A. WELFARE APPROACH • • • The immediate and/or spontaneous response to ameliorate the manifestations of poverty, especially on the personal level. Assumes that poverty is God-Given; destined, hence the poor should accept their condition since they will receive their just reward in heaven. Believes that poverty is caused by bad luck, natural disasters and certain circumstances which are beyond the control of people.

B. MODERNIZATION APPROACH • • • • Also referred to as the Project Development Approach. Introduces whatever resources are lacking in a given community. Also considered a National Strategy which adopts the western mode of technological development Assumes that development consists of abandoning the traditional methods of doing things and must adopt the technology of industrial countries. Believes that poverty due to lack of education, lack of resources such as capital and technology.

C. TRANSFORMATORY/ PARTICIPATORY APPROACH • The process of empowering/transforming the poor and the oppressed sectors of society so that they can pursue a more just and humane society. Assumes that poverty is not God-given, rather it is rooted in the historical past and is maintained by the oppressive structure in society.

develops confidence to take action in respect to them and in doing so. • • • IMPORTANCE OF COPAR: COPAR is an important tool for community development and people empowerment. working with the people collectively and efficiently on their immediate and long-term problems. A collective.• Believes that poverty is caused by prevalence of exploitation. Prepares people/clients to eventually take over the management of a development program in the future. oppression. liberative. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH DEFINITIONS: • A social development approach that aims to transform the apathetic. participative and politically responsive community. participatory. and mobilizing the people to develop their capability and readiness to respond and take action on their immediate needs toward solving their long-term problems. . Helps the community workers to generate community participation in development activities. A continuous and sustained process of educating the people to understand and develop their critical awareness of their existing conditions. 1. transformative. individualistic and voiceless poor into dynamic. extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community. A process by which a community identifies its needs and objectives. 2. sustained and systematic process of building people’s organizations by mobilizing and enhancing the capabilities and resources of the people for he resolution of their issues and concerns towards effective change in their existing and oppressive and exploitative conditions. domination and other unjust structures.

emerge and are tested through action rather than appointed or selected by some external force or entity. the powerless and the oppressed. COPAR IS PARTICIPATORY AND MASS BASED • Because it is primarily directed towards and biased in favor of the poor. COPAR IS GROUP CENTERED AND NOT LEADER ORIENTED • Leaders are identified. COPAR should lead to a self-reliant community and society. 3. 2. PHASES OF THE COPAR PROCESS: A. and are able to bring about change. PROCESSES/METHODS USED: 1. People. local and concrete issues identified by the people and the evaluation and reflection of and on the action taken by them. 2. CONSCIOUSNESS RAISING • Through experiential learning is essential to the COPAR process because it places emphasis on learning that emerges from concrete action and which enriches succeeding actlon 3. essentially the most oppressed. 4. COPAR should be based on the interests of the poorest sectors of society. PRE-ENTRY PHASE • It is the initial phase of the organizing process where the community/organizer looks for community to serve/help. community resources are mobilized for community services. have the capacity to change. A PROGRESSIVE CYCLE OF ACTION-REFLECTION-ACTION • Which begins with small. exploited and deprived sectors are open to change.3. PRINCIPLES OF COPAR: 1. . Maximizes community participation and involvement.

And eventually mobilizing them to take collective action on these This phase signals the actual entry to the community worker/organizer into the community She must be guided by the following guidelines: o Recognize the role of local authorities by paying them visits to inform them of their presence and activities.• • It is considered as the simplest phase in terms of actual outputs. Avoid raising the consciousness of the community residents: adopt a lowkey profile o o . Her appearance . behavior and lifestyle should be in keeping with those of the community residents without disregard of their being role models. and strategies and time spent for it ACTIVITIES INCLUDE: o Designing a plan for community development. Designing criteria for the selection of site Actually selecting the site for community care o o B. ENTRY PHASE • • Sometimes called as the social preparation phase ACTIVITIES INCLUDE: o o o • • Sensitization of the people on the critical events in their life Motivating them to share their dreams and ideas on how to manage their concerns. including all its activities and strategies for care and development. speech. activities.

and evaluating community-wide activities It is at this phase where the organized leaders or groups are being given trainings (formal. Strategies used may include: o o o Education and training Networking and linkaging Conduct of mobilization on health and development concerns. informal. OJT) to develop their knowledge. skills and attitudes in managing their own concerns/programs. At this point. the different committee set-up in the organization-building phase are already expected to be functioning by way of planning. implementing and evaluating their own programs. ORGANIZATION-BUILDING PHASE • • Entails the formation of more formal structures and the inclusion of more formal procedures of planning . • • . SUSTENANCE AND STRENGTHENING PHASE • Occurs when the community organization has already been established and the community members are already actively participating in community-wide undertakings. implementing. D.C. with the overall guidance from the communitywide organization.

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