once again. negativepositive. Observer. "Our experience contributes to causing particles to emerge from a reality extended in space-time" (Bernard d'Espagnat).

is a subset of the Causal Principle. subjectobject. it has demonstrated that there are no independently existing inherently separate parts at all! As our Principle of Ontological Interdependence asserts. is what you have been. We must see both poles without attaching to either (the phenomenal “bracketing” of the transcendental epoche. but “there is a mutual dependence between parts and the whole” (H. So quantum theory has demonstrated. interconnected pattern or network of relationships with no separate. the non-dual view of our absolute emptiness base or matrix source in whom the entire enfolded process unfolds and arises for us. Laplace’s Demon—a clockwork determinism— is slain. if the indeterminist interpretation of mechanics at the quantum level. psychologically. reaping what is sown which. Path and Result.” and thus to 71 . Is it selfless. Nor is free will precluded even if some of our actions are shown to be determined. authentic and kind? This Perennial Wisdom truth has been called the law of karma. both views are complementary descriptions or explanations of the same coherent phenomena. yet we are free to choose a way to liberation.” psychospiritual practice under the guidance of a qualified master. subjectively causally undetermined. Can human beings freely choose to act in the face of scientific determinism? Our sense or feeling of free will or volition seems to be supported by Heisenberg's discovery that an essential indeterminacy exists at the very heart of nature.” The path is now. emotion. Back to free will. the shoshin response) in order to transcend the dualism in the bigger picture. “Volition and causality are equally indispensable elements in the relation between subject and object which forms the core of the problem of knowledge" (Bohr. Moreover. at the macro-level of behavior. This “Way” is represented by our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition's “View. whether the self is empty of inherent existence or not. intrinsic existence. “Make the path the goal. Remembering the Principle of Non-Reductionist Causality.perception and the scientific instruments that extend that perception). “What you do now” results precisely in your future. now. We create or designate our reality by our participation or observation or placement of attention (cognition). Human happiness and free will. that the integral holism of our Great Wisdom Tradition is correct—the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. as wave-particle. both the subjective non-causal (free will) and the objective causal (determinism) are necessarily complementary modalities of adequate explanation. "You become (or duplicate the qualities of) whatever you meditate on or whatever you identify with via the surrender that is attention itself" (Adi Da Samraj). 1934). Thus. Reality Itself (light/mind/spirit) arises in spacetime dualistically. causally and structurally determined (biomorphically). Causal determinism and acausal volitional free will are a complementary process. or even of the neuronal level of reality is correct. Our behavior is objectively. (Niels Bohr 1934). more importantly. Yet. What you choose is what you get! Although the burden of past actions (karma) is profound. "What you are. Psychospiritual growth lies in opening to the use of whatever is given here. in a left-brain exoteric modality. What you will be. according to the Dalai Lama. plus-minus charges. independent. is what you do now" (Shakyamuni Buddha).H. arising observable phenomenal thoughts and objects are a nonlocal. thought and action. The purpose of the choices of the practice of the spiritual path is to “know thyself. The Dalai Lama). the quantum level of reality. the more general Law of Cause and Effect. Both are necessary. this does not necessarily allow for free will at the macro-level of human action and behavior. In Bohr's words. yet externally. unpredictable and free. However. the parts. each human being creates a destiny by his/her choices of the placement of attention.

and is prior to the physical/mental dimension of phenomena. Then. pride—are surrendered. mean that physics "proves" the assertions of religion. the desideratum of the moment to moment nondual contemplative state of presence. even to the practitioner on the path.” While its results may be experienced. The mystery or mystical bliss is not itself however.” finite relative-conventional phenomena and the infinite nondual absolute. That the Quantum Field Theory aids our metaphysical understanding does not however. but cannot be proven to be so by the logical or ontological rules of either dimension (Gödel. “nothing special. For example. greed. paradox. to the great benefit of beings. Yet. Indeed. However. ethics. indeed. christos-logos of the primordial source) is the result or fruition of gradual dualistic. the primordial nondual state of “immediate spontaneous pure presence” is not a concept and not an experience. the Supreme Source of all of this arising. has a fool for a student. It is rather the realization of the prior perfection of our natural “ordinary mind. often has positive affect. logically and ontologically distinct dimensional modalities. vidya. pervades. try as we may. integrated and compassionately actualized in the lifeworld. Kant. Strange interlude: reduction.” Nagarjuna told. then nondual spiritual practice on a wisdom tradition path with a qualified master. Aristotle. religion. fear. Nor are meditative. The subtle defences of the ego-self are prodigious. includes. 72 . Hegel. paradox and realization. What is it then? All that can be said conceptually is that it is non-conceptual. mystifying and paradoxical to relative. free will) from the principles of the quantitative behavior of subatomic microcosmic events. Chandrakirti). “We need a teacher because it is impossible to study ourselves by ourselves” (Suzuki Roshi). mystification or metaphysics must not be identified or conflated with religious mysticism.” generous and kind. The dimension of ultimate reality—noumenon—holarchically transcends. and may arise through the gradual practice of the path (“brief moments. dualistic. “There is not the slightest difference between samsara and nirvana. Remember the prior unity of the “Two Truths. Meditative contemplation (the contemplative accessing of the nondual wisdom state of presence. confusion. by grace this wisdom is stabilized and ultimately realized. rigpa. may be directly transmitted or “pointed out” by a master to a prepared student. many times”) as the negative afflictive emotions—anger. Our Great Wisdom Tradition is quite clear on this urgent point. It remains a fallacy (the "reductionist fallacy") to attempt to logically derive or "reduce" assertions from one dimension or phenomenological level to those of another. And all the while it is always “already accomplished. mystical transcendental experiences (nyams). materialistic mind states. or the truths of our primordial wisdom tradition. Therefore. relatively they are empirically. a most amazing paradox. Nor should mysticism be identified or confused with vertical “spiritual empirical” meditative contemplation.realize the ultimate freedom that is Happiness Itself (mahasukka. mahananda). we cannot logically or mathematically derive or deduce macrocosmic qualitative (value) principles (psychology. one who acts as his/her own guru. Ultimately the conceptual Two Truths are the nondual one truth. Although it takes “ego strength” to deconstruct the ego or self-sense. And this result appears confusing.” now present and awake at the heart of each human form. Liberation is not transcendental.

” the precise result of our thought and action cannot be foreseen. this time to attend to opening to the great source that links us all together? The primary moral imperative is the wisdom of kindness. what you will be is what you do now” (Shakyamuni. and because we all desire happiness and desire to avoid suffering. is the lifestage developmental path or evolutionary path toward our liberation from alienation and suffering.” of reaping what we sow. “Ultimately the purpose of religion is to facilitate love and compassion (H. consciously and unconsciously. unbiased. an altruistic secular Ethic of Compassion naturally re-emerges from this Great Wisdom Tradition teaching. Both determine its ethical content. . with all the impermanent conscious beings who perceive it and act in it. To be or not to be. bodhicitta.H.self-surrender in the 73 . altruism). This path. the Buddha). All of our major religious-cultural traditions and most secular ethics within these streams have founded their ethic upon human kindness and compassion (karuna. the Law of Karma. this “law of karma. is the basis of human freedom. What we give. beyond fear and hope. intention and action. we’ve seen that from the interdependent arising of all spacetime phenomenal reality. Non-virtue results “from causing harm to another’s experience or expectation of happiness . nyingje. our suffering and our happiness—is caused by our previous thought.” no fudge factor. intention and action (conduct) is the very basis of moral virtue. the nature of emptiness dawns nakedly” (Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche). Compassionate thought. Nevertheless. What we do now. Simply put. hesed/charis. then realization and actualization in conduct of the imponderable. What then shall we do with this precious life we’ve been given. What we are now is exactly the result of our past actions. inexorable timeless truth of interdependent relationship (hetu/tendrel). . The question concerns the very way in which human life is to be lived” (Republic. A thought. is what we receive. based on ”The Good” of happiness—the motivation—and wrong if it causes suffering—the consequences. positive and negative.H. “What you are is what you have been. Interdependent Relationship. Thus spake the masters of our nondual primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. Plato told.Toward a Secular Ethic of Compassion. “No small matter is at stake. Concerning our human conduct and its relation to happiness. Here. emerges the inexorable karmic law of cause and effect. A positive result cannot come from a negative cause” (H. motivation (deontology) and consequence (teleology) of an act determine the karmic result. gentle and generous activity in the service of all beings (including ourselves and our Mother Earth). maitri. Our present life situation—our view. “We enter the future backwards” (Paul Valery). there can be no egoic “plea for excuses. As we proceed into our future on the thermodynamic “arrow of time. The Dalai Lama. We are free to choose the unbiased and impartial love-wisdom unity path to enlightenment—our step-by-step supreme happiness and liberation from suffering—in direct relation to the process of our gradual recognition. Therefore. ahimsa. 1999). Because we are utterly interdependent and interconnected. Nothing is lost. The Dalai Lama). Book I). The effect or consequence of an act is inextricably linked to its prior intention-motivation. whether or not one is aware of it. our thought and conduct creates and determines our future destiny. intention. This emerging secular ethic of interdependence requires the practice of wise. intention or act is ethical or morally right. This is “the courage to be” that is the wisdom of uncertainly. continuous ego. “In the moment of love.

our christ/buddha nature that is who we actually are now.davidpaulboaz. This is our choiceless choice (cf. the happiness that cannot be lost. and governance (political economy). morals (conduct).” (the Buddha’s last words to his disciples). or perish from the earth. Shaki.” www. and all the suffering comes from serving oneself. “A New Secular Ethic of Compassion. All the happiness there is in this world comes from compassionate service to others. always present presence. “If you keep your original mind the precepts will keep themselves” (Suzuki Roshi). “Love one another as I have loved you” (Jesus of Nazareth). Prajnaparamita. The practical significance of this Moral Imperative for the 21st Century? We learn to transcend ego-ethnocentric hatred—thanatos. without effort. Here our ethical precepts are lived spontaneously. Yeshe)—and help one another. With self-surrender (wu wei. “Make of yourself a light. aporia) arises the nondual state of equanimity that is the compassionate Witness Presence—our original mind that is our indwelling.org). -Shantideva Clearly. This is our Great Wisdom Tradition’s secret of liberation that is Happiness Itself. these primordial truths of our shared Great Wisdom Tradition have great constitutive power in the unfolding of an incipient integral noetic resolution to the pressing problems of knowledge (wisdom). the deadly denial of our primordial Wisdom Mother (Gnosis. 74 .fearsome face of emotional-spiritual transformation.

prajnaparamita. Realization (full bodhi) of the Great Transfer of the Body of Light (ja lus). Om. physical/mental phenomena. III. the way of practice. ©David Paul Boaz. B. recognition and stabilization of rig pa/vidya (“brief moments. B. views arising in mind (sems). The Three Dzogchen Meditation Series: Semde. The Supreme Source. future—are the on-going timeless instant of rig pa. Obstructions to living the teaching self-liberate into rig pa. the Supreme Source. 2. “Continue in the state with confidence. mother clear light of buddhahood. as it is. Svaha. The Trikaya of the Base (the Essence Body. pride. “Descend with the View. always present state of presence of our Supreme Source. Body: Dharmakaya. seeing ignorance/desire of the five skandhas of attachment to conditional existence and its three marks: impermanence (anitya). means (male). 2. Hum. throat. liberation from the suffering of ignorance that is desire-seeking-attachment and fear-anger-aggression. wisdom (female) unified. A. Realization of our base/source. Energy. all phenomena. Buddha Shakyumuni. Voice (speech): Sambhogakaya. The Path with its corresponding Meditation. Pure vision: abiding without concepts “It is already accomplished” (Garab Dorje). Nature. Yeshe Lama. the fourth time (turiya). The Fruit (Result): Perfection Stage. beyond concept. ascend with the Conduct. gnosis) of emptiness.Shakyamuni Buddha I. Mengagde (upadesha). From the view of Absolute or Ultimate Truth Dzogchen.” 2. Purification of misdeeds. Its Nature is Luminosity/Clarity (gsal ba). the primordial state of each being. The Path: Development Stage. Introduction. the luminous primordial awareness wisdom of their Supreme Source (cittadhatu). Dzogchen. desire. Emaho! Mahasukaho! The Great Happiness that cannot be lost. the identity of primordially pure Essence Nature and Energy of the Supreme Source that is Yeshe.” . The Base (Ground): Gzhi. From the view of Relative-Conventional Truth Dzogchen is our prior nondual unity of: 1. Its Energy rays emanate continuously as light/motion.”. Realization and integration of the View. “Recognize your own true nature. transcending. Continuity of rig pa. many times”) or Mind Essence. opening heartmind. 2000. Heart Mind (wisdom mind): Nirmanakaya.” II. joy. heart. Ah. Voice and Mind. through shamatha/vipashyana practice. The Two Accumulations: wisdom (prajna) and merit (means/upaya) as compassion (karuna). www.” all views condensed in essence to a single point. belief fear and hope. A. The Two Truths—relative and ultimate— Thee Bodies of the Base. Awakening bodhicitita of intention and action. no-self (anatman) and suffering. Yeshe/jnana . Development of deep heartmind devotion for the master and all enlightened beings (rigzin). a single all-inclusive sphere.” 3. The View: The Buddha’s Two Truths are “one taste. the vast causal nexus. B. 3. The five poisons (ignorance. Three Gates. clearlight mind of spontaneous presence (lhundrup). The Great Perfection “The nature of mind is the unity of awareness and emptiness. It is the very Nature of Mind (sems nyid) nondual and perfect “from the very beginning. A. or Three Bodies of the Trikaya of the Base. the vast expanse of primordial purity (kadag). the Great Perfection. The Base or source with its corresponding View. A. the foundation practices. the Three Vajras. Realization of nondual refuge and bodhicitta. 1. pervading. and compassion for all unenlightened beings. Its Essence is Emptiness (shunyata). or Primordial Wisdoms of this emanation Base/Source present in all arising form. IV. (tsal/rolba). Letting be. transcends spacetime causality. “Choose the state of presence. Essence.” B.davidpaulboaz. and in human conduct through spontaneous presence as wisdom-compassion (thugs re). From “undistracted non-meditation” the search falls away as samadhi of wisdom-compassion-love arises spontaneously. embracing samasara and nirvana. (spontaneous presence and primordial purity). is a primordially pure whole. Longde. nondual primordial wisdom (jnana. Primordial Energy of the Base arises in spacetime (dependent origination/pratitya samutpada) as the mandala of our own vajra. Meditation on Body. The Three Times—past. beings. anger. Rainbow body. Copper Mountain Institute. Buddha Vajrasattva. prior to concept and belief. The Secret Upadesha (the master’s pith instruction): The Longchen Nyingthig is the Secret Heart-Essence of the Great Expanse. our prior unity of awareness and emptiness.org 75 . Adi Buddha Samantabhadra.Appendix A Dzogchen. primordial presence demonstrated through The Conduct. Buddha Nature. 3. the Four Boundless States/Four Immeasurables: love. the Nature of Mind. equanimity (relative bodhicitta). compassion. The Fruit or Result with its corresponding Conduct. 1. envy) are the five wisdoms. a realized unity. crown. View: the three aspects. the self-perfected. beyond doubt. Trekchö (wisdom/purity) and Togäl (means/presence) practices follow ngöndro. Svabhavikakaya): Absolute Bodhicitta. present.

humanities and our global mass culture. The Principle of Physicalism (Material Realism): An essentially pre-given separate and independently existing. mental. Neils Bohr. Reality is ultimately objective. e-mail info@coppermount. Adi Da Samraj. experience. independent of observation or experiment by any sentient observer (the “myth of the given”). a p rio ri. 2. The Principle of Reductionism: All subjective experience—private. Copper Mountain Institute. 7. Willis Harmon. purely physical causes. experiment and mathematical analysis (although objective proof has remained unfindable for 400 years). “Downward causality. These “idols of the tribe” become the “false absolutes” of science that belie the interdependence of subject and object. assumptions and beliefs. The Principle of Universalism: The preceding principles are the only correct explanations as to the nature of reality. or that it is subjective and spiritual. Richard Tarnas.Appendix B The Idols of The Tribe: The Metaphysics of Modern Science Science and its scientists must make conscious their ap rio ri preconscious metaphysical presuppositions.org. Owen Barfield. Scientific study and research into subjective aspects of mind and consciousness is thereby precluded. exclusively p hysical spacetime reality exists as the basis of all appearing phenomena.” 4. For example. the view that the whole of reality is objective and physical.” mental to physical is ideologically precluded. The Principle of Objectivism: This purely physical reality is ultimately knowable to separate human observers via objective. not a scientific fact. These unproven and unprovable metaphysical assumptions and beliefs are the totems or m ana of scientism. quantitative scientific observation. the cult of modern and postmodern scientific materialism that permeates the view of the physical and social sciences. emotional and spiritual events—can be reduced to their objective. 76 . The Principle of Material Substance Monism: There is no reality other than. All rights reserved. The validity of any causal explanation beyond the purely physical dimension is implicitly or explicitly denied. explanation and interpretation. 6. The Principle of Local Universal Causal Determinism: All events are determined by their local. experimenter and experiment. David Finkelstein. purely physical electrochemical neural correlates.) __________________ ©2008 by David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu). All differing views are in error. Ken Wilber. first person. If we knew all the initial causal conditions. www.” an epiphenomenon or “artifact” of physical brain and its physical-chemical processes. or transcendent to this objective physical reality. The Closure Principle: This purely physical realm of all existence is “causally closed” to any non-physical causal explanation. Causality is always “upward” from physical to mental. 5. then we could predict or determine with complete certainty all of the effects (objects/events) in the universe. 505-898-9592. The mind’s subjective personal and transpersonal phenomena are not proper study for objective science (the “taboo of subjectivity”) 3. is a judgement of value. prediction. We may now summarize these unexamined exclusionist biases. God are nothing more or less than an “emergent property.org. Amit Goswami and the many astute critics of Scientific Materialism. its discovery. and no truth or truths discoverable or existant beyond the view of this objectivist material realist “scientific method. Mind.coppermount. (Thanks to Werner Heisenberg. Alan Wallace. behavior. 1. value assumptions and beliefs underlying modern scientific ideology and methodology. No other views or methodologies can lead to truth. This quite unscientific protoreligion is largely responsible for our catastrophic reduction of subjective spirit to mere objective consumable matter.

mahasiddha Christ-Buddhahood. christos. Empirical spacetime Gross Body energy dimension. belief and even the subjective bliss of deep contemplative experience. “Path Luminosity. These four views or dimensions display as a prior unity in the unbounded whole. klishta manovijnana. esoteric. Nirmanakaya. noesis. exoteric/outer conceptual and experiential belief in a separate material reality and a separate God. Causal Body: Alayavijnana. logos. The Bardo of Becoming. ____________________________ *©2008. “Ground Luminosity. esoteric/inner but separate God. Realization of the prior unity of the Two Truths (relative and ultimate). opinion. relative-conventional truth. Wisdom of Satchitananda. David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu). Plato’s noetic-logoic final development stage). Non-Dual State/Turiya. momentarily available directly to each self-conscious being. The various levels of understanding of the interdependent relation of these four views of the “two minds” or Two Truths of this one great sourceground—the vast Reality that is non-dual Spirit Itself—constitute both the exoteric-conventional and the more subtle. Fruition stage.coppermount. The Bardo of Dharmata/Ultimate Reality. mindfulness meditation practice.org. Waking States. and thereby the spiritual and moral worldview and its potential realization for the sociocultural whole. Gross Body: Dualistic. body of pure alaya (amalavijnana). subject/object. prajnaparamita. Five States Exoteric/Outer.” Sambhogakaya.Appendix C The Structures of Consciousness: A Review of The View One Ground. Path stage. meditative and compassionate ethical conduct finally stabilized and actualized in the lifeworld (transcendent primordial awareness wisdom mind. Deep Dreamless Sleep State. Two Truths.” beyond all theistic concept and belief. Ishvara. namtok. Deity meditation and Vapashyana or insight meditation. Ground stage introduction to the View. supported by their four corresponding energy bodies or dimensions are potentially. Three Bodies. Causal Body energy dimension. The primordial Tao/emptiness of Absolute or Ultimate Spirit lived with its cognitive. sophia. discriminating. Final fruition stage. Dream State. Just so. third person objective scientific data). Shamatha. Saguna Brahman. from the View emerges the Path to the realization of that unbounded whole. concept-belief. two-valued concept. mental). Four Views. quasiconceptual knowledge-wisdom (dianoia. prior unity of the Trikaya of the Base (gzhi). yeshe). Madhyamaka and Dzogchen. This is Svabhavikakaya. gnosis. Manovijnana. Greater Esoteric/Innermost Secret. Copper Mountain Institute (505) 898-9592. Essence Body: Dharmakaya realized through the transcendent witness presence. Fruition of Mahamudra. are non-ordinary aspects of these five states that result only from the contemplative mind training of the spiritual Path (lam). These five innate states of consciousness. indirect. the three kayas and three vijnanas. prajna).contemplative View of this supreme source of all appearing reality for the religious and philosophical wisdom traditions of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition. the gross waking state (physical. beyond dualistic. the final non-dual fifth state. emotional. www. vidya/ rigpa. meditativedevotional first person subjective recognition of the “state of presence”. Non-Dual “Real God. Subtle Body: Dualistic. Subtle Body energy dimension.” Atman that is Nirguna Brahman. and its Fruition or result in the everyday lifeworld and ethical conduct of the individual. empirical subject-object knowledge (doxa.” realized as turiyatita.org. information. turiya “the fourth. The Bardo of living. the ascending levels of meditative stability and realization (samadhi). Deity realms. Quiescence and introspection practice Nirmanakaya. e-mail info@coppermount. However. This perfectly subjective whole transcends yet embraces all arising objective phenomena (the Two Truths). Esoteric/Inner. 77 . “lesser esoteric” form.

Transpersonal. Soul. Spirit) Gross Body Gross physical matter-energy body (annamaya-kosha).org 78 . no agreement on the definitions and correlation of consciousness dimensions. and even within traditions. Individuation of lower mind. rishis. behond fear Svabhavakakaya/ Trikaya of the Base. The Bardo of Dharmata. (The innermost secret..Appendix C: Part II The Structures of Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism* Life Stage/Mind State (evolutionary. Dharmakaya. Supreme Identity. ego-motivated. manas desiremind/sense-mind (citta or sems). The Mahatman or essence-self recognition. Kindness. Om Shanti Om. Buddhahood. no all phenomena. bodhisattvas 8th & 9th bhumi. structures. . Moksha-nirvikalpa samadhi. full primordial. non-dual 7 transcendent Witness) Theocentric Realization (liberation) of personal identity with Spiritual perfection stage. Transpersonal subtle to greater esoteric response. desire-mind awareness. ©2005. levels. Witness practice. formless and kosmic mysticism. Om Gate. renunciation and service. Causal dimension to non-dual Absolute. dualistic conventional religious and beginning mystical seeking. Prana or Emotional Body (pranamaya-kosha). Emotional. inherent in all beings. non-dual Spirit Itself in whom arises bodhi. final furition. Saguna Brahman as prana-vayu or sutratman. The physical and lower mental phenomenal worlds. The integration of conditional self in lifeworld timeless “fourth time. relativeconventional response. logos).” prior unity of (moksha-sahaj samadh). The will. Spiritual materialism. Nirmanakaya. Path of form. muni. although the koshas of Vedanta and the vijnanas and kayas of Buddhism generally correlate. Subtle Body (sukshma-sarira) (vijnanamaya-kosha) Transcends & embraces previous koshas. Shamatha mindfulness practice. . Causal Body (karana-sarira) (anandamaya-kosha) Soul. bodies. practice. vipashyana causal cognition. Moreover. Brahman as Virat. koshas and all conditional experience. Non-empirical illusory (maya) subjectobject independence. conditional savikalpa samadhi. Alayavijnana Deep Sleep State (Greater Esoteric) (formless sushupti/ prajna) 5. Dream State (Esoteric) (svapna) Prepersonal. Mental Body (manomaya-kosha). Physical and emotional body of desire.. Lifeworld ruled by fear and hope. Maha-rishi. citta. rigpa. Fear and hope. the great Peace in the Silence. Subject-object separation and dependence. Great compassion. Quiescence practice. Empirical reality.. 6 Transpersonal. wisdomspirit-bliss. Beginning compassion. Sleepwaiting denial of spirit-presence. Beginning insight and bhakti/ devotional meditation (dhyana). . Mind. Consciousness Dimension/State (avastha) (non-developmental. Intellectual and subtle dharma understanding. Buddha NatureUltimate Mind Nature(sems nyid/ cittata. Exoteric. preconscious. alpha pure non-dual realization. Klishta-Manovijnana. Dzogchen. 4 Ethnocentric Spiritual development ground and path stage. path of sages arhats. transcendent and includes the previous relative states. shyunyata/emptiness. Frequent “clicking” from asleep to awake states. Tao. transrational. Mental Stage. Turiya (“The Fourth”) Parasamgate. gnosis). Atman The non-dual. The five skandhas/ sense consciousnesses (panchdvara-vijnana) plus mind (manovijnana) Om. diety practice. The unobstructed Pure Alaya (amalavijnana). Brahman as Prajapati or Hiranyagarbha. . Para Gate. surrender. Absolute Reality. the lesser esoteric response. reflecting and discriminating mind. . Karma ceases. the Subjective idealism. . compassionate transcendent Witness Presence awareness. * The multidimensional pie of Spirit descending as phenomenal reality and the ascending realization of its non-dual Source is sliced in slightly different ways by different Wisdom Traditions. Path of the yogis/saints (love wisdom). and mindstates. transcendent mental. estranged and ignorant (avidya) of non-dual Atman that is Brahman. Transcends more learning. David Paul Boaz. Transcendent Karma ceases only when in turiya (vidya/ rigpa). the root of ego-I. Tao. transrational. saints and bodhisattvas. deity. Mouna. the Witness (saksin) that is identical to Nirguna Brahman. Atman identity with Brahman. Essence Sambhogakaya Mahamudra. “State effects” not yet “trait effects. Dualistic material seeking strategies dominate the view and behavior. untainted divine presence (vidya.davidpaulboaz. higher mental. 2. Prepersonal to personal. finding the master. the Supreme Source. Personal to transpersonal.” The Bardo of Becoming. Insight practice. The Quantum potential. Brahman. subtle body. Path of the siddhas. and emptiness hope. subtle body of desire. Transcends and embraces previous samadhis. profound. The Bardo of Living.) Waking State (Exoteric) (vaishvanara/ jagrat) Intentional. lifestages. A lifeworld devoted to Spiritual completion fruition stage. www. there is at present. developmental) 1.. 3 Egocentric Physical. Corresponding Energy-Body/Kosha Dimension/Vijnana (Body. Objective. Christ(shunyata) realized through yeshe/ jnana/ Buddhahood. Non-dual Witness practice. Buddhi. Life. Realization of Kham gnosis. Gross ignorance of the essencelessness and impermanence of the five skandhas of existence and the five sense consciousnesses. relativeconventional realism. wise Worldcentric compassion. arhats. Mani. Conditional self and its identities.

www. 505-898-9592 79 .coppermount. Fragments of the Whole: Selected Essays of David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu) ©1009 David Paul Boaz. All rights reserved.org.org. Coppermountain Institute.org.Appendix D Being the Primordial Awareness Wisdom* The Non-Meditation That is Happiness Itself Now is the moment we abide in primordial essence Luminous nature of mind empty awake awareness itself Whatever experience arises Pleasant neutral unpleasant no need to change it Whatever arises let it be without judgement positive or negative without past or future without attachment or aversion without affirmation or denial without closeness or distance Whatever arises is pure clear light of mind opening into the very ground of being Thus whatever arises is liberated Now let it be exactly as it is Perfect openness Perfect space As it is already accomplished Simply relax into it _________________ * Excerpted from Stromata. info@coppermount. www.davidpaulboaz.

mahasuka. and the I AM of Abba the primordial Father. Tathagatagarba). Yeshe.coppermount. Being Here. tawhid.Appendix E Toward an Integral Ecology of Mind The barrier between subject and object does not exist. ruach. Anthropos. Samantabhadri. Relative Motion. purusha. zen. our very Mind Essence (svabhava. It is That (Tat) according to the masters of humanity’s Great Wisdom Tradition. These signs symbolize and support our direct. divine. Tathagatagarbha. gompa) under the guidance (satsang) of a qualified living master we stride the spiritual path. Fitrah. ousia. Samantabhadra. Noesis. asti. one breath of many voices. then realize this great process. Although this great awareness continuum is known by these and many other names. For example. recognition. fundamental underlying unity. This presence is known as vidya-rigpa. 80 . non-dual transcendent Primordial Awareness Wisdom—Gnosis. tsal/lung.Werner Heisenberg What’s in a Name? The normal obscuring sectarian bias regarding our own views. haqiqa. our primordial sourceground that is the very Nature of Mind. sem nyid. eidos ) that is the actual Supreme Identity and potential ultimate happiness of each one of us. En Sof. Ta’i Ch’i. shekhina. intrinsic primordial awareness that is non-dual Reality Itself. prana/vayu. of every sentient being in every dimension of every world system. an-Nur. parousia. Wu/Mu. Mahamudra. light. that is the essential Nature of Mind (cittata. The ever-present Witness of our primordial sourceground is this pure intrinsic awareness presence of that ultimate reality. Supreme Source or Base of all finite objective and subjective arising phenomenal reality. the fruition of the “innermost secret” View of this great process.org. Zen. ming. Who Is It? How shall we accomplish this great realization? Through dhyana (meditation. 505-898-9592. Satchitananda. then realizes the unbounded whole that is Reality Itself. Subject and object are only one. Shakti. This is our primordial wisdom mind that continuously recognizes and realizes itself as ultimate essential Mindnature. logos-christos. always already spontaneously present and fully awake at the spiritual heart of each human being. and its primordial awareness wisdom through whom we understand. noetic non-conceptual. Just so. We may then come to realize. equanimity and joy that is the heartseed witness presence of our ever-present Christ-Buddha Nature (Christos. Apeiron/Chronos. continuous samhadi of certainty.” . Fana. Tao. pneuma. cho nyid. then actualize in the world—for oneself and for others—that prior unity of wisdom and compassion that is “Ultimate Happiness Itself” (ananda. Jñana. This light/life energy of form is ch’i. Prajnaparamita. This is the great work (sadhana) to be done. Longchen (the Great Expanse). This is the awareness that is the ultimate truth (paramartha) of our innate. Rupakaya. Shakti. then stabilized realization and ethical fruition of the great mystery of the Word-Logos. Dharmata. Urgrund. opinions and beliefs may be somewhat mitigated by an awareness that the following key terms of our primordial Great Wisdom Tradition are mere conceptual relative-conventional truths. spiritus. Maria). __________________ ©2008 by David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu). kadag/gzhi/The Base. Tathata (Suchness). fugue of the presence of the source that steadfastly links us to unseparate Ultimate Spirit. gnosis). This great Reality is the prior. perfectly subjective interdependent non-dual prior unity of all that is. Such a realization is. atman-saksin.org. pleroma. Isis. Who is it? Tat tvam ami! That I Am! Without a single exception. indivisible. Shunyata (the Great Emptiness). e-mail: info@coppermount. the “Big Mind” in whom we all appear and participate. whether or not it is recognized by individual participants of this great whole. Copper Mountain Institute. www. useful archetypes and metaphors for the ultimate truth that is the utterly ineffable great unbounded whole. it is always the still womb of our Great Mother (Prajnaparamita. this moment now. sleepwaiting in the eternal womb of our Great Wisdom Mother. Bathos/The Depth. The Bright. in the turiya of the moment Now. This is the presence of our compassionate wisdom mind that recognizes. the light-energy-motion that appears as the lifeforce of our bodymind with its sentient experience is this continuously arising relative spacetime phenomenal reality descended from our perfectly subjective primordial sourceground. eudaemonia). Purusha. the “unbounded” Whole that is our Supreme Source. All rights reserved. Dharmakaya. all refer to the ineffable. and indeed. infinite potential of the compassionate. Nirguna Brahman.

This bright enlightened Heart essence.org. It has many names. from such a ground do we descend. Here is the happiness that is always present. views this ground of physical and mental forms unfolding as a primordial unbounded whole in whom is enfolded the perpetual mystery of all that is. all embracing non-dual Spirit that is our “Big Mind. How then shall we move from being apart to being this whole? It is told through our Great Wisdom Tradition—that stream of radical truth that flows through all traditions—of the non-dual singularity of this whole there are “Two Fundamental Truths. then acts in conscious relationship with the whole. breath of one voice. brief moments. shines awake through the mind and abides at the Heart of all beings. David Paul Boaz (Dechen Wangdu) ________________ * ©2008 by David Paul Boaz. Here is the happiness that cannot be lost. Relax now into That and be supremely happy. info@coppermount. Perception ruled by conceptual mind sees only the parts. wonder of wonders. then actualizes in the world—for oneself and for others—the great happiness. and shines awake? In whom does this all arise? The energy that we are arises and descends each moment from its great sourceground as movement. the ultimate unbroken whole—our acausal perfectly subjective source embracing all arising physical and mental objects—informs. just as it is. an infinite non-dual subject/object unified field. each moment return to that in whom this all arises.” two ways of being here. relative motion in space and time. All rights reserved. is who we are. How then shall we awaken to this uncommon wisdom? Primordial Wisdom continually recognizes itself in the paradox of the natural perfection of all our experience. then moment to moment recognition of the all-inclusive unbounded whole that is our origin and aim. This supreme source transcends yet embraces all phenomena arising therein. not tomorrow. ever present presence of this supreme source as we ascend again. Yet. delighted. undreamt of in the thoughtful slumber of human reason and belief.Appendix F Being Here Reflections on the Nature of Mind* What does it matter what poetry is? All that matters is the eternal movement behind it. Such wisdom naturally intends kindness toward all beings. clear. perfectly.” the dualistic. We live in two worlds at once! Ultimate Truth is the vast expanse of the whole itself. www. Wisdom delights in kindness. bright fugue these many colors. it is always fully present and awake at the Heart. innate.coppermount. Wisdom trusts this awakening. Calm. Wisdom mind understands. light steadfastly mirrors our never separate. Who is it? Tat tvam ami. enlightens and delights our everyday relative cause and effect world. our all inclusive base of reality—reality itself—is experienced by all human beings. Here. No need to improve it. However.org 81 . So it is told by the masters of our Great Wisdom Tradition. subject/object separated reality of our perceptual and conceptual knowledge and experience. pure intrinsic awareness cannot be grasped by the concepts and beliefs of the realm of Relative Truth that is “Small Mind. the very nature of mind. Good to practice it. Copper Mountain Institute. -Dylan Thomas What is this eternal movement? What is the nature or essence of mind who is aware of it? Who is it that moves in this beauty. It is utterly ineffable. This ultimate source or matrix of the light energy that is organized as matter is prior to time.” This selfless. Whether or not we recognize it. This wisdom of kindness arises spontaneously through occasional. then realizes. Thus it is. Without a single exception. beyond hope and fear this. Great joy for us. Practice recognizes. forms falling. Wisdom knows “Energy is Eternal Delight. Humanity’s Wisdom Tradition. At our spiritual Heart we may touch it. Great beauty of it.” Sublime beauty. by whatever name. That force is essence of our being. Practice consumes conceptual/emotional veils that seem to obscure its constant presence. selfless wisdom mind. Wisdom recognizes it. No need to seek it. including recent quantum physics. That I am. It is profound. but here and now this primordial wisdom seed at the Heart. This prior essential great perfection is the vast love that binds the worlds. Practice is the imperfect intention. then action of our perfect.

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