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July 2, 2010

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Section 2-1

2-1.

Let V and denote a part above and below the specification, respectively.

Ô ½VVV, VV , V V, V , VV, V ,

2-2.

V,

Let

and denote a bit in error and not in error ( denotes okay), respectively.

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0 . .

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0 0 0 Ô . .

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0 0 0 0 ..

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. Let V denote an acceptable power supply. medium. The sample ½ space is 1000 possible three digit integers. A vector with three components can describe the three digits of the ammeter. and denote a power supply that has a functional... . . .2. . in milliseconds.1..1. S 2 2 2 of the 25 ordered pairs ½!!! 2-9.. . An example outcome in the sample space is ½ 2-6. or cosmetic error..1... 2-4.1. Ô ½1.2. 2-8.001.. Let . and large. respectively. ...1. Ô ½0.999 2-7. Ô ½0.} 2-13 2-14. . Ô ½0. Ô ½V. minor.. in milliseconds 2-11..1. Let an ordered pair of numbers.. 2-3. Let .. Each digit can be 0.2. Ô 000. is the sample space of 100 possible two digit integers.2.9... Then {. such as 43 denote the response on the first and second question. Then..2. The sample space is the set of all possible sequences of and of length 24. .1u 09 in ppb. automatic transmission ith air red blue black hite standard transmission red blue black ithout air ith air ithout air hite red blue black 2-1 hite red blue black hite consists . set of nonnegative integers 2-5.. .O 14. «. 2-12.. Let and denote a web site that contains and does not contain banner ads..1.. .2.0 Ô ½0. respectively. 2-10.0. and denote small.1..

c .

400 . respectively. . Then {. 2010 2-15.Y Let and denote connect and busy. 2-18. . «} Y . a) Ô ½ . . memory 4 8 12 disk storage 200 300 400 200 300 400 2-17. . . July 2. b) c) 2-2 200 . . 2-19. PR Y !Y Y × TY Y !Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y !Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 2-16. 300 .

c .

a) 2-3 July 2. 2010 . d) e) 2-20.

c .

b) c) d) e) 2-4 July 2. 2010 .

c .

a) Let the nonnegative integers from 0 to the largest integer that can be displayed by the scale. Let denote the weight. July 2. is the event that > 11 . 2010 2-21.

is the event that .

15 × is the event that 8 .

2. 1. «} b) c) 11 < . 3. <12 {0.

15} d) . 15 or {12. 13. 14.

«. 11 or {0. «. 2. 11} e) f) Î × contains the values of such that: i 8 Thus ( Î ×)| contains the values of such that: < 8 or {0. 2. 7} g) A h) . 1. 1.

Therefore.| contains the values of such that > 15. .

| × is the empty set. They have no outcomes in common or A. i) .

× is the event 8 .

X <12. Î (. Therefore.

10. «} 2-22. a) B 11 9 A b) 48 52 48 52 48 52 48 52 B 11 9 A c) B 11 9 A d) B 11 9 A 2-5 . 9. ×) is the event i 8 or {8.

c .

2-23. . . . 0 . 1 2 3 4 {|||| } f) ( 1 2 ) Î ( 3 4 ) Ô ½ . . . . . 0 0 0 1|Ô . 0 0 0 Ô . 2. . b) No. . 1. . . . . 700 nm} (b) . 0 0 . respectively. . 676. 2-24 Let denote the wavelength. Let and denote a distorted bit and one that is not distorted ( denotes okay). . 0 0 0 .0 0 . 0 0 . . . 0 . July 2.0 0 . The sample space is { | w 0. 0 0 0 1 Ô 0 . . «. . . Therefore. . The process would not be successful. for example c) d) e) 1 2 Ô ½. . then A B is the null set. a) . «} (a) { | 675. 2010 e) f the events are mutually exclusive. the process does not produce product parts with 50 cm and 10 cm. 0 .

«. . 700 nm} 2-25 Let and denote positive and negative. . respectively. 675. «.{ | 450. 451. . }. (a)Y { } (b)Y . 500 nm} (c) a (d) a { | 450. 500. 676. The sample space is { . . . «. 451. .

{ } (c)Y .

Ô (d)Y Î .

A B 70. a) | . A Î B 95 2-27. A| 14. Ô { . } 2-26.

10. .

Î .| 10.

92 b) 2-6 .

c .

a 55.5} b) . July 2. a 85 a) | {D | D i 72. 2-29. 2010 p YY Y Y YY Y Y Y Y p Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 2-28. a 23.

| {D | D .

5} c) . 52.

5 < D < 72.5} d) Î . {D | 52.

a) {V V V V V V } b) {V V V V. {D | D > 0} 2-30.

V V .

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V V V .

V V V .

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respectively. }42 2-31. and a board with major defects. a) { } b) {} 2-32. Then { } d) S { } Let denote a good board. a) The sample space contains all points in the nonnegative plane. b) 10 A c) 20 d) 2-7 . c) Let and denote defective and good. a board with minor defects.

c .

20 10 10 e) 20 2-33. a) b) c) 2-8 July 2. 2010 .

c .

5!135! 5!125! 130. That is 140! 130! . Therefore.800 2-39. 2-41. Ñx xÑx Ô 2-38. a) From equation 2-4. xx 2-37. July 2. the answer is x x x ! 2-36.721. the answer is 5!5! 14. the number of samples of size five is ! Ô 5140 Ô 416. Ô Ñ sequences are possible Ñ 2-40.800 c) The number of samples that contain at least one nonconforming chip is the total number of samples 130 minus the number of samples that contain no nonconforming chips .880 !126! 130 4 ways of selecting four conforming chips. the number of samples that contain exactly one nonconforming chip is 10 x 4 Ô 113.588.400 From equation 2-3. From the multiplication rule.752 Ñ Ñ 2-9 .965. 2010 d) 2-34. From the multiplication rule and equation 2-1. From equation 2-1. 2-35.628.358. From the multiplication rule.528 !135! 140 5 b) There are 10 ways of selecting one nonconforming chip and there are ! Ô 4130 Ô 11. 212 4096 From the multiplication rule. the answer is 10! 3.

c .

Therefore. 2-43. 2-42.626. a) From the multiplication rule. a) The total number of samples possible is has high viscosity is ! Ô 424 Ô 10. a) From the multiplication rule.206 10626 2-10 ! Ô 16!5!! x 14!3!! x 214 Ô 2184 . the probability is !15! 6 1 18 3 4896 Ô 0. 12 5 Ô 12! Ô 95.040 7! layouts are possible. Therefore. July 2. Therefore. ! prefixes are possible. a) Every arrangement selected from the 12 different components comprises a different design. 12 5 7! Ô 21 sequences are possible. others are different. bytes are possible b) From the multiplication rule. 10626 c) The number of samples that meet the requirements is Therefore. !12! 6 1 4 1 14 2 . à! 2-46. Therefore. b) f the chips are of the same type. 1!1!1!1!1!2! c) 6! 720 sequences are possible. ! bytes are possible 2-47. 103 Ô 1000 prefixes are possible b) From the multiplication rule. then every arrangement of 5 locations selected from the 12 results in a different layout. the probability is ! Ô 418 Ô 3060. x x ! ! are possible c) Every arrangement of three digits selected from the 10 digits results in a possible prefix. a) b) Ô 512!7!! Ô 792 layouts are possible. 12!Ô 479.001. Therefore. 2010 a) f the chips are of different types. The number of samples in which exactly one tank !20! 24 4 ! Ô 16!5!! x 318 Ô 4896 .461 10626 b) The number of samples that contain no tank with high viscosity is requested probability is 1 18 4 3060 Ô 0. c) 12! Ô 95040 7!1!1!1!1!1! designs are possible. 2-44. 12! Ô 3326400 designs are possible. 3!4! 2-45. then every subset of 5 locations chosen from the 12 results in a different layout. the !14! 2184 Ô 0. b) 7 components are the same.712 . 2!5! 7! Ô 2520 sequences are possible.600 designs are possible.

c .

2-50. July 2.455 .409. 220 The number of ways to select two parts from 50 is l and the number of ways to select two defective parts from the l 5 defectives ones is l . Therefore the probability is l a) . Ô 310!7!! Ô 120. The probability of at least one 10 3 120 Ô 0. 2010 a) The total number of samples is Ñ Ô Ñ Ô The number of samples that result in one nonconforming part is Ô 12!1!! x 210!8!! Ô 90. b) The number of samples with no nonconforming part is nonconforming part is 1 2-49. the requested probability is 90/220 0. 2-48. 2 1 10 2 Therefore.

56 b) | 36 + 56 92 c) Î .

40 + 12 + 16 + 44 + 56 168 d) Î .

| 40+12+16+44+36148 e) | .

| 36 4x3x5x3x5 Ô 900 2-51. a) . Total number of possible designs 2-52.

1277 b) | 22252 ± 5292 16960 c) Î .

1685 + 3733 + 1403 + 2 + 14 + 29 + 46 + 3 6915 d) Î .

| 195 + 270 + 246 + 242+ 3820 + 5163 + 4728 + 3103 + 1277 19044 e) | .

a) .| 270 + 246 + 242 + 5163 + 4728 + 3103 13752 2-53.

170 + 443 + 60 673 b) | 28 + 363 + 309 + 933 + 39 1672 c) Î .

1685 + 3733 + 1403 + 2 + 14 + 29 + 46 + 3 6915 d) Î .

| 1685 + (28 ± 2) + 3733 + (363 ± 14) + (309 ± 29) + 1403 + (933 ± 46) + (39 ± 3) 8399 e) | .

| 28 ± 2 + 363 ± 14 + 306 ± 29 + 933 ± 46 + 39 ± 3 1578 2-11 .

c .

2010 Section 2-2 2-54. (a) The number of possible experiments is 4 + 4 × 3 + 4 × 3 × 3 52 (b) There are 36 experiments that use all three steps. a) S {1.33 + 0. 97.«.5. 102}. 6} b) 1/6 c) 2/6 d) 5/6 2-59. 2. Therefore.8 c) (A') 0.6923.6.5. 4. a) 1/10 b) 5/10 2-58. +2. (c)Y The event that equivalence is indicated between 98 and 102 mL is {98. 96. +3. and 104}. The number of experiments that complete all three steps is 9 out of 13. 3 letters A to Z. 2-62. 5. and +4}.35 + 0.83. The probability that the event occurs is 0.33 0. The probability is 0.2. The probability is 0.8} b) 2/8 c) 6/8 2-60. a) 0.85.5. 103. (b)Y The event that a cell is not composed of a positive nickel charge greater than +3 is {0. 96. (a)Y Because the replicates are equally likely to indicate from 95 to 104 mL. 3. 101. Total possible: 1016.4. 99. 99}. With amounts in the first step the number of experiments is + 3 + 9 13. it will not change.2 2-56. a) (A) 0. +3. 2-12 .2 0.6 d) (AÎB) 1 e) (A B) 0. The probability is 9/13 0. a) S {1. and +3}.8 2-57. The probability that the event occurs is 0. so the probability of any three numbers is 1/(10*10*10).4 b) (B) 0. the probability that equivalence is indicated at 100 mL is 0.17 + 0. (c) No.3 + 0.15 0. July 2. so the probability of any three numbers is 1/(26*26*26). 2-61. but only 108 are valid. 100.7. (a)Y The event that a cell has at least one of the positive nickel charged options is {+2. The sample space is {95.5 + 0. 3 digits between 0 and 9.3. The probability the best result uses all three steps is 36/52 0. a) 5*5*4 100 b) (5*5)/100 25/1001/4 2-65.35 + 0. The probability your license plate -8 is chosen is then (1/103)*(1/263) 5.7 x 10 2-64. (valid) 108/1016 1/108 2-63.7 b) 0. and +4}.5 0.1. Alloutcomes are equally likely a) (A) 2/5 b) (B) 3/5 c) (A') 3/5 d) (AÎB) 1 e) (A B) (A) 0 2-55. 98.6923. 97. +2. (b)Y The event that equivalence is indicated at less than 100 mL is {95. The sample space is {0.

c .

70 e) (AÎB) (70+9+16)/100 0.86 b) (B) 79/100 0.84 2-67.30 0. July 2.85 f) (A¶ÎB) 92/100 0.92 2-68.95 f) (A¶ÎB) (70+9+5)/100 0.14 d) (A B) 70/100 0. 2-66. a) (A) 86/100 0.22 e) (AÎB) 85/100 0. a) (A) 30/100 0.30 b) (B) 77/100 0.52 100 100 5 0. 2010 (a) The total number of transactions is 43+44+4+5+4100 ( ) Ô 44 4 4 Ô 0.95 100 44 4 4 Ô 0.70 d) (A B) 22/100 0.79 c) (A') 14/100 0.77 c) (A') 1 ± 0.52 (c)Y ( .

) Ô 100 (d)Y ( a ) 0 100 5 Ô 0.95 (e)Y ( Î .

a) Because E and E' are mutually exclusive events and u Î u | S . ) Ô 100 (b) ( a) 2-69.

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(E) b) Because S and A are mutually exclusive events with S p (S) (S) + (A). The sample space of all possible designs that may be seen on five visits. Therefore. Therefore. This space contains 9005 outcomes. (B) i (A). Because ( c | ) i 0 . ( . Therefore. a) b) c) d) e) 2-71. Total number of possible designs is 900. 2. B c Î c | and the events A and c (B) (A) + ( c | ). 1 (S) ( E Î E | ) (E) + (E'). (E') 1 . (A) 0 are mutually exclusive.70. c) Now.

) (40 + 16)/204 0.2745 ( |) (36 + 56)/204 0.4510 ( Î .

) (40 + 12 + 16 + 44 + 36)/204 0.7255 ( Î .

|) (40 + 12 + 16 + 44 + 56)/204 0.8235 ( | .

On the first visit any one of 900 designs may be seen. On the second visit there are 899 remaining designs. respectively. On the fourth and fifth visits there are 897 and 896 remaining designs.|) 56/204 0.9889 2-72. the probability that a design is not seen again is (900*899*898*897*896)/ 9005 0. a) b) c) d) ( .2745 The number of outcomes in which all five visits are different can be obtained as follows. Therefore. From the multiplication rule. the number of outcomes where all designs are different is 900*899*898*897*896. On the third visit there are 898 remaining designs.

8055 ( Î .) 242/22252 0.0109 ( |) (5292+6991+5640)/22252 0.

2265 ( Î .) (195 + 270 + 246 + 242 + 984 + 3103)/22252 0.

|) (4329 + (5292 ± 195) + (6991 ± 270) + 5640 ± 246))/22252 0.9680 2-13 .

c .

2010 . e) ( | July 2.

1969 c) (A Î B) (1685+3733+1403+2+14+29+46+3)/8493 6915/8493 0.( c ) 0.3+0. Therefore. a) (A') 1.2 d) (A) ( c ) + ( c e) (( c )') 1 .4 0.0.0792 b) (A|) (28 + 363 + 309 + 933 + 39)/8493 1672/8493 0. ( c ) 0.2 .8142 d) (A Î B|) (1685 + (28 ± 2) + 3733 + (363 ± 14) + (309 ± 29) + 1403 + (933 ± 46) + (39 ± 3))/8493 8399/8493 0.|) (1277 + 1558 + 666 + 3820 + 5163 + 4728)/22252 0. Therefore.1 0.1 0.7735 2-73.0.0.1 c) ( c ).4 ) + ( c ) (B).6 f) ( c | ) (A') + (B) .1 0.9889 e) (A| B|) (28 ± 2 + 363 ± 14 + 306 ± 29 + 933 ± 46 + 39 ± 3)/8493 1578/8493 0.( c| ) 0.8 2-75. a) (A B) (170 + 443 + 60)/8493 0.7 b) ( c ) (A) + (B) .2 .1 0.0.1858 Section 2-3 2-74.(A) 0.0.2 .3 . a) ( Î .7 + 0. ( c ) 0.( c ) 1 .

Therefore. Î × ) (A) + (B) + (C). because the events are mutually exclusive. Î .

9 b) ( .3+0.4 0.2+0. Î × ) 0.

× ) 0. because c A c) ( .

because c ! d) ( ( Î . ) 0 .

) × ) 0. because ( Î .

) × ( × ) Î ( .

2+0.4) 0.3+0. " # # # ) 1-[ (A) + (B) + (C)] 1-(0.1 e) ( | .

No $ % 2-14 ( . a) 170/190 17/19 b) 7/190 2-81.9 (b) 1.90.44 0.29. which is not equal to (Low temperature or low conductivity).77.1 2. Because (Low temperature) + (Low conductivity) (8+3)/100 + (15+3)/100 $ 0.95 # c) No.26 $ $ (c) No. 2-79. a) %(unsatisfactory) (5 + 10 ± 2)/130 13/130 b) (both criteria satisfactory) 117/130 0.70 b) (79+86-70)/100 0.| ×| # ×) Ô A # 2-76. by sports) (Caused #by contact sports or by noncontact sports) (a) (Caused # (Caused by contact sports) + (Caused by noncontact sports) 0. (a) $(High temperature and high conductivity) 74/100 0.46 # + 0.(Caused by sports) 0.74 (b) (Low $ temperature or low $ conductivity) $ (Low temperature) + (Low conductivity) ± (Low temperature and low conductivity) (8+3)/100 + (15+3)/100 ± 3/100 0. a) 70/100 0. ( c ) ü 0 2-78. a) 350/370 Ñ Ñ Ô b) Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ô c) Ñ Ñ d) 345/370 2-80. they are not mutually exclusive.

c .

(a) 5/36 (b) 5/36 (c) ( . 2-82.

) Ô ( ) ( .

) Ô 25 / 1296 ( Î .

) Ô ( ) ( .

) ( ) ( .

& & ( ) 112/204 0.5490.) Ô 10 / 36 25 / 1296 Ô 0. 2-84.4510.2585 (d) 2-83. 2-85. (A B) (40+16)/204 0. (B) 92/204 0.2745 a) ( Î .

) ( ) + (.

) ± ( .

7255 b) ( .5490 + 0.4510 ± 0.2745 0.) 0.

2745 and ( Î .|) (12 + 44)/204 0.

|) ( ) + (.

|) ± ( .

|) 0.4510) ± 0.2745 0.8235 c) ( | Î .5490 + (1 ± 0.

|) 1 ± ( .

(A B|) (984+3103)/22252 0.85 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( b) First (A B¶) (A) (B|) (1/4)(1/5) 1/20 0. ( a ) 70 / 100 70 ( ) 86 / 100 86 7 32 Ô 0.0109. ( (B) (170 + 2 + 443 + 14 + 29 + 60 + 46 + 3)/8493 0.0109 0.7255 ' ' ' ( ( (A) 1/4 0. (A B) (170 + 443 + 60)/8493 0.05. (B) 4/5 0.80 B¶) 0.25.9891 ( ( ( (A) (1685 + 3733 + 1403)/8493 0.80 ± 0. 2010 B) 1 ± 0.0792 0.2745 0.0903) ± 0.0903 ± 0.0428) ± 0.20 0. (A B) 242/22252 0.7239 0. (B) 953/22252 0.1945 + (1 ± 0.8142 ( ( ( ( b) (A Î B|) (A) + (B|) ± (A B|) 0.20 ± 0.0428 ± 0.8031. (A B) (A) (B) (1/4)(4/5) 1/5 0.9889 ( ( c) (A| Î B|) 1 ± (A B) 1 ± 0. (a) (b) (c) (d) 2-89.2264 ( ( ( ( b) (A Î B|) (A) + (B|) ± (A B|) 0.0792.7239 ( ( ( ( a) (A Î B) (A) + (B) ± (A B) 0.) 1 ± 0.0109 0.39 100 13 7 ( .25 + ( ( ( ( (A) 4329/22252 0.40 ( ( c) (A| Î B|) 1 ± (A B) 1 ± 0.20 0.9208 Section 2-4 2-87. (A B|) (1515+3290+1343)/8493 0.1945 + 0.1837 ( ( ( ( a) (A Î B) (A) + (B) ± (A B) 0.0792 0.1837 0.9680 ( ( c) (A| Î B|) 1 ± (A 2-86.8031 + 0.25 + 0.20 ( ( ( ( a) (A Î B) (A) + (B) ± (A B) 0.0903.8031 + (1 ± 0. July 2. Then (A Î B|) (A) + (B|) ± (A 0.1945.80. ( ( a) (A) 86/100 b) (B) 79/100 ( ( a ) 70 / 100 70 c) ( c ) ( a) 79 / 100 79 ) c) d) ( 2-88.0428.05 0.

2 100 ( a) 7 / 100 ( a) 0.1795 ( a ) ( ) 39 / 100 ( ) Ô Let denote the event that a leaf completes the color transformation and let .) Ô Ô 0.35 ( a) 20 / 100 ( a ) 7 / 100 0.

denote the event that a leaf completes the textural transformation. (a) (b) ( . The total number of experiments is 300.

591 ( a ) (18 26) / 300 ( .903 ( ) (243 26) / 300 ( a ) 26 / 300 a) 0.) 243 / 300 Ô Ô 0.

| ) Ô ( 2-15 .

c .

11 f) (A Î B) 0. July 2.72 + c) (B) 0. Let denote the event that autolysis is high and let .04 +0.10 0.90 c) 8/9 0.20 2-91.15 + 0.07 0. e) (A B) 0.76 2-93.15 * ( a ) 0. 2-90.72 ± 0.15 .07 0.733 ( ) 0. 2010 b) 12/28 c) 34/122 * a) (A) 0.889 d) 80/82 0.04 0.04 0.11 0.72 + d) (B|A) ( a) 0.07 0.153 b) (A|B) ( a) 0.05 + 0.9756 e) 80/82 0.9756 f) 2/10 0. a) 12/100 2-92.82 b) 0. a) 0.

The total number of experiments is 100. denote the event that putrefaction is high. (a) ( .

' | ) Ô (b) ( | .

) Ô (c) ( ' | .

( .' ) Ô .

' ) 18 / 100 Ô Ô 0.5625 ( ) (14 18) / 100 ( .

) 14 / 100 Ô Ô 0.1918 ( .

) (14 59) / 100 ( ' .

' ) 9 / 100 Ô Ô 0.333 ( .

000458 c) (342/350) x [(342-1)/(350-1)]0.9547 2-98. a) 20/100 b) 19/99 c) (20/100)(19/99) 0. a) / (8-1)/(350-1)0. a) .' ) (18 9) / 100 2-94.0080 b) (5/500)(4/499) 0.000080 c) (495/500)(494/499) 0. c) (gas leak | electric failure) (55/107)/(72/107) 0.764 2-95. (a) 1 36 7 1 (b) 5(36 6 ) 2-16 .020 b) / (8/350) x [(8-1)/(350-1)]0.813 b) (electric failure | gas leak) (55/107)/(87/102) 0.0080 ! f) f f f / 2-97. the probability would be (20/100) 0.632 .038 d) f the chips were replaced.98 d) 3/498 0. a) 4/499 0.0060 e) 4/498 0.2 2-96.(gas leak) (55 + 32)/107 0.

c .

a) ( a a) ( a ) 242 / 22252 242 0. 2010 . 1 5(365 )5 No.0562 (a ) (28 363 309 933 39) / 8493 1672 2-17 July 2. c ( a) ( 40 16 ) / 204 56 0.3913 (a) ( 40 16 36) / 204 92 ( a ) 56 / 204 56 c) ( a ) 0 .6087 (a) ( 40 16 36) / 204 92 ( a) 36 / 204 36 b) ( a) 0.5 ( ) ( 40 12 16 44) / 204 112 2-101.2539 (a) 953 / 22252 953 ( a ) (195 270 246 ) / 22252 711 b) ( a) 0. (c) 2-99. a) ( 2-103. if 0 à c ð c .1919 ( a ) ( 22252 953) / 22252 21299 ( a ) 242 / 22252 242 d) ( a ) 0.7461 (a) 953 / 22252 953 ( a ) (984 3103 ) / 22252 4087 c) ( a) 0. a) ( 2-102. then (A/B) à Ô à Ô à c 2-100.0559 ( ) 4329 / 22252 4329 a) ) ( a) (170 443 60 ) / 8493 673 0.5 ( a ) (12 44 56 ) / 204 112 ( a) ( 40 16 ) / 204 40 16 d) ( a ) 0 .0987 ( ) (1685 3733 1403 ) / 8493 6821 Also the probability of failure for fewer than 1000 wells is ( a ) ( a ) (2 14 29 46 3) / 8493 92 0.

c .

2010 Let × denote the event that fewer than 500 wells are present. (. July 2.

A. Let F denote the event that a roll contains a flaw and let C denote the event that a roll is cotton.1471 ( ) 306 / 421 ( ) 35 / 421 ( | )Ô Ô Ô 0. Let N.0650 Ô (× ) ( 28 363 309 39 ) / 8493 739 Let A denote the event that an egg survives to an adult Let EL denote the event that an egg survives at early larvae stage Let 11 LL denote the event that an egg survives at late larvae stage Let 1 denote the event that an egg survives at pre-pupae larvae stage Let L denote the event that an egg survives at late pupae stage a) ( ) Ô 31 / 421 Ô 0. 2Then. Section 2-5 2-105. 03)( 0. à c à c à c à à c à à c ! 2-107.7778 ( ) 45 / 421 ( ) 31 / 421 ( | ) Ô Ô Ô 0. ( × ) ( 2 14 29 46 3) / 8493 48 Ô Ô 0. | ×) Ô 2-104.0736 ( JJ ) 31 / 421 0.03) (0. 70) ( 0.2respectively. 2 and worn. P ( F) P ( F C) P ( C) P ( F C ) P ( C ) ( 0.1013 ( JJ ) 306 / 421 ( u ) Ô 412 / 421 Ô 0.7427 ( u ) 412 / 421 ) ( 45 / 421 ( | ) Ô Ô Ô 0. a) à c àc à à c à b) à c 2-106. à Ô à à à | à | Ô Ô 2-108. 2 average. 2 Let denote the event that a product exhibits surface roughness.028 2-18 .8857 ( ) 35 / 421 b) ( c) JJ ) The late larvae stage has the lowest probability of survival to the pre-pupae stage.05)(0. Let F denote the event that a connector fails and let W denote the event that a connector is wet.60) + (0. 30) 0.01)(0. 023 2-109. P( ) P( |N)P(N) + P( |A)P(A) + P( |W)P(W) (0. and W denote the events that the blades are new.15) 0.25) + (0. 02 )( 0.9786 ( u ) 306 / 421 ( | u ) Ô Ô Ô 0.

c .

87 x (0.20 2-114. 3 3 3 3 (B) (A) (B|A) + (A¶) (B|A¶) 0.12)(0.078 2-112.13 x 0.38 x 0.62 x 0. respectively.0949 b) 0. 2-110.27+0.52) 0.730.0. Let A and B denote the event that the first and second part selected has excessive shrinkage. a) (0. ! Y. respectively.2376 b) (0.88)(0.20 b) Let C denote the event that the third part selected has excessive shrinkage.2 b) Let C denote the event that the third chip selected is defective. a) (B) (B|A) (A) + (B|A') (A') (19/99)(20/100) + (20/99)(80/100) 0. ( 6) ( 6 a) ( a ) (6 a ' ) ( a' ) (6 ' a) ( ' a ) (6 ' a' ) ( ' a' ) 3 f 4 f 5 4 f 20 f 5 4 f 5 f 20 5 f 19 f 20 23 24 25 23 24 25 23 24 25 23 24 25 0.13+0.00705 2-115.53+0.5114 2-111. 4 4 4 5 5 5 a) (B) ( c ) (A) + ( c ') (A') (4/24)(5/25) + (5/24)(20/25) 0.27) 0. July 2. ( a 8) ( 8 a) ( a) ( 8 a) ( a ) ( ) 18 f 19 f 20 98 99 100 0. 2010 Let A denote the event that a respondent is a college graduate and let B denote the event that an individual votes for 3Bush.17)0.3828 2-113. Let7 A and7B denote that 7 the events 7 7 the first and second chips selected are defective.5 0. a)4 0.

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2745 : : : : b) (A Î B) (A) + (B) ± (A B) 0. 9 9 (A) 112/204 0. For open surgery. (B) 92/204 0.2745 0.7255 d) (A) (A | B) (B) + (A | B¶) (B¶) (56/92) (92/204) + (56/112)(112/204) 112/204 0.5490.2745 0. but also the probability of the groups. the dominant group (large stone) has a smaller success rate while for N.7255 : : c) :(A| Î : B|) : 1 ± (A : B) :1 ± 0. 2-116.5490 + 0. the dominant group (small stone) has a larger success rate.5490 2-19 .Y Y Ñ Y Ñ Y The overall success rate depends on the success rates for each stone size group. t is the weighted success rate weighted 9 average of the group 9 9 by the group9size as follows 9 (overall success) (success| large stone) (large stone)) + (success| small9stone) (small stone).4510 ± 0.4510 9 : : a) (A B) (A | B) (B) (56/92)(92/204) 0.

c .

1945 f 270 3 0.8031. 2-123.8031 + 0.7 ? Therefore.0109 0.0643 b) f 953 3 2-119. A' and B are independent events. ? @ (A') 1 ± (A) 0. 2-125.0792 0. (B) (170 + 2 + 443 + 14 + 29 + 60 + 46 + 3)/8493 0.9208 = = = = = d) (A) (A | B) (B) + (A | B¶) (B¶) (673/767)(767/8493) + (6148/7726)(7726/8493) 0. = = (A) (1685 + 3733 + 1403)/8493 0. .0903 = = = a) (A B) (B | A) (A) (673/6821)(6821/8493) 0. @ A A 2-124. Therefore. 2-118. July 2.0792 = = = = b) (A Î B) (A) + (B) ± (A B) 0. ? Because (A | B) ? ü ? (A).04. 2-117. a) (. f A and B are mutually exclusive.9891 d) (A) (A | B) (B) + (A | B¶) (B¶) (242/953)(953/22252) + (4087/21299)(21299/22252) 0. (B) 953/22252 0.0489 Ô f 767 2 f170 f 2 f 443 f14 f 29 f 60 f 46 f 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 b) 0.0428 ± 0.0109 0. then ( c ) 0 and (A) (B) 0.1945.3934 f 767 2 2-121.0226 a) f 953 3 f195 f 270 f 246 f 242 3 3 3 3 0. < < a) (A B) (A | B) (B) (242/953)(953/22252) 0.0109 < < < < b) (A Î B) (A) + (B) ± (A B) 0. 2010 .2264 < < c) <(A| Î < B|) < 1 ± (A < B) <1 ± 0.7 and ( c ) 1 ± (A | B) 0.8031 a) f170 2 Ô 0.0792 0. the events are not independent.8142 = = c) (A| Î B|) 1 ± (A B) 1 ± 0.1945 + 0. > ?> Section 2-6 2-122. (A) 4329/22252 0.0903 ± 0. 2-120. A and B are not independent.0428 .

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2-20 . (B) 77/100. (A) 86/100. so A and B are not independent. are independent. ? > (F) 4/5.2 B C C ( c ) 70/100. C D D Then. 2-126. Therefore. Then ( ) 1/4. ? Let denote red color and F denote that the font size is not the smallest. ( ŀ F) ( ) (F) (1/4)(4/5) 0. ?>? Because the Web sites are generated randomly these events are independent. ( c ) ü (A) (B).

c .

(A) 30/100.59 0. 2 (c) The probability that the average volume at equivalence from the technician is 100 mL is 9(0. 2 So the probability that both technicians obtain equivalence at 100 mL is 0. P ( c Ô àë c àë c àë c Ô ë Ô c I I 1 2 I .1 0. G G G b) (B|A) (A B)/ (A) (22/100)/(30/100) 0. therefore.49 . 2010 F F G G 2-127. (B) 77/100.002 2-129.733 2-128. The probability is 10 x (0.4096 (b) Ô 1 0. (a) Ô (0.328. a) à Ñ not event that Ô à à àÑ à à by independence. Therefore. the answer is 5(0. There are 3 ways to obtain four consecutive samples showing the signs of the infestation: GG. 10 ) Ô P( I 1 )P( I 2 ). P ( c 10 ) 1 Ô ( ) 10 Ô 0. c) Let B denote the H event that H no sample contains H high levels of contamination. the answer is Ô b) c ! ! c ! c ! c ! c ! The requested probability is the probability of the union c ! c c c c and these events are mutually exclusive. Ô (0.64 J (a) J (c) robability defeats all four in a game 0.7. 2-130. 000976 2 c) The probability of the following sequence is àë c c c Ñ c c c c c c c Ô ë .01 .003072 (b) There are 10 ways to obtain three out of four consecutive samples showing the signs of infestation. the probability is 3 x (0. Also.001) 2 Ô 10 6 (b) Ô 1 (0. (a) The probability that one technician obtains equivalence at 100 mL is 0. The number of ! f ! sequences consisting of five "1"'s. GG.1 ) 0.4096)3 0. . . (B') 1 . So the probability that both technicians obtain equivalence between 98 and 104 mL is 2-21 .7942 2-133. E F July 2.8 2 ) Ô 0.8 x 0. a) ( c ) 22/100.84 0. Let Hi denote the the Êth sample contains high levels of contamination. a) By independence àë c b) By independence. From part (a). The answer is 2-131. GG.2 3 * 0.04096 2-132. (b) The probability that one technician obtains equivalence between 98 and 104 mL is 0. Therefore. robability defeats all four at least once 1 ± (1 ± 0.2 4 0.7 2 0.8) 4 Ô 0.(B).4096. 0.2 0. Let c denote the event that the ith bit is a one.999) 2 Ô 0.0656) 0. à Ô . by independence. The requested probability is (B') 1 ..09 .0..1.8 3 ) Ô 0. Also. Therefore. t is useful to work one of these exercises with care to illustrate the laws of probability.2 Ô 0. by independence à c ! . A and B are independent. and five "0"'s is Ô Ô . Then ( c ) ü (A) (B). (a) Let and G denote an infested and good sample.41.

c .

0903) 0. Because the B's are mutually exclusive.8. Let A denote the event that a sample is produced in cavity one of the mold.2 M M M Because (A)* (B) (0. M M M (A) (3*5*3*5)/(4*3*5*3*5) 0. the answer is Ô c Ô . (A B) (170+443+60)/8493 0. K K (A) (0. (a) 2-135.1)] 0.2) 0.8031)(0.1945.504 K (B) (0. (A B) 56/204 0.4 x 0. 2010 L L (A) 112/204 0. (B) (4*3*4*3*5)/(4*3*5*3*5) 0. Then.25 x ( ) Ô 0.8574) 0.25)(0. à c c c Ñ c which four out of five samples are from cavity one is 5. (B) 953/22252 0.7) 0.. the answer is Ô .95)(0.1)(0. the probability that the circuit operates (AÎB) (A) + (B) (A B) 0. (A B) (3*4*3*5) /(4*3*5*3*5) 0. L 2-139.4 x 0. A and B are not independent. 10 6 Ô 10 10 16 10 1 Ô 0. 2-22 metropolitan areas . Let F denote a fraudulent user and let T denote a user that originates calls from two or more in a day. 0.5490.8 0.2)(0. (B) 92/204 0.9293 2-137.1)(0. à c c c Ñ c b) Let Bi be the event that all five samples are produced in cavity i.28 0. (A B) 242/22252 0.5490)(0.89 0.0109 (A B).0083 0.8) 0. (a ) N ( a ) ( a ) ( ) ( N O ) (B) ( c ) ( a)(a) ( ) P c ) (A). A and B are independent. Let B denote the lower devices function.25. à Ô . (B) (170+2+443+14+29+60+46+3)/8493 0. Therefore. B). A and B are not independent.2 x 0.95)(0.0428. (b) 2-136.4510) 0. July 2.05)][1 ± (0.95) 0.2 (A B).0109 M M M Because (A)* (B) (0. Let A denote the upper devices function. A and B are not independent.5 ( ( a)(a) a)(a) ( Q Q a )(a ) 0.9)(0. c Ô Ô Ñ a) By independence.2745 (A B). M 2-140.0428) 0. [1 ± (0.0725 0.05)][1 ± (0. Section 2-7 2-142. à Î ÎÎ Ô à à à From part a.8 0.9702 2-138.504)(0.7(0.2 2-144.4510. The number of sequences in c) By independence.8574 (A B) (0.2476 0. M M (A) 4329/22252 0. Therefore.8031. M Because.0792 M M M Because (A)* (B) (0. M M M (A) (1685+3733+1403)/8493 0. ( c ( a ) 2-143.8)(0.1945)(0.020833 12 Ô 2-134.4321 K K K K Therefore.2745 M M M Because (A) (B) (0.0903.0792 (A 2-141.

c .

60 ( 0. 40 ) 0.9999 2-149.9995(0. M.31)(0. Let H. 25) Ô 0.01(. 10 ( 0. Let A denote the event that a respondent is a college graduate and let B denote the event that a voter votes for Bush. ( ) ( ) ( ) Ô 2-145.5) U 2-147. and denote products that were high.991)/(1-.97638 2-146.003 0. 40) Ô 0. Let G denote a product that received a good review.9847 b) (C|S) (S|C)(C)/(S) ( 0. Y a) (D)(D|G)(G)+(D|G¶)(G¶)(.0001) 0. Let A denote the event that a reaction final temperature is 271 K or less Let B denote the event that the heat absorbed is above target ( ( | .992)+(0.978)+(0.38)(0. O organic pollutants. 1 0.207552 0.08)(0. 618 W 0.60) + 0.0001) Ô 0.13)/0.13) 0. 35) 0.009)0.005)(.997(0. 05( 0.27) + 0. ( ) ( ) ( ' ) ( ' ) Ô July 2. 95( 0.97638 (0.3821% ( a) ( ) ( a T ) ( S) ( a T S) (0. a) V (G ) Ô V V V V V V V V (G H ) ( H) ( G M ) ( M) ( G ) ( ) Ô 0.13)(0. respectively. 615 W W (G H) (H) W 0. moderate. ( a) ( ) ( a T ) (0. V volatile solvents.965)+(0.30(0. 2010 0.27)(0.. Denote as follows: S signal. 40) ( H G) Ô Ô Ô 0.38)(0.959) 0.53) (0. 615 (G) W X W c) W ( H G X ) Ô ( G H )X ( H ) Ô 0.1184 2-150.013865 b) (G|D¶)(G D¶)/(D¶)(D¶|G)(G)/(D¶)(.981)+(0.897)(0.30(0.9999) R (a) (0. C chlorinated compounds a) (S) (S|O)(O)+(S|V)(V)+(S|C)(C) 0.9847 0.995)(.013865)0.62)( 0. 052 W b) Using the result from part a. 95( 0.965) (b) Ô Ô 0.53) ( T a) 39.897(0.21)(0.99)(.991)+(. and poor performers. 615 (G ) 2-148.21)(0.

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5490 )(0.5) (0.5490 )( 0.6087 (0.3913) Let L denote the event that a person is LWBS Let A denote the event that a person visits Hospital 1 Let B denote the event that a person visits Hospital 2 Let C denote the event that a person visits Hospital 3 Let D denote the event that a person visits Hospital 4 ( ¿ | ) Ô Ô ( | ¿) ( ¿ ) ( | ) ( ) ( | .4510 )( 0.5) Ô 0 . | ) (0.

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Let A denote the event that a well is failed Let B denote the event that a well is in Gneiss Let C denote the event that a well is in Granite Let D denote the event that a well is in Loch raven schist Let E denote the event that a well is in Mafic 2-23 .0559)(0.2540 2-152.0436 )(0.2378) ( 0.0368)(0.) ( | × ) (× ) ( | ¿ ) ( ¿ ) (0.1945) (0.2535) (0.3142 ) (0.0559)(0.1945) Ô 0.0386)(0.

c .

2216 2-153. G green ( . Denote as follows: A affiliate site. July 2. 2010 Let F denote the event that a well is in Marble Let G denote the event that a well is in rettyboy schist Let H denote the event that a well is in Other schist Let denote the event that a well is in Serpentine (a [ ) ( ( [ a) ( a) \ \ \ [ a ) ( a ) ( [ ]) ( ]) ( [ ) ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ( [ î ) ( î ) f 170 f 1685 1685 8493 f 170 f 1685 f 2 f 28 f 443 f 3733 f 14 f 363 f 29 f 309 f 60 f 1403 f 46 f 933 f 3 f 39 1685 8493 28 8493 3733 8493 363 8493 309 8493 1403 8493 933 8493 39 8493 0. S search site. B blue.

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and g Supplemental Exercises 2-155. | ) ( ) Ô (0. f.01(0.3) Ô 0. ||V. ||V. d.4)(0. i. Continuous: a.18 2-24 .014 2-156. V|| . VV| a) 2-157.40) 0. e. B excellent length a) (A) 82/100 0.8)(0. (B) (B|L)(L) + (B|L')(L') 0.60) + 0.5 Section 2-8 2-154. |VV b) c) a ½||| . c. |V| .7) (0. |V| . V||. V|V. ||V.90 c) (A') 1 ± 0. Discrete: b. V|V a ½||| . VV|. Let A excellent surface finish. Let "d" denote a defective calculator and let "a" denote an acceptable calculator a ½|||.02(0.4)(0. Let B denote the event that a glass breaks. VVV ½||| . ||V. V|V.82 0. h. ||V d) e) a ^ ½||| .82 b) (B) 90/100 0. |V| . Let L denote the event that large packaging is used. |VV.7) ( 0. V||.

c .

135 d) ( c ) 1 ± (A¶ and B¶) f 25 f 24 1 0.0225 b) (| )( ) (0.05 e) ( c ) ( c )(A) (0.046 f) (A B C¶) (15/40)(14/39)(25/39) 0.03) 0.638 (d) f samples selected were replaced prior to the next selection.615 40 39 A first is local.97) 0.002)100 ]10 Ô 0. then ( c Î Î ) (A) + (B) + (C) 0. a) (A) 15/40 b) ( c ) 14/39 b) 5/13 c) ( c ) (A) (B/A) (15/40) (14/39) 0.012 f) ( c ') ( c )(A) (0. Let C denote the event that the incoming call is a complaint.089 2-163. Let _ denote the event that the incoming call is a request to purchase more products.125 2-165. a) (A) 0. (B) 90/100.98 a) (207+350+357-201-204-345+200)/370 0.989 c) (200+163)/370 363/370 0. a) (U|C)(C) _ _ (0.2 (b) (the second is not ionized given the first one was ionized) 20/990.40)(0.002 0. Therefore. which greater than 1. (a) 1 (1 0.018 g) (B) ( 2-164. 2-158.50)(0.9838 b) 366/370 0.984 2-159. (A).002)100 0.86494 ( c ) 80/100. 2010 . (the second is not ionized given the first one was ionized) 20/1000. (a) (the first one selected is not ionized)20/1000.40 d) (B|A') 0.97 c) (B|A) 0.40)(0. ( c ) ü (A)(B). c )(A) + ( c ')(A') (0. Then.18143 (b) (c) 2-166. C third is local e) (A B C) (15/40)(14/39)(13/38) 0. 2-160.981 d) (201+163)/370 364/370 0.80 e) (AÎB) 0.B. Let U denote the event that the user has improperly followed installation instructions.03) 0. a) 345/357 2-161.03) 0.05)(0.998 2 )0.3 + 0. (A) 82/100.2.60)(0. 2-162.5 1. 2-25 July 2.03) + (0.75)(0.005976 Ô 1 [(1 0.2.03 b) (A') 0.and (C) cannot equal the given values. f A. d) (A B) 80/100 0.0605 × 31 (0.4 + 0.202 (c) (both are ionized) (the first one selected is ionized) x (the second is ionized given the first one was ionized) (80/100) x (79/99)0. so A and B are not independent. B second is local. Let denote the event that the incoming call is a request for information. (B).C are mutually exclusive.25) 0.92 f) (A¶ÎB) 0. The event of the first selection and the event of the second selection are independent.

c .

2375 e) ( c ')(B') 0. h) ( .95(0.995(0.25)0. 000008. 2010 Let Ai denote the event that the ith readback is successful.2375 0.25) + 0.95(0.98375.98375 g) 0.995(0.95 c) ( c ') 0.74625 0.0125 0.95(0. 2-168.25 b) ( c ) 0.95(0. ( A 1' A '2 A '3 ) Ô ( A 1' ) ( A '2 ) ( A '3 ) Ô ( 0.75) 0. July 2.25) 0.75)0.005(0.75) 0.75)0. 2-167.25) + 0.995(0.995 d) ( c ) ( c )(B) 0.75) 0.00375 a) (B) 0.995(0.74625 ') ( c f) (A) ( c ) + ( c ') 0. By independence. main-storage backup life > 5 yrs life > 5 yrs life < 5 yrs life < 5 yrs 0.05(0.25)0. 02 ) 3 Ô 0.

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a) 0. Let c denote the event that the Êth order is shipped on time. a) 20/200 2-173.19 b) (A B) 15/100 0.80 e) (A|B) (A B)/(B) 0. 2-172.15 c) (A Î B) (19 + 95 ± 15)/100 0. ( 1 c) 65/200 2 3 ) Ô ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) Ô (0. Ô 93 2-170. b) 135/200 a) By independence. Let Di denote the event that the primary failure mode is type i and let A denote the event that a board passes the test. a) (A) 19/100 0. The sample space is S ½c c c c Ñ c c .95) 3 Ô 0.99 d) (A| B) 80/100 0.25 b) 0.75 2-171.158 2-174.857 b) Let 2-26 .

c .

2-176. a) No.(E1| E3|) . à ! à ! à à à 2-175.(E2| E3|) . E1| E2| is not A c) (E1| Î E2| Î E3|) (E1|) + (E2|) + (E3|) ± (E1| + (E1| E2| E3|) 40/240 d) (E1 E2 E3) 200/240 e) (E1 Î E3) (E1) + (E3) ± (E1 E3) 234/240 f) (E1 Î E2 Î E3) 1 ± (E1| E2| E3|) 1 . 2010 Then. Ô c c cÑ Ô c c cÑ Ñ Ô c c c Ñ July 2. à ! à ! à à ! c) Let B1 A 1' A '2 A3 A 1' A2 A '3 B3 A 1 A 2' A '3 B4 A 1' A '2 A '3 B2 Because the B's are mutually exclusive.7)(0.20)(0. because the B's are mutually exclusive.69 2-27 E2|) .30) +(0. (E1 E2 E3) ü 0 b) No.0 1 a) (0.9) 0.

c .

947. Let D denote the event that a container is incorrectly filled and let H denote the event that a container is filled under high-speed operation.9) 0.282 17 18 19 20 b) Let B denote the event that at least one of the selected bolts are not properly torqued. f ! f ! f ! f ! (B) 1 .0037 2-182. (A1) 0. (A)(73/75)(72/74)0. Then. a) (E¶ T¶ D¶) (0. Then. Let F denote the event that the tool fails. July 2.3)(0. 2-177.0956 2-185.30) + 0. Then.9+0. b)Y (D 2) 2-184.8108 0.9855 2-181.92. D defective copy f 2 f 73 f 72 f 73 f 2 f 72 f 73 f 72 f 2 a)Y (D 1) 0.95 .0. Then.99)(0. B' is the event that all bolts are properly torqued.995)(0.9) 0. 9910 0.99 and ( c ) (A) (B) (0.0037 b) ( ¿) Ô (¿ ) ( ) (¿) Ô 0. (ossess) 0. second portion of the circuit operates.998) (0.985) + (0.0.99) +(0.98)(0.988 2-179.95(0.92(0. a) (D) ( ¿ )(H) + ( D H ')(H') 0.99)(0. Then. Let A.9-(0.01(0.00108 75 74 73 75 74 73 75 74 73 c)Y Let A represent the event that the two items NOT inspected are not defective. Thus.B denote the event that the first. (A2) 0.92 + 0.95.9(0.90) 0.01(0.99)(0.99) 0.(B') ! ! ! ! ! 2-178.997) 0. a) (0.984 b) (E Î D) (E) + (D) ± (E D) 0. 9910 by independence and (F) 1 . The tool fails if any component fails. 2010 Let Ai denote the event that the Êth bolt selected is not torqued to the proper limit.001(0.(A1 A2) 0.998 (B) 0. A1 by telephone. ( 1 2 3 4 ) Ô ( 4 1 2 3 ) ( 1 Ô ( 4 1 2 3 ) ( 3 1 3 ) 2 2 ) ( 2 1 ) ( 1 ) f 12 f 13 f 14 f 15 Ô Ô 0.9)(0.70) 0. (F') 0.99)+0.05)(0.999) 0.99)(0.95) 0.30) Ô 0. By independence (A1 Î A2) (A1) + (A2) . a) Then.99)(0.0778 75 74 73 75 74 73 75 74 73 f 2 f 1 f 73 f 2 f 73 f 1 f 73 f 2 f 1 Ô 0. A2 website.9764 b) ( .996 2-180. (A) (0.005995 2-183.7)(0.

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30) Ô 0.9764 2-28 .02485 (0.1) (u ) Ô 0.3159 1 0.

c .

a) f n washers are selected. the probability of 3 of the events is ( 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 2 1 1 2 3 4 3 4 5 5 ) 10(0. a) f 30 f 29 f 28 0.0267 2-187.207 50 49 48 b) 30/48 0.155 3 (20/50)(19/49)(18/48) 0.85 2 ) 0.0244 0.625 c) The requested probability can be written in terms of whether or not the first and second washer selected are thicker than the target. the answer is n 3 b) Then event E that one or more washers is thicker than target is the complement of the event that all are less than target. ! n probability all selected washers are less than target 1 20/50 0. 2010 a) By independence. f 30 f 29 f 28 f 30 f 20 f 29 f 20 f 30 f 29 f 20 f 19 f 30 0. Therefore. July 2.058 Therefore.000000215 c) As in part b. the answer is 0. (E) equals one minus the probability in part a. 2-29 .15 4 )(0. then the probability they are all less than the target is ! ! . Using independence. add answer parts a) and b) to the above to obtain the requested probability.851 ) Ô 0. Therefore.60 50 49 48 50 49 48 50 49 48 50 49 48 2-188. Therefore. ! x ! b) Let c denote the events that the machine is idle at the time of your ith request.0022 + 0. That is.4 2 (20/50)(19/49) 0. n 3.0244 For the probability of at least 3. Let c denote the event that the ith washer selected is thicker than target. 2-186.15 3 )(0.0000759 + 0. the requested probability is ( 1 2 3 4 5' 1 2 3 4' 5 1 2 3' 4 5 1 2' 3 4 5 1' 2 3 4 5 ) Ô 5(0.

c .

0690.931 2-195. Then.262 940 514 68 246 ( a ) 0.2)(0. 10 ) Ô 0.3)(0. Number of positions among the six letters to place the one number 7.58 x 107 2-192. 00285 Let c denote the event that the Êth row operates.67336 (b) (1-0. 98. 9801.1) 0. P ( 2 ) ( 0.93)(0.97)(0. 2010 2-189.4)(0. 99) 0. 99 )( 0. 687 ( A) 358 / 940 Let E denote a read error and let S. Number of ways to select one number 10. off-center. (a) 367 (b) Number of permutations of six letters is 266. Then. (a) (0. P ( 3 ) 0.10) + 0. 01( 0.001(0. denote skewed.0199)(0.453 940 246 ( a) 0. Ô 0.93)(1-0. and proper alignments. July 2. 112 68 246 0.85) 0.99973 2-194. e) f) 2-190.646 x 10-8 (c) 1-(1-0.15 b) (4 or more | provided info) (0.90)0.05) + 0.00285 b) (S|E) ( E S) (S) ( E) 2-191.1) +(0.15 0. 9801. (a) (24/36)(23/35)(22/34)(21/33)(20/32)(19/31)0.4)(0.087 1000 25 7 ( .267 2-193. 351 0.069 (b) 1-0.91)(1-0. Number of passwords 266 × 10 × 7 (c) 265102 2-196.90)(1-0.98)(0.2) + (0. a) (0.1)/0.91)(0. (0. (a) (b) (c) (d) 5 25 30 7 20 Ô 0.97)(1-0. 98.4)(0. a) (E) (E|S) (S) + (E|O) (O) + (E|) () 0.0199)(0.1) + (0.O. P ( 1 ) 0.881 940 514 ( a ) 0.97)(1-0. P ( The probability the circuit does not operate is ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) 4) 0.02) 1.01(0.02(0. V) ) ) |) .547 940 ( a) ( c ) à c Ô Ô Ñ Ñ à ( c ) ( B A ) 246 / 940 Ô Ô 0.93)0.90)(0.93)2.98)(1-0.91)(1-0.02)(0. respectively.

) Ô Ô 0.032 1000 800 ( Î .

20 1000 63 35 15 ( ' .) Ô 1 Ô 0.

113 1000 ( ) Ô 2-30 .) Ô Ô 0.

c .

2-197. (e) ( | .

2010 ( .) Ô (f) Ô July 2.

032 Ô Ô 0.2207 ( .) 0.

4 by independence.636734694 0. Mind-Expanding Exercises 2-198.994 For supplier 2: (A) 1990/2000 0.9975 (d) The unusual result is that for both a simple component and for a complex assembly.644897959 25 0.005 1000 (a) Let A denote that a part conforms to specifications and let B denote a simple component. that is.888979592 34 0.755102041 30 0. The following results are obtained: 0. ( 1) 1 ± ( 0) and ( ` 0) 2 0 48 50 Trials for result in the following results ( 0) 1 ± ( 0) 5 0. supplier 1 has a greater probability that a part conforms to specifications.902040816 Therefore 34. supplier 1 has a lower probability of conformance overall.16 3 0. a) The probability that none are thicker. a) Let denote the number of documents in error in the sample and let denote the sample size. However.4 2 0.363265306 15 0. all are less than the target is 0.111020408 0.064 Therefore.99 For supplier 2: (A|B¶) 394/400 0.808163265 0. The overall conforming probability depends on both the conforming probability of each part type and also the probability of each part type. For supplier 1: (A) 1988/2000 0. 3 2-31 .844897959 33 0.355102041 0.485714286 0. Therefore.191836735 10 0. Supplier 1 produces more of the complex parts so that overall conformance from supplier 1 is lower.514285714 20 0. b) A large proportion of the set of documents needs to be inspected in order for the probability of a document in error to be detected to exceed 0. Let denote the number of washers selected. 3 b) The requested probability is the complement of the probability requested in part a).244897959 0.) (25 63 15 7 35) / 1000 5 Ô 0.9.985 (c) For supplier 1: (A|B) 998/1000 0.097959184 0.995 (b) For supplier 1: (A|B¶) 990/1000 0. 2-199.4 1 0.155102041 0.998 For supplier 2: (A|B) 1596/1600 0.

c .

a evenue at each demand 50 100 200 100x 100x 100x 0 . Let x denote the number of kits produced. 2-200.

D .

50 Mean profit 100x(0.95)-5x(0.05)-20x -5x 100(50)-5(x-50) 100x 100x 50 .

D .

55)-5x(0. 100 Mean profit [100(50)-5(x-50)](0.05)-20x -5x 100(50)-5(x-50) 100(100)-5(x-100) 100x 100 .4) + 100x(0.

D .

50 at x50 32.3) + 100x(0.25 x + 5250 $ 5500 at x200 Therefore.75 x + 2100 $ 5375 at x100 1. 200 Mean profit [100(50)-5(x-50)](0.05) .20x 0 -5x Mean rofit Maximum rofit 74. profit is maximized at 200 kits.25) .4) + [100(100)-5(x-100)](0. the difference in profit over 100 kits is small. However.5x(0. 0 .75 x $ 3737.

D .

50 50 .

D .

100 100 .

D .

0025. Let E denote the event that none of the bolts are identified as incorrectly torqued. The requested probability is (E').2817.054 6. Then.0025(0.2817) 0.4696) 0. The remaining probability for X can be determined from the counting methods. (E | X 0) 1.25 x 10 4 ( 0.0309 Ô f 20! 4!16! ( Ô 1) Ô ( Ô 2) Ô ( Ô 3) Ô 5 1 15 3 20 4 5 2 5 3 15 2 20 4 15 1 20 4 (X 4) (5/20)(4/19)(3/18)(2/17) 0. 200 2-201.0010. ( u ) Ô 1( 0. (E|X3) 0.306 and (E') 0.25x10-6. Then f 5! f 15! 4!1! 3!12! 5!15!4!16! Ô Ô Ô 0. Let X denote the number of bolts in the sample that are incorrect. Then.0010) Ô 0.0309) 6. (E) (E|X0)(X0) + (E|X1) (X1) + (E|X2) (X2) + (E|X3) (X3) + (E|X4)(X4) and (X0) (15/20)(14/19)(13/18)(12/17) 0. ( ' .4696 f 20! 4!3!12!20! 4!16! f 5! f 15! 3!2! 2!13! Ô 0.053 1.2167 Ô f 20! 4!16! f 5! f 15! 3!2! 1!14! Ô 0.05(0.2167) 1. (E | X4) 0. (E | X 1) 0.25 x 10 6 (0.25x10-4.694 2-202. (E | X 2) 0.05.052 0.

' ) Ô 1 ([ ' .

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) Ô 1 [ ( ) ( .

) ( .

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) ( ) ( .

) Ô [1 ( )][1 ( .

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2010 . ' ) 2-32 July 2.

c .

The total sample size is V + V + + (V ) ( ) Ô ( 1)V ( 1) . 2-203. (.

Therefore V V ( 1)V ( 1) V ( . 2010 ( + 1)V + ( +1) .) Ô July 2.

) Ô V V Ô ( 1)V ( 1) ( 1)( V ) .

. ( ) ( .

) Ô (V )( V V ) (V )( 1)V V Ô Ô ( Ô [( 1)V ( 1) ]2 ( 1) 2 (V ) 2 ( 1)( V ) 2-33 .

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