You are on page 1of 12

Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

Effect of fluid inertia on stability of flexibly supported oil journal

bearings: linear perturbation analysis
S.K. Kakoty , B.C. Majumdar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India

Received 27 November 1998; received in revised form 14 April 1999; accepted 22 May 1999


A theoretical analysis to study the effect of fluid inertia on the stability of oil film journal bearings mounted on flexible support
using linear perturbation technique is presented. The Navier–Stokes equations have been solved using the parabolic velocity profile.
The dynamic coefficients are calculated without neglecting the mass of the oil in the bearing for different length to diameter ratios
and modified Reynolds numbers. These are then used to find stability margin for different support parameters to study the effect
of fluid inertia.  1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fluid inertia; Flexible support; Stability

1. Introduction some effect on dynamic characteristics. The method

adopted in [13] has the advantage that it is not restricted
To avoid the instability associated with plain cylindrical to only very small values of the inertia parameter, i.e.,
bearings the designers have used multi-lobe, tilting pad, modified Reynolds number (Re*⬍1). Therefore, a modi-
pressure dam and other designs to increase the stable speed fied Reynolds equation along with two average momentum
range of their equipment. Many investigators reported that equations is considered here where fluid inertia terms are
flexible mountings gave greater stability to a rotor bearing included. To estimate the dynamic coefficients of the film
system [1–11]. The mass of fluid is generally neglected in a linear perturbation analysis is carried out assigning small
the study of instability of bearings because of negligible oscillation of the bearing about the static position. Fwther,
inertia effect in determining the fluid film forces. However, the equations of motion are also linearised by perturbing
with the use of low viscosity fluids and owing to the high in a similar way and estimated dynamic coefficients are
speed associated with present day machinery it is worth- used to determine the stability parameters, i.e., critical mass
while to include the effects of fluid film inertia [12–17]. parameter and whirl ratio. The dynamic coefficients are
Keeping in view the above, an attempt is made here to calculated without neglecting the mass of the oil in the
study the effect of fluid inertia on the stability of flexibly bearing for different length to diameter ratios and modified
supported bearings. The Reynolds equation in classical Reynolds numbers. Stability margins are studied for differ-
lubrication theory is not applicable in such a situation. ent length to diameter ratio as well as different operating
There are different approaches, like the assumption of para- conditions. It would be seen that fluid inertia influences
bolic velocity profile [13], iteration method [17] and lin- the stability characteristics of journal bearings even when
earisation of Navier–Stokes equations by using first order the bearing supports are flexible.
perturbation in the inertia parameter [14]. It has been
observed that steady state characteristics are not affected
2. Theoretical analysis
much due to fluid inertia [18]. However, fluid inertia has
2.1. Stability analysis of a flexibly supported bearing

* Corresponding author. The equations of motion for a rigid rotor supported

On deputation from Assam Engineering College, Guwahati 781 on two identical flexibly supported bearings are given
019, India. by (Fig. 1),

0301-679X/99/$ - see front matter  1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 3 0 1 - 6 7 9 X ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 3 6 - 5
218 S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

Aee, Afe, Aef, Aff Acceleration coefficients (N m⫺1 s⫺2)
Āee, Āfe, Āef, Āff Dimensionless acceleration coefficients, , i=e, f and j=e, f
B Support damping coefficients (N m⫺1 s⫺1)
B̄ Non-dimensional support damping coefficients,
Bee, Bfe, Bef, Bff Damping coefficients (N m⫺1 s⫺1)
Bij C3
B̄ee, B̄fe, B̄ef, B̄ff Dimensionless acceleration coefficients, , i=e, f and j=e, f
C Radial clearance (m)
D Diameter of journal (m)
e Eccentricity (m)
Fe, Ff Hydrodynamic forces (N)
F C2 F C2
F̄e, F̄f Dimensionless hydrodynamic forces, F̄e= ε 3 , F̄f= f 2
mwR L mwR L
h, h0 Film thickness, C(1+e cos q), C(1+e0 cos q)
h̄, h̄0 Dimensionless film thickness, h/C, h0/C
K Support stiffness coefficient (N m⫺1)
K̄ Dimensionless support stiffness coefficient,
Kee, Kfe, Kef, Kff Stiffness coefficients (N m⫺1)
K C3
K̄ee, K̄fe, K̄ef, K̄ff Dimensionless stiffness coefficients, ij 3 , i=e, f and j=e, f
mwR L
L Length of the bearing (m)
m Mass ratio,
Mr Mass of rotor per bearing (kg)
Mb Mass of bearing (kg)
M̄ Mass parameter,
p, p0 Film pressure, steady state film pressure (Pa)
pC2 p0C2
p̄, p̄0 Dimensionless film pressure, ,
mwR2 mwR2
p̄x, p̄y, p̄ẋ, p̄ẏ Dimensionless perturbed (dynamic) pressures
Qq, Qq0, Qqx, Qqẋ, Qqy, Qqẏ Dimensionless flow parameters in q direction
Qz̄, Qz̄0, Qz̄x, Qz̄ẋ, Qz̄y, Qz̄ẏ Dimensionless flow parameters in Z̄ direction
R Radius of journal (m)
Re Reynolds number,
Re* Modified Reynolds number, 冉冊
t Time (s)
u, v, w Velocity components in x, y, z directions (m s⫺1)
u v w
ū, v̄, w̄ Dimensionless velocity components, , ,
Rw Cw Rw

Velocity across the film at Ȳ=h̄, +⍀
dt冉 df
cos q+e sin q
dt 冊
W0 Steady state load bearing capacity (N)
W̄0 Dimensionless steady state load,
S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228 219

x, y, z Coordinates (Fig. 2(a))

X, Y Coordinates (Fig. 2(b))
Xb, Yb Displacement of bearing centre along X and Y directions
Xb Yb
X̄b, Ȳb Non-dimensional displacement of bearing centre along X and Y directions, ,
Xr, Yr Displacement of rotor centre along X and Y directions
X̄r, Ȳr Xr Yr
Non-dimensional displacement of rotor centre along X and Y directions, ,
x y z
q, Ȳ, Z̄ Dimensionless coordinates, , ,
R C L/2
e, e0 Eccentricity ratio e/C (dimensionless), steady state eccentricity ratio
r Density of the lubricant (kg m⫺3)
w Angular velocity of journal (rad s⫺1)
wp Angular velocity of whirl (rad s⫺1)
m Absolute viscosity of lubricating fluid (N s m⫺2)
f, f0 Attitude angle, steady state attitude angle (rad)
q1, q2 Angular coordinates at which film commences and cavitates
⍀ Whirl ratio,
t Dimensionless time, wpt

Fig. 1. Rotor-bearing configuration.

d 2Xr the lowest obtainable since bearing support asymmetry

Mr ⫽Fe sin f⫹Ff cos f (1) in general increases the stable operating speed ranges.
The relations between rotor and bearing motions are
d 2Yr given by (Fig. 2(b)):
Mr ⫽Fe cos f⫺Ff sin f⫹W0 (2)
Xr⫽Xb⫹e sin f (5)
d 2Xb dXb
Mb ⫽⫺Fe sin f⫺Ff cos f⫺B ⫺KXb (3)
dt 2
dt Yr⫽Yb⫹e cos f (6)
d Yb dYb Xr and Yr given in Eqs. (5) and (6) are substituted in
Mb 2
⫽⫺Fe cos f⫹Ff sin f⫺B ⫺KYb (4)
dt dt Eqs. (1)–(4). Equations of motion in non-dimensional
The cross-coupling terms, for the flexible support, are form are expressed as:
neglected to reduce the number of variables in the analy- -̈
Xb⫽⫺(F̄e sin f⫹F̄f cos f⫹W̄0K̄X̄b (7)
sis. Also, the support characteristics are assumed to be

symmetric. Thus the extent of the stable region will be ⫹W̄0B̄Xb)/(M̄mW̄0)
220 S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

Fig. 2. Coordinate system.

Yb⫽⫺(F̄e cos f⫺F̄f sin f⫹W̄0K̄Ȳb (8) (⫺M̄W̄0⍀2⫹K̄ee⫺i⍀B̄ee⫺⍀2Āee)e1eit

⫹W̄0B̄Yb)/(M̄mW̄0) W̄0
⫹(K̄ef⫹i⍀B̄ef⫺⍀2Āef⫹ sin f0)e0f1eit
F̄e+W̄0 cos f -̈ e0

ë⫽ ⫺Xb sin f⫺Yb cos f⫹eḟ2 (9)
M̄W̄0 ⫺M̄W̄0⍀2 sin f0X̄b1eit⫺M̄W̄0⍀2 cos f0Ȳb1eit⫽0 (21)
-̈ -̈ (⫺M̄W̄0⍀2⫹K̄fe⫹i⍀B̄fe⫺⍀2Āfe)e1eit
F̄f+W̄0 sin f Xb cos f Yb sin f 2ėḟ
f̈⫽ ⫺ ⫹ ⫺ (10)
M̄W̄0e e e e W̄0
⫹(K̄ff⫹i⍀B̄ff⫺⍀2Āff⫹ cos f0)e0f1eit
For small amplitude whirl the displacements X̄b, Ȳb, e e0
and f may be expressed as: ⫺M̄W̄0⍀2 cos f0X̄b1eit⫺M̄W̄0⍀2 sin f0Ȳb1eit⫽0 (22)
X̄b⫽X̄b0⫹X̄b1e it
(11) {(⫺K̄ee⫺i⍀B̄ee⫺⍀2Āee)sin f0
Ȳb⫽Ȳb0⫹Ȳb1eit (12) ⫹(⫺K̄fe⫺i⍀B̄fe⫹⍀2Āfe)cos f0}e1eit
f⫽f0⫹f1e it

⫹ (⫺K̄ef⫺i⍀B̄ef

The hydrodynamic forces are given by ⫹⍀2Āef)sin f0⫹(⫺K̄ff⫺i⍀B̄ff⫹⍀2Āff)cos f0 (23)

(15) ⫺

e f eit⫹W̄0(⫺M̄m⍀2⫹K̄⫹i⍀B̄)X̄b1eit⫽0
e0 0 1
{(⫺K̄ee⫺i⍀B̄ee⫺⍀2Āee)cos f0
F̄f⫽(F̄f)0⫹(F̄f)d (16)
⫺(⫺K̄fe⫺i⍀B̄fe⫹⍀2Āfe)sin f0}e1eit
⫹{(⫺K̄ef⫺i⍀B̄ef⫹⍀2Āef)cos f0
(F̄e)d⫽(⫺K̄ee⫺i⍀B̄ee⫹⍀ Āee)e1e
2 it
⫺(⫺K̄ff⫺i⍀B̄ff⫹⍀2Āff)sin f0}e0f1eit
⫹(⫺K̄ef⫺i⍀B̄ef⫹⍀ Āef)e0f1e
2 it
⫹W̄0(⫺M̄m⍀2⫹K̄⫹i⍀B̄)Ȳb1eit⫽0 (24)
(F̄f)d⫽(⫺K̄fe⫺i⍀B̄fe⫹⍀ Āfe)e1e
2 it
For a non-trivial solution the determinant of the Eqs.
⫹(⫺K̄ff⫺i⍀B̄ff⫹⍀2Āff)e0f1eit (18) (21)–(24) is set to zero. Equating the imaginary and real
parts of the determinant separately to zero we arrive at
Under static equilibrium condition: the following two equations:
(F̄e)0⫽⫺W̄0 cos f0 (19) (a1M̄4⫹a2M̄3⫹a3M̄2)⍀8⫺(b1M̄3⫹b2M̄2⫹b3M̄)⍀6 (25)
(F̄f)0⫽W̄0 sin f0 (20) ⫹(c1M̄ ⫹c2M̄⫹c3)⍀ ⫺(d1M̄⫹d2)⍀ ⫹e1⫽0
2 4 2

The hydrodynamic forces (F̄e and F̄f) and displacements (p1M̄3⫹p2M̄2⫹p3M̄)⍀6⫺(q1M̄2⫹q2M̄⫹q3)⍀4 (26)
(X̄b, Ȳb, e and f) and derivatives of displacements are
substituted in the Eqs. (7)–(10) to obtain the following
equations: where
S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228 221

冉 冊冉冊 冉 冊
∂ 3∂p̄

∂q ∂q

D 2 ∂ 3 ∂p̄

L ∂Z̄ ∂Z̄
b1⫽2W̄ mK̄⫹W m(m⫹1)a3
冉 冉冊 冊
⫽12V̄⫺6 ⫺2Re∗
∂(h̄Iq) D ∂(h̄IZ̄)

L ∂Z̄

b2⫽W̄30K̄(2m⫹1)a5⫹W̄30B̄(2m⫹1)a4⫹W̄20(m⫹1)2a7 This equation has to be solved simultaneously with the

following two equations:
h̄2 ∂p̄
b4⫽W̄20B̄2α6 Qq⫽· ⫹Re∗Iq (28)
2 ∂q

h̄2 ∂p̄ D
c2⫽2W̄ (m⫹1)(K̄a7⫹B̄a10)⫹2W K̄B̄a4⫹W̄ K̄ a5
2 3 3 2 QZ̄⫽· ⫹Re∗IZ̄ (29)
0 0 0 2 ∂Z̄ L
c3⫽W̄20(B̄2a7⫹K̄2a6⫹2K̄B̄a8) where,

冋 冉 冉冊 冊
h̄ 1 ∂h̄ 4 ∂h̄ D h̄ ∂QZ̄ Qq
d2⫽W̄20(2B̄K̄a10⫹K̄2a7⫹B̄2a9) Iq⫽ ⫺ ⍀ ⫹ ⫺2V̄⫹ ⫺
2 2 ∂t 3 ∂q L 6 ∂Z̄ 6
p1⫽W̄30m(m⫹1)a4⫹2W̄40mB̄ 冉 冉冊 冊 冉
∂t ∂q L 5 ∂Z̄ 冉冊
∂h̄ ∂h̄ D h̄ ∂QZ̄ h̄ ∂Qq ∂Qq QZ̄ D
⍀ ⫹ ⫺ ⫺ ⍀
⫹ ⫺
∂t ∂q 5 L
p3⫽2W̄ (m⫹1)B̄a6
冊 冉
∂Z̄ 冊册
∂Qq Qq ∂Qq QZ̄ ∂h̄
⫹ h̄ ⫹
15 ∂q 2 ∂q
冋 冉
2 6 冊 冉
h̄ QZ̄ ∂h̄ 1 ∂h̄ Qq ∂h̄ h̄ ∂QZ̄ 1 ∂QZ̄
IZ̄⫽ ⫺ ⍀ ⫹ ⫺
∂t 2 ∂q 5 ∂q 6
⫺ ⍀ ⫹
∂t 2 ∂q
⫺ 冊 冉 冉 冊 冊册
QZ̄ ∂Qq
5 ∂q

h̄ Qq ∂QZ̄ D
15 2 ∂q
⫹ Q
L Z̄ ∂Z̄

r2⫽W̄20(2B̄K̄a7⫹B̄2a10⫹K̄a8) These equations are derived starting from Navier–

Stokes equations together with the continuity equation
s1⫽W̄20K̄(K̄a10⫹2B̄a9) considering that the velocity profiles across the film
W̄0 remain parabolic even when the fluid film inertia is con-
a1⫽K̄ff⫹ cos f0 sidered [13]. Although the method proposed by Con-
stantinescu and Galetuse [13] covers turbulent regime of
W̄0 flow, the present study is restricted to the laminar flow
a2⫽K̄ef⫹ sin f0 regime only. However, the time dependent terms (viz.
(∂Qq)/(∂t), (∂QZ̄)/(∂t)) are retained. The boundary con-
a3⫽K̄εε⫹a1 ditions used for pressure distribution are as follows:
(i) p̄(q, Z̄)=0 for q=q1 and q=q2
(ii) p̄(q, ±1)=0
a6⫽ĀeeĀff⫺ĀefĀfe (iii) ∂p̄
=0 at Z̄=0
a7⫽Āeea1⫹ĀffK̄ee⫺ĀefK̄fe⫺Āfea2⫹B̄eeB̄ff⫺B̄efB̄fe ∂Z̄
(iv) ∂p̄
a8⫽ĀeeB̄ff⫹ĀffB̄ee⫺ĀefB̄fe⫺ĀfeB̄ef =0 at q=q2
a9⫽K̄eea1⫺K̄fea2 As the journal whirls about its mean steady-state position
a10⫽K̄eeB̄ff⫹B̄eea1⫺B̄efK̄fe⫺B̄fea2 given by e0 and f0, for the first order perturbation, the
pressure (p̄), flow parameters (Qq and QZ̄) and film thick-
ness (h̄) can be expressed as follows (see Appendix A):
2.2. Hydrodynamic forces and dynamic coefficients p̄⫽p̄0⫹p̄xe1eit⫹p̄ye01f1eit⫹ip̄ẋe1eit⫹ip̄ẏe01f1eit (30)
Qq⫽Qq0⫹Qqxe1eit⫹Qqye01f1eit⫹iQqẋe1eit (31)
The modified Reynolds equation incorporating fluid
inertia effects is given by ⫹iQqẏe01f1e it
222 S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

QZ̄⫽QZ̄0⫹QZ̄xe1eit⫹QZ̄ye01f1eit⫹iQZ̄ẋe1eit (32) 2.2.2. Second set

⫹iQZ̄ẏe01f1e it

h̄⫽h̄0⫹e1eit cos q⫹e0f1eit sin q ∂p̄0 h̄20 ∂p̄x ∗

(33) Qqx⫽h̄0 cos q⫹ Re Iqx (37)
∂q 2 ∂q
where e=e0+e1e and f=f0+f1e .
it it

The forms of p̄, Qq and Qz̄ are used to accommodate

the effect of inertia force of the mass of oil in determin- QZ̄x⫽ 冉冊D ∂p̄0
cos q⫹
2 L ∂Z̄ 冉冊
h̄20 D ∂p̄x
⫹Re∗IZ̄x (38)

冉 冊冉冊
ing the stiffness and damping coefficients (see Appendix
A). In the usual case the mass of fluid is ignored. Substi- ∂ ∂p̄0 ∂p̄x D 2∂
3h̄20 cos q⫹h̄30 ⫹
tuting these expressions in the Eqs. (27)–(29) and by ∂q ∂q ∂q L ∂Z̄

冉 冊
the method of separation of variables, we arrive at the
following five sets of equations when higher order terms ∂p̄0 ∂p̄x
3h̄20 cos q⫹h̄30 ⫽⫺6 sin q⫺2Re∗
are neglected: ∂Z̄ ∂Z̄

2.2.1. First set 冉 ∂q 冉冊

∂(h̄0Iqx) D ∂(h̄0IZ̄x) ∂(Iq0 cos q)

L ∂Z̄


h̄20 ∂p̄0
2 ∂q
⫹Re∗Iq0 (34) ⫹ 冉冊D ∂(IZ̄0 cos q)
L ∂Z̄ 冊 (39)

h̄20 D ∂p̄0

2 L ∂Z̄ D ∂QZ̄x

冉 冊冉冊 冉 冊
Iqx⫽C1 sin q⫹C2 cos q⫹C3Qqx⫹A4QZ̄x⫹A5
∂ 3∂p̄0 D ∂ 3∂p̄0 L ∂Z̄

h̄0 h̄
∂q ∂q L ∂Z̄ 0 ∂Z̄ D ∂Qqx ∂Qqx

冉 冉冊 冊
⫹A6 ⫹2A5
∂h̄0 ∂(h̄0Iq0) D ∂(h̄0IZ̄0) L ∂Z̄ ∂q
⫽6 ⫺2Re∗ ⫹ (36)
∂ ∂q L ∂Z̄ ∂QZ̄x
IZ̄x⫽K1 sin q⫹K2 cos q⫹K3Qqx⫹K4QZ̄x⫹A5
where ∂q

Iq0⫽h̄0 ⫺ ⫹ 冊
冉 冊冉 冊
1 Qq0 Q2q0 ∂h̄0 2 1 Qq0 D ∂QZ̄0
⫺h̄ ⫺
6 12 60 ∂q 0 24 60 L ∂Z̄
L ∂Z̄冉冊
D ∂QZ̄x

⫹h̄20冉 ⫺ 冊
30 12 ∂q 冉冊
Qq0 1 ∂Qq0 h̄20QZ̄0 D ∂Qq0

60 L ∂Z̄

冉 冊 冉 冊
2.2.3. Third set
1 Qq0 ∂h̄0 2 1 Qq0 ∂QZ̄0
Iz̄0⫽h̄0QZ̄0 ⫺ ⫹ ⫺h̄ ⫺
24 60 ∂q 0 24 60 ∂q
∂p̄0 h̄20 ∂p̄y ∗

60 冉 冉冊 冊
h̄20QZ̄0 ∂Qq0
D ∂QZ̄0
L ∂Z̄
sin q⫹
2 ∂q
Re IXy (40)

Steady-state pressure distribution can be evaluated from

Eqs. (34)–(36) using following boundary conditions:
QZ̄y⫽ 冉冊D ∂p̄0
sin q⫹
2 L ∂Z̄冉冊
h̄20 D ∂p̄y
⫹Re∗IZ̄y (41)

p̄0(q, Z̄)=0 for q=q1 and q=q2
p̄0(q, ±1)=0

∂q 冉
sin q⫹h̄30
⫹ 冊冉冊
D 2∂
L ∂Z̄
(iii) ∂p̄0
=0 at Z̄=0 冉3h̄20
sin q⫹h̄30
∂Z̄ 冊
⫽⫺6 cos q⫺2Re∗
冉 冉冊
=0 at q=q2 ∂(h̄0Iqy) D ∂(h̄0IZ̄y) ∂(Iq0 sin q)
∂Z̄ ⫹ ⫹
∂q L ∂Z̄ ∂q
where, q1 and q2 are the angles at which film commences
and cavitates, respectively.
Since the bearing is symmetrical about its central plane
(Z̄=0), only one half of the bearing needs to be con-
⫹ 冉冊 D ∂(IZ̄0 sin q)
L ∂Z̄ 冊 (42)

sidered for the analysis. where

S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228 223

IXy⫽⫺C1 cos q⫹C2 sin q⫹C3Qqy⫹A4QZ̄y⫹A5 冉冊 D ∂QZ̄y

L ∂Z̄ 冉
Iqẏ⫽ A1⫹⍀
2 冊
sin q⫹A2Qqy⫹A3Qqẏ⫹A4QZ̄ẏ

⫹A6 冉冊 D ∂Qqy
L ∂Z̄
⫹A5 冉冊 D ∂QZ̄ẏ
L ∂Z̄
⫹A6 冉冊
D ∂Qqẏ
L ∂Z̄
∂QZ̄y ∂QZ̄ẏ
IZ̄y⫽⫺K1 cos q⫹K2 sin q⫹K3Qqy⫹K4QZ̄y⫹A5 IZ̄ẏ⫽B1 sin q⫹A2QZ̄y⫹B3Qqẏ⫹B4QZ̄ẏ⫹A5
∂q ∂q

L ∂Z̄ 冉冊
D ∂QZ̄y
⫹2A6 冉冊
D ∂Qqẏ
L ∂Z̄
The coefficients are given as follows:

2.2.4. Fourth set A1⫽

1⫺ 冉 冊

h̄20 ∂p̄ẋ
2 ∂q
⫹Re∗Iqẋ (43) A3⫽h̄0 ⫺i⍀冉 ⫺ ⫹ 冉冊
h̄0 1 ∂h̄0 h̄0 D ∂Qz̄0 h̄0 ∂Qq0

12 12 ∂q 60 L ∂Z̄ 30 ∂q

h̄20 D ∂p̄ẋ
2 L ∂Z̄
⫹Re∗IZ̄ẋ (44) ⫹
Qq0 ∂h̄0
30 ∂q 冊
冉 冊冉冊 冉 冊
∂ 3∂p̄ẋ
∂q ∂q

D 2 ∂ 3∂p̄ẋ

L ∂Z̄ 0 ∂Z̄
⫽12⍀ cos q (45) A4⫽ 冉冊
h̄20 D ∂Qq0
60 L ∂Z̄
A5⫽ ⫺1⫹
5 冉 冊
冉 冉冊 冊
∂(h̄0Iqẋ) D ∂(h̄0IZ̄ẋ)

L ∂Z̄
A7⫽ ⫺1⫹
5 冉 冊
where B1⫽⫺
⍀h̄0QZ̄0 h̄0 ∂h̄0

B3⫽ QZ̄0 ⫹h̄0
∂q 冊
12 60
D ∂QZ̄ẋ
Iqẋ⫽A1 cos q⫹A2Qqx⫹A3Qqẋ⫹A4QZ̄ẋ⫹A5
L ∂Z̄ B4⫽h̄0 ⫺i⍀冉 ⫺ ⫹ 冉冊
h̄0 1 ∂h̄0 h̄0 D ∂QZ̄0 h̄0 ∂Qq0

12 24 ∂q 30 L ∂Z̄ 60 ∂q
⫹A6 冉冊 D ∂Qqẋ
L ∂Z̄
∂q ⫹
Qq0 ∂h̄0
60 ∂q 冊
IZ̄ẋ⫽B1 cos q⫹A2QZ̄x⫹B3Qqẋ⫹B4QZ̄ẋ⫹A5
∂q C1⫽
冉 Qq0 Q2q0
⫺1⫹ ⫺ 冊
6 2 10

冉 冊
D ∂Qqẋ ∂Qqẋ
⫹2A6 ⫹A6 1 ∂h̄0 h̄0 ∂QZ̄0 ∂Qq0 Qq0 ∂h̄0
L ∂Z̄ ∂q C2⫽ ⫺ D ⫺h̄0 ⫺
6 ∂q 2 ∂Z̄ ∂q 12 ∂q

2.2.5. Fifth set

30 L ∂Z̄冉冊 30 L ∂Z̄
⫹ 冉冊
Qq0h̄0 D ∂QZ̄0 QZ̄0h̄0 D ∂Qq0 Qq0h̄0 ∂Qq0

15 ∂q
Q2q0 ∂h̄0

h̄ ∂p̄ẏ
60 ∂q
Qqẏ⫽ ⫹Re∗Iqẏ

2 ∂q
h̄0 ∂h̄0 h̄20 D ∂QZ̄0 Qq0h̄0 ∂h̄0 h̄20 ∂Qq0

C3⫽ ⫹ ⫹ ⫹
h̄ D ∂p̄ẏ
12 ∂q 60 L ∂Z̄ 30 ∂q 30 ∂q
QZ̄ẏ⫽ ⫹Re∗IZ̄ẏ

∂ 3∂p̄ẏ
2 L ∂Z̄

冉 冊冉冊 冉 冊

D ∂ 3∂p̄ẏ2
⫽24⍀ sin q
K1⫽ 冉 冊
QZ̄0h̄0 1 Qq0
12 2 5

冉 冊 冉 冊
h̄ h̄ (48)
∂q 0 ∂q L ∂Z̄ 0 ∂Z̄ QZ̄0 ∂h̄0 1 Qq0 h̄0 ∂QZ̄0 2Qq0 QZ̄0h̄0

冉 冉冊 冊
K2⫽ ⫺ ⫹ ⫺ 1⫺ ⫹
∂(h̄0Iqẏ) D ∂(h̄0IZ̄y) 12 ∂q 2 5 12 ∂q 5 30
⫺2Re∗ ⫹

∂q L ∂Z̄
冉 冉冊 冊
D ∂QZ̄0
L ∂Z̄
224 S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

60 冉 ∂h̄0
QZ̄0 ⫹h̄0
∂q 冊 1
B̄ef⫽⫺ Real
⍀ 冋冕冕
1 q2

p̄ẏ cos q dq dZ̄ 册 (59)

K4⫽ ⫺ ⫹
12 ∂q 2 5 冉
h̄0 ∂h̄0 1 Qq0 h̄ ∂Qq0

60 ∂q
⫹2 冊 冉
D ∂QZ̄0
L ∂Z̄
冉冊 冊 0 q1

冋冕冕 册
1 q2

The pressure boundary conditions for the above sets of 1

B̄ff⫽⫺ Real p̄ẏ sin q dq dZ̄ (60)
equations are as follows: ⍀
0 q1

(i) p̄i(q, Z̄)=0 for q=q1 and q=q2

冋冕冕 册
1 q2
(ii) p̄i(q, ±1)=0
(iii) ∂p̄i Āee⫽⫺ 2Im p̄ẋ cos q dq dZ̄ (61)
=0 at Z̄=0 ⍀
∂Z̄ 0 q1
i=x, y, ẋ, ẏ

冋冕冕 册
1 q2

The steady-state load carrying capacity and attitude 1

Āfe⫽⫺ Im p̄ẋ sin q dq dZ̄ (62)
angle can be determined from: ⍀2
0 q1

冉 冊 冕冕
1 q2

冋冕冕 册
1 q2
(F̄e)0 ⫽ ⫽ p̄0 cos q dq dZ̄ (49) 1
Āef⫽⫺ 2Im p̄ẏ cos q dq dZ̄ (63)
0 q1

0 q1

冉 冊 冕冕
1 q2

冋冕冕 册
1 q2
(F̄f)0 ⫽ ⫽ p̄0 sin q dq dZ̄ (50)
mwR3L 1
0 q1 Āff⫽⫺ 2Im p̄ẏ sin q dq dZ̄ (64)

W̄0⫽((F̄e)20⫹(F̄f)20)1/2 (51) 0 q1

f0⫽tan−1 ⫺ 冉 冊 (F̄f)0

The dynamic coefficients are calculated as follows:

3. Solution scheme

1 q2

K̄ee⫽⫺ p̄x cos q dq dZ̄ (53) 3.1. Steady-state analysis

0 q1

Solution of the first set of equations (Eqs. (34)–(36))

1 q2
satisfying the boundary conditions gives the steady-state
K̄fe⫽⫺ p̄x sin q dq dZ̄ (54) pressure and flow parameters. The equations are solved
0 q1 in a finite difference grid. The Eqs. (34) and (35) are
solved using the Newton–Raphson method, whereas Eq.

1 q2
(36) is solved using successive over relaxation scheme.
K̄ef⫽⫺ p̄y cos q dq dZ̄ (55) The updated values of flow parameters and pressure are
0 q1 used iteratively till all the variables converge simul-
taneously. The convergence criterion adopted for press-

1 q2
ure is |(1⫺{⌺p̄new}/{⌺p̄old})|ⱕ10−4 and the same criteria
K̄ff⫽⫺ p̄y sin q dq dZ̄ (56) used for Qq and Qz̄.
For higher eccentricity ratios (e0⬎0.2) the initial
0 q1
values for the variables are taken from the results corre-

冋冕冕 册
1 q2 sponding to the previous eccentricity ratio. Very small
1 increment in e0 is to be provided as Re* increases. The
B̄ee⫽⫺ Real p̄ẋ cos q dq dZ̄ (57)
⍀ procedure converges up to a value of Re*=1.5, which
0 q1 should be good enough since our aim is to investigate
the effects of fluid inertia when modified Reynolds num-

冋冕冕 册
1 q2
1 ber is around one. Once the pressure distribution is
B̄fe⫽⫺ Real p̄ẋ sin q dq dZ̄ (58) evaluated the load bearing capacity W̄0 and the attitude

0 q1 angle f0 are calculated (Fig. 1).
S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228 225

3.2. Dynamic coefficients

After having obtained the steady-state solution, the

remaining four sets of equations are solved for perturbed
pressures and flow parameters satisfying the boundary
conditions. Since the equations are linear in those sets,
SOR technique in a finite difference grid is used. All the
variables in a particular set of equations are iteratively
used till these converge simultaneously, the convergence
criterion being same as for the steady state solution. The
evaluated pressures are then used to determine different
dynamic coefficients as given in Eqs. (53)–(64).

3.3. Stability analysis

Fig. 3. Stability map of a journal bearing mounted on a flexible sup-
port with high stiffness without considering inertia (K̄=10.0, B̄=0.01,
The dynamic coefficients are initially evaluated for an m=0.1) for L/D=1.0.
assumed value of whirl ratio. Then these dynamic co-
efficients are used to find the mass parameter from Eq.
(25). The mass parameter so evaluated and the assumed
whirl ratio should satisfy Eq. (26). If it does not satisfy
Eq. (26), a new value of whirl ratio is used and the
dynamic coefficients are evaluated again. The process is
continued till Eq. (26) is satisfied, thereby the values of
critical mass parameter and whirl ratio for different e0
are found. It may be mentioned here that with updated
values of whirl ratio only the acceleration coefficients
get changed, whereas stiffness and damping coefficients
remain the same for a set of L/D, Re* and e0.

4. Results and discussion

Fig. 4. Effect of fluid inertia on stability of a journal bearing mounted
Steady-state results are compared to those reported by on a flexible support (K̄=0.1, B̄=0.01, m=0.1) for L/D=0.5.
Chen and Chen [18]. Results are found to be in good
agreement as shown in Table 1 though the methods
are different. of K̄=10.0 is close to one found for rigidly supported
Stability maps are presented in Figs. 3–7 to study the bearings [19]. It may be noted that the critical mass par-
effect of fluid inertia. It is observed from Fig. 3 that the ameters and whirl ratios increase and decrease, respect-
stability map for flexibly supported bearings with a value ively, with eccentricity ratios (Figs. 3–7). This is the

Table 1
Comparison of steady-state characteristics of oil journal bearings for L/D=1.0

Re* ε0 W̄0 (present) W̄0 (Ref. [18]) fo0 (present) fo0 (Ref. [18])

0.0 0.2 0.5042 0.5013 73.71 73.9

0.5 1.7903 1.779 56.64 56.8
0.8 7.4597 7.146 34.66 36.2
0.28 0.2 0.5055 0.5041 73.75 74.2
0.5 1.7980 1.785 56.72 57.0
0.8 7.4837 7.151 34.72 36.3
0.56 0.2 0.5070 0.5051 73.79 74.5
0.5 1.8058 1.790 56.79 57.2
0.8 7.5081 7.159 34.78 36.4
1.4 0.2 0.5112 0.5086 73.95 75.3
0.5 1.8307 1.587 57.05 58.0
0.8 7.5852 7.187 35.02 36.7
226 S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

of Re* (0.0,0.5,1.0), B̄ (0.01), K̄ (0.1) and m(0.1) in Figs.

4–6 for L/D=0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. It is observed that the bear-
ings are less stable when the fluid inertia effect is con-
sidered, especially for L/D=0.5 (Fig. 4), and for L/D=1.0
(Fig. 5). However, the effect is not very prominent in
the stability region for L/D=2.0 (Fig. 6). This means that
the effect of fluid inertia, along with the effect of side-
leakage, is the main factor of producing more instability
in the bearings. Fig. 7 shows the stability map for differ-
ent L/D (0.5, 1.0, 2.0) when Re*=1.0 and support charac-
teristics B̄ (0.01), K̄ (0.1) and m(0.1). For lightly loaded
bearings, it is observed that shorter bearings are more
stable even when fluid inertia is considered and Re*=1.0.
Fig. 5. Effect of fluid inertia on stability of a journal bearing mounted
on a flexible support (K̄=0.1, B̄=0.01, m=0.1) for L/D=1.0.
5. Conclusions

Although the steady-state characteristic is not affected

much due to fluid inertia, its effect cannot be ignored
(see Figs. 4–7) in the case of flexibly supported bearings
so far as stability is concerned. In fact, consideration of
the fluid inertia effect would ensure accurate prediction
in estimating the optimum support parameters. The
present results would be of importance particularly for
low viscosity and high speed utilities where modified
Reynolds number is around one. However, there is per-
haps scope for formulation and use of more realistic
boundary conditions for dynamic film when fluid film
inertia is considered.

Fig. 6. Effect of fluid inertia on stability of a journal bearing mounted

on a flexible support (K̄=0.1, B̄=0.01, m=0.1) for L/D=2.0. Appendix A

The dynamic force along direction Ye=Ce1eiwpt (Fig.

1) due to displacement e may be expressed as
dYe d2Ye
(Fe)d1⫽⫺KeeYe⫺Bee ⫺Aee 2
dt dt
In the classical theory the last term in the right-hand side
is neglected.
(F̄e)d1⫽ ⫽(⫺K̄ee⫺i⍀B̄ee⫹⍀2Āee)e1eit
Fig. 7. Effect of fluid inertia on stability of a journal bearing mounted
KeeC3 BeeC3 AeeRe∗
on a flexible support (K̄=0.1, B̄=0.01, m=0.1) for different L/D K̄ee⫽ 3
B̄ee⫽ 3 Āee⫽ 2
mwR L mR L rC L(R/C)3
Similarly non-dimensional dynamic force along e due to
typical characteristic of whirl instability using the lin- displacement Yf=Ce0f1eiwpt
earised method. To study the effect of fluid inertia on
stability the critical mass parameter (M̄) and critical
whirl ratio (⍀) are plotted against e0 for different values Static force along e, (F̄e)0=⫺W̄0 cos f0
S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228 227

冋冕冕 册
Total force along e 1 q2
F̄e⫽(F̄e)0⫹(F̄e)d1⫹(F̄e)d2⫽⫺W̄0 cos f0 B̄ee⫽⫺ Real p̄ẋ cos q dq dZ̄

⫹(⫺K̄ee⫺1⍀B̄ee⫹⍀ Āee)e1e 2 iτ 0 q1

冋冕冕 册
⫹(⫺K̄ef⫺i⍀B̄ef⫹⍀2Āef)e0f1eit 1 q2
The total force in the e direction can be found by inte- Āee⫽⫺ 2Im p̄ẋ cos q dq dZ̄

grating pressure p, 0 q1

1 q2 The other dynamic coefficients K̄fe, K̄ef, K̄ff, B̄fe, B̄ef,
FeC2 B̄ff, and Āfe, Āef, Āff, have been calculated in a simi-
F̄e⫽ ⫽ p̄ cos qR dq dZ̄
mwR3L lar way.
0 q1

If p̄ is perturbed (similarly the flow parameters) as fol-

lows: References
p̄⫽p̄0⫹p̄1e1eiτ⫹p̄2e0f1eiτ [1] Pinkus O. Experimental investigation of resonant whip. Trans
ASME 1956;78:975–83.
one gets,
[2] Lund JW. The stability of an elastic rotor in journal bearings
with flexible, damped supports. Trans of the ASME, J of Applied

1 q2
Mechanics 1965;87:911–20.
(F̄e)0⫽⫺W̄0 cos f0⫽ p̄0 cos q dq dZ̄ [3] Marsh H. The stability of aerodynamic gas bearings. Mech. Engg
Science Monograph No. 2. London: Inst. Mech. Engrs 1965.
0 q1
[4] Gunter EJ. Dynamic stability of rotor-bearing systems. NASA
SP-113, 1966.
(F̄e)d1⫽(⫺K̄ee⫺i⍀B̄ee⫹⍀2Āee)e1eit [5] Marsh H. The stability of self-acting gas journal bearings with
noncircular members and additional elements of flexibility. Trans

1 q2
of the ASME, J of Lubrication Technology 1969;91:113–9.
⫽ p̄1 cos qe1eiτ dq dZ̄ [6] Gunter EJ. The influence of flexibly mounted rolling element
bearings on rotor response, Part 1: linear analysis. Trans of the
0 q1
ASME, J of Lubrication Technology 1970;92:59–75.
[7] Tatara A, Koike K, Iwasaki A. The stability of flexibly supported,
(F̄e)d2⫽(⫺K̄ef⫺i⍀B̄ef⫹⍀2Āef)e0f1eit externally pressurized gas journal bearings. Bulletin of the JSME

1 q2
[8] Kirk RG, Gunter EJ. Nonlinear transient analysis of multi-mass
⫽ p̄ cos qe001eit dq dZ̄ flexible rotors—theory and applications. NASA CR-2300, 1973.
[9] Kirk RG, De Choudhury P, Gunter EJ. The effect of support
0 q1
flexibility on the stability of rotors mounted in plain cylindrical
journal bearings. In: Niordson FI, editor. IUTAM Symposium,
It may be observed that p̄1 and p̄2 have three components Lyngby (Denmark), 1974. p. 244–98.
each. Let p̄1 be expressed as follows: [10] Lund JW. Stability and damped critical speeds of a flexible rotor
in fluid-film bearings. Trans of the ASME, J of Engineering for
p̄1⫽p̄1x⫹ip̄1ẋ⫺p̄1ẍ Industry 1974;96:509–17.
where p̄1x, p̄1ẋ and p̄1ẍ are real quantities. [11] Nakra BC, Tender K. The influence of viscoelastically supported
bearings on the dynamic response of a rotor. Proceedings EURO-
However, one can express p̄1 in any of the following TRIB, Helsinki, 1989. p. 446–51.
two forms: [12] Pinkus O, Sternlicht B. Theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. New
Either, York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
[13] Constantinescu VN, Galetuse S. On the possibilities of improving
p̄1⫽p̄x⫺p̄1ẍ the accuracy of the evaluation of inertia forces in laminar and
turbulent films. Trans of the ASME, J of Lubrication Technology
where p̄x (=p̄1x+ip̄1ẋ) is complex and p̄1ẍ is real. 1974;96:69–79.
Or [14] Reinhardt E, Lund JW. The influence of fluid inertia on the
dynamic properties of journal bearings. Trans of the ASME, J of
p̄1⫽p̄1x⫹ip̄ẋ Lubrication Technology 1975;97:159–67.
where p̄1x is real and p̄ẋ (=p̄1ẋ+ip̄1ẍ) is complex. [15] Constantinescu VN. On dynamic effects due to inertia forces in
lubricating films. Proceedings of 2nd Leeds–Lyon Symposium on
Opting for the second form of p̄1 the dynamic coef- Tribology: Mech. Engg Publ. Ltd, 1975. p. 97–105.
ficients are given by, [16] Launder BE, Leschziner M. Flow in finite-width, thrust bearings
including inertial effects I—laminar flow. Trans of the ASME, J

1 q2
of Lubrication Technology 1978;100:330–8.
K̄ee⫽⫺ p̄1x cos dq dZ̄ [17] Banerjee MB, Shandil RG, Katyal SP, Dube GS, Pal TS, Banerjee
K. A nonlinear theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. J Math Anal
0 q1 Appl 1986;117:48–56.
228 S.K. Kakoty, B.C. Majumdar / Tribology International 32 (1999) 217–228

[18] Chen C-H, Chen C-K. The influence of fluid inertia on the [19] Majumdar BC, Brewe DE, Khonsari MM. Stability of a rigid
operating characteristics of finite journal bearings. Wear rotor supported on flexible oil journal bearings. Trans of the
1989;131:229–40. ASME, J of Tribology 1988;110:181–7.