.Net Interview Questions • Diversities





Diversities between Classic ASP and ASP.Net? Answer:  ASP is Interpreted language based on scripting languages like Jscript or VBScript.  ASP has Mixed HTML and coding logic.  Limited development and debugging tools available.  Limited OOPS support.  Limited session and application state management.  Poor Error handling system.  No in-built support for XML.  No fully distributed data source support. while  ASP.Net is supported by compiler and has compiled language support.  Separate code and design logic possible.  Variety of compilers and tools available including the Visual studio.Net.  Completely Object Oriented.  Complete session and application state management.  Full proof error handling possible.  Full XML Support for easy data exchange.  Fully distributed data source support. What’s the Diversities between Response.Write () and Response.Output.Write ()? Answer: Response.Outout.Write allows us to write the formatted out put. Can you explain the Diversities between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset? Answer:  A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views, A Recordset can not.  A DataSet is designed to work without any continues connection to the original data source; Recordset maintains continues connection with the original data source.  There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet, They are bulk loaded, while Recordset work with cursors and they are loaded on demand.  DataSets have no current record pointer, you can use For Each loops to move through the data. Recordsets have pointers to move through them.  You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation. Recordset can have a single edit at a time.  Dataset can fetch source data from many tables at a time, for Recordset you can achieve the same only using the SQL joins. What is the Diversities between an abstract method & virtual method? Answer: An Abstract method does not provide an implementation and forces overriding to the deriving class (unless the deriving class also

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.Net Interview Questions
an abstract class), where as the virtual method has an implementation and leaves an option to override it in the deriving class. Thus Virtual method has an implementation & provides the derived class with the option of overriding it. Abstract method does not provide an implementation & forces the derived class to override the method. 5. What is the Diversities between static or dynamic assemblies? Answer: Assemblies can be static or dynamic. Static assemblies can include .NET Framework types (interfaces and classes), as well as resources for the assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so on). Static assemblies are stored on disk in portable executable (PE) files. You can also use the .NET Framework to create dynamic assemblies, which are run directly from memory and are not saved to disk before execution. You can save dynamic assemblies to disk after they have executed. 6. What are the Diversities between Structure and Class? Answer:  Structures are value type and Classes are reference type.  Structures can not have contractors or destructors. Classes can have both contractors and destructors.  Structures do not support Inheritance, while Classes support Inheritance. 7. What are the Diversities between const and readonly? Answer:  A const can not be static, while readonly can be static.  A const need to be declared and initialized at declaration only, while a readonly can be initialized at declaration or by the code in the constructor.  A const’s value is evaluated at design time, while a readonly’s value is evaluated at runtime. 8. Diversitiess between dataset.clone and dataset.copy Answer: dataset.clone copies just the structure of dataset (including all the datatables, schemas, relations and constraints.); however it doesn’t copy the data. On the other hand dataset.copy, copies both the dataset structure and the data. 9. Describe the Diversities between inline and code behind. Answer: Inline code written along with the html and design blocks in an .aspx page. Code-behind is code written in a separate file (.cs or .vb) and referenced by the .aspx page. 10. What is Diversities between Namespace and Assembly? Answer: Namespace is a logical design-time naming convenience, whereas an assembly establishes the name scope for types at run time. 11. What is the Diversities between early binding and late binding? Answer: Calling a non-virtual method, decided at a compile time is known as early binding. Calling a virtual method (Pure Polymorphism), decided at a runtime is known as late binding. 12. What is the Diversities between Custom Control and User Control? Answer: Custom Controls are compiled code (Dlls), easier to use, difficult to create, and can be placed in toolbox. Drag and Drop controls. Attributes can be set visually at design time. Can be used by Multiple

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.Net Interview Questions
Applications (If Shared Dlls), Even if Private can copy to bin directory of web application add reference and use. Normally designed to provide common functionality independent of consuming Application. User Controls are similar to those of ASP include files, easy to create, can not be placed in the toolbox and dragged - dropped from it. A User Control is shared among the single application files. 13. What is the Diversities between ASP Session State and ASP.Net Session State? Answer: ASP session state relies on cookies, Serialize all requests from a client, does not survive process shutdown, Can not maintained across machines in a Web farm. 14. Diversities between ASP Session and ASP.NET Session? Answer: Asp.net session supports cookie less session & it can span across multiple servers. 15. Can you explain the Diversities between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset? (Repeated but more explanatory) Answer: In ADO, the in-memory representation of data is the recordset. In ADO.NET, it is the dataset. There are important Diversitiess between them. o A recordset looks like a single table. If a recordset is to contain data from multiple database tables, it must use a JOIN query, which assembles the data from the various database tables into a single result table. In contrast, a dataset is a collection of one or more tables. The tables within a dataset are called data tables; specifically, they are DataTable objects. If a dataset contains data from multiple database tables, it will typically contain multiple DataTable objects. That is, each DataTable object typically corresponds to a single database table or view. In this way, a dataset can mimic the structure of the underlying database. A dataset usually also contains relationships. A relationship within a dataset is analogous to a foreign-key relationship in a database —that is, it associates rows of the tables with each other. For example, if a dataset contains a table about investors and another table about each investor’s stock purchases, it could also contain a relationship connecting each row of the investor table with the corresponding rows of the purchase table. Because the dataset can hold multiple, separate tables and maintain information about relationships between them, it can hold much richer data structures than a recordset, including self-relating tables and tables with manyto-many relationships. o In ADO you scan sequentially through the rows of the recordset using the ADO MoveNext method. In ADO.NET, rows are represented as collections, so you can loop through a table as you would through any collection, or access particular rows via ordinal or primary key index. DataRelation objects maintain information about master and detail records and provide a method that allows you to get records related to the one you are working with. For example, starting from the row of the Investor table for "Nate Sun," you can navigate to the set of rows of the Purchase table describing his purchases. A cursor is a database element that controls record navigation, the ability to update data, and the visibility of changes made to the

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database by other users. ADO.NET does not have an inherent cursor object, but instead includes data classes that provide the functionality of a traditional cursor. For example, the functionality of a forward-only, read-only cursor is available in the ADO.NET DataReader object. Minimized Open Connections: In ADO.NET you open connections only long enough to perform a database operation, such as a Select or Update. You can read rows into a dataset and then work with them without staying connected to the data source. In ADO the recordset can provide disconnected access, but ADO is designed primarily for connected access. There is one significant Diversities between disconnected processing in ADO and ADO.NET. In ADO you communicate with the database by making calls to an OLE DB provider. In ADO.NET you communicate with the database through a data adapter (an OleDbDataAdapter, SqlDataAdapter, OdbcDataAdapter, or OracleDataAdapter object), which makes calls to an OLE DB provider or the APIs provided by the underlying data source. The important Diversities is that in ADO.NET the data adapter allows you to control how the changes to the dataset are transmitted to the database — by optimizing for performance, performing data validation checks, or adding any other extra processing. Data adapters, data connections, data commands, and data readers are the components that make up a .NET Framework data provider. Microsoft and third-party providers can make available other .NET Framework data providers that can be integrated into Visual Studio. Sharing Data between Applications. Transmitting an ADO.NET dataset between applications is much easier than transmitting an ADO disconnected recordset. To transmit an ADO disconnected recordset from one component to another, you use COM marshalling. To transmit data in ADO.NET, you use a dataset, which can transmit an XML stream. Richer data types.COM marshalling provides a limited set of data types — those defined by the COM standard. Because the transmission of datasets in ADO.NET is based on an XML format, there is no restriction on data types. Thus, the components sharing the dataset can use whatever rich set of data types they would ordinarily use. Performance. Transmitting a large ADO recordset or a large ADO.NET dataset can consume network resources; as the amount of data grows, the stress placed on the network also rises. Both ADO and ADO.NET let you minimize which data is transmitted. But ADO.NET offers another performance advantage, in that ADO.NET does not require data-type conversions. ADO, which requires COM marshalling to transmit records sets among components, does require that ADO data types be converted to COM data types. Penetrating Firewalls.A firewall can interfere with two components trying to transmit disconnected ADO recordsets. Remember, firewalls are typically configured to allow HTML text






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to pass, but to prevent system-level requests (such as COM marshalling) from passing.

• Abbreviations

1. CLR = Common Language Runtime 2. CLS = Common Language Specifications 3. CTS = Common Type Specifications 4. GC = Garbage Collector. 5. WSDL = Web Services Description Language. 6. MSIL = Microsoft Intermediate Language. 7. CIL = Common Intermediate Language - MSIL. 8. JIT = Just In Time. 9. PE = Portable Executable – A file format. 10.COFF = Common Object File Format – A file format. 11.GAC = Global Assembly Cache. 12.DDL = Data Definition Language. 13.DML = Data Manipulation Language. 14.CAS = Code Access Security. 15.RCW = Runtime Callable Wrapper. 16.CCW = COM Callable Wrapper. 17.COM = Component Object Model. 18.DOM = Document Object Model. 19.DNA = Distributed interNet Applications Architecture. 20.GUID = Globally Unique Identifier. 21.MS-DTC = Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator. 22.OLTP = OnLine Transaction Processing. 23.OLAP = OnLine Analytical Processing. 24.RAD = Rapid Application Development. 25.SMTP = Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. 26.SOAP = Simple Object Access Protocol. 27.TCP = Transfer Control Protocol. 28.TLB = Type Library. 29.UDF = Uniform Data Format. 30.UDDI = Universal Description, Discovery and Integration.

• True/False
Tr A Web service can only be written in .NET? Answer: False An To test a Web service you must create a windows application or Web application to consume this service? Answer: False, the web service comes with a test page and it provides HTTP-GET method to test it. pr A wbe service is only available through http://www.uddi.org? Answer: False

• Simple Questions
Si What is IL? (What is MSIL or CIL, What is JIT?) MSIL is the CPU –independent instruction set into which .Net

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framework programs are compiled. It contains instructions for loading, storing initializing, and calling methods on objects. l o What is CLR? Answer: CLR also known as Common Language Run time provides a environment in which program are executed, it activate object, perform security check on them, lay them out in the memory, execute them and garbage collect them. ex What is CTS? Answer: The common type system is a rich type system, built into the common language runtime, which supports the types and operations found in most programming languages. op What is CLS? Answer: CLS also known as Common Language Specification defines the rules which all language must support, in order to be a part of .Net framework. The Common Language Specification is a set of constructs and constraints that serves as a guide for library writers and compiler writers. It allows libraries to be fully usable from any language supporting the CLS, and for those languages to integrate with each other. The Common Language Specification is a subset of the common type system. The Common Language Specification is also important to application developers who are writing code that will be used by other developers. w Which class does the web page belong to in ASP.Net? r Answer: System.Web.UI.Page An Which class deals wit the user’s locale information? Answer: System.Web.UI.Page.Culture An What data type does the RangeValidator control support? Answer: Integer, Date and String. An What is the Diversities between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Answer: Server.Transfer, transfers the control of a web page, posting a form data, while Response.Redirect simply redirects a page to another page, it can not post a form data to another page. Server.Transfer is more efficient over the Response.Redirect, because Response.Redirect causes a round trip to server as the page is processed once again on the client and a request is made to server there after. t o Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines? Answer: All the global declarations or the variables used commonly across the application can be deployed under Application_Start. All the user specific tasks or declarations can be dealt in the Session_Start subroutine. Ses What is ViewState? Answer: ViewState is a .Net mechanism to store the posted data among post backs. ViewState allows the state of objects to be stored in a hidden field on the page, saved on client side and transported back to server whenever required. t ra What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState? Answer: Items stored in a ViewState exist for the life of the current page, including the post backs on the same page.

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. Ne Can we disable ViewState, If, yes how? Answer: ViewState can be disabled by using "EnableViewState" property set to false. pro What’s a bubbled event? Answer: When a complex control like datalist or datagrid, which contains a child control, using an itemcommand can listen to the events raised by the child control in the main control. The process of listening to the child control in the main or parent control is called as event bubbling. cal What is an assembly? Answer: Assemblies are the building blocks of the .NET framework. They are the logical grouping of the functionality in a physical file. The What are different types of Assemblies? Answer: Single file and multi file assembly. Assemblies can be static or dynamic. Private assemblies and shared assemblies st a Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data? Answer: DataAdapter’s fill () method is used to fill load the data in dataset. dat Can you edit data in the Repeater control? Answer: No, it just reads the information from its data source. Ans Which template is to be provided in the Repeater control in order to display a data? Which template will display every other row in another color? Answer: ItemTemplate, AlternatingItemTemplate It e What are the most important property and most important method of a Repeater control? Answer: The DataSource property and DataBind () method. Ans How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain? Answer: It can contain many classes. Ans What are the advantages of an assembly? Answer: Increased performance. Better code management and encapsulation. It also introduces the n-tier concepts and business logic. l og What is the purpose of an Assembly? Answer: An assembly controls many aspects of an application. The assembly handles versioning, type and class scope, security permissions, as well as other metadata including references to other assemblies and resources. The rules described in an assembly are enforced at runtime. ass What a static assembly consist of in general? Answer: In general, a static assembly consist of the following four elements:  Assembly Manifest, which contains the assembly metadata.  Type Metadata.  MSIL code that implements the types.  A set of resources. From above all only the manifest is required, however the other types and resources add the additional functionality to the assembly. ass What is GAC or Global Assembly Cache? Answer: Global Assembly Cache (GAC) is a common place to share

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the .NET assemblies across many applications. GAC caches all strong named assembly references within it. All System assemblies that come with the .NET framework reside in the GAC. t ha How to view an assembly? Answer: We can use the tool "ildasm.exe" known as "Assembly Disassembler" to view the assembly. D s What is Authentication and Authorization? i Answer: Authentication is the process of identifying users. Authentication is identifying/validating the user against the credentials (username and password) and Authorization performs after authentication. Authorization is the process of granting access to those users based on identity. Authorization allowing access of specific resource to user. spe What are the types of Authentication? Describe. Answer: There are 3 types of Authentication. Windows, Forms and Passport Authentication.  Windows authentication uses the security features integrated into the Windows NT and Windows XP operating systems to authenticate and authorize Web application users.  Forms authentication allows you to create your own list/database of users and validate the identity of those users when they visit your Web site.  Passport authentication uses the Microsoft centralized authentication provider to identify users. Passport provides a way to for users to use a single identity across multiple Web applications. To use Passport authentication in your Web application, you must install the Passport SDK. W What are the types of comment in C#? eb Answer: There are 3 types of comments in C#. Single line (//), Multi line (/* */) and Page/XML Comments (///). Si n What is an ArrayList? Answer: The ArrayList object is a collection of items containing a single data type values. si n What is a HashTable? Answer: The Hashtable object contains items in key/value pairs. The keys are used as indexes, and very quick searches can be made for values by searching through their keys. m What is SortedList? ad Answer: The SortedList object contains items in key/value pairs. A SortedList object automatically sorts items in alphabetic or numeric order. ord What is a Literal Control? Answer: The Literal control is used to display text on a page. The text is programmable. This control does not let you apply styles to its content! i t s What is CAS or Code Access Security? Answer: CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting a hard disk.

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. Ne What is Side-by-Side Execution? Answer: The CLR allows any versions of the same-shared DLL (shared assembly) to execute at the same time, on the same system, and even in the same process. This concept is known as side-by-side execution. si d What are the different types of Caching? Answer: There are three types of Caching:  Output Caching: stores the responses from an asp.net page.  Fragment Caching: Only caches/stores the portion of page (User Control)  Data Caching: is Programmatic way to Cache objects for performance. per What are the different types of Validation Controls? Answer: There are six types of validation controls available:  RequiredFieldValidator  RangeValidator  RegularExpressionValidator  CompareValidator  CustomValidator  ValidationSummary Val How to Manage State in ASP.Net? There are several ways to manage a state.  ViewState  QueryString  Cookies  Session  Application App What base class all Web Forms inherit from? Answer: System.Web.UI.Page. Ans What method do you use to explicitly kill a user’s Session? Answer: HttpContext.Current.Session.Abandon(). Ans What are the layouts of ASP.NET Pages? Answer: GridLayout and FlowLayout. GridLayout positions the form object on absolute x and y co-ordinates of the screen. FlowLayout positions the form objects relative to each other. pos What is the Web User Control? Answer: Combines existing Server and/or HTML controls by using VS.Net to create functional units that encapsulate some aspects of UI. Resides in Content Files, which must be included in project in which the controls are used. w What is the Composite Custom Control? hi Answer: combination of existing HTML and Server Controls. Ans What are the satellite assemblies? Answer: in a multilingual or multi-cultural application, the localized assemblies, which contain language specific instructions that modify the core application, are kept separately and they are called satellite assemblies. sat What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? Answer: System.Globalization, System.Resources •

Tricky Questions

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.Net Interview Questions
1. If I’m developing an application that must accommodate multiple security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET web application is spanned across three web-servers (using round-robin load balancing) what would be the best approach to maintain loginin state for the users? Answer: You can use the security state maintained using a database. (Use Authentication mode as database) What’s the Diversities between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" and Src="MyCode.aspx.cs"? Answer: Visual Studio uses the Codebehind attribute to distinguish the page source or programming logic from the design. Also the src attribute will make the page compile on every request. That is the page will not be compiled in advance and stored in the bin as a dll instead it will be compiled at run time. Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on MouseOver over a certain button or textbox. Where do you add an event handler? Answer: Every web control has an ability to add the attributes on client side which will execute on client side and run a client side script like a javascript function. btnSubmit.Attributes.Add(“onMouseOver”,”someClientCode();”) //For on mouse over of a button TextBox1.Attributes.Add(“onFocus”,“ClearText();”) //For on focus of a text box Explain what a diffgram is and a good use for one? Answer: The DiffGram is one of the two XML formats that you can use to render DataSet object contents to XML. For reading database data to an XML file to be sent to a Web Service. Name two properties common in every validation control? Answer: ControlToValidate and Text property. What tags do you need to add within the Datagrid tags to bind columns manually? Answer: Set AutoGenerateColumns Property to false on the Datagrid tag. What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid? Answer: <asp:HyperLinkColumn></asp:HyperLinkColumn> What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service? Answer: SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the preferred protocol. Where on the Internet would you look for Web services? Answer: http://www.uddi.org Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched? Answer: CompareValidator Control What are the assembly entry points? An Assembly can have how many entry points at a time? Answer: An assembly can have only one entry point from DllMain, WinMain or Main. What does an assembly contain? Answer: • Manifest - The metadata describing the information below. • Assembly name - Aids in versioning and visibility scope.




5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.


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.Net Interview Questions
• Version information - The version number is integrated into the assembly's identity. • Types - Boundaries and scopes of methods, classes, properties, events and attributes. • Locale - Information describing language/culture. • Cryptographic Hash - Public key encoded hash acting as version/security check. • Security Permissions - The permissions within the assembly determine the permissions that can be granted for all aspects of the assembly contents. What does an assembly manifest contains? Answer: It contains assembly name, version number (major.minor.build.revision) and culture Information. It also specifies the strong name information, which is useful for shared assemblies, and list of files, an assembly contains. It also provides information for type references in an assembly and other referenced assemblies. Which tool is used to deploy an assembly, so as the assembly is available to all the application? Answer: The GacUtil.exe is the tool, which allows us to add any assembly to the windows GAC (Global Assembly Catche). How many catch statements can be associated with single try statement? Answer: There can be a zero or more catch statement for each try statement. So it has not limit to the number of catch statement per try statement. What is Console and System a Class/a Data Member/a routine/a namespace or a type? Answer: Console is a class and System is namespace. How many values can be returned from a method in C#? Answer: Only one value can be returned from method, however you can use ref or out parameters to change more than one value in called method. How to declare a variable named “this” in C#, with data type string? Answer: string @this; Can we change the dimension of Array at run time like Array [3, 4]? Answer: Yes, We can change only the first position of array dimension. What keyword is used to accept a variable number of parameter in a method? Answer: “params” keyword is used as to accept variable number of parameters. What is a Namespace? What is the use of a namespace? Answer: Namespaces are logical grouping of classes and other types in hierarchical structure. Namespaces are useful to avoid collision or ambiguity among the classes and type names. Another use of the namespace is to arrange a group of classes for a specific purpose. What does a keyword using works for? Answer: Using is just a convention or a short-cut method which allows us to access the classes in a namespace by referencing it




16. 17.

18. 19.




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.Net Interview Questions
once. So when ever we want use the classes or methods in them, we can avoid typing the entire namespace hierarchy. However it is not a good practice when there are likely chances to have name ambiguity or collision of class names. What is Enums in C#? Answer: Enums or Enumerators are used to declare a set of related constants (default start with 0); they are only available with primitive data types like int and short etc. What is Delegates? Answer: Delegates are a type-safe, object-oriented implementation of function pointers and are used in many situations where a component needs to call back to the component that is using it. Delegates are generally used as basis of events, which allow any delegate to easily be registered for as event. Which are the namespaces that are imported automatically by Visual Studio in ASP.Net? Answer: There are 7 namespaces which are imported automatically.  System  System.Collections  System.IO  System.web  System.web.UI  System.web.UI.HTMLControls  System.web.UI.WebControls Which namespaces are used for data access?  System.Data  System.Data.OleDB  System.Data.SQLClient What do you mean by boxing and un-boxing? Answer: C# provides us with Value types and Reference Types. Value Types are stored on the stack and Reference types are stored on the heap. The conversion of value type to reference type is known as boxing and converting reference type back to the value type is known as un-boxing. e.g. int x = 10; object o = x ; // Implicit boxing object o = (object) x; // Explicit Boxing x = o; // Implicit Un-Boxing x = (int)o; // Explicit Un-Boxing What are the different methods available under sqlcommand class to access the data?  ExecuteReader – Used where one or more records are returned – SELECT Query.  ExecuteNonQuery – Used where it affects a state of the table and no data is being queried - INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE and SET queries.  ExecuteScalar – Used where it returns a single record(a single value normally) – SQL Functions like MIN(), NAX()







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29. What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET? Answer: ASP.NET provides In-Process & Out-of-Process state management, Also known as "In-Proc" and "Out-Proc". In-Proc stores the session in memory of the web server, that is on the same server the ASP.Net page is. On the other hand Out-Proc session state management stores the session data on external data source, which can be a SQL Server or Server State Service. Out-of-Process state management requires the objects stored in session, must be serializable. What is Remoting? Give Example. Answer: Remoting is a means by which one operating system process, or program, can communicate with another process. The two processes can exist on the same computer or on two computers connected by a LAN or the Internet. Web services are probably the best known type of remoting, but they are not the only option. When would you use .NET Remoting and when Web services? Answer: Use remoting for more efficient exchange of information when you control both ends of the application. Use Web services for open-protocol-based information exchange when you are just a client or a server with the other end belonging to someone else. What’s a proxy of the server object in .NET Remoting? Answer: It’s a fake copy of the server object that resides on the client side and behaves as if it was the server. It handles the communication between real server object and the client object. This process is also known as marshaling. What are remotable objects in .NET Remoting? Answer: Remotable objects are the objects that can be marshaled across the application domains. You can marshal by value, where a deep copy of the object is created and then passed to the receiver. You can also marshal by reference, where just a reference to an existing object is passed. What is Marshalling? Answer: Marshaling is a process of making an object in one process (the server) available to another process (the client). There are two ways to achieve the marshalling. i. Marshal by value: the server creates a copy of the object passes the copy to the client. When a client makes a call to an object marshaled by value (MBV), the server creates an exact copy and sends that copy to the client. The client can then use the object's data and executable functionality directly within its own process or application domain without making additional calls to the server. Objects that the application accesses frequently are best remoted using MBV. ii. Marshal by reference: the client creates a proxy for the object and then uses the proxy to access the object. When a client makes a call to an object marshaled by reference (MBR), the .NET framework creates a proxy in the client's application domain and the client uses that proxy to access the original object on the server. Large objects that the application accesses relatively infrequently are good candidates for MBR.






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35. What is a Static class? What are its features? Answer: Static class is a class which can be used or accessed without creating an instance of the class. Important Features: i. Static class only contains static members and a private constructor. ii. Static class cannot be instantiated. iii. Static classes are sealed by default and therefore cannot be inherited. What is sealed class? What are its features? Answer: Sealed classes are those classes which can not be inherited and thus any sealed class member can not be derived in any other class. A sealed class cannot also be an abstract class. In C# structs are implicitly sealed; therefore, they cannot be inherited. Can we declare a method as sealed? Answer: In C# a method can't be declared as sealed. However when we override a method in a derived class, we can declare the overridden method as sealed. By declaring it as sealed, we can avoid further overriding of this method. E.g. using System; class MyClass1 { public int x; public int y; public virtual void Method() { Console.WriteLine("virtual method"); } } class MyClass : MyClass1 { public override sealed void Method() { Console.WriteLine("sealed method"); } } class MainClass { public static void Main() { MyClass1 mC = new MyClass(); mC.x = 110; mC.y = 150; Console.WriteLine("x = {0}, y = {1}", mC.x, mC.y); mC.Method(); } } What is a DataSet ? Answer: A DataSet is an in memory representation of data loaded from any data source. What is a DataTable? Answer: A DataTable is a class in .NET Framework and in simple words a DataTable object represents a table from a database. If you want to view an Assembly how to you go about it? What is ILDASM? Answer: You can use the MSIL Disassembler (Ildasm.exe) to view Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) information in a file. If the file being examined is an assembly, this information can include



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.Net Interview Questions
the assembly's attributes, as well as references to other modules and assemblies. This information can be helpful in determining whether a file is an assembly or part of an assembly, and whether the file has references to other modules or assemblies. Where is version information stored of an assembly? Answer: The version number is stored in the assembly manifest along with other identity information, including the assembly name and public key, as well as information on relationships and identities of other assemblies connected with the application. Is versioning applicable to private assemblies? Answer: No How to create a shared assembly or add an assembly to GAC? Answer: There are several ways an assembly can be added to GAC. i. Use .msi installer designed to work with the global assembly cache. ii. Use GACUtil.exe provided by the .NET Framework SDK. iii. Use Windows Explorer to drag assemblies into the cache. What is strong Name? Answer: What is reflection? Answer: All .NET compilers produce metadata about the types defined in the modules they produce. This metadata is packaged along with the module (modules in turn are packaged together in assemblies), and can be accessed by a mechanism called reflection. The System.Reflection namespace contains classes that can be used to interrogate the types for a module/assembly. How can I produce an assembly? Answer: Simply compile your class/module with the following command. C#.Net - CSC /t:library yourclassname.cs VB.Net - VBC /t:library yourmodulename.vb What is an Application Domain? How they get created? Answer: An Application Domain can be thought of as a lightweight processes controlled by the .Net runtime. Application Domains are usually created by hosts like Windows Shell, ASP.NET and IE. When you run a .NET application from the command-line, the host is the Shell. The Shell creates a new Application Domain for every application. Do I have any control over the garbage collection algorithm? Answer: Yes, we have a limited control over the GC algorithm, For example, the System.GC class exposes a Collect method - this forces the garbage collector to collect all unreferenced objects immediately. What is a life span of a static variable? Answer: A static variable’s life span is till the class is in memory. What is a Page Life Cycle of an ASP.Net page? Answer: There are various stages described as under.  Init  LoadViewState  LoadPostBackData  Load  RaisePostBackDataChangedEvent  RaisePostBackEvents


42. 43.

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 Pre-Render  SaveViewState  Render  Unload Can the action attribute of a server-side <form>tag be set to a value and if not how can you possibly pass data from a form to a subsequent Page? Answer: No, Assigning value will not work because will be overwritten at the time of rendering. We can assign value to it by register a startup script which will set the action value of form on client-side. On other hand we can use Server.Transfer or Response.Redirect. How do you turn off cookies in one page of your asp.net application? Answer: We may not use them at the max, However to allow the cookies or not, is client side functionality. Which method do you use to redirect to user to another page without performing a round trip to Client? Answer: Server.Transfer(“AnotherPage.aspx”). How many namespaces are in .NET version 1.1? Answer: 124. Should Validation occur on Client/Server Side for Date Input? Answer: Both. Client-side reduces extra round-trip. Server-Side ensures prevention against hacking and failure against automated requests. What are the web form events? Answer: i. The first event that occurs in the life of a Web Form is the Init event. This is raised so that we can have initialization code for the page. The controls on the page are not yet created at this point. This event is raised once for each user of the page. ii. The Load event follows the Init event. Subsequently, it is raised each time the page is requested. When this event is raised, all child controls of the Web Form are loaded and accessible. You should be able to retrieve data and populate the controls so that they can render themselves on the page when sent back to the client. iii. The PreRender event happens just before the page is rendered and sent back to the client. We don't often handle this event; however, it depends on the situation. iv. The last event in the life of a Web Form is the Unload event. This happens when the page is unloaded from memory. Final cleanup should be done here. Why main function is static? Answer: To ensure there is only one entry point to the application. How CCW (COM Callable Wrapper) and RCW (Runtime Callable Wrapper) work? Answer: CCW: The .NET Framework includes support for COM clients to use .NET components. When a COM client needs to create a .NET object, the CLR creates the managed object and a COM callable wrapper (CCW) that wraps the object. The COM client interacts with the managed object through the CCW. The runtime creates



53. 54. 55.


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only one CCW for a managed object, regardless of how many COM clients are using it. RCW: The .NET Framework includes extensive support for COM interoperability. To allow .NET clients to interact with a COM component, .NET uses an RCW—a special .NET proxy class that sits between your .NET code and the COM component. The RCW handles all the details, including marshaling data types, using the traditional COM interfaces, and handling COM events. Can we copy a COM dll to GAC folder? Answer: No. How can you write a class to restrict that only one object of this class can be created? Answer: We can create a singleton class. Singleton class is a class which will return null if there is no prior instance of the same class is prevailing and will allow to create the new instance else it will return without creating a new instance of that class. What is concurrency? How will you avoid concurrency when dealing with dataset? (One user deleted one row after that another user through his dataset was trying to update same row. What will happen? How will you avoid this problem?) Answer: If the row we want to update has already been updated by another user, the DataAdapter throws a DBConcurrencyException. We can use the Row property of this exception to identify the row that caused the problem. Finally, to ensure that you always have a set of fresh records inside your DataSet object, you can select the Refresh the DataSet advanced option in order to retrieve the records each time a new database operation is performed: Use optimistic concurrency – adds a WHERE condition to the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements generated automatically by the wizard in order to guarantee to users that they are not going to change records that have been modified by other users, otherwise the command will fail. How do you merge two datasets into the third dataset in a simple manner? Answer: Use DataSet1.Merge (DataSet2) method to merge two datasets and copy DataSet1 to DataSet3. If you are executing these statements in commandObject. “Select * from Table1; Select * from Table2″ How you will deal result set? Answer: If a dataset contains 100 rows, how to fetch rows between 5 and 15 only? Answer: How to generate XML from a dataset and vice versa? Answer: We can use WriteXml() and ReadXml() methods of DataSet Object. Can the action attribute of a server-side Form tag be set to a value and if not how can you possibly pass data from a form page to a subsequent page? What is the Diversities between Server.Transfer and response.Redirect? Answer: The Server.Transfer() method stops the current page from executing, and runs the content on the

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.Net Interview Questions
specified page, when the execution is complete the control is passed back to the calling page. While the response.Redirect() method transfers the control on the specified page and the control is never passed back to calling page after execution. What are the Advantages and DisAdvantages of viewstate? Answer: Maintaining viewstate across post backs is a good user experience and also helps minimizing the validation errors to some extent, however maintaining view state makes the page heavier as it stores the encoded view state details in the hidden field. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control? Answer: What is Session State Management? Describe. Answer: you can apply state management to your applications in a number of ways. Session State Management determines how the sessions are stored by the ASP.NET application. The default option is InProc. Other options include Off, StateServer, and SQLServer. Running sessions in-process (InProc) means that the sessions are stored in the same process as the ASP.NET worker process. Therefore, if IIS is shut down and then brought up again, all the sessions are destroyed and unavailable to end users. StateServer means that sessions are stored out-of-process by a Windows service called ASPState. SQLServer is by far the most secure way to deal with your sessions. It stores them directly in SQL Server itself. Although it is the most secure method, it is also the least performance-efficient method. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control? Answer: The Diversities between a DataList control and a Repeater control is that the DataList control has a set of default templates, and the Repeater control is a blank space in which you must build all of the templates manually. What base class do all web forms inherit from? Answer: System.Web.UI.Page Which two properties are on every validation control? Answer: ControlToValidate and ErrorMessage. How do you create a permanent cookie? Answer: Set the expiry date as datetime.maxvalue. What does WSDL stand for? Answer: Web Services Description Language. How is a property designated as read-only? Answer: Use only the get accessor. Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched? Answer: CompareValidator. To test a Web Service you must create a windows application or web application to consume this service? It is True/False? Answer: Every web service by default generates a test page, we need not create or consume the Web service in order to test it. What is the maximum length of a varchar in SQL Server? Answer: 255 Is string a value type or a reference type? Answer: String is the reference type.


69. 70.


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81. What’s the C# equivalent of C++ try catch blocks, which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception? Answer: a simple catch block shown as under will catch all the exceptions which fall under System.Exception class. try{ ---Some code to execute---} catch { ----some exception handling--} Can multiple catch blocks be executed? Answer: No, once an exception fall under a catch block the control will never be passed to next catch block instead it will be passed to the finally block (if any or/and) the code next to the finally block. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Answer: Compile it with a /doc switch. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? Answer: CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch. What does assert () do? Answer: In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true. What’s the Diversities between the Debug class and Trace class? Answer: Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Answer: Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. Name the 4 .NET authentification methods. Answer: ASP.NET, in conjunction with Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), can authenticate user credentials such as names and passwords using any of the following authentication methods: a. Windows: Basic, digest, or Integrated Windows Authentication (NTLM or Kerberos). b. Microsoft Passport authentication c. Forms authentication d. Client Certificate authentication Explain what a diffgram is and a good use for one? Answer: A DiffGram is an XML format that is used to identify current and original versions of data elements. The DataSet uses the DiffGram format to load and persists its contents, and to serialize its contents for transport across a network connection. When a DataSet is written as a DiffGram, it populates the DiffGram with all the necessary information to accurately recreate the contents, though not the schema, of the DataSet, including column values from both the Original and Current row versions, row error information, and row order.


83. 84.


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90. Where would you use an iHTTPModule, and what are the limitations of anyapproach you might take in implementing one? Answer: One of ASP.NET’s most useful features is the extensibility of the HTTP pipeline, the path that data takes between client and server. You can use them to extend your ASP.NET applications by adding pre- and post-processing to each HTTP request coming into your application. For example, if you wanted custom authentication facilities for your application, the best technique would be to intercept the request when it comes in and process the request in a custom HTTP module. What method do you use to explicitly kill a user’s session? Answer: The Abandon method destroys all the objects stored in a Session object and releases their resources. If you do not call the Abandon method explicitly, the server destroys these objects when the session times out. Syntax: Session.Abandon How do you turn off cookies for one page in your site? Answer: Use the Cookie.Discard Property which Gets or sets the discard flag set by the server. When true, this property instructs the client application not to save the Cookie on the user’s hard disk when a session ends. Which method do you use to redirect the user to another page without performing a round trip to the client? Answer: Server.transfer() Where do you store the information about the user’s locale? Answer: System.Web.UI.Page.Culture What’s the Diversities between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"? Answer: CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only. What data type does the RangeValidator control support? Answer: Integer, String and Date. What is cookie less session? How it works? Answer: By default, ASP.NET will store the session state in the same process that processes the request, just as ASP does. If cookies are not available, a session can be tracked by adding a session identifier to the URL. This can be enabled by setting the following: <sessionState cookieless="true" /> What is State Management in .Net and how many ways are there to maintain a state in .Net? What is view state? Answer: Web pages are recreated each time the page is posted to the server. In traditional Web programming, this would ordinarily mean that all information associated with the page and the controls on the page would be lost with each round trip. To overcome this inherent limitation of traditional Web programming, the ASP.NET page framework includes various options to help you preserve changes — that is, for managing state. The page framework includes a facility called view state that automatically preserves property values of the page and all the controls on it between round trips. However, you will probably also have application-specific values that you want to preserve. To do so, you can use one of the state management options.



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Client-Based State Management Options: - View State - Hidden Form Fields - Cookies - Query Strings Server-Based State Management Options -Application State -Session State -Database Support What are the different modes for the sessionstates in the web.config file? Answer: Off Indicates that session state is not enabled. Inproc Indicates that session state is stored locally. StateServer Indicates that session state is stored on a remote server. SQLServerIndicates that session state is stored on the SQL Server. In a Webservice, need to display 10 rows from a table. So DataReader or DataSet is best choice? Answer: WebService will support only DataSet. What is singleton and what is singlecall? Answer: Singleton types never have more than one instance at any one time. If an instance exists, all client requests are serviced by that instance. Single Call types always have one instance per client request. The next method invocation will be serviced by a different server instance, even if the previous instance has not yet been recycled by the system. What is the Diversities between Compiler and Interpreter? Answer: Compiler: A compiler is a program that translates program (called source code) written in some high level language into object code. The compiler derives its name from the way it works, looking at the entire piece of source code and collecting and reorganizing the instructions. A compiler translates high-level instructions directly into machine language and this process is called compiling. Interpreter: An interpreter translates high-level instructions into an intermediate form, which it then executes. Interpreter analyzes and executes each line of source code in succession, without looking at the entire program; the advantage of interpreters is that they can execute a program immediately. Compilers require some time before an executable program emerges. However, programs produced by compilers run much faster than the same programs executed by an interpreter. Compiled programs generally run faster than interpreted programs. The advantage of an interpreter, however, is that it does not need to get through the compilation stage during which machine instructions are generated. This process can be time-consuming if the program is long. The interpreter, on the other hand, can immediately execute high-level programs. For this reason, interpreters are sometimes used during the development of a





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.Net Interview Questions
program, when a programmer wants to add small sections at a time and test them quickly.Because compilers translate source code into object code, which is unique for each type of computer, many compilers are available for the same language. For example, there is a C compiler for PCs and another for UNIX computers.

What are the OOPS concepts? Answer: 1) Encapsulation: It is the mechanism that binds together code and data in manipulates, and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. In short it isolates a particular code and data from all other codes and data. A well-defined interface controls the access to that particular code and data. 2) Inheritance: It is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. This supports the hierarchical classification. Without the use of hierarchies, each object would need to define all its characteristics explicitly. However, by use of inheritance, an object need only define those qualities that make it unique within its class. It can inherit its general attributes from its parent. A new sub-class inherits all of the attributes of all of its ancestors. 3) Polymorphism: It is a feature that allows one interface to be used for general class of actions. The specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In general polymorphism means "one interface, multiple methods"; this means that it is possible to design a generic interface to a group of related activities. This helps reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action. It is the compiler's job to select the specific action (that is, method) as it applies to each situation. 2. What is a class? Answer: Class is concrete representation of an entity. It represents a group of objects, which hold similar attributes and behavior. It provides Abstraction and Encapsulations. 3. What is an Object? What is Object Oriented Programming? Answer: Object represents/resembles a Physical/real entity. An object is simply something you can give a name. Object Oriented Programming is a Style of programming that represents a program as a system of objects and enables code-reuse. 4. What is Encapsulation? Encapsulation is binding of attributes and behaviors. Hiding the actual implementation and exposing the functionality of any object. Encapsulation is the first step towards OOPS, is the procedure of covering up of data and functions into a single unit (called class). Its main aim is to protect the data from out side world. 5. What is Abstraction? Answer: Hiding the complexity. It is a process of defining communication interface for the functionality and hiding rest of the things. 1.

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.Net Interview Questions
6. What is Overloading? Answer: Adding a new method with the same name in same/derived class but with different number/types of parameters. It implements Polymorphism. 7. What is Overloading? Answer: A process of creating different implementation of a method having a same name as base class, in a derived class. It implements Inheritance. 8. What is Shadowing? Answer: When the method is defined as Final/sealed in base class and not override able and we need to provide different implementation for the same. This process is known as shadowing, uses shadows/new keyword. 9. What is Inheritance? Answer: It is a process of acquiring attributes and behaviors from another object (normally a class or interface). 10. What is an Abstract class? Answer: An abstract class is a special kind of class that cannot be instantiated. It normally contains one or more abstract methods or abstract properties. It provides body to a class. 11. What is an Interface? Answer: An interface has no implementation; it only has the signature or in other words, just the definition of the methods without the body. 12. What is Polymorphism? Answer: Mean by more than one form. Ability to provide different implementation based on different number/type of parameters. 13. What is Pure-Polymorphism? Answer: When a method is declared as abstract/virtual method in a base class and which is overridden in a base class. If we create a variable of a type of a base class and assign an object of a derived class to it, it will be decided at a run time, which implementation of a method is to be called. This is known as Pure-Polymorphism or Late-Binding. 14. What is a Constructor? Answer: A special Method Always called whenever an instance of the class is created. 15. What is a Destructor? Answer: A special method called by GC. Just before object is being reclaimed by GC. 16. How a base class method is hidden? Answer: Hiding a base class method by declaring a method in derived class with keyword new. This will override the base class method and old method will be suppressed. 17. What Command is used to implement properties in C#? Answer: get & set access modifiers are used to implement properties in c#. 18. What is method overloading? Answer: Method overloading is having methods with same name but carrying different signature, this is useful when you want a method to behave differently depending upon a data passed to it. 19. Can constructors have parameters?

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.Net Interview Questions
20. What are Static Assembly and Dynamic Assembly? Answer: Static assemblies can include .NET Framework types (interfaces and classes) as well as resources for the assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so forth). Static assemblies are stored on disk. Dynamic assemblies run directly from memory and are not saved to disk before execution. 21. Describe the functionality of an assembly. Answer: It is the smallest unit that has version control. All types and resources in the same assembly are versioned as a unit and support side by side execution. Assemblies contain the metadata and other identities which allow the common language runtime to execute. They are the boundaries providing the type check. They the unit where security permissions are requested and granted. 22. What is serialization? Answer: Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. De-serialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization/De-serialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database). There are two separate mechanisms provided by the .NET class library for serialization XmlSerializer and SoapFormatter and BinaryFormatter. Microsoft uses XmlSerializer for Web Services, and uses SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter for remoting. 23. What is a static class? Answer: When a class has been defined as static, it is not creatable using the new keyword, and it can contain only static members or fields. 24. What is static member? Answer: The member defined as static which can be invoked directly from the class level, rather than from its instance. 25. What is static function/method? Answer: Static methods need not need to create an instance of the class containing it and can be accessed directly from class level. 26. What is static constructor? (This is introduced in VS 2005) Answer: When constructors are used to set the value of a type’s data at the time of construction, if we want the value of such static data is to be preserved regardless of how many objects of the type are created, we have to define the constructor with static keyword. 27. Why Main () method is static? Answer: To ensure there is only one entry point to the application. 28. What is Reflection? Answer: Reflection is the process of runtime type discovery. 29. What do you mean by Serialize? Answer: The term serialization describes the process of persisting (and possibly transferring) the state of an object to a stream. 30. What is an Asynchronous delegate? (VS 2005) Answer: When you invoke a delegate asynchronously, no new thread is created. Instead, the CLR automatically assigns a free thread from a small thread pool that it maintains. Typically, this thread pool starts with one thread and increases to a maximum of about 25 free threads on a single-CPU computer. As a result, if you start 50 asynchronous operations, one after the other, the first 25

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.Net Interview Questions
will complete first. As soon as one ends, the freed thread is used to execute the next asynchronous operation. 31. How to create events for a control? What are custom events? Answer: Declare a public delegate and set of events to listen from. public delegate void CarEventHandler(string msg); public event CarEventHandler AboutToBlow; public event CarEventHandler BlewUp; 32. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? Answer: StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created. 33. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? Answer: No. 34. What’s the Diversities between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()? Answer: System.Array.CopyTo() performs a deep copy while System.Array.Clone() performs a shallow copy. 35. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? Answer: First use Sort () method to sort the array and then call Reverse () method to arrange array elements in descending order. 36. What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? Answer: A HashTable. 37. What’s class SortedList underneath? Answer: A sorted HashTable. 38. Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Answer: Yes. 39. When you inherit a protected class-level variable, who is it available to? Answer: Classes in the same namespace. 40. Are private class-level variables inherited? Answer: Yes, but they are not accessible, so looking at it you can honestly say that they are not inherited. But they are. 41. Describe the accessibility modifier protected internal. Answer: It’s available to derived classes and classes within the same Assembly (and naturally from the base class it’s declared in). 42. How’s method overriding different from overloading? Answer: When overriding, you change the method behavior for a derived class. Overloading simply involves having a method with the same name within the class. 43. What does the keyword virtual mean in the method definition? Answer: The method can be over-ridden. 44. Can you declare the override method static while the original method is non-static? Answer: No, you can’t, the signature of the virtual method must remain the same, only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override. 45. Can you override private virtual methods? Answer: No, moreover, you cannot access private methods in inherited classes, have to be protected in the base class to allow any sort of access.

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46. Can you prevent your class from being inherited and becoming a base class for some other classes? Answer: Yes, that’s what keyword sealed in the class definition is for. The developer trying to derive from your class will get a message: cannot inherit from Sealed class WhateverBaseClassName. It’s the same concept as final class in Java. 47. Can you allow class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden? Answer: Yes, just leave the class public and make the method sealed. 48. When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract? Answer: When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been over-ridden. 49. Can we declare private methods inside an Interface? Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface? No, they all must be public. Therefore, to prevent you from getting the false impression that you have any freedom of choice, you are not allowed to specify any accessibility, its public by default. 50. What’s the Diversities between an interface and abstract class? Answer: In the interface all methods must be abstract; in the abstract class some methods can be concrete. In the interface no accessibility modifiers are allowed, which is ok in abstract classes. 51. If a base class has a bunch of overloaded constructors, and an inherited class has another bunch of overloaded constructors, can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to an arbitrary base constructor? Answer: Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class. 52. What’s the Diversities between System.String and System.StringBuilder classes? Answer: System.String is immutable; System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed. 53. How do you initiate a string without escaping each backslash? Answer: Put @ sign in front of the double-quoted string. e.g. @“C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents”; is equivalent to “C:\\Documents and Settings\\Administrator\\My Documents”. 54. What are valid signatures for the Main function? Answer: public static void Main() public static int Main() public static void Main( string[] args ) public static int Main(string[] args ) 55. Explain encapsulation. Answer: The implementation is hidden, the interface is exposed. 56. Where all the value-type variables allocated in the computer RAM? Answer: Stack

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.Net Interview Questions
57. Where do the reference-type variables go in the RAM? Answer: The references go on the stack, while the objects themselves go on the heap. 58. What is the Diversities between the value-type variables and reference-type variables in terms of garbage collection? Answer: The value-type variables are not garbage-collected, they just fall off the stack when they fall out of scope, the referencetype objects are picked up by GC when their references go null. 59. How do you convert a string into an integer in .NET? Answer: Int32.Parse(string), Convert.ToInt32() 60. How do you enforce garbage collection in .NET? Answer: System.GC.Collect(); 61. Can you declare a C++ type destructor in C# like ~MyClass()? Answer: Yes, but what’s the point, since it will call Finalize (), and Finalize () has no guarantees when the memory will be cleaned up, plus, it introduces additional load on the garbage collector. The only time the finalizer should be implemented, is when you’re dealing with unmanaged code. 62. What’s the Diversities between const and readonly? Answer: You can initialize readonly variables to some runtime values. Let’s say your program uses current date and time as one of the values that won’t change. This way you declare public readonly string DateT = new DateTime().ToString(); This is not possible with a constant. 63. What happens when you encounter a continue statement inside the ‘for loop’? Answer: The code for the rest of the loop is ignored; the control is transferred back to the beginning of the loop. 64. Describe the compilation process for .NET code? Answer: Source code is compiled and run in the .NET Framework using a two-stage process. First, source code is compiled to Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code using a .NET Framework-compatible compiler, such as that for Visual Basic .NET or Visual C#. Second, MSIL code is compiled to native code. 65. In which cases you use override and new base? Answer: Use the new modifier to explicitly hide a member inherited from a base class. To hide an inherited member, declare it in the derived class using the same name, and modify it with the new modifier. 66. In which Scenario you will go for Interface or Abstract Class? Answer: Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes. Even though class inheritance allows your classes to inherit implementation from a base class, it also forces you to make most of your design decisions when the class is first published. Abstract classes are useful when creating components because they allow you specify an invariant level of functionality in some methods, but leave the implementation of other methods until a specific implementation of that class is needed. They also version well, because if additional functionality is needed in derived classes, it can be added to the base class without breaking code.

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.Net Interview Questions
67. What are the access-specifiers available in c#? Answer: Private, Protected, Public, Internal, Protected Internal. 68. Explain about Protected and protected internal, “internal” accessspecifier? Answer: protected - Access is limited to the containing class or types derived from the containing class. internal - Access is limited to the current assembly. protected internal - Access is limited to the current assembly or types derived from the containing class. 69. Diversities between type constructor and instance constructor? What is static constructor, when it will be fired? And what is its use? Answer: (Class constructor method is also known as type constructor or type initializer) Instance constructor is executed when a new instance of type is created and the class constructor is executed after the type is loaded and before any one of the type members is accessed. (It will get executed only 1st time, when we call any static methods/fields in the same class.) Class constructors are used for static field initialization. Only one class constructor per type is permitted, and it cannot use the vararg (variable argument) calling convention. A static constructor is used to initialize a class. It is called automatically to initialize the class before the first instance is created or any static members are referenced. 70. What is Private Constructor? What’s its use? Can you create instance of a class which has Private Constructor? Answer: When a class declares only private instance constructors, it is not possible for classes outside the program to derive from the class or to directly create instances of it. (Except Nested classes) Make a constructor private if: - You want it to be available only to the class itself. For example, you might have a special constructor used only in the implementation of your class' Clone method. - You do not want instances of your component to be created. For example, you may have a class containing nothing but Shared utility functions, and no instance data. Creating instances of the class would waste memory. 71. I have 3 overloaded constructors in my class. In order to avoid making instance of the class do I need to make all constructors to private? Answer: Yes 72. Overloaded constructor will call default constructor internally? Answer: No

• SQL: Queries
1. Write a query to select the second highest salary from a table. Answer: SELECT max(salary) AS salary2 FROM orders WHERE salary < (SELECT max(salary) AS salary1 FROM orders) 2. Write a query to select the 5th highest salary from a table. Answer: SELECT min(salary) AS high5 FROM employee WHERE

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.Net Interview Questions
salary IN(SELECT DISTINCT TOP 5 salary FROM orders ORDER BY salary DESC) 3. How to find duplicate records with the number they are duplicated? Answer: SELECT Id, count (*) as number_records from table group by id having count (*) > 1. 4. Using query analyzer, name 3 ways you can get an accurate count of the number of records in a table. Answer: a. select count (coumnName(s)) from tableName. b. select count_big(coumnName(s)) from tableName c. select columnName from ableName select @@ROWCOUNT as rowCount

• SQL: Questions

2. 3.

4. 5.

What is the Diversities between Delete and Truncate command in SQL? Answer: Delete command and truncate command both will delete the data, however the truncate command can not be rolled back as delete can be. The delete command can be used for selected records using the where clause but with the truncate command we have to loose data. DELETE statement is a logged operation and hence takes more time then truncate. What is Magic Table in SQL? Answer: The insert and Delete commands are known as magic tables in SQL. Can Primary key is a Foreign Key on the same table? Answer: Yes, Consider a category table in a e-commerce web site. Category_Id, Category_Name, Parent_Category_ID. In this table all the parent categories are also categories. When we create a self join category id will be treated as foreign key to the same table. What is Normalization? What are the advantages and disadvantages of Normalization? Answer: There are several advantages of normalization as under:  Faster sorting and index creation.  A larger number of clustered indexes.  Narrower and more compact indexes.  Fewer indexes per table, which improves the performance of INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements  Fewer null values and less opportunity for inconsistency, which increase database compactness.

Beside the above benefits there are few disadvantages as well:  Increased amount of Normalization increases the amount of complexity of joins between tables and that hinders the performance. 6. What are the conditions to achieve the normalization? Answer: There are few conditions to achieve the normalization:  There should be a unique row identifier.

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.Net Interview Questions
A table should store only data for a single type of entity. For e.g. details for book’s publisher and book’s author should be saved under different table.  A table should avoid columns which can be null-able.  A table should avoid duplication of data and columns. 7. What is a Stored Procedure? State its advantage. Answer: A stored procedure is a set of pre-compiled SQL commands (query statements), which are stored in the server. It is faster then the loose SQL statements processed on client, as it is pre-compiled. It can execute more then one SQL commands once as they are bundled in a single entity. We can use control statements within the stored procedure, which will allow us to repeat some SQL command. It can send return values depending upon the result. Stored procedures are used to reduce network traffic. 8. What is a Trigger? Answer: Triggers are a special type of stored procedure, which gets invoked upon a certain event. They can be performed upon an INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE. 9. What is a Clustered Index? Answer: The data rows are stored in order based on the clustered index key. Data stored is in a sequence of the index. In a clustered index, the physical order of the rows in the table is the same as the logical (indexed) order of the key values. A table can contain only one clustered index. A clustered index usually provides faster access to data than does a non-clustered index 10. What is a Non-Clustered Index? Answer: The data rows are not stored in any particular order, and there is no particular order to the sequence of the data pages. In a clustered index, the physical order of the rows in the table is not same as the logical (indexed) order of the key values. 11. Describe the three levels of data abstraction? The are three levels of abstraction:  Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored.  Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction, describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data.  View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database 12. What is DDL (Data Definition Language)? Answer: A data base schema which is specified by a set of definitions expressed by a special language is called DDL. Data Definition Language (DDL) is used to define and manage all the objects in an SQL database. 13. What is DML? Answer: It is a special language used to manipulate the Data. Data Manipulation Language (DML), which is used to select, insert, update, and delete data in the objects defined using DDL. 14. What is a PRIMARY KEY? Answer: The PRIMARY KEY is the column(s) used to uniquely identify each row of a table. 

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.Net Interview Questions
15. What is a FOREIGN KEY? Answer: A FOREIGN KEY is one or more columns whose values are based on the PRIMARY or CANDITATE KEY values from the database. 16. What is a UNIQUE KEY? Answer: A UNIQUE KEY is one or more columns that must be unique for each row of the table. 17. What is the Diversities between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY? Answer: The UNIQUE KEY column restricts entry of duplicate values but entry of NULL value is allowed. In case of PRIMARY KEY columns entry of duplicate as well as <NULL> value is also restricted. 18. What is a VIEW? Answer: A View is a database object that is a logical representation of a table. It is derived from a table but has no storage space of its own and often may be used in the same manner as a table. 19. What is a ROWID? Answer: ROWID is the logical address of a row, and it is unique within the database. 20. What is INDEX? Answer: INDEX is a general term for an SQL feature used primarily to speed up execution and impose UNIQUENESS upon data. You can use an index to gain fast access to specific information in a database table. An index is a structure that orders the values of one or more columns in a database table. The index provides pointers to the data values stored in specified columns of the table, and then orders those pointers according to the sort order you specify. 21. What is a cursor? Answer: An entity that maps over a result set and establishes a position on a single row within the result set. After the cursor is positioned on a row, operations can be performed on that row, or on a block of rows starting at that position. The most common operation is to fetch (retrieve) the current row or block of rows. 22. The Diversities between 'Count' and 'Count (*)'? Answer: 'Count': Counts the number of non-null values. 'Count (*)': Counts the number of rows in the table, including null values and duplicates. 23. Which are the default databases get installed with the MSSQL installation? Answer: Master, Model, msdb, Northwind, Pubs, tempdb. 24. What is the purpose of using COLLATE in a query? 25. What is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function? Answer: STUFF deletes a specified length of characters and inserts another set of characters at a specified starting point. REPLACE removes the specified string and inserts supplied string in place. 26. What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String? Answer: The database name to connect to. 27. What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database? Answer: Microsoft.Access.

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.Net Interview Questions
28. What does Dispose () method do with the connection object? Answer: Deletes it from the memory. 29. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Answer: Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.

• Glossary & Terms
1. abstract method: A method that has no implementation; if a class has an abstract method, then the class is abstract as well. 2. Abstraction: A process of retrieving information about an object. 3. abstract class :A class that can’t be instantiated and can only be derived from. 4. Array: A collection of same-type variables or elements identified with an index. 5. ArrayList: A dynamic array class: a. It has a default capacity of 16 objects. b. It automatically increases in size. c. It holds any type of object reference. When accessing the objects, they need to be cast to the appropriate type. 6. Assembly: A repository (e.g., .dll or .exe) to store multiple and related code constructs or functionality. 7. const: A static modifier used on local variables or member fields; once its value is assigned, it can’t be changed at runtime. 8. constructor: A special method that instantiates a class into an object. 9. destructor: Method declaration to terminate an object—e.g., ~aClass(): used with Finalize(). 10. delegate: A class that is a reference to a method that has a given signature (parameter list and return type). This is also known as functional pointer. 11. deserialize: A process to reconstruct from a binary stream back to a C# object. 12. dictionary: Collection with a key and value association. 13. Early Binding: Methodology whereby binding is determined as design time. 14. enum: A value type that contains an enumerator list (a set of named numeric constants). Enumeration list of named constants: enum keyword or value type that holds a quantity of named numeric constants (byte, sbyte, short, ushort, long, ulong, int, unit). 15. extern: Modifies a method, indicating that unmanaged code is used to implement it. 16. HashTable: Same as Dictionary that is tweaked for speedy retrieval. 17. Generics: Methodologies that enable class, delegate, interface, struct types, and methods to be created with type parameters, which are “placeholder” types that can be substituted when the type is known (C# 2.0 feature).

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.Net Interview Questions
18. Generic method: A method that accepts type parameters (C# 2.0 feature). 19. immutable: Unchangeable: a string may appear to change, but a method merely returns a modified string object. (Strings are immutable, stringbuilder class is mutable.) 20. inheritance: a methodology in which functionality is inherited (class and interface type). 21. jagged array: A multidimensional array where the rows are of varying sizes: an array is comprised of elements that are themselves arrays. It is also known as Array of Arrays. 22. linked list: A data structure that has a series of connected nodes. 23. late binding: A methodology in which binding is determined at runtime. 24. manifest: An assembly’s contents; it is also referred to as assembly metadata. 25. multidimensional array: An array with multiple dimensions (rows and columns). C# has two: jagged ([][])and rectangular([,]). 26. new: A keyword that calls a class’s constructor. 27. operator overloading: A technique whereby an operator is overloaded to give a class the functionality of the operator. 28. overloading: The ability to include more than one method in the same class with the same name. 29. overriding: When a virtual method in a base class has its functionality superimposed or overridden by a method in a subclass, which has the same name and signature. 30. polymorphism: Object-oriented concept whereby a specialized class may be passed as an instance of a generalized class (class polymorphism): also refers to methods of a class (method polymorphism). 31. passing by reference: Reference types are passed to a calling method by reference—a reference to a memory location (“the heap”) is passed rather than a copy of the type (contrast passing by value). 32. passing by value: Value types are passed to a calling method by way of a copy of the underlying value type—altering the copy does not alter the underlying (original) value type. Passing by value occurs on the stack (contrast with passing by reference). 33. readonly: Keyword used to declare that a class member variable is read-only and can’t be edited at runtime. 34. Rectangular array: A form of multidimensional array with two or more dimensions that has rows of the same length (contrast with jagged array). 35. sealed: A modifier that signifies that a given concrete class cannot be derived from or inherited. 36. shallow copy: A technique that copies an object variable into another variable by value rather than by reference. 37. strong name: A unique composite of assembly name, assembly version, and encryption key. 38. typed dataset: Dataset associated with a defined XML schema: faster and more efficient than untyped dataset because the schema is defined and does not require runtime type identification when run.

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.Net Interview Questions
39. value type: Data that is stored in a variable: value types are stored with their contents on the stack. Consists of structures, primitives, and enumerations.

• Write Code For
1. Write a program in C# to find the angle between the hours and minutes in a clock?

• Testing Questions

1. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? 1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch. 2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. 2. What does assert () method do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true. 3. What’s the Diversities between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds. 4. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities. 5. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor. 6. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. 7. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? 1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output). 2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling). 3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly). 8. Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to “Immediate window”.

• Basic Design Pattern Questions

1. Explain the three services model (three-tier application). Answer: Presentation (UI), business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or other sources). 2. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Answer: Transaction must be … Atomic (it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions), Consistent (data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t), Page 34 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
Isolated (no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction), Durable (the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after).

• DataGrid Questions
D What is datagrid? a Answer: The DataGrid Web server control is a powerful tool for displaying information from a data source. It is easy to use; you can display editable data in a professional-looking grid by setting only a few properties. At the same time, the grid has a sophisticated object model that provides you with great flexibility in how you display the data. i n What’s the Diversities between the System.Web.UI.WebControls.DataGrid and and System.Windows.Forms.DataGrid? Answer: The Web UI control does not inherently support masterdetail data structures. As with other Web server controls, it does not support two-way data binding. If you want to update data, you must write code to do this yourself. You can only edit one row at a time. It does not inherently support sorting; although it raises events you can handle in order to sort the grid contents. You can bind the Web Forms DataGrid to any object that supports the IEnumerable interface. The Web Forms DataGrid control supports paging. It is easy to customize the appearance and layout of the Web Forms DataGrid control as compared to the Windows Forms one. on How do you customize the column content inside the datagrid? Answer: If you want to customize the content of a column, make the column a template column. Template columns work like item templates in the DataList or Repeater control, except that you are defining the layout of a column rather than a row. de How do you apply specific formatting to the data inside the cells? Answer: You cannot specify formatting for columns generated when the grid’s AutoGenerateColumns property is set to true, only for bound or template columns. To format, set the column’s DataFormatString property to a string-formatting expression suitable for the data type of the data you are formatting. su How do you hide the columns? Answer: One way to have columns appear dynamically is to create them at design time, and then to hide or show them as needed. You can do this by setting a column’s “Visible” property. Yo How do you display an editable drop-down list? Answer: Displaying a drop-down list requires a template column in the grid. Typically, the ItemTemplate contains a control such as a data-bound Label control to show the current value of a field in the record. You then add a drop-down list to the EditItemTemplate. In Visual Studio, you can add a template column in the Property builder for the grid, and then use standard template editing to remove the default TextBox control from the EditItemTemplate and drag a DropDownList control into it instead. Alternatively, you can add the template column in HTML view. After you have created the

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.Net Interview Questions
template column with the drop-down list in it, there are two tasks. The first is to populate the list. The second is to preselect the appropriate item in the list — for example, if a book’s genre is set to “fiction,” when the drop-down list displays, you often want “fiction” to be pre-selected. “f How do you check whether the row data has been changed? Answer: The definitive way to determine whether a row has been dirtied is to handle the changed event for the controls in a row. For example, if your grid row contains a TextBox control, you can respond to the control’s TextChanged event. Similarly, for check boxes, you can respond to a CheckedChanged event. In the handler for these events, you maintain a list of the rows to be updated. Generally, the best strategy is to track the primary keys of the affected rows. For example, you can maintain an ArrayList object that contains the primary keys of the rows to update.

• Questions with answer options
• State True or False: If you set AutoGenerateColumns=True and still provide custom column definitions, the DataGrid will render both o True o False The data from an XSL Transform with XmlReader can be returned in one of the following ways o objReader = objXslT.Transform(objNav, nothing) o objXslT.Transform(objNav, nothing) o objReader = objXslT.Transform(objNav, nothing, objWriter) o objXslT.Transform(objNav, nothing, objWriter) Pick the command line that would result in the C# compiler generating an XML documentation file o csc /doc:NewHome.xml NewHome.cs o c /doc /docfile: NewHome.xml NewHome.cs o csc /doc /out: NewHome.xml NewHome.cs o csc /xml NewHome.cs What is the comment syntax for C#’s XML-based documentation? o /** and **/ o //# o /// o //* When creating a C# Class Library project, what is the name of the supplementary file that Visual Studio.NET creates that contains General Information about the assembly? o AssemblyInfo.xml o AssemblyInfo.cs o AssemblyInformation.cs o AssemblyAttributes.cs Which of the following is the C# escape character for Null? o \n o \0 o \f

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.Net Interview Questions
• o \v What is the exception that is thrown when there is an attempt to dynamically access a method that does not exist? o MissingMethodException o TypeLoadException o MethodLoadException o MethodAccessException What method(s) must be used with the Application object to ensure that only one process accesses a variable at a time? o Synchronize() o Lock() and UnLock() o Lock() o Asynchroize() After capturing the SelectedIndexChanged event for a ListBox control, you find that the event handler doesn’t execute. What could the problem be? o The AutoEventWireup attribute is set to False o The AutomaticPostBack attribute is set to False o The codebehind module is not properly compiled o The ListBox must be defined WithEvents What method must be overridden in a custom control? o The Paint() method o The Control_Build() method o The Render() method o The default constructor What is used to validate complex string patterns like an e-mail address? o Extended expressions o Regular expressions o Irregular expressions o Basic expressions The following is a valid statement in ASP.NET<%@ Page Language="C" %> o True o False A valid comment block in ASP.NET is o <!- - - Comment - - - > o <!- - Comment - - > o <% - - Comment - - %> o <% ! - - Comment - - > The event handlers that can be included in the Global.asax file are o Application Start and Session Start event handlers only o Application End and Session End event handlers only o Per-request and Non-deterministic event handlers only o Application Start and End , Session Start and End, Per-request and Non-deterministic event handlers

Page 37 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
• A Few of the Namespaces that get imported by default in an ASPX file are o System, System.Data, System.Drawing, System.Globalization o System, System.IO, System.Management, System.Globalization o System, System.Collections, System.Text, System.Web o System, System.NET, System.Reflection, System.Web The Assemblies that can be referenced in an ASPX file without using @Assembly Directive is o System.dll, System.Data.dll, System.Web.dll, System.Xml.dll, o System.dll, System.Collections.dll, System.IO.dll o System.dll, System.Reflection.dll, System.Globalization.dll, o System.Drawing.dll, System.Assembly.dll, System.Text.dll An .ASHX file contains the following o Code-behind that are used in the code o Server Controls that can be called from a code-behind file o HTTP handlers-software modules that handle raw HTTP requests received by ASP.NET o Contains normal ASP.NET code and can be used as an include file What is the output for the following code snippet: public class testClass { public static void Main(string[] args) { System.Console.WriteLine(args[1]); }//end Main }//end class testClass o Compiler Error o Runtime Error o Hello C# world o None of the above What will be the values of x and y? { int x = 5; int y = 10; y += x++; System.Console.WriteLine("x:" + x.toString() + " y:" + y.toString()); } o x: 6 y: 16 o x: 6 y: 15

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.Net Interview Questions
o x: 10 y: 15 o x: 10 y: 26 One of the possible way of writing an ASP.NET handler that works like an ISAPI filter- that is, that sees requests and responses and modifies them also, is by, o writing a module that extends FormsAuthenticatonModule and using it o writing a component class that extends HttpModuleCollection and using it o writing an HTTP module-a Class that implements IhttpModule and registering it in Web.Config o All of the above The ASP.NET directive that lets you cache different versions of a page based on varying input parameters, HTTP headers and browser type is o @OutputCache o @CacheOutput o @PageCache o @CacheAll If we develop an application that must accommodate multiple security levels through secure login and ASP.NET web application is spanned across three web-servers (using round-robin load balancing) what would be the best approach to maintain login-in state for the users? o <SessionState mode="InProc"stateConnectionString=" tcpip=" sqlConnectionString=" data source=;user id=sa;password="cookieless="false" timeout="30" /> o <SessionState mode="OutProc" stateConnectionString="tcpip=" sqlConnectionString="data source=;user id=sa;password=" cookieless="false" timeout="30" /> o <SessionState mode="stateserver" stateConnectionString="tcpip=" sqlConnectionString="data source=;user id=sa;password=" cookieless="false" timeout="30" /> What is the output for the below mentioned compilation command> csc /addmodule:A.Exe B.Cs o A.exe o B.exe o A.dll o B.dll How can be the web application get configured with the following authorization rules o Anonymous users must not be allowed to access the application. o All persons except David and John must be allowed to access the application.  <authorization><deny users = "applicationname\David, applicationname\John"

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.Net Interview Questions
><allow roles ="*"><deny roles = "?"></authorization>  <authorization><allow users ="*"><deny users = "applicationname\David; applicationname\John" ><deny users = "*"></authorization>  <authorization><deny users = "applicationname\David, applicationname\John" ><deny users = "?"><allow users ="*"></authorization>  <authorization><allow users ="*"><deny users = "applicationname\David, applicationname\John" ></ authorization> What will be the output of the following code snippet? using System; class MainClass { static void Main( ) { new MainClass().Display( 3.56 ); } private void Display( float anArg ) { Console.Write( “{0} {1}”, anArg.GetType(), anArg ); } double Display( double anArg ) { Console.Write( “{0} {1}”, anArg.GetType(), anArg ); return anArg; } public decimal Display( decimal anArg ) { Console.Write( “{0} {1}”, anArg.GetType(), anArg ); return anArg; } } o o o o • System.Single 3.56 System.Float 3.56 System.Double 3.56 System.Decimal 3.56

What will be output for the given code? Dim I as integer = 5 Do

Page 40 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
I=I+2 Response.Write (I & " ") Loop Until I > 10 o 58 o 579 o 7 9 11 o Errors out A structure in C# can be derived from one or more o class o interface o both o none State True or False: Static method cannot be overridden o True o False The Equivalent HTML Control for the <input type=”button”> tag is o HtmlInput o HtmlButton o HtmlPushButton o HtmlInputButton The Equivalent Html Control for the <input type=”checkbox”> tag is o HtmlCheckBox o HtmlInputChkBox o HtmlInputCheckBox o HtmlInputTypeChkBox Which operator is used for connecting a event with a procedure in C#? o += o = o both o none The Equivalent Html Control for the <select> tag is o <HtmlSelectInput> o <HtmlSelect> o <HtmlInputSelect> o <HtmlSelectControl> State True or False: Events in Web forms are processed before the “Page Load” event o True o False What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? o System.Globalization o System.Globalization and System.Resources. o System.Resources. o System.Array A new server-side control can be created by implementing the class ___________

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.Net Interview Questions
o System.Web.WebControl o System.Web.UI.WebControl o System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebControl

o Any one of the above The parameter “clienttarget = downlevel” does one of the following o Adds aliases for specific user agents to an internal collection of user agent aliases o Indicates the useragents level of validating the controls o Disables all DHTML events(including Validation controls) o None of the above The methods in C# can be overloaded in which of the following ways o By having the same method name and specifying different number of parameters o By giving different method names and same number of parameters o By having the same method name and specifying different types of parameters o By giving different method names and same types of parameters The RangeValidator control supports the following datatype o Integer and String o Integer, Float, String, XMLDatatypes o Integer, String and Date o Integer, Boolean, Short, String and Date What is the Diversities between Convert.ToInt32 and int.Parse? o Both are same and both can handle null value. o Convert.ToInt32 can handle null value but int.Parse throws ArgumentNullException error. o int.Parse can handle null value but Convert.ToInt32 throws ArgumentNullException error. o Both Convert.ToInt32 and int.Parse cannot handle null value. State True or False: Any ODBC-compliant database can be accessed through ASP.NET o True o False You need to select a .NET language that has auto-documenting features built into the source code and compiler. Given the scenario above what language compiler should be selected? o vbc.exe o cl.exe o ilasm.exe o cs.exe A set of tables are maintained in a Dataset as o TablesCollection object o DataTableCollection object o DataRowsCollection object o TableRowCollection object

Page 42 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
• The namespaces needed to use data mechanisms in ASP.NET pages are o System.Data, System.Data.OleDb or System.Data.SQL o System.Data, System.Data.ODBC o System.Data, System.Data.DataRow o System.Data.DataRowCollection, System.Data.DbType What are the different methods to access Database in .NET ? o OleDB,ODBC,SQLClient o OleDB, JDBC, SQLServer o ODBC-JDBC, DataSet, SQLClient o Datasource, DataSet, DSN The two properties of a DataGrid that has to be specified to turn on sorting and paging respectively are o EnableSorting = “true” and EnablePaging = “true” o DisableSorting = “false” and DisablePaging = “false” o AllowSorting = “true” and AllowPaging = “true” o Sorting = “true” and Paging = “true” Which one of the following objects is used to create a foreign key between two DataTables? o DataRelation o DataRelationship o DataConstraint o DataKey The Syntax for data-binding expressions is o <%# property or collection %> o <%# property or collection #%> o <%$ property or collection %> o <%@ property or collection %> The method that need to be invoked on the DataAdapter control to load the generated dataset with data is o Bind() o Fill() o FillData() o SetData() Which of the following operations can you NOT perform on an ADO.NET DataSet? o A DataSet can be synchronised with the database. o A DataSet can be synchronised with a RecordSet. o A DataSet can be converted to XML. o You can infer the schema from a DataSet Which is the correct statement to set the alias name for namespace in C#? o using System Data.OracleClient = aliasName; o using aliasName = System.Data.OracleClient; o string aliasName = using.System.Data.OracleClient; o Both a & b The property that indicates whether existing database constraints should be observed when performing updates o EnforceConstraints

Page 43 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
o Constraints o GetConstraints o ConstraintsEnforce Which of the following languages is NOT included in the default .NET Framework installation? o C# o VB.NET o JScript.NET o VBScript.NET What are the different types of serialization supported in .NET Framework o XmlSerializer o SoapFormatter o XPathNavigator o HttpFormatter The CLR uses which format for assembly version numbers o Major:Minor:Revision:Build o Major:Build:Minor:Revision o Major:Revision:Minor:Build o Major:Minor:Build:Revision What tool is used to manage the GAC? o GacMgr.exe o GacSvr32.exe o GacUtil.exe o RegSvr.exe State True or False: A single .NET dll can contain unlimited classes o True o False State True or False: ASP.NET can currently run only on Windows Platform o True o False Which one of the following best describes “Type-Safe” o It ensures that the data type are safely handled o It ensures that types are not mismatched when they are called so uses a typecasting before referencing any data object o It ensures that an object only references memory locations that it’s allowed to, preventing data corruption and the accidental misuse of object types o All of the above The number of objects in ASP.NET is o 6 o 7 o 9 o 10 The code used to turn off buffering is o Buffering = false o OutputBuffer = false o BufferOutput = false

Page 44 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
• o Buffer = Off Can you have two applications on the same machine one which is using .NET Framework 1.1 and the other using 2.0 ? o Yes o No o Depends on System configuration Which of the following DOT.NET tools manages certificates, certificate trust lists (CTLs), and certificate revocation lists (CRLs)? o sn.exe o certnet.exe o certmgr.exe o gacutil.exe You need to generate a public/private key pair for using in creating a shared assembly. Given the above scenario, which .NET SDK utility should be used? o certmgr.exe o gacutil.exe o sn.exe o resgen.exe The object that contains all the properties and methods for every ASP.NET page, that is built is o Page Object o HTTPPage Object o WebPage Object o System.Web.UI.Page In C#, which character is used to indicate a verbatim string literal? o @ o ! o " o # Which of the following operators has the highest precedence? o Pre Increment (++x) o Shift bits left: << o Bitwise Or: | o Post Increment (x++) The uniqueId that gets generated at the start of the Session is stored in o Client computer as a cookie o Server machine o Passed to and fro on each and every request and response o Both a and b are correct State True or False: C# supports multiple-inheritance o True o False Bitwise AND operator in C# is o & o && o AND o XAND

Page 45 of 55

.Net Interview Questions
• Bitwise OR operator in C# is o OR o || o | o XOR What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? o Primary o Integer o Unique Identifier o HashTable The keyword ‘int’ maps to one of the following .NET types o System.Int16 o System.Int32 o System.Int64 o System.Int128 What can be achieved in IL which is not possible in C#? o Creation of an ArrayList o Creation of a Dictionary o Creation of a two dimensional array o Creation of a non-zero based array Which of the following is the correct code for setting a Session timeout of 30 minutes o Session.Timeout = 108000 o Session.Timeout = 1800 o Session.Timeout = 300 o Session.Timeout = 30 The process that ASP.NET uses to keep track of Sessions without cookies is o Cookie Munging o Cookie Monking o Cookie Mocking o Cookie Munching The method that transfers ASP.NET execution to another page, but returns to the original page when it is done is o Server.Transfer() o Server.Redirect() o Server.Execute() o Server.Return()

• .Net Deployment Questions:
1. What do you know about .NET assemblies?

Answer: Assemblies are the smallest units of versioning and deployment in the .NET application. Assemblies are also the building blocks for

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.Net Interview Questions
programs such as Web services, Windows services, serviced components, and .NET remoting applications. What’s the Diversities between private and shared assembly? Answer: Private assembly is used inside an application only and does not have to be identified by a strong name. Shared assembly can be used by multiple applications and has to have a strong name. What’s a strong name? Answer: A strong name includes the name of the assembly, version number, culture identity, and a public key token. How can you tell the application to look for assemblies at the locations other than its own install? Answer: Use the directive in the XML .config file for a given application. <probing privatePath=”c:\mylibs; bin\debug” /> should do the trick. Or you can add additional search paths in the Properties box of the deployed application. How can you debug failed assembly binds? Answer: Use the Assembly Binding Log Viewer (fuslogvw.exe) to find out the paths searched. Where are shared assemblies stored? Answer: Global assembly cache. How can you create a strong name for a .NET assembly? Answer: With the help of Strong Name tool (sn.exe). Where’s global assembly cache located on the system? Answer: Usually C:\winnt\assembly or C:\windows\assembly. Can you have two files with the same file name in GAC? Answer: Yes, remember that GAC is a very special folder, and while normally you would not be able to place two files with the same name into a Windows folder, GAC differentiates by version number as well, so it’s possible for MyApp.dll and MyApp.dll to co-exist in GAC if the first one is version and the second one is So let’s say I have an application that uses MyApp.dll assembly, version There is a security bug in that assembly, and I publish the patch, issuing it under name MyApp.dll How do I tell the client applications that are already installed to start using this new MyApp.dll? Answer: Use publisher policy. To configure a publisher policy, use the publisher policy configuration file, which uses a format similar app .config file. But unlike the app .config file, a publisher policy file needs to be compiled into an assembly and placed in the GAC. What is delay signing? Answer: Delay signing allows you to place a shared assembly in the GAC by signing the assembly with just the public key. This allows the assembly to be signed with the private key at a later stage, when the development process is complete and the component or assembly is ready to be deployed. This process enables developers to work with shared assemblies as if they were strongly named, and it secures the private key of the signature from being accessed at different stages of development.


3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.



• .NET and COM Interop Questions:

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.Net Interview Questions
1. Describe the advantages of writing a managed code application instead of
unmanaged one. What’s involved in certain piece of code being managed? Answer: The advantages include automatic garbage collection, memory management, support for versioning and security. These advantages are provided through .NET FCL and CLR; while with the unmanaged code similar capabilities had to be implemented through third-party libraries or as a part of the application itself. Are COM objects managed or unmanaged? Answer: Since COM objects were written before .NET, apparently they are unmanaged. So can a COM object talk to a .NET object? Answer: Yes, through Runtime Callable Wrapper (RCW) or PInvoke. How do you generate an RCW from a COM object? Answer: Use the Type Library Import utility shipped with SDK. tlbimp COMobject.dll /out:.NETobject.dll or reference the COM library from Visual Studio in your project. I can’t import the COM object that I have on my machine. Did you write that object? Answer: You can only import your own objects. If you need to use a COM component from another developer, you should obtain a Primary Interop Assembly (PIA) from whoever authored the original object. How do you call unmanaged methods from your .NET code through PInvoke? Answer: Supply a DllImport attribute. Declare the methods in your .NET code as static extern. Do not implement the methods as they are implemented in your unmanaged code, you’re just providing declarations for method signatures. Can you retrieve complex data types like structs from the PInvoke calls? Answer: Yes, just make sure you re-declare that struct, so that managed code knows what to do with it. I want to expose my .NET objects to COM objects. Is that possible? Answer: Yes, but few things should be considered first. Classes should implement interfaces explicitly. Managed types must be public. Methods, properties, fields, and events that are exposed to COM must be public. Types must have a public default constructor with no arguments to be activated from COM. Types cannot be abstract. Can you inherit a COM class in a .NET application? Answer: The .NET Framework extends the COM model for reusability by adding implementation inheritance. Managed types can derive directly or indirectly from a COM coclass; more specifically, they can derive from the runtime callable wrapper generated by the runtime. The derived type can expose all the method and properties of the COM object as well as methods and properties implemented in managed code. The resulting object is partly implemented in managed code and partly implemented in unmanaged code. Suppose I call a COM object from a .NET applicaiton, but COM object throws an error. What happens on the .NET end? Answer: COM methods report errors by returning HRESULTs; .NET methods report them by throwing exceptions. The runtime handles the transition between the two. Each exception class in the .NET Framework maps to an HRESULT.

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.Net Interview Questions • .NET Windows Services Questions
1. Explain Windows service.
Answer: You often need programs that run continuously in the background. For example, an email server is expected to listen continuously on a network port for incoming email messages, a print spooler is expected to listen continuously to print requests, and so on. What’s the Unix name for a Windows service equivalent? Answer: Daemon. So basically a Windows service application is just another executable? What’s different about a Windows service as compared to a regular application? Answer: Windows services must support the interface of the Service Control Manager (SCM). A Windows service must be installed in the Windows service database before it can be launched. How is development of a Windows service different from a Windows Forms application? Answer: A Windows service typically does not have a user interface, it supports a set of commands and can have a GUI that’s built later to allow for easier access to those commands. How do you give Windows service specific permissions? Answer: Windows service always runs under someone’s identity. Can be System or Administrator account, but if you want to restrict the behavior of a Windows service, the best bet is to create a new user account, assign and deny necessary privileges to that account, and then associate the Windows service with that new account. Can you share processes between Windows services? Answer: Yes. Where’s Windows service database located? Answer: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services What does SCM do? Answer: SCM is Windows Service Control Manager. Its responsibilities are as follows: o Accepts requests to install and uninstall Windows services from the Windows service database. o To start Windows services either on system startup or requested by the user. o To enumerate installed Windows services. o To maintain status information for currently running Windows services. o To transmit control messages (such as Start, Stop, Pause, and Continue) to available Windows services. o To lock/unlock Windows service database. When developing a Windows service for .NET, which namespace do you typically look in for required classes? Answer: System.ServiceProcess. The classes are ServiceBase, ServiceProcessInstaller, ServiceInstaller and ServiceController. How do you handle Start, Pause, Continue and Stop calls from SCM within your application? Answer: By implementing OnStart, OnPause, OnContinue and OnStop methods. Page 49 of 55

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6. 7. 8.



.Net Interview Questions
11. Describe the start-up process for a Windows service. 12. 13. 14.
Answer: Main () is executed to create an instance of a Web service, then Run() to launch it, then OnStart() from within the instance is executed. I want to write a Windows service that cannot be paused, only started and stopped. How do I accomplish that? Answer: Set CanPauseAndContinue attribute to false. What application do you use to install a Windows service? Answer: installutil.exe How can you see which services are running on a Windows box? Answer: Admin Tools -> Computer Management -> Services and Application -> Services. You can also open the Computer Management tool by right-clicking on My Computer and selecting Manage from the popup menu. How do you start, pause, continue or stop a Windows service off the command line? Answer: net start ServiceName, net pause ServiceName and so on. Also sc.exe provides a command-line interface for Windows services. View the OS documentation or proper book chapters on using sc.exe.


• Tabled points
Interfaces vs. Abstract Classes
Feature Interface Abstract class Multiple A class may implement A class may extend only one inheritance several interfaces. abstract class. An abstract class can provide Default An interface cannot complete code, default code, implementati provide any code at all, and/or just stubs that have to on much less default code. be overridden. Static final constants only, can use them without qualification in classes that implement the interface. On the Both instance and static other paw, these constants are possible. Both Constants unqualified names static and instance intialiser pollute the namespace. code are also possible to You can use them and it compute the constants. is not obvious where they are coming from since the qualification is optional. An interface A third party class must be Third party implementation may be rewritten to extend only from convenience added to any existing the abstract class. third party class. is-a vs -able Interfaces are often An abstract class defines the

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.Net Interview Questions
used to describe the peripheral abilities of a class, not its central identity, e.g. an Automobile class might implement the Recyclable interface, which could apply to many otherwise totally unrelated objects. core identity of its descendants. If you defined a Dog abstract class then Damamation descendants are Dogs, they are not merely dogable. Implemented interfaces enumerate the general things a class can do, not the things a class is.

or can-do

You must use the abstract class as-is for the code base, with all its attendant baggage, good or bad. The abstract class author has imposed You can write a new structure on you. Depending replacement module for on the cleverness of the an interface that author of the abstract class, contains not one stick of this may be good or bad. code in common with Another issue that's important the existing is what I call "heterogeneous implementations. When vs. homogeneous." If you implement the implementors/subclasses are interface, you start from homogeneous, tend towards Plug-in scratch without any an abstract base class. If they default implementation. are heterogeneous, use an You have to obtain your interface. (Now all I have to tools from other classes; do is come up with a good nothing comes with the definition of interface other than a hetero/homogeneous in this few constants. This context.) If the various objects gives you freedom to are all of-a-kind, and share a implement a radically common state and behavior, different internal design. then tend towards a common base class. If all they share is a set of method signatures, then tend towards an interface. If the entire various If the various implementations implementations share are all of a kind and share a Homogeneity is the method common status and behavior, signatures, then an usually an abstract class interface works best. works best. If your client code talks Just like an interface, if your only in terms of an client code talks only in terms interface, you can easily of an abstract class, you can Maintenance change the concrete easily change the concrete implementation behind implementation behind it, it, using a factory using a factory method. method. Speed Slow, requires extra Fast indirection to find the

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.Net Interview Questions
corresponding method in the actual class. Modern JVMs are discovering ways to reduce this speed penalty. The constant You can put shared code into declarations in an an abstract class, where you interface are all cannot into an interface. If presumed public static interfaces want to share code, final, so you may leave you will have to write other that part out. You can't bubblegum to arrange that. call any methods to Terseness You may use methods to compute the initial compute the initial values of values of your your constants and variables, constants. You need not both instance and static. You declare individual must declare all the individual methods of an interface methods of an abstract class abstract. They are all abstract. presumed so. If you add a new method to an interface, If you add a new method to an you must track down all abstract class, you have the Adding implementations of that option of providing a default functionality interface in the universe implementation of it. Then all and provide them with a existing code will continue to concrete implementation work without change. of that method.

Order of events in an asp.net page Control Execution Lifecycle?
Phase Initialize What a control needs to do Method or event to override

Initialize settings needed during Init event (OnInit method) the lifetime of the incoming Web request. At the end of this phase, the LoadViewState method ViewState property of a control is automatically populated as described in Maintaining State in a Control. A control can override the default implementation of the LoadViewState method to customize state restoration. Process incoming form data and update properties accordingly. Perform actions common to all LoadPostData method (if IPostBackDataHandler is implemented) Load event

Load view state

Process postback data Load

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.Net Interview Questions
requests, such as setting up a database query. At this point, (OnLoad method) server controls in the tree are created and initialized, the state is restored, and form controls reflect client-side data. Send postback change notifications Handle postback events Prerender Raise change events in response RaisePostDataChangedEve to state changes between the nt method (if current and previous postbacks. IPostBackDataHandler is implemented) Handle the client-side event that caused the postback and raise appropriate events on the server. RaisePostBackEvent method(if IPostBackEventHandler is implemented)

Perform any updates before the PreRender event output is rendered. Any changes (OnPreRender method) made to the state of the control in the prerender phase can be saved, while changes made in the rendering phase are lost. The ViewState property of a SaveViewState method control is automatically persisted to a string object after this stage. This string object is sent to the client and back as a hidden variable. For improving efficiency, a control can override the SaveViewState method to modify the ViewState property. Generate output to be rendered to the client. Render method

Save state

Render Dispose

Perform any final cleanup before Dispose method the control is torn down. References to expensive resources such as database connections must be released in this phase. Perform any final cleanup before UnLoad event (On UnLoad the control is torn down. Control method) authors generally perform cleanup in Dispose and do not handle this event.


Diversities between
Web user controls Easier to create Limited support for consumers who Web custom controls Harder to create Full visual design tool support for

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.Net Interview Questions
use a visual design tool A separate copy of the control is required in each application Cannot be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Good for static layout consumers Only a single copy of the control is required, in the global assembly cache Can be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Good for dynamic layout

The different authentication modes in the .NET environment
Attribu Option te mode Description Controls the default authentication mode for an application. Window Specifies Windows authentication as the default s authentication mode. Use this mode when using any form of Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) authentication: Basic, Digest, Integrated Windows authentication (NTLM/Kerberos), or certificates. Forms Specifies ASP.NET forms-based authentication as the default authentication mode.

Passpor Specifies Microsoft Passport authentication as the default t authentication mode. None Specifies no authentication. Only anonymous users are expected or applications can handle events to provide their own authentication.

Diversities between web services & remoting
ASP.NET Web Services Protocol Can be accessed only over HTTP .NET Remoting Can be accessed over any protocol (including TCP, HTTP, SMTP and so on) Provide support for both stateful and stateless environments through Singleton and SingleCall objects Using binary communication, .NET Remoting can provide support for rich type system .NET remoting requires the client be built using .NET, enforcing homogenous environment.

State Web services work in a Management stateless environment Web services support only the datatypes defined in the Type System XSD type system, limiting the number of objects that can be serialized. Interoperabil Web services support ity interoperability across platforms, and are ideal for

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.Net Interview Questions
heterogeneous environments. Can also take advantage of IIS for Highly reliable due to the fact fault isolation. If IIS is not used, that Web services are always application needs to provide hosted in IIS plumbing for ensuring the reliability of the application. Very extensible by allowing us to customize the different components of the .NET remoting framework. Complex to program.


Provides extensibility by allowing us to intercept the Extensibility SOAP messages during the serialization and deserialization stages. Ease-ofProgrammin Easy-to-create and deploy. g

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