Nursing and Reflexology Research

by Barbara and Kevin Kunz
Touch has always been a part of the nursing mandate and reflexology has become a part of this reach out to patients. The causal use of reflexology by nurses has now been explored through research, creating an evidence base for its uses. The use of reflexology by nurses is easy and practical as noted by one nurse researcher who writes: "Foot reflexology is a way to enhance the nurse-patient interrelationship. It offers a strategy to fulfill the goals for human touch and holistic nursing care. It can be performed at any location, is non-invasive, and does not interfere with patients' privacy." The following abstracts of sixty-two studies by nurses illustrate the uses, doses and value of reflexology application. For example, research shows benefits of 10 minutes hand reflexology applications: a single application provides post-operative pain relief; a 5-day series helps cancer patients and a 5-day per week/5 weeks course of treatment improves kidney function for dialysis patients. Whether applied as hand reflexology or foot reflexology or taught for partner use, research shows reflexology to be a useful adjunct for nursing.

Directory of Study Abstracts
              AIDS, Pain and fatigue Anxiety, cortisol and melatonin (Healthy individuals) Birthing , Labor outcomes Cancer Constipation: Children Coronary artery bypass graft (Anxiety) Dementia Depression Diabetes Encopresis Fatigue and sleep states in women (Self reflexology) Hemodialysis: Physiologic, emotional & motivational responses and immunity Hemodialysis and cancer Hospitalized children: Reducing stress for parents

                   

Hypertension Hypertension in the elderly Incontinence in middle-aged women Insomnia Menopausal women Mental Health Middle-aged women Osteoarthritis Pain (Surgical ward) Peptic ulcers Pneumoconosis patients (coal workers) Postpartum women Post surgical pain Post surgical recovery Pregnancy (Edema) Premenstrual syndrome Sleep, Elderly women Stroke Students: Constipation, anxiety and depression Wellness

AIDS: Pain and fatigue
Purpose: A randomized clinical trial with a crossover design was used to test the impact of foot reflexology or mimic foot reflexology in 28 hospitalized AIDS patients about their perception of pain and fatigue in Nonthaburee, Thailand. Sample: The sample was 67.9% (n=19) male with an age range from 22-47 years and a mean of 30.64 years. The mean score on the Piper Fatigue Scale before intervention was high (M=95.98; SD=26.73) and the mean Pain Descriptor Intensity Scale was low (M=8.64; SD=6.05). Methods: Research nurses were trained in the procedures of true foot reflexology and mimic foot reflexology. Each procedure required 30 minutes (15 minutes per leg). Patients had either true or mimic reflexology once a day for four days, each receiving a total of two session of each procedure in random order. The outcome variables included self-report of fatigue and pain and vital signs pre and post treatment. Results: There were significant differences between the true foot and mimic reflexology on the fatigue and pain descriptive intensity scale, but not on a 1-item numeric pain intensity scale. The only vital sign difference was lower systolic blood pressure but the difference was not clinically meaningful. Conclusion True foot reflexology may offer a low cost, effective nursing intervention to reduce the symptom of fatigue and pain for hospitalized AIDS patients. The numeric pain intensity item was reduced in both groups, but not significantly, and this may be due to an inadequate power in the study to detect a potential difference. Foot reflexology is a way to enhance the nurse-patient interrelationship. It offers a strategy to fulfill the goals for human touch and holistic nursing care.

It can be performed at any location, is non-invasive, and does not interfere with patients' privacy. Foot reflexology can also be taught to family members and become part of family self-care for people living with HIV/AIDS. "Effect of foot reflexology on pain and fatigue in HIV/AIDS," Ounprasertpong LA., International Conference AIDS. 2004 Jul 11-16; 15: abstract no. ThPeD7743. Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov? MeetingAbstracts/102281513.html)
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Anxiety, cortisol and melatonin
This pilot study sought to identify an appropriate methodology to investigate the impact of reflexology in healthcare settings. The study involved healthy volunteers to prevent unnecessary intervention to individuals who may already be experiencing health related trauma. Thirty participants underwent either reflexology or no treatment (control), in a crossover experimental design. Selfreported anxiety (Spielberger STAI), cardiovascular parameters (BP and pulse rate) and salivary cortisol and melatonin concentrations were assessed before and after reflexology. Control data were obtained at the same time points in identical settings. Reflexology had a powerful anxietyreduction effect ('state'; P<0.001) but no significant effect on underlying anxiety ('trait'). Cardiovascular parameters decreased (P<0.001). Baseline salivary cortisol and melatonin were not significantly correlated with STAI scores and did not change significantly following reflexology. Reflexology reduced 'state' anxiety and cardiovascular activity within healthy individuals, consistent with stress-reduction. Considering the connection between stress/anxiety and well being, the effects of reflexology may have beneficial outcomes for patients. These findings will be transferred to a study involving breast cancer patients where effects may be more pronounced particularly since cancer patients display disregulation of cortisol and melatonin secretion. McVicar AJ, Greenwood CR, Fewell ''Arcy V, Chandrasekharan S, Alldridge LC, "Evaluation, of anxiety cortisol and melatonin secretion following reflexology treatment: A pilot study in healthy individuals," Complementary Therapeutic Clinical Practice 2007 Aug;13(3):137-45 Institute of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Bishop Hall Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK. PMID: 17631256
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Birthing
Birthing, Labor outcomes
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of antenatal reflexology with different outcomes in the intranatal period. A convenience sample of 150 low risk primigravid women (reflexology group n = 50, control group receiving no reflexology treatment n = 100) was included. The key variables of interest were onset of labour, duration of labour, analgesia used and mode of delivery. The findings showed there was no significant difference in the onset of labour or duration of labour between the two groups. The group who had four or more reflexology treatments had a reduced length of labour but this was not statistically

Some had labor times of only 2 hours." Complementary Therapeutic Clinical Practice 2006.pdf) McNeill JA. Forest Gate. the average first stage was 5 hours. nausea. hand reflexology. The 26 . Ireland) top Birthing. sleep and tiredness. completed the set course of ten treatments. "A retrospective cohort study exploring the relationship between antenatal reflexology and intranatal outcomes. The effects of reflexology on labor outcomes were perceived as outstanding..expectancy. Results were immediate following a ten-minute session in two studies and a thirty-minute session in another. second stage 16 minutes. mobility. who were offered free reflexology. and fatigue). nausea and relaxation . diarrhoea. communication (nurses). isolation. Fewer women in the reflexology group had a normal labour with a higher percentage of women having a forceps delivery. 1989 top Cancer A review of eighteenteen studies conducted in seven countries (US. pain. constipation. communication (doctors). 12: 11925. 1 to 2 hour's second stage. Switzerland. self reflexology and partner reflexology. breathing.30 year olds seemed to have the longest labors. Jane McGrath.co.uk/docs/expectancyreview. In total. China. Korea. Belfast.25 year olds had an average time of First stage labor of 5 or 6 hours.significant. Different types of reflexoogy application showed posittive results including foot reflexology. some 3 hours. The 20 . School of Nursing and Midwifery. (Queen's University. Japan. and Taiwan) showed that cancer patients experienced significant improvements with common complaints (pain. and. Oct. mood. ( On-line comment: "The findings should not be taken as particularly significant clinical value since some of the women received only one session of reflexology at 39 weeks. vomiting. micturition. 11. Alderdice FA. fear of future. London. Nursing Times . appetite. There was a significant difference in the use of Entonox between the two groups with the reflexology group having a lower uptake." Dr. "The Effects of Reflexology on Labour Outcome. McMurray F. nausea. anxiety. and third stage 7 minutes. Those undergoing palliative care reported results from reflexology work: feeling "relaxed. England. communication (family). Labor outcomes Thirty-seven of 64 pregnant women." ) (http://www." top Cancer. The results revealed that the treatments produced a significant and immediate effect on the patients' perceptions of pain. Gowri Motha and Dr. "87 patients participated in the study and each received a 10-minute reflexology foot massage (5 minutes per foot). Pain and nausea Reflexology modifies the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer. Italy. concentration. All recounted improvements in quality of life: "appearance. This is compared to textbook figures of 16 to 24 hours' first stage." "comforted" and achieving relief from some of their symptoms. UK.

"Foot Massage: A nursing intervention to modify the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer.38. \SD = 21.23(3):237-43 top Cancer. This study found a significant decrease in pain and anxiety immediately following the intervention.8%. Researchers noted a significant decrease in anxiety for patients diagnosed with breast or lung cancer and a significant decrease in pain for patients with breast cancer. L.. June. and gave informed consent. Weinrich.when measured with a visual analog scale." For my dissertation For my dissertation under the direction of Sally Weinrich. The results were so positive that the researchers recommend that further research using larger numbers of patients in controlled clinical trials into its effectiveness of reflexology in alleviating pain. Weinrich. as measured by the descriptive words of the SF-MPQ in these patients following foot reflexology (M= ?0. and 2 unknown) reported pain. "A recent study (Stephenson. In addition.3%). is non-invasive and does not interfere with patients' privacy. spoke English. All subjects were receiving regularly scheduled opioids and adjuvant medications on both the control and intervention day (Stephenson. Whiteman.. requires no special equipment. p = 0. FAAN. The Gate Control Theory) GCT could explain the decrease in the patients perceptions of pain.M= ?21. The majority of people in the sample were female (62. RN. as measured by the VAS for anxiety.048).02).49. SD = 25. & Tavakoli. 2000). A total of 23 patients participated. SD = 0. there was a significant decrease in anxiety. EdD. "This has important implications for nursing practice as both professionals and lay people can be taught reflexology.000 or more annual income (47. I was able to establish a reflexology dosage time of 30 minutes. The researcher administered the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for anxiety and the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) before and following both reflexology and control condition without reflexology. Patients received one 30-minute reflexology treatment and a 30minute control without reflexology using a crossover design. I used a crossover design to compare reflexology with usual care in 23 inpatients with cancer. & Tavakoli. FAAN. Pain and anxiety Results of study: Foot reflexology alleviated anxiety and pain for twenty-three patients with breast and lung cancer. and with $20." Cancer Nurse 2000. M = ?17.41. I studied 36 patients with cancer as part of my postdoctoral studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill under the direction of Dr. Lomasney. 65 years and older (78. Patients with breast or lung cancer on an inpatient oncology unit in a 314-bed hospital in the southeastern United States were included in the study if they were 21 years or older.7% did not report income).71. 2000) examined the effectiveness of a single reflexology treatment for pain and anxiety. The use of reflexology foot massage as a complementary method is recommended as a relatively simpler nursing intervention for patients experiencing nausea or pain related to the cancer experience. Caucasian (73.5%). The study found a significant decrease in pain.9%). following foot reflexology for both breastcancer patients (n = 13. Reflexology is a simple technique for human touch which can be performed anywhere. p = ." Grealish. p = . with 12 years or less education (69. RN. nausea and anxiety in the management of these symptoms by the family at home is warranted.29. A.6.2%). 1 without metastasis. The VAS for pain and the present pain intensity showed . PhD. Jo Ann Dalton. In 2001. Eleven of the 13 breast cancer inpatients (10 with metastasis. B.01) and lung-cancer patients (n = 10. 8.

Foot reflexology was found to have a positive immediate effect for patients with metastatic cancer who report pain. and Tavakoli. 179 J Holist Nurs.no significant differences between the intervention and control conditions (Stephenson.16(4):284-6 PMID: 14608562 Cancer: Pain and anxiety (Partner-delivered reflexology) Purpose/Objectives: To compare the effects of partner-delivered foot reflexology and usual care plus attention on patients' perceived pain and anxiety. and 1% were Filipino." Oncology Nursing Forum. resulting in an immediate decrease in pain intensity and anxiety.." Stephenson N. L.Feb. Weinrich." Appl Nurs Res. 51% were female.to 30-minute foot reflexology session for the partner. & Tavakoli. From Nancy L. an optional 15. P. representing 16 different types of cancer.3 years.1177/0898010103021002007 Stephenson. Main research variables: Pain and anxiety.to 30-minute teaching session on foot reflexology to the partner by a certified reflexologist. followed by breast. "The effect of foot reflexology on pain in patients with metastatic cancer. and head and neck cancer and lymphoma. although there was no statistically significant effect at 3 hours after intervention or at 24 hours after intervention. Design: The experimental pretest/post-test design included patient-partner dyads randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Jan. Methods: The intervention included a 15. S. The control group received a 30-minute reading session from their partners.. Conclusions: A nurse reflexologist taught partners how to perform reflexology on patients with metastatic cancer pain in the hospital. 2000). and 58% were Caucasian. N. Carlson J. 2003 Nov.. who received usual . Stephenson and Jo Ann Dalton "Using Reflexology for Pain Management: A Review. Weinrich.. Setting: Four hospitals in the southeastern United States. N.27(1):67-72 PMID: 10660924 top Cancer. A. 2000. patients experienced a significant decrease in pain intensity and anxiety. and a 30-minute. 40% were African American. DOI: 10. The subjects had a mean age of 58. partner-delivered foot reflexology intervention for the patient. SAMPLE: 42 experimental and 44 control subjects comprised 86 dyads of patients with metastatic cancer and their partners. Findings: Following the initial partner-delivered foot reflexology. minimal changes were seen in the control group. "The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer. Further study is suggested for foot reflexology delivered by family in the homes for management of cancer pain." 2003. 23% of patients had lung cancer. Dalton JA. 21. S. Pain Thirty-six oncology inpatients participated in this third pilot study investigating the effects of foot reflexology in which equianalgesic dosing was calculated. 66% had a high school education or less. colorectal.

" Article 8 issue of Science nursing commandment No. Korea) "Effects of Hand Reflexology on Fatigue and Emotional State in Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy. (Keimyung University College of Nursing. Swanson M. mood. but diastolic blood pressure in the experimental group were not significantly lower than that of the control group. Kim Myung Ae. vomiting improve the situation and assess. blood pressure. The physical state of the control group did not undergo bamboo stepping. emotional states from radiotherapy. questionnaires for fatigue. bamboo stepping) Objective: To investigate the bamboo stepping. NC. Method: This study was designed with non-equivalent control group pre and post test. (School of Nursing. The hand reflexology was applied to both hands for ten minutes each time. five times during five days. Keefe FJ. each 20 to 30 min until Juxin fever. Conclusion: Hand Reflexology could be an effective nursing intervention for cancer patients suffering from fatigue. blood pressure. For data collection. anxiety. 39. For data collection. Stephenson NL.34(1):127-32. and fourteen to the control group. questionnaires for fatigue. stephensonn@ mail. and mood state in the experimental group were significantly lower than that of the control group. Bamboo stepping for treatment of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy nurses guidance biped barefoot stampede (stepping) bamboo rolling massage. 1. and pulse rate were measured before and after the program.. Greenville. Implications for Nursing: Hospitals could have qualified professionals offer reflexology as a complementary therapy and teach interested partners the modality. Dalton J. and pulse rate were measured before and after the program. Engelke M. The systolic blood pressure and pulse rate in the experimental group were lower than that of the control group. The degree of fatigue.47 top Cancer: Nausea and vomiting (Self-reflexology. anxiety. And it can help cancer patients to receive radiotherapy with lower degrees of side effects. . USA. Subjects were 29 patients who receiving radiotherapy in one hospital. 2004. pp. Methods: 240 cases of cancer chemotherapy patients were randomly divided into bamboo stepping group (120 cases) and the control group (120 cases).ecu. East Carolina University. three times daily to observe nausea.edu) PMID: 17562639 top Cancer (Radiotherapy patients): Fatigue (Hand reflexology) Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of hand reflexology on fatigue and emotional state in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Kim Su Jin. Kim Yang Ji. Fifteen patients were assigned to the experimental group. Oncology Nursing Forum. anxiety. 2007 Jan. a self-reflexology technique consisting of stepping in place on the rounded side of halved bamboo for cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting effect. Kim Su Jung.care plus attention. mood.

vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy." Cancer Nursing . Kuan-Chia PhD. Bamboo massage for economic.33%) and the overall efficiency of 90. RN. RN.05. Conclusion: Bamboo stepping treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting significant effect. 26. Patients in the control group received usual pain management. "Effects of Reflexotherapy on Acute Postoperative Pain and Anxiety Among Patients With Digestive Cancer. Shiow-Luan PhD. For the experimental group. 3. Hsiao-Ling MS. RN. Tsay. vomiting and fatigue Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of foot reflexology on nausea. Wang Cui Cheng Rui Dan. 2004. Chin Chu. Method: The research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent pre-post design and was conducted from Jan. HungRu PhD. and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Using generalized estimation equations and controlling for confounding variables. less pain (P < . Sixty-one patients who had received surgery for gastric cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 30) or control (n = 31) group. "Reflexology bamboo massage for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting effect of Š. The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of foot reflexotherapy as adjuvant therapy in relieving pain and anxiety in postoperative patients with gastric cancer and hepatocellular cancer. 20. Chen.05) and anxiety (P < .05).83%. to Mar. Bamboo stepping efficacy superior to the control group group. Outcome measures included the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. 31(2):109-115. March/April 2008 Cancer: Nausea. and 4. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with 18 in the experimental group and 16 in control group." Modern Nursing in 2007 .50%). patients in the intervention group received significantly less opioid analgesics than the control group (P < . visual analog scale for pain. P=0. Chen. Cai Rong-hua. Lin. Results demonstrated that studied patients reported moderately high levels of pain and anxiety postoperatively while patients were managed with patient-controlled analgesia. Post-operative pain Even after receiving analgesia. vomiting and fatigue. Patients in the intervention group received the usual pain management plus 20 minutes of foot reflexotherapy during postoperative days 2. simple. Su-Chiu MS. patients with gastric and liver cancer still report moderate levels of postoperative pain. summary of the pain medications consumed. the ?2 test. RN. 33 top Cancer. chemotherapy for cancer patients to accept. Findings from this study provide nurses with an additional treatment to offer postoperative digestive cancer patients.05) over time were reported by the intervention group compared with the control group. foot . A pretest and 2 posttests were conducted to measure nausea. Taiwan. Data were collected from 4 surgical wards of a medical center in 2005 in Taipei. Lin. effective 34 cases (28.Results: Bamboo stepping effectual 75 cases (62. In addition.

Kim JS.015). vomiting and fatigue of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy" (Korean). Department of Nursing. there was a statistically significant decrease in fatigue in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. therefore we recommend to use foot reflexology as an effective nursing intervention in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. diastolic blood pressure (DBP). pulse rate (PR). Conclusion: Foot reflexology can improve vital signs. College of Medicine.007).009). Method: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 11 patients who were admitted at S and E University Hospital. Seoul Health College.007) between pre and post foot reflexology. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN 10. kimks@snu. and foot fatigue between pre and post foot reflexology were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and Friedman test at 0."Effect of Foot Reflexology on Vital Signs.014).015). In addition.9(1):16-26. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in nausea. Fatigue and Mood in Cancer Patients receiving Chemotherapy. Jeong IS. Korean. Department of Nursing.. general/foot fatigue. mood and foot fatigue in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. mood status(p=. and foot fatigue(p=.kr top Cancer: Anxiety . Dondaemoon Hospital of Ewha Woman's University. Won JS. general fatigue. PR(p=. "The effects of foot reflexology on nausea. vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in this study.. mood status. Pusan National University. general fatigue (p=. College of Nursing. Seoul National University. which was consisted of 4 phases for 40 minutes. Therefore. Korea. mood and foot fatigue Purpose: This study was done to investigate the effect of foot reflexology on vital signs.0 program.35(1):177.reflexology." Yang JH. Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP).ac. DBP(p=. Head Nurs of GS Dept. 2005 Feb. 2002 Apr. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi . Korea. foot reflexology can be usefully utilized as a nursing intervention in the field of cancer nursing for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. general fatigue. Korea. Kim KS. general fatigue. and mood status. Results: There were significant differences in the SBP(p=. and vomiting in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. Conclusion: Foot reflexology was effective on nausea. was given by a researcher and 4 research assistants.05 level of significance.85 top Cancer: Vital signs. Korea." J Korean Acad Fundam Nurs .

anxiety and other sideeffects associated with chemotherapy. 33-38 top Cancer: Fatigue (Reflexology. mood. they were also "relaxed.14(2):96. Only 15 of the 30 participants received therapeutic massage. Quattrin. Nevertheless. nausea. 5 in the placebo group. studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of behavioral and relaxation approaches in controlling nausea/vomiting. this study would suggest that the provision of reflexology for palliative patients within the general setting could be beneficial. 14. communication (doctors)." Journal of Nursing Management 2006 Mar. Turello D. Vidotti. pain. DPMSC School of Medicine.8 points in the control group (P < 0. Aroma therapy. isolation. Results: There was an average decrease of 7. Italy. 2000. Annunziata D.Aim: To examine the effectiveness of reflexology foot massage in hospitalized cancer patients undergoing second or third chemotherapy cycles Background: Since the late-1970s. r. 31. Buchini S.quattrin@ med.105 Chair of Hygiene. University of Udine. Conclusions: Reflexology foot massage can be considered a support treatment used in combination with traditional medical treatments and executed by an expert. C. Zanini A. communication (family). the participants reported an improvement in all components of the quality of life scale compared to 67. footsoak) Fatigue is one of the most distressful symptoms experienced by patients with advanced cancer. Hodgson. fear of future. H." Apr. sleep and tiredness. after and 24 hours after the intervention. breathing. "Does reflexology impact on cancer patients' quality of life?. footsoak.it." "comforted" and achieved relief from some of their symptoms. aromatherapy. "Use of reflexology foot massage to reduce anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients in chemotherapy treatment: methodology and outcomes. appetite.9 points on the state-anxiety scale in the treatment group and of 0. Not only did the patients in this study enjoy the intervention. constipation.uniud. The subjects' self-reports of anxiety (measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) were recorded before. Methods: The study consisted of 30 patients being admitted to the oncology unit at a Scientific Research Hospital in Italy. communication (nurses). qualified person to help cancer patients receiving chemotherapy feel better and also cope better with their disease. Quality of life Results of study: 100% of the reflexology group benefited from an improvement in quality of life: appearance. Within the reflexology group. pp. micturition. Brusagerro S. diarrhoea. and reflexology are popular health care modality treatments . concentration. PMID: 16487421 top Cancer.0001). Nursing Standard . R. mobility. Udine. Colobatti A.

to determine their satisfaction with the service provided and to investigate the availability of this therapy within Scottish hospices.6. Yamaguchi. with less than half providing this service.4 +/.1 +/.7 +/.6. Respondents noted that their quality of life was improved through a reduction in physical and emotional symptoms. (Department of Internal Medicine.2. Miyauchi T.3. Int J Oalliat Nurs 2002 Oct.ne. To confirm safety and effectiveness of this combined modality treatment. Ueoka H. The audit findings suggest that the clients were satisfied with the service received. "Combined modality treatment of aromatherapy.11.jp) PMID: 15684846 top Cancer: Hospice Complementary therapies are being accessed increasingly by cancer patients. Tadjali M. National Sanyo Hospital. Hunter S. p < 0. an open study was performed in 20 terminally ill patients with cancer. they received treatment eight times on average. After a patch test was performed. hkohara@bk4. 2004 Dec." Kohara H.3 +/.001).1 to 6. and reflexology appears to be effective for alleviating fatigue in terminally ill cancer patients. and 4 hours after treatment. It was found that the provision of reflexology within Scottish hospices varied. further investigation including randomized treatment assignment is warranted. No adverse effects were experienced. p < 0. footsoak. Among three CFS subscales. Suehiro Y.001). footsoak. the effectiveness of each treatment for cancer-related fatigue has not been fully established.10.001. Because all patients desired to continue this treatment.0 to 18. however.96 (PMID: 12419988) top Initiating an Inpatient Cancer Oncology Program for Reflexology . Conclusions: Combined modality treatment consisting of aromatherapy." Journal Palliative Medicine . Fanning M. Fatigue was evaluated using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) before.6 +/.so-net. 4.4. p < 0. footsoak.5 +/. Stevens E..7(6):791-6. Design and Subjects: To investigate the effectiveness of combined modality treatment consisting of aromatherapy. and reflexology against fatigue. followed by reflexology treatment with jojoba oil containing lavender for 10 min. 1 hour after. The results of this audit suggest that reflexology may be a worthwhile treatment for other cancer patients and requires further research to evaluate the benefits Milligan M.1.0. Results: Total CFS scores improved significantly after this treatment (from 25. patients received aromatherapy that was accompanied with footsoak in warm water containing lavender essential oil for 3 minutes. physical and cognitive subscale scores were reduced significantly (11.2 to 2.8(10):489. Morita T. Japan. Palliative Care Unit.in Japan. The aims of this audit were to investigate the impact of reflexology on the quality of life of 20 cancer patients. and reflexology relieves fatigue in patients with cancer. Takeyama H.

Two nurses.A 2003 Oncology Nursing Forum article details "the step-by-step process of initiating a program for reflexology and healing touch interns to serve the oncology inpatient population at Methodist Hospital ( in Minneapolis. to "offer these therapies along with traditional treatment in a caring. McPherson. Twelve patients had both healing touch and reflexology treatments. About 60% of the participants were hospitalized for cancer management. "Both the healing touch practitioner and the reflexologist contacted local schools of complementary therapy to ascertain the availability of interns and their interest in doing their clinical practicums in the hospital with patients with cancer. The program has grown to include three locations. anxiety. competent manner that is fiscally responsible." "A total of 113 patients participated in the program." Reflexology and healing touch were selected because of research showing effectiveness in "relieving cancer symptoms" and the interest of the nursing staff. PhD.org/Publications/journals/ONF/Volume30/Issue2/3002213. non-invasive and holistic opportunity for patients to experience increased comfort and relaxation in the midst of their treatment experience. Patients who received healing touch treatments reported that every symptom they had experienced before the treatment was lessened after treatment. MSW.asp top Pilot Program: an Outpatient Cancer Oncology Program for Reflexology A complementary therapy program in oncology was launched by two hospitals in the Cape Cod HealthCare (CCHC) system in 2001. CRNP and Terry A. A consultant provided background information. Volume 30. The findings from the pilot (n = 50) demonstrated an extremely high level of . Number 2 See full report at: http://www. with the remainder hospitalized for medical and postsurgical diagnoses. Throckmorton. Sixty-seven percent were female. and 113 reflexology treatments were given to 53 patients. Two pilot studies using complementary therapies with chemotherapy outpatients were conducted to evaluate patient benefit. Oncology Nursing Forum. stress. The goal was to offer a voluntary. nausea. EdD. trained in complementary therapies. and the oncology nurse manager assumed project oversight. they also expressed increased feelings of wellbeing and peacefulness. Some patients had more than one treatment over the course of their hospitalization (the certification practicum included treating patients multiple times)." The program addressed goals of utilizing CAM (Complementary Alternative Medicine). The purpose of the study was to assess patient and staff satisfaction. MPH. A total of 83 healing touch treatments were given to 48 patients. RN." Vicki Norton. CCHC executive management decided to explore options for integrating complementary therapy in oncology in 2000. OCN®. March/April 2003. and Carol P.ons. "The committee was pleased to find that the patients who received reflexology reported less pain. The cancer leadership team approved a three-month pilot offering five to fifteen minutes of gentle massage to interested patients in the infusion room two days a week. Both men and women reported positive benefits. they reported that they felt a greater sense of well-being and peacefulness. Every patient reported that he or she would recommend the treatment to other patients. provide these services. CS. Minnesota). including radiation therapy. and depression. RN. Associate Editors "Initiating a Complementary Therapy Internship Program on an Inpatient Oncology Unit. BSN." "Leadership and Professional Development" by Ellen Giarelli. Following treatment. RN.

At the conclusion of the pilot. 9. A three-month pilot study was then conducted at the other CCHC outpatient chemotherapy clinic (n = 47).. Patients expressed feelings of being less abandoned and the families expressed satisfaction at seeing that something painless existed that could aid their relative. Given the number of uncontrollable variables involved in the decrease of pain and the establishment of a feeling of relaxation." Nursing Mirror (England).http://www. Vol. In three situations we taught a relative how to use reflexology and the benefit seemed to have been as important for the relative as for the patient. Falmouth. Trends included reports of decreased pain. staff reported benefit to their patients. MA. improvement of patient symptoms. and included additional modalities (reflexology." Nursing Mirror (England). "Our purpose for using reflexology with these patients was to decrease their pain but we soon realized the beneficial effect of reflexology on the morale of patients and families. Falmouth Hospital. Findings demonstrated an equally high level of satisfaction with 100% of patients requesting that services be continued. No. 160. aromatherapy. a reflexology massage is pleasantly relaxing and able to diminish painful sensations in the body. and therapeutic touch). No. 1985 Dobbs. "Alternative health approaches.." Dobbs. and Jeanne Jackson." Judith Kostka. 1985 top Cancer: Feasibility of a randomised clinical trial . "Launching a Complementary Therapy Program in Oncology: A Nursing Initiative in Holistic Care. LMT. Hyannis. The hospitals assume the full cost of the program. Cape Cod Hospital. When applied skillfully. nausea. and increased physical comfort and overall well-being.shtml top Cancer: End of life care "In Switzerland. MS. 160. Feb. Services average an additional 10 hours/week at this facility. 27. 9. no disruption in their job responsibilities. and hospitals' complementary therapy committee credentials the holistic nurses. Plans to expand the program are under consideration and include offering services to oncology inpatients as well as hospice and palliative care patients. Barbara Zeller. Feb. RN.. the cancer leadership team approved expanded services to medical oncology and the inclusion of radiation therapy. The hours of service were doubled to 20/week. "Alternative health approaches. and anxiety. It was only intended to motivate nurses to look for ways to integrate aspects of alternative care in the management of terminal patients.patient satisfaction with 100% of respondents saying that massage therapy services should continue to be offered. "Patients' comments about reflexology seem to show that it could be one way for them to feel this support and to have a helping presence near them in their last days. many new nurses are taught this approach. and a consensus that massage therapy services should continue to be made available to patients. Something was being done for them. In addition..org/ ceCentral/Conferences/abstracts/2003abstracts3.. MBA. 27. and Barbara Coughlin. RN. Vol. RN. Barbara Zeller.ons.. MA. our small study has no scientific value.

Data on demographics. depressive symptoms and anxiety. or interview-only group. and/or (3) reminiscence therapy (family storytelling discussions between the patient and the family caregiver). 2007 May. and physical limitations at baseline. Patients lost from the guided imagery and guided imagery plus reflexology groups had greater symptom severity.edu. "Feasibility of a reflexology and guided imagery during chemotherapy: results of a quasi-experimental study.. Setting: A comprehensive cancer center in Michigan. USA. Michigan State University. reminiscence therapy The purpose of this observational pre-/post test design was to compare outcomes of patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer who received standard care with those who received standard care plus an eight-week program of complementary therapies. guided imagery. Siddiqi A. depressive symptoms. participants had to be 21 years of age or older. To be eligible. Implications for Nursing: An RCT of reflexology as a single therapy for females with breast cancer is most feasible compared to other complementary therapies Wyatt G.Purpose/Objectives: To evaluate patient characteristics to predict selection and maintenance of a complementary therapy and the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of complementary therapies. . and functional status were collected using established instruments. PMID: 17573322 top Cancer: Guided imagery. MI.. and be willing to engage in the complementary therapy program during chemotherapy. Sikorskii A. Further research on complementary therapies can help healthcare providers identify patients who are likely to benefit most by addressing nursingsensitive outcomes. Main Research Variables: Quality of life (QOL) and patient characteristics in relation to complementary therapy choice Findings: Patients who chose a complementary therapy rather than an interview only tended to be older and in worse health and had higher percentages of lung cancer. including: (1) guided imagery (healing images set to music). reflexology. gwyatt@msu. 34(3):635-42 The College of Nursing. Patients without caregivers were restricted to guided imagery or interview-only groups. Sample: 96 patients undergoing chemotherapy. higher anxiety. exploratory study. and worse physical and emotional well-being than those lost from the reflexology group. Design: Quasi-experimental. late-stage cancers. and/or (2) reflexology (10-minute massage of each hand or foot). Conclusions: Patient characteristics influence choice of complementary therapies. Given CW. anxiety. predominantly Caucasian women. unblinded and nonrandomized. depression. Oncol Nurs Forum. East Lansing. Methods: Consenting patients with caregivers could choose a reflexology. guided imagery plus reflexology. highlighting the need for RCTs to evaluate the true effect of complementary therapies on the QOL of patients with cancer.

05) and total constipation symptom score at 12 weeks (p. The Wyatt Quality of Life Model guided this study." J. with 4 reinforcement sessions over an 8-week period.ly/8IoN6U top Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (Anxiety) . Wyatt." Midwest Nursing Research Society Conference." Results showed "significant differences between Reflexology and Control groups in bowel frequency (p. AN: MN030250 Gwen K.0. Edinburgh. Matthews-Smith1. and behavior per four week period. or standard care. University of Edinburgh. UK. anxiety. 3 Department of Child Life & Health. 2 Department of Nursing. Barbara Given. S. UK.0. Faculty of Health & Life Sciences. G. pain. I.019).99). there was a significant difference between reflexology and massage for total constipation symptom score (p. Edinburgh. D. C. Alder1. and patients' reports of quality of life.0. UK Purchase abstract (US$32) at http://bit.000) and total quality of life (p<. There was no significant difference between control and massage groups (p = 0. standard care and foot massage.05) but not for bowel frequency (p = 0. Outcome was measured by a self reporting constipation questionnaire considering "the increase in the mean number of bowel movements and improvements in constipation symptoms at 12 weeks: soiling.05). 2003 top Constipation in children 184 children (ages 1 to 12) with chronic idiopathic constipation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: standard care and reflexology. general health status. An educational session for the complementary therapies was provided to the family caregiver and patient at the initial chemotherapy appointment. Hendry1.16 and 0. "It was concluded that "reflexology is effective in improving outcomes for children when used as an adjunct to standard treatment. and (2) patients who used one or more complementary therapies experienced increased levels of spirituality (p<. Royal Hospital for Sick Children. spirituality.006) over time.Family caregivers participated in the intervention with their family member (patient). E. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Volume 91 Supplement 1 April 2006p A13" 1 Napier University. Gordon1.25). Given.000). Sharon Kozachik. M. Wilson3. Findings indicate that: (1) patients who used one or more complementary therapy experienced lowered levels of depression (<.024) and anxiety (p<. The intervention group was compared on the following variables: depression. Edinburgh. "The effectiveness of reflexology as an adjunct to treatment in childhood idiopathic constipation: A single blind randomised controlled trial. Treatments were followed for twelve weeks. emotional quality of life (p<. Findings from this study will be used as a model for designing future randomizes clinical trials that utilize complementary therapies with cancer patients who are undergoing treatment. Charles W. "Outcomes of Complementary Therapy Use by Cancer Patients and Family Members. Parents and carers of two groups were taught either foot reflexology or foot massage. medication in use.

and postreflexology sessions once a day over five days. MN. Jonsdottir H. Nurses need to study the effects of complementary therapies in general and particularly those that may be beneficial to decrease patients' anxiety. Anxiety and physiological variables were measured pre. but research is needed to substantiate such expectations. USA and Faculty of Nursing. It has been assumed that reflexology lessens anxiety. No significant changes were observed for other variables. Conclusion. Introduction: Alternative therapies may offer great promise in treating distress in older adults with dementia without the side effects of pharmaceuticals. School of Nursing. Design. Several methodological problems were identified that need to be considered further. Gunnarsdottir TJ. Journal Clinical Nursing 2007 Apr. PMID: 17402960 top Dementia Learning Objective #1: Identify three biomarkers of physiologic stress in the physically and cognitively frail older population. It is suggested that reflexology should be tailored to individual needs and research methods used that allow for capturing its holistic nature. Learning Objective #2: Describe the effects of a reflexology intervention in a nursing home population. Nine patients were recruited and randomly assigned into groups with five patients assigned into an experimental group receiving reflexology for 30 minutes and four patients into control group which rested for 30 minutes. Systolic blood pressure lowered significantly more in the control group than in the treatment group. Results.16(4):777-85. This study showed little evidence to support reflexology as a mean of reducing anxiety in CABG patients. Patients' comments and responses overwhelmingly suggested increased well-being due to both experimental and control intervention. The reflexology sessions and control group intervention was provided by a trained reflexology therapist once a week for 4 . University of Iceland. A pilot study using randomized design with experimental and control groups.Aim. appearing to relieve pain and improve psychological well being. University of Minnesota. Background. Iceland. A growing body of anecdotal literature suggests that reflexology may be an effective treatment for older adults with dementia. Our purpose was to pilot test whether reflexology may reduce anxiety in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery in Iceland. The anxiety scores were lower for patients in the control group on all measures. Methods: This experimental repeated-measures study of 80 subjects (40 control and 40 experimental) with mild to moderate dementia randomized to experimental and control groups was designed to test the efficacy of reflexology as an alternative and complementary therapy in nursing home residents with mild to moderate dementia. Further scholarly work is warranted to explore several methodological issues in studying complementary therapies in a highly complex treatment situation. Reykjavik. Relevance to clinical practice. Does the experimental design capture the effects of complementary therapy? A study using reflexology for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods.

*** Department of Nursing. Results: 1) The level of blood triglyceride. Polisher Research Institute. 4) Depression was higher when the score of stress was high. and lasted 30 minutes each. alpha amyase and DHEA. cupping therapy. Polisher Research Institute (formerly the Philadelphia Geriatric Center). PA. feet bathing in hot water.weeks. PhD. The Effect of Oriental Self-help Group Program for the Living Alone-Aged Inhabiting Rural Region. Conclusion: Considering the results of this research. Conclusion: These clinical findings support the use of reflexology in nursing home residents with mild/moderate dementia. Results: Analysis of variance for repeated measures demonstrated a significantly greater decrease in symptoms of pain. Vol. "Efficacy of Reflexology as a Palliative Treatment in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: A Pilot Study" Presented at the 17th International Nursing Research Congress Focusing on EvidenceBased Practice (19-22 July 2006) (1) Madlyn and Leonard Abramson Center for Jewish Life. and salivary measures of cortisol. and the score of depression and stress were lower when the score of Yangsaeng was high.** Public Health Center. and Heather Felker2. 18. Shin-Ae* Myung. (2) Research. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Nursing . CS1. Nam-Hyun*** * College of Nursing Science. health education. 2) The scores of depression and stress decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. PA. Kyunghee University. 3) The score of Yangsaeng increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. North Wales. BS2. USA top Depression Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Oriental self-help group program on living-alone elders in rural areas. Tae-Ok**?Cha. Measures of pain. The obtained data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Pearson correlation coefficients of SPSS. 2. No. depression and physiologic measures of stress for the residents given reflexology treatment than for those in the control group. SGOT and glucose decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. and foot-reflexology. emotional indexes and Yangsaeng. Method: A one-group pretest-post test design was used. heart rate. Susan Andersen. anxiety and depression were assessed using standardized indexes by trained data collectors blind to subject group assignment. USA. the program is effective in improving physiological indexes partially. Horsham. The subjects of the experimental group participated in the oriental self-help program. Therefore this program can be implemented as a community-based self-help group program for living-alone elders in rural areas. RN. Nancy A. Physiologic stress was assessed using blood pressure. Yangju City. Hodgson. Myoung-Ja*?Park. 2007 Wang. Kaya University top .

general fatigue. ANCOVA was used to do the statistical analysis. pulse rate. "Effect of Self-Foot Reflexology on Peripheral Blood Circulation and Peripheral Neuropathy in patients with Diabetes Mellitus.ac. mood. general fatigue. A . Experimental groups received foot reflex massage for 30minutes three times/week every other days. peripheral neuropathy and to determine the feasibility of self-foot reflexology as a nursing intervention. The data were obtained diabetic patients with ambulatory endocrine outpatients clinic patients from 40 years old to 70 years old. Results: There were significant difference in the pulse rate. foot fatigue and mood according to group and time between pre and post foot reflexology. 18 patients were assigned to the experimental group. intensity of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy). jeongis@pusan. The dependent variables were blood pressure. and blood glucose levels in noninsulin dependent patients. and blood sugar levels. foot fatigue.0. Korea. Korean.05 level of significance. Pusan National University. mood. 24 patients to the control group.13(2):225-234.Diabetes Diabetes: Peripheral blood circulation. visual analogue scale for general fatigue. Method: This was non equivalent control pretest-posttest study with 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (ages between 40-79) recruited from public health centers in Busan city. mood. . Method: The Research design of this study was nonequivalent control group quasiexperimental design. Jeong IS. Therefore self-foot reflexology can be used as a nursing intervention program for promoting foot care for patients with DM patients. foot fatigue.05 significance level was set for evaluating the effects of self-foot reflexology. and blood glucose levels Purpose: This study was done to investigate the effect of foot reflexology on vital signs. and outcome variables were peripheral blood circulation and peripheral neuropathy (tactile response to monofilament. peripheral neuropathy (Self foot reflexology) Purpose: This study was done to investigate the effect of self-foot reflexology on peripheral blood circulation.kr top Diabetes: Vital signs. Data were analyzed with chi2test. Intervention was a 6 week self-foot reflexology. general fatigue." Journal of Korean Acad Fundamental Nursing 2006 Aug.. t-test and repeated measure ANOVA at . Results: The self-foot reflexology was relatively effective not only in reducing peripheral neuropathy (especially tingling sensation and pain) but also in improving ability to sense the 10-g force monofilament. College of Nursing. and Control groups did not received foot reflex massage. But this research did not prove to decrease blood sugar levels. Conclusion: Even though self-foot reflexology was not effective in improving peripheral circulation. foot fatigue. it had good effect on improving peripheral neuropathy.

6% none in a seven day period Soiling after: 20% once daily." Results: The incidence of soiling decreased and bowel motions increased following the application of reflexology: Soiling before: 78% once daily. top Encopresis Nurses at Ayshire & Arran Acute Hospitals Trust (six hospitals in the National Health System in Scotland) found that reflexology successfully treated children the condition of encopresis or fecal incontinence. So further research need to explore the effect of decreasing of blood sugar levels. With the help of their parents they completed questionnaires on bowel motions and soiling patterns before. 2% (missing data) Bowel motions before: 36% none in a seven day period. "Effect of Foot Reflex Massage on Stress Responses. Existing medications were unaltered. 16% once to three times a week. 46% 1-4 motions per week. 18% daily Bowel motions after: 2% none in a seven day period.Conclusions: Foot reflexology can improve pulse rate." Korean J Rehabil Nurs. 48% none in a seven day period. Kim KS. during and after the treatment." . 2003 Dec. secondary to constipation / stool withholding. "An observational study was carried out of 50 children between three and 14 years of age who had a diagnosis of encopresis/ chronic constipation. during and after the six-week period of treatment sessions. general and foot fatigue." Methods: "Detailed histories of frequency of bowel motions and soiling were obtained from each participant on entering the study to establish a baseline. 24%daily "In the last two years (following the study conducted from June 1998 to July 1999) the community nurses have ceased giving enemas to children at home. The questionnaires were designed to record the number of bowel motions and incidence(s) of soiling in each seven-day period before. Reflexology for childhood encopresis and chronic constipation is now an established service with five paediatricians and two staff grade doctors referring children of all ages for treatment. Korean. and mood status in diabetic patients.6(2):152163. Encopresis is an "extremely distressing condition. The children received six sessions of 30minutes of reflexology to their feet. Parents were surveyed regarding their attitude towards the use of reflexology before and after the course of treatment. and Glucose Level of NonInsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients. 30% once to three times a week. Typical treatment includes enemas and laxatives." Children are subject to ridicule from other children and misery is caused to the whole family. 72% more than 1-4 motions per week.

April 2003. co. Nambu University.53. emotional & motivational responses and immunity The purpose of this study was to identify the Effect of Hand Reflexology on Saeng-chi of physiologic. However. 20. 2001. Korea. top Hemodialysis: Physiologic. The CG did not receive SFR during the research period. Women nurses were assigned to an experimental group (EG. and t-test by the SPSS version 12. we should consider SFR as an intervention on clinical nurses." Korean J Women Health Nurs. Result: The score of fatigue in the EG was significantly lower than that of the CG and the score of sleep states in the EG was also significantly higher than that of the CG. and 5 days by 5 times. sook4095@hanmail. In the emotional and motivational responses. emotional & motivational responses and immunity in ESRD patients who received hemodialysis in two general hospital from June to September. Kwangyang Health College. Vol 15 No. Department of Nursing." Pedeatric Nursing . Kwangyang-eup. Dukrye-ri. Kwangyang-si. After 5 treatments. Therefore. but not the 5th. the PR was decreased at the 1st times post treatment and at the 5th. The Hand Reflexology was applied to both hands for 10 minutes per day. n=20) or a control group (CG. In addition BP was decreased at the 1st time. 2007 Mar. Ko YS. and in the control group. Park MK. The EG & CG had never before received SFR.0 program at a 5% significant level.. 2 times per week during 4 weeks on their right & left feet. Conclusion: The findings show that the score of fatigue decreased and sleep states increased in the study.13(1):21-27. The EG participated in SFR for a total of 40 minutes. Chonnam. levels in the experimental group. To evaluate the effects of the program. and they had no open wounds or fractures. In the physiologic response. The number of participants in the experimental group was 23.239. Method: This study was a nonequivalent pretest-posttest quasi-experimental. 3 http://216. there .nursingstandard. there were significant increase in Hb and significant decreases in the BUN and Cr.100/search? q=cache:ZbjisK7w7igJ:www. Korea. n=20). 233-1."Reflexology in the management of encopresis and chronic constipation. A two group quasi-experimental research with pre and post test design was used. "Effects of Self-foot Reflexology on Fatigue and Sleep States in Women Nurses.net. The Hand Reflexology Intervention was developed by the researcher based on hand reflexology by Carter & Weber and Chi-massage by Chia.uk/archives/pn_pdfs/pnvol15n3/pnv15n3p2021.pdf+reflexology+ research+ %2Bnursing&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 top Fatigue and sleep states (self reflexology) Purpose: This study examined the effects of self-foot reflexology (SFR) on fatigue and sleep states in clinical women nurses. Korean. Department of Nursing. pre and post evaluations were done. it is still needed to verify its effects through more intensive study. Data was analyzed using the chi-square-test.

Hb levels of the experimental group were significantly increased. uplifts and self care agency scores in the experimental group.9(2):213-225. significantly increased CD4. Subjects were 54 patients who received dialysis and chemotherapy in one hospital. "The Effects of Hand Reflexology on Saeng-Chi and Immunity in ESRD Patients. From the above results. mood. However. immune cells of blood and questionnaires for emotional responses were measured before and after the program." Sungkyunkwan University. The hand reflexology was applied to both hands of the experiment group for ten minutes each time. Korea. Korea.ac. However. the hand reflexology is effective as a intervention of psychoneuroimmunologic function. Hand Reflexology is shown to be an effective mind-body nursing intervention for enhancing Saeng-chi responses and affecting some of the immune responses. For data collection. and h/s ratios were found. no significant differences between groups were observed. Thirty-one patients were assigned to the experimental group and 23 to the control group. Chronic renal failure patients and Cancer patients. Suppressor T cell and NK cell showed significant decrease after the program. Seoul Women's College of Nursing. RESULT: BT of the experiment group was decreased significantly on both of the 1st and the 5th application. 2002 Aug. physiological lab levels. And emotional responses. but not 5th times. emotional responses and immunity of the patients with chronic illness. Oh SY. Korea top . Through this result. METHOD: This study was designed as a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group pre and post test. The self care agency score correlated negatively with the CD8.kr top Hemodialysis and Cancer: physiological. Seoul Women's College of Nursing. Jeong MA. emotional responses and immunity responses of the patients with chronic illness PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of hand reflexology on the physiological. CD33. "Effects of Hand Reflexology on Physiological Emotional Responses and Immunity in the Patients with Chronic illness. B cell and CD19 were increased significantly on the experiment group. also NK cells were significantly decreased. Oh SY. seiyng5@snjc. vigor and mood scores of the experiment group were significantly increased. Lee EA. Korean. CD34 in the experimental group. Kwon IG. but there was no significant difference in the Rosenberg's self esteem score. This study looked specifically at patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and cancer patients. Lee CH. 5 times during three days. Samsung Medical Center. There were significant increases in CD32. Park OS.were significant increases in vigor. Korea. and there was a decrease in the CD8. but no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: We have found that the hand reflexology helps the chronic patients to improve physiological emotional responses and the immune reaction." J Korean Acad Fundam Nurs. Immune cell activation and differentiation with hand reflexology will be achieved with future study..In the experimental group. PR and BP were decreased significantly on the 1st times.

net. Foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 6 weeks and self foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 4 weeks on the experimental group. Conclusion: The results show that foot reflexology is an effective nursing intervention to decrease systolic blood pressure. Park HS. 2003 until August 31st. 2003 and the design was an experimental treatment design. . Foot Reflexology was used as the experimental treatment from June 23rd. diastolic blood pressure and to treat fatigue but not serum lipids. After the foot reflexology. blood cholesterol should be further evaluated with a larger group of participants and for a longer period. Foot reflexology was administered twice a week for 6 weeks to participants in the experimental group. total cholesterol and triglyceride levels for the experimental group did not decrease significantly compared to the control group. serum lipids. 2003. Nursing Department. Further research is necessary to evaluate and to compare effects of self-foot reflexology and foot reflexology. Self-efficacy in the experimental group did not decrease significantly after foot reflexology. Korean. Therefore.11(2):138-147.com/news/health/226927/ health_support_program_for_family_members_with_hospitalized_child/ top Hypertension in the elderly Purpose: This study was done to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on blood pressure. 2004 Aug. Department of Nursing Research Institute of Nursing Science. The thirty-four participants were assigned to either an experimental group (18) or a control group (16). Methods: The research was done between June 23 and July 31.redorbit. Method: The research design used was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Korea. Results: There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and diastolic pressure in the experimental group compared to the control group. fatigue and self-efficacy in patients with hypertension. Korea. Cho GY. top Hypertension Purpose: This study was to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on blood pressure. High density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels also did not decrease significantly after foot reflexology. Thirty-four subjects were assigned to an experimental group(18) and control group(16). serum lipids level and life satisfaction in essential hypertension patients.Hospitalized child http://www. "Effects of 6-week Foot Reflexology on the Blood Pressure and Fatigue in Elderly Patients with Hypertension" J Korean Acad Fundam Nurs. College of Medicine. Pusan National University. Pusan National University. gycho677@hanmail. Fatigue in the experimental group decreased significantly after foot reflexology.

gycho677@hanmail.000).001) and the situation score(U=81. Method: A quasi-experimental design was used. mean pressure( U=38. blood cholesterol should be further evaluated in a larger group of subjects and for a longer period. Korean. p=. who were composed of 18 women in the experimental group. The obtained data were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney U test of SPSS. P=.. Frequency(U=78. 2. self-foot reflexology was applied for 30 minutes. Department of Nursing. Korea. However. Further research is regarded as necessary to evaluate and to compare effects of self-foot reflexology and foot reflexology Park HS. p=. In the experimental group. Conclusion: The results proved that foot reflexology was an effective nursing intervention to decrease systolic pressure. P=.16(3):482-492. Result: 1. 3. Korean. "Effects of Foot Reflexology on Essential Hypertension Patients." J Korean Acad Nurs.net top Incontinence in middle-aged women Purpose: This study was to identify the effects of self-foot reflexology on urinary incontinence symptoms. Kang HS. 2004 Sep.00. amount(U=65. high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. College of Nursing Science. Therefore self-foot reflexology can be considered as a independent nursing intervention for urinary incontinence. Pusan National University. p=. Pusan National University.00. "The Effects of Self-foot Reflexology on Urinary Incontinence in Middle-aged Women. 2004 Aug. while 21 were in the control group.000) significantly. The total cholesterol level in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology.00. Nursing Research Institute of Nursing Science. Cho GY.50. the triglyceride level in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly decreased after foot reflexology. vaginal contraction and daily life discomfort of middle-aged women.Result: There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure but no significant decrease indiastolic pressure in the experimental group compared to the control group. Kyung Hee University.000) of vaginal contraction were improved significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control group. and triglyceride but not for the blood cholesterol but did improve life satisfaction. three times a week for 4 weeks. Korea.001). On the other hand. . Kim WO.00. Maximum pressure(U=33. Wang MJ. Life satisfaction in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly improved after foot reflexology. Therefore. Korea. Conclusion: These findings indicate that self-foot reflexology is an effective method for reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and daily life discomfort and for increasing pressure of vaginal contraction of middle-aged women.00 p=.002)of urinary incontinence were reduced significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control group. The subject were 39 middle-aged women with urinary incontinence." J Korean Acad Adult Nurs. Daily life discomfort in the experimental group was reduced whereas that of the control group was increased(U=63. Cha NH.34(5):739-750.

" Influence of suppedaneous massage combined with determining nursing based on differentiation of symptoms and signs on patients with insomnia Influence of suppedaneous massage combined with determining nursing based on differentiation of symptoms and signs on patients with insomnia. "Effects of Foot Reflexology Massage on Climacteric Symptom.01) Conclusion: Reflexology Syndrome Nursing combination of insomnia patients better efficacy. Method: 118 cases of insomnia patients.18(2):284-292. Forty participants were assigned to either an experimental group(20) or a control group(20). section 05 top Menopausal women Purpose: This study was aimed to identify the effect of foot reflexology massage on climacteric symptom. Foot reflexology massage was administered twice a week for 6 weeks in the participant in experimental group.. total cholesterol and cortisol level. safety. Participants were recruited from the Community Health Center in Busan. Results were the more efficient statistical significance (P <0. Conclusion: These results suggest that foot reflexology massage could be utilized as an effective nursing intervention to reduce climacteric symptom and fatigue in middle-aged women.kr . there were no statistically significant differences in triglyceride. Method: A non-equivalent pretest-posttest experimental design was used. Fatigue and Physiologic Parameters of Middle Aged Women. 2006 Jun. Lee YM. Zhou Qingyun. according to whether or not willing to accept the reflexology massage area is divided into 60 cases of the treatment group and the control group of 58 cases. fatigue. lym312@inje. fatigue and physiologic parameters of middle-aged women. 2007. Korean. Results: There were statistically significant differences in climacteric symptom. "Reflexology with Syndrome Nursing effect on the impact of insomnia. high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein." J Korean Acad Adult Nurs. Inje University. no reaction. Department of Nursing. However. and in accordance with TCM type Nursing control group by conventional Nursing.top Insomnia Objective: Observation Reflexology Syndrome Nursing combination of the effect of the treatment of insomnia. Treatment group Using every means to stimulate the foot with insomnia Visceral organ at the bottom of the corresponding reflection. the patient easily accepted.ac. Korea. Korea. Heng Cai." (Chinese) Nursing Research. Chenruwen.

2008. Denise." J Korean Acad Nurs. fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women.The outcome variables were measured 4 times. natural-killer cells and Ig G. there was not a statistically significant difference in diastolic blood pressure. pre training.com/p/articles/mi_qa3949/is_200111/ ai_n9007476 top Middle-aged Women Middle-aged women: Depression. FindArticles. systolic blood pressure. Stress Responses and Immune Functions of Middle Aged Women. perceived stress. stress responses and functions of the immune system of middle-aged women. Subjects were not treated for 4 weeks. Inje University. and after the intervention. Participants were 59 premenopausal. 2004 to May 31st. pulse or serum cortisol.ac. middle-aged women in their 40s and 60s living in G city: 30 in the experiment group and 29 in the control group. 5 days at home). 03 Jan. Conclusion: These results suggest that a self-foot reflexology massage could be utilized as an effective nursing intervention to reduce depression and stress responses. Method: This study was a one group pretest-posttest experimental design and the data was collected from August 1st. 2005. Methods: A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group. Lee YM." Mental Health Nursing . However. "Using reflexology: A feasibility study. Department of Nursing.com. and to strengthen immune systems in middle-aged women. fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women Purpose: This study was to examine the effects of self-foot reflexology on stress. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in depression. The subjects consisted of 46 middle-aged women (40 . "Effect of Self-Foot Reflexology massage on Depression.kr top Stress. Nov/Dec 2001. 2006 Feb.64 years) who were recruited from the Community Health Center in Busan city. http://findarticles. stress responses and functions of the immune system Purpose: This study was aimed to identify the effects of a self-foot reflexology massage on depression. at baseline. and then they did their own daily for 6weeks (2 days at the research center. Data were collected from May to . Korean. after training. subsequently they were trained in self foot reflexology massage for 2 weeks.top Mental Health Boyd. lym312@inje. The collected data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA by the SPSS/WIN program.36(1):179-188. pretest-posttest design was used.

00. Conclusion: The results suggest that the foot reflexology is effective in relieving of pain and depression. JinJu. College of Nursing. Jang SH." Korean J Rehabil Nurs. p=. JinJu.000) and depression (F=20. 2002). Ahn SA.aged women with Osteoarthritis. it is necessary to develop foot reflexology as an independent nursing intervention. Korea (PMID: 19901496) top Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis: Pain and depression Purpose: This study was to examine the effects of foot reflexology on pain and depression of middle. JinJu International University. "The Effects of Foot Reflexology on Pain and Depression of Middle-aged Women with Osteoarthritis. Results: The results showed that self-foot reflexology was effective in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and helped blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. 2009 Oct.g. Reflexology is a noninvasive technique of applying topical pressure to specific points on the feet thought to represent somatic organs. Gyeong-Sang National University. top Osteoarthritis: Joint pain In the U." J Korean Acad Nurs. The hypothesis was that . fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were conducted... Korean. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of foot reflexology on self-reported osteoarthritis joint pain.gsnu..39(5):662-72. Songwon College. Korea.kr Department of Beauty Design.August 2008. such as reflexology. 2005. Therefore.ac. The foot reflexology was applied to the experimental group 3 times a week for 4 weeks.77. the subjects in experimental group showed significant improvement in pain (F=155. Kim KH.S. Conclusion: Self-foot reflexology may be an effective nursing intervention in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and in improving blood circulation. p=. nhsoh@gshp. FDA.S. t-test. "Effects of self-foot reflexology on stress. Arthritic medications have caused adverse reactions e. To examine the relative efficacy of the intervention. These effects may be minimized by adjuvant nonpharmacological modalities. a complementary therapy. Department of Nursing. Gyeongnam. Method: The subjects were 41 osteoarthritis patients resided in the Jinju city from March to May. Oh HS. Vioxx recall (U. Gyeongnam. 1 of every 3 people is affected by painful arthritis (CDC and Prevention.000). 30 minutes each. Korea. chi-square-test was conducted to verify the homogeneity of general characteristics. Results: After foot reflexology.9(1):25-33. Self-foot reflexology was performed three times a week for 6 weeks for 40 min at each session. and t-test was done to verify the homogeneity of pain and depression. 2005) and others may have adverse effects when used long-term. For the data analysis. 2006 Jun.

and questionnaire of nursing care were conducted. n = 39 placebo. After receiving hand reflexology therapy. Caption (Sei Young Oh). 1992) with .participants with joint pain who received reflexology would have less pain after treatment than those receiving a placebo massage or control condition.0%). paired t-test.foot massage. start pages: 178 pages."The Effect of Hand Reflexology on Pain." Southern Nursing Research Society Proceedings: 2007 Annual Conference. physiologic measuring.99 ± 1.31. 2005. yiyoungsun (Young Soon Lee).56%) and press-rolling (31. Reflexology. RN. 001). p = 0001) and an increase in skin temperature (t = 3.54. A convenience sample (N = 119) were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 41 treatment-foot reflexology. and practice regarding adjuncts for joint pain relief. Pain was measured before and after the 15-minute intervention with the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. 2. however." Korea Journal of Nursing Education. the subjects showed significant pain relief (t =. The effectiveness of nursing practice scored 3. Overall: 9 pages. 0001). A power analysis was calculated using G*Power® software computer program (Faul & Erdfelder. Subjects were selected 45 in-patients from a surgical ward in hospitals during Nov. education.-Dec. ANOVA and Pearson `s correlation coefficients. p =.11%). The effect may be explained by the gate control theory. p =. Result: 1.0408. 5 minute hand reflexology therapy was applied to both hands of participant by two research assistants at the same time. Kim DS (Dong Soo Kim).05.4. hahyejeong (Hyae Chung Ha). 12. did not statistically result in less pain than massage. The results generated knowledge for research. 2007 top Pain (Surgical ward) Purpose: This study is aimed to examine the effectiveness on pain. Clinical effect was found in the reflexology group who had 8 to 18% improvement (less pain on all pain scales). with a large ES of 1. The groups receiving either reflexology or massage had significantly less posttest pain than those receiving arthritis information.97 out of 5. X2-test. compared with those in the massage group. Skin Temperature and Nursing Practice. The applied skills that the participants preferred were press-rotate (80. press-walk (35. A limitation was the researcher administering all interventions and questionnaires. Method: The pre / post test methods using VAS for pain and feeling. and n = 39 control-arthritis information) for the experimental pretest-posttest controlled clinical trial.44. Nurse-Patient Relationship and effective response of nursing intervention ranked the highest 4. Conclusion: Hand reflexology was considered as an effective nursing intervention in the clinical settings. Laree J Schoolmeesters PhD. feeling and nursing practice of hand reflexology applied to in-patient in the clinical setting. but in order to evaluate re-verifies and reliances for this effects. yimyeongsuk (Myung Sook Lee).99 Ρ lower for the parameters of alpha =. it is necessary that comparative studies should be conducted. Data were analyzed based on SAS program using frequency.94. Multiple regression was used to analyze the hypothesis. January 2006 . "The Effect of Reflexology on Self-Reported (Osteoarthritis) Joint Pain. 2 Korea. Feb 22. improvement in feeling (t = 19.

YM.50%). the symptoms disappeared after treatment of 65 cases (81. 2006 22 top Pneumoconosis patients: Fatigue and insomnia (in Coal Workers) "Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of foot reflexology on fatigue and insomnia in patients suffering from coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Application stomach or duodenum reflexology massage area. the observation group based in the drug treatment. ymlee6505@hanmail. net). two times a day. Data of this experiment was analyzed by Chi-square test.12%). of Nursing. Kangwom Tourism College. KY (Dept. Fatigue was evaluated by Fatigue Symptoms Inventory. There was a significant difference of fatigue and insomnia between the two groups. each for 15 min to 20 min. Data was collected from December 10. Method: Of 162 patients with peptic ulcer patients were randomly divided into two groups of 82 cases and the control group of 80 cases. CAO Hui-min. "Foot Massage therapy reflection of the impact of peptic ulcer patients. t-test.05) Conclusion: Stomach or duodenum reflexology massage therapy areas of peptic ulcer patients can promote rehabilitation.56%). There was significant between the two groups (P <0. Insomnia was measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS). two cured after treatment in 78 patients (95. and can be recommended as a nursing intervention program for patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis." Lee. unpaired t-test and Repeated Measures ANOVA with the SAS Program.25%). To evaluate the effects of foot reflexology. the scores of fatigue and insomnia were measured before and after the experiment in both groups.top Peptic ulcers Observation reflexology foot massage on the rehabilitation of peptic ulcer patients. but none in the control group. "Method: This study was a quasi-experimental study of pre-test and post-test design in a nonequivalent control group. Foot reflexology was performed for 60 minutes twice a week through five weeks in the experimental group."The Effects of Foot Reflexology on Fatigue and Insomnia in ." Nursing Research. "Results: The scores of fatigue and insomnia decreased in the experimental group but not in the control group. Influence of foot massage reflection therapy on peptic ulcer patients. Sohmg. Duan Feng-lian. The subjects of this study consisted of both the experimental group of twenty-nine and the control group of thirty coal workers' pneumoconiosis patients. two cured after treatment of 62 cases (77. Ma Dongmei. a control group. 2003. 2002 to February 15. "Conclusion: It is suggested that foot reflexology might have beneficial effects on reducing fatigue and insomnia in patients suffering from coal workers' pneumoconiosis. four weeks for a treatment and control group using only drug therapy Results: Observer Group 1 after treatment symptoms disappeared 80 cases (97.

Therefore the foot reflexology is considered that might be used as an effective skill of nursing intervention program for coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Postpartum women were assigned to the experimental group (n=16) or a control group (n=15). Lee YM. Kangwon Tourism College." Korean J Rehabil Nurs. t-test. not in the control group. 2005 Jun. for a total of 2 weeks to the experimental group. The foot reflexology was performed for 60 minutes twice a week through five weeks in the experimental group.reflexology massage on body weight. Data of this experiment were analyzed by Chisquare test. unpaired t-test.. ymlee6505@hanmail.net) top Postpartum women Post partum women: Body weight. and serum lipids in postpartum women. ANOVA using . The subjects of this study consisted of both the experimental group of twenty-nine and the control group of thirty coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Foot reflexology massage was applied 5 times a week. Results: The score of depression decreased in the experimental group. ANCOVA and Repeated Measures ANOVA with the SAS Program. and the calf. lower extremity edema. foot reflexology was regarded that it attributed to the emotional promotion of coal workers' pneumoconiosis.8(1):31-37. The score of anxiety decreased in the experimental group.. To evaluate the effects of foot reflexology the scores of depression and anxiety were measured before and after the experiment in both groups. There was a significant difference of depression between the two groups. There was a significant difference of anxiety between the two groups. Data was analyzed by chi-square-test. and paired t-test. not in the control group.Patients Suffering from Coal Workers' Pneumoncomiosis. not in the control group.35(7):1221-8. Conclusion: As a summary of the study results." Taehan Knaho Hakhoe Chi (Korean language). The data were collected from December 10. lower extremity edema. PMID: 16418548 top Pneumoconosis Patients: Depression and Anxiety (in Coal Workers) Purpose: This study was to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on depression and anxiety in coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Dec. 2002 to February 15.(Department of Nursing. 2003. 2005. t-test. "The Effects of Foot Reflexology on Depression and Anxiety in Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis. The tool for measuring lower extremity edema was the girth of the thigh. The measuring tool for serum lipids was total cholesterol and TG in blood serum by clinical process. and serum lipids Purpose: This study examined the effects of foot. Method: This study was a nonequivalent control-group pretest-posttest design. Method: The research design used was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Korean.

SPSS/Win PC 14. Using a generalised estimation equation to control several confounding variables. Design and Setting: randomised controlled trial. Measures and Findings: the outcome measure was the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI).net top Postpartum women: Gastrointestinal function Zhou Xiaoqing Zhou Xiaoqin. Section 01 top Post partum women: Sleep quality Objective: to examine the effectiveness of using foot reflexology to improve sleep quality in postpartum women. conducted at two postpartum centres in northern Taiwan. standard error=0. p<0.24.001) than in the control group. "Foot after cesarean section on the recovery of gastrointestinal function. Participants: 65 postpartum women reporting poor quality of sleep were recruited from July 2007 to December 2007." Korean J Women Health Nurs. shiningheart@hanmail.Department of Beauty Cosmetology. "Effects of Foot-Reflexology Massage on Body Weight.0.38. Interventions: participants were assigned randomly to either an intervention or a control group. Conclusion: an intervention involving foot reflexology in the postnatal period significantly improved the quality of sleep. Mean PQSI scores for both groups declined over time between baseline and post test." Contemporary nurses (Academic Edition) Today Nurse 2004. Sessions were administered by a certified nurse reflexologist. Vision College of Jeonju Completion of doctor course. Lower Extremity Edema and Serum Lipids in Postpartum Women. Korean. . Zhou Xiaoqing. the Influence of Foot Soaking and Massage on the Recovery of Digestive System after Cesarean. the changes in mean PSQI were found to be significantly lower in the intervention group (beta=-2. The intervention group received a single 30-minute foot reflexology session at the same time each evening for five consecutive days. Park SH. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in levels of TG in blood serum in the experimental group compared to the control group. Korea. and this was performed at baseline and post test.13(2):105-114.. Conclusion: Foot reflexology massage is a useful nursing intervention that decreases serum lipids level in postpartum women. Midwives interested in complementary therapies should be encouraged to obtain training in reflexology and to apply it in clinical settings if it is allowed . Implications for Practice: Midwives should evaluate maternal sleep quality and design early intervention programmes to improve quality of sleep in order to increase maternal biopsychosocial well-being. Therefore foot reflexology massage is recommended as a nursing intervention strategy for serum lipids reduction in postpartum women. 2007 Jun. Participants in both groups received the same care except for reflexology therapy.

2.01. Nursing Science. 2009 Jul 3. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and t-test. p<.627. p<. Thailand (Sirphan Sasat. The posttest mean score on pain of an experimental group was significantly lower than of the pretest (X = 7. 325.85. Taipei 114. The intervention instrument was the symptom management with reflexology program on pain. Bangguizhi. No.05.. Neihu. Tri-Service General Hospital. Conclusion: Footbath intervention on the maternal role of promoting mental health. Huang CM. medicine foot massage with plantar intervention method is the best. The posttest mean score of frequency pain medication taking of an experimental group was significantly lower than of a control group (X = 1. a total of 240 cases observed.75. Li Meng Fong. P < 0.001) 3. Zhou. ROC) top Post partum women: Anxiety and depression Objective: To investigate the maternal mental health promotion effective method: mothers were randomly divided into four groups.Li CY. 14 top Post surgical pain Post surgical pain: Frequency of pain medication taking The purposes of this research were to compare effects of symptom management with reflexology program on pain and frequency of pain medication taking in elderly patient with prostatectomy. hatred snow-sheung.230. consisted of four sessions: 1) symptom experienced assessment 2) knowledge providing 3) reflexology and 4) evaluation phases. Cheng-Gong Rd. Sec. 2005. X = 1. The major finding were as follows: 1.65. Advisor) top . Wei Dan He. "Effects of symptom management with reflexology program on pain and frequency of pain medication taking in elderly patient with prostatectomy" Thesis.36. Gau ML. "Nursing Intervention on postpartum anxiety and depression impact study.335. The posttest mean score of pain of an experimental group was significantly lower than of a control group0 (X = 3. X =6. Chulalongkorn University."Midwifery. p<. depression score and the group has significant difference.75. Li CY.001) 2. "Randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of using foot reflexology to improve quality of sleep amongst Taiwanese postpartum women. Sample were 40 elderly patients who received treatment at Suratthanee Hospital which were equally matched pair and assigned to experimental and control. Taiwan. t=16. Group C heated foot bath and massage. X = 3. each with 60 cases. The quasi-experimental design was used with pretest-posttest control groups. Groups. t =-10. Chen SC. in Group D after 36 hours does not impose any factors Results: Chinese foot massage with plantar after the intervention group anxiety. t-=-2." Chinese health Chinese Health Care 2007. After 6 hours in group A respectively to Chinese foot massage with plantar Group B medicine Footbath. (Department of Nursing.05) Tanyakhanok Pongpiyapibon.

Thailand (Chanokporn jitpanya. 130 subjects were randomised into three groups. Mean of unpleasant symptoms score in the group receiving conventional nursing care was the highest. voiding. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the unpleasant symptoms questionnaire was . Advisor) http://bit. Mean of unpleasant symptoms score in the group receiving preoperative information combined with foot reflexology with aromatherapy was the lowest. and were selected by a purposive sampling.05. and conventional nursing care on unpleasant symptoms in post opened-heart surgery patients. and 3rd day after opened-heart surgery. Mean of unpleasant symptoms score in opened-heart surgery patients on 2nd. Nursing Science. There was also a tendency in the FRgroup for the indwelling catheter to be removed earlier than in the other groups. FM showed significant results in the subjective measures of well-being. regimen of analgesic and sedative drugs. The first experimental group received information "Pain relieving after cardiac surgery" before the surgery. and two experimental groups. and/or sleep in women who underwent an abdominal operation. bowel movements. Results show that the women in the FR group were more able to void without problems.Post surgical pain: Open heart surgery To compare the effect of preoperative information. In comparison the FR-subjects slept worse than the others. sex heart disease and type of surgery." The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of foot-reflexology (FR) on operated women. Mean of unpleasant symptoms score in the group receiving conventional nursing care was the highest Suthathip Kasedluksame. foot/leg massage (FM) or talking respectively. footleg massage (FM) or talking. after the indwelling catheter had been removed than did women in the comparison groups. and pairwise comparison. Mean of unpleasant symptoms score in the group receiving preoperative information combined with foot reflexology with aromatherapy was the lowest. The instrument was a set of questionnaires including a demographic data form. "The Effect of preoperative information combined with foot reflexology with aromatherapy on unpleasant symptoms in post opened-heart surgery patients. Mean of unpleasant symptoms score in opened-heart surgery patients add 3 times were statistical different among groups at the level of . The groups were matched in terms of age. Results were as follows 1. The second experimental group received information "Pain relieving after cardiac surgery" before the surgery and foot reflexology with aromatherapy on 1st. 2. preoperative information combined with foot reflexology with aromatherapy. pain and sleep. The subjects were arranged into a control group. For five days they were exposed to fifteen minutes of FR.05. one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Data were analysed by descriptive statistics. 2005 Chulalongkorn University. 2nd. The unpleasant symptoms questionnaire was tested for the content validity by a panel of experts. 130 subjects were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: FR. The subjects were 45 post opened-heart surgery patients admitted at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. and 4th day after the surgery were statistical different among groups at the level of .95.ly/75nMaT top Post surgical recovery Post surgical recovery: Abdominal operation The study's goal was to test if foot reflexology (FR) affects the well-being. and type of ward. and the unpleasant symptoms form. Interventions were offered on five consecutive days and lasted ." Thesis. 3rd. The control group received conventional nursing care. pain.

The following parameters were recorded: the subjective. 'relaxing' reflexology techniques or a specific 'lymphatic' reflexology technique for 15 minute with pre and post-therapy ankle and foot circumference measurements and participant questionnaire.. self-assessed. compared to the others. From the women's viewpoint. Foot reflexology investigated in this study was applied only for a few days for each patient. 6 Suppl 1:38-40 (PMID: 10077716) top Pregnancy (Edema) Fifty-five women in the third trimester (of pregnancy) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a period of rest." . sleep. Muller M. abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology because it can occasionally trigger abdominal pain. There were no differences among the groups in the domain of post-operative bowel movements.006) and experienced less pain (p=0. movement of the bowels. However. 130 patients participated in the study. Pflege 1998. (All groups) had a non-significant oedema-relieving effect. lymphatic reflexology was the preferred therapy with significant increase in symptom relief. The simple massage turned out to be a relaxing. followed closely by relaxing techniques and then the control rest group. the lymphatic technique reflexology group mean circumference measurements were all decreased. but exclusively gynecological reasons. the nurses who cared for the patients did the control interventions. 11(4):213-8 (PMID: 9775925) top Post surgical recovery. Kesselring A.020). positive experience. "Foot Reflexology: an intervention study. We conclude that FR may be effective. Š A 'perceived wellbeing' score revealed the lymphatic technique group significantly increased their wellbeing the most. Aug. Gynecological surgery "The aim of the study was to investigate the possible usefulness of foot reflexology on the recovery after a surgical intervention. "Foot Reflexology massage: a clinical study. pain intensity. general condition. however. The conclusion was that foot reflexology is not recommended for acute." Forsch Komplementarmed 1999 Feb..15 minutes each. whereas foot reflexology had various effects. pain. micturition and sleep beginning on the day before the operation until day 10. Data collection was done on five dependent variables: well-being. FM may be offered post-operatively as a soothing nursing intervention. Two other treatments served as controls. Spichiger E. The FM-group did better than the others in subjective well-being (p<0. post-operative voiding and bowel movements. Nurse-reflexologists offered FR. Results showed a better ability to void the bladder after the indwelling catheter was removed in the FR-group (p=0." Kesselring A.024). if women have problems voiding after an indwelling catheter was removed. There was no statistically significant difference in the circumference measurements between the three groups. They underwent abdominal surgery under full anesthesia for different. the FR-group slept the worse (p-<0. a simple massage of the foot or a personal conversation.011). some of them even negative..

on ankle and foot oedema in late pregnancy. 2002 Jun.16 at the first menstruation after foot reflexology and 3. depression disorder. lower abdominal pain (30%) and constipation (30%). "Single Blind trial addressing the differential effects of two reflexology techniques versus rest. it was 4. X(2)-test.as top Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of foot reflexology on premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea in female college students." Complementary Therapeutic Nursing Midwifery.25 at the second menstruation for the experimental group. depression and physiological index "Purpose: This study was to examine the effects of foot reflexion massage on sleep disturbance. Department of Nursing. The instrument used to assess premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea was Keele's VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and opening records. The results of the study are as follow. and repeated measure ANOVA. and the physiological index of the elderly in nursing homes. and subjects assigned to the control group did not receive foot reflexology. 2003 Nov.com/enews/enews0307.Mollart l.8(2):212-221. An experimental group and a control group were . Data were analysed with percentage. The subjects in this study were 50 elderly people who resided in two different nursing homes in the same region. abdominal pain (35%). Of the forty female college students. lower abdominal pain (30%) and lumbago (20%). 2001 to January 31. The research design of this study was a quasiexperimental design. Subjects in the experimental group received foot reflexology for 6 times with 1 hours during 60 days. 2002) from a nursing of C college located in S city.The relieved symptoms after foot reflexology was fatigue (50%)." Korean J Women Health Nurs. Sun Cheon Cheong Am College. mean. "Method: The research design was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest quasiexperimental study. 3. insomnia (40%). unpaired t-test.The mean score of the premenstrual syndromes and dysmenorrhea before foot reflexology was 8.5%). Kim YH.35. The method of relieve premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea by which the subjects employ the most to solve their premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea is the getting along by enduring (67. top Sleep. standard deviation. 2. "The Effect of Foot Reflexology on Premenstrual Syndrome and Dysmenorrhea in Female College Students.. Korean.5%) and bed rest (32. twenty were assigned to the experimental group and. abdominal pain (30%). using SAS Program. Korea. 1. Elderly women Elderly women: Sleep disturbance. twenty to the control group. Foot reflexology was effective in improve the symptoms of the female college students who have the premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Cho SH.9(4):203-8 See http://www.midwiferytoday.The symptoms which the group of experimental and the group of control discomforts the most are sensitiveness (35%). The data were obtained over 2 months (November 26.

362.36(1):15-24.organized with 25 subjects respectively. The fatigue score of the experiment group is significantly lower than that of the control group(t=4. p=. Jin SJ. serum cortisol). and physiological indices (blood plasma.000). Catholic University of Pusan.000). rhsong@hit. "Conclusion: It's necessary to give foot reflexion massage as a successful nursing intervention to elderly who undergo a change in sleep.ac. t-test.kr.) PMID: 16520560 top Elderly Women: Sleep Purpose: To investigate the effects of foot reflexology massage on sleep and fatigue of elderly women. it is considered that the foot reflexology massage is effective for elderly women in promoting a good sleep and relieving the fatigue. The experimental group improved sleep quality more than the control group. Result: 1. 2. 2. (Department of Nursing. "Result: 1. 2006 Feb." [Article in Korean]. Fifty elderly women were selected for each group. Masan Samsung Medical Center. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. ChiSquare test.444. The selected dependent variables were sleep disturbance. Data analysis included chi2test.000). and ANCOVA. and the physiological index of the elderly. depression disorder. Kim do H. it is seen that the sleep score increases as the frequency of the foot reflexology massage increases(F=96. and foot reflexion massage was provided for 12 sessions. Korean. paired t-test. "The effects of foot reflexion massage on sleep disturbance.17(3):493-502. The data were analyzed using the Cronbach's alpha. 30 minutes per session. the fatigue is relieved gradually as the frequency of the foot reflexology massage increases (F= 118. 3." Journal Korean Academci Adult Nursing 2005 Aug.000). p=. Method: The study was performed from April through July of 2004 on the nonequivalent control group non-synchronized quasi-experimental design. For the experiment group. The foot reflexology massage was performed for 45 minutes every three days for experimental group. p=. Kim YK.kr top Stroke . p=. using the SPSS program package.944. "The Effects of Foot Reflexology Massage on Sleep and Fatigue of Elderly Women. The experimental group had higher serotonin levels than the control group. 4. The experimental group had less depression disorder than the control group.ac.356. Conclusion: Based on the results described above. t-test and Repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni. and suffer from a depression disorder due to a deterioration in sleep. For the experiment group. 3. which were all measured before and after foot reflexion massage was offered. depression disorder. Daejeon Health Science College. ykkim@cup.." Song RH. The sleep score of the experiment group is significantly higher than that of the control group (t=-5.

Korean top Stroke Purpose: This study was to examine the effects of foot reflexology on ADL and fatigue in stroke patients. the subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvement in ADL. psychological. For the data analysis. Korean J Rehabil Nurs.Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Korea. there are few community based rehabilitation program for poststroke patients who stay at home. Therefore. The hand grasp power and muscle strength of four limbs were measured at the end of each sessions. Sea H. Kim KS. Seoul National University. The program consists of five sessions and each session contains health education. Depression and Life Satisfaction of Poststroke Patients. 40 minutes each. The Questionnaires about ADLs. Results: After foot reflexology. IADLs. and muscle strength and to decrease the depression levels of subjects. there was no significant difference between pre and post hand grasp power and life satisfaction. The authors developed a community based self-help management program for post-stroke patients to enhance their rehabilitation process." Korean J Rehabil Nurs.com Nursing Department. The analysis of data revealed that the program was effective to increase the ADLs. and neurosensory fatigue. Song MR. and enhances the homeostasis of the body through stimulating the reflex zone of internal organs in the body. Dongshin Oriental Medicine Hospital. Korea. strokes are categorized as a sudden-onset. Conclusion: The results suggest that foot reflexology is an effective intervention that helps the body work efficiently. However. "The Effects of Community based Self-help Management Program on the Activity of Daily Life. . Song HM.3(1):108-117. IADLs. and t-test was done to verify the homogeneity of ADL and fatigue. Korean.. Unfortunately. constant course chronic illness which needs continuous efforts for rehabilitation. and stress management like foot reflexology. ADL training. Muscle Strength. junhchoi@hanafos. ANOVA and ANCOVA were conducted. Because the program was effective to improve the physical and psychological function of subjects. ROM exercise. chi2test was conducted to verify the homogeneity of general characteristics and clinical characteristics. depression and life satisfaction were asked to the all subjects before and after program. Because of their sequelae. To test the effects of the program. "The Effects of Foot Reflexology on ADL and Fatigue in Stroke Patients. we suggest continual development and implementation of community based self-help management programs. it is necessary to develop foot reflexology as an unique nursing intervention. 2002. Foot reflexology was applied to the experimental group twice a week for 6 weeks. Method: The subjects were 31 stroke patients hospitalized in the Oriental Medicine Hospital of D University from June to November.College of Nursing. 2005 Dec. To examine the relative efficacy of the intervention. 2000 Jun. Kang J. which are three areas of fatigue. Korea. eases stress and strain. They also had less physical.8(2):139-148. A professor and two graduate students of nursing college coordinated the program. we conducted a 5 week program to the 10 conveniently selected post-stroke patients who were living in Kang-buk district of Seoul.

Korea top Wellness "Proactive health-care services emphasize health promotion and the prevention of disabling conditions. anxiety states were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group.9(3):277-286. control group: 30) with constipation. Conclusion: The results are suggested that the foot reflexology education program might improve the bowel function. self-care health promotion activities have become essential in order for the elderly to maintain their well-being. Therefore. anxiety and depression. X(2)-test. "Effects of Foot Reflexology Education Program on Bowel Function. After all session of treatment. has been found to enhance blood circulation. 2003 Sep. Korean. Choi ES. depression states were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Result: After all session of treatment. anxiety and depression. The effect of the program was measured by Bowel Function Assessment Form for constipation. and one's own healing power.12 program. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of foot massage with biofeedback. 31 out of them were divided into the experimental group and received foot reflexology education program that was authorized by the World Foot Reflexology Association and made to suit for the subjects by the author for 6weeks composed of 2 weeks theory and of 4 weeks practical skill on the program. Data were analyzed by t-test. Method: The data of this study were collected from October 28. a Thai primary self-care custom. anxiety and depression Purpose: The purpose of this study was to probe the effect of foot reflexology education program on nursing students with constipation. Suncheon Cheongam College. State Anxiety Inventory. Repeated measures ANOVA. the number of elderly with deteriorating health has increased. The subjects consisted of 61 nursing students (experimental group: 31. Anxiety and Depression in Nursing Students. Department of Nursing. In addition. Bonferroni multiple comparison using SAS/PC 8. the score of bowel function assessment were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Outcomes of 6 and 7 weeks were significantly different from those of pre-experiment. Korea.top Students: Constipation. Foot massage. After all session of treatment. The Catholic University of Korea. anxiety and depression. and Beck Depression Inventory. 2002. relaxation. to December 14. Outcomes of 6 and 7 weeks were significantly different from those of preexperiment. Currently in Thai society. College of Nursing." Korean J Women Health Nurs. Outcomes of 7 weeks were significantly different from those of preexperiment. anxiety and depression for the nursing students with constipation. touch has been found to stimulate secretion of endorphins and reduce pain and . Kim YH. This study was a quasi-experimental study of pre-test and posttest design on non-equivalent control group.

however. The sample consisted of four men and 16 women (age group 61-69). Phengchomjan N. Results showed that the average biofeedback and temperature were lower before than after the foot massage (P<0. utilizing a pilot project in elderly health care.anxiety. Families also. Bhanggananda N. It needs to no only be performed by nurses. however. 2002 Aug. I an happy and comfortable. "An experimental study. The average pulse rate. is just one key to achieving a full range of primary health-care services.01). "It is very nice that foot massage can relieve my joint pain.4(Suppl):A4 (PMID: 12153420) top Reflexology Books Reflexology Charts Reflexology Logo Products Self Help Reflexology Reflexology Ebooks Reflexology IPhone App Resources GO Sign up for our Email Newsletter Reflexology Live Blog with Kevin Kunz By TwitterButtons." Jirayingmongkol P. It appears therefore that foot massage. Chantein S.01). Biofeedback was also investigated before and after the foot massages.") These findings appear to indicate that foot massage is beneficial both for physical and mental conditions." Nursing Health Science. respiratory rate and blood pressure. were found to be higher before rather than after the foot massage (P<0. promotes a healthy lifestyle for all age groups. was employed to investigate the effects of biofeedback using foot massage A pretest/post-test quasiexperimental design was used. or reflexology. All subjects expressed positive feelings when they received the foot massage (i. can provide foot massage for the elderly. It was concluded that the foot massage provided good circulation. "The effect of foot massage (reflexology) with biofeedback: a pilot study to enhance health promotion. e. anywhere and anytime. Four trained researchers massaged the feet of the subjects and measured vital-sign changes. Foot massage.com . relaxation and comfort.

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