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Fourier Series

• Vector decomposition

• Even and Odd functions

• Fourier Series definition and examples

All rights reserved.

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 1

Review of Vector Decomposition

Q

y = [0 1] r = [1.3 0.75]

I

x = [1 0]

a set of appropriately weighted

orthonormal basis vectors

• Example:

Calculation of Vector Weights

Q

y = [0 1] r = [1.3 0.75]

I

x = [1 0]

basis vectors

• Example:

The Basis Vectors are Not Unique

Q

x=[ 1 1 ]

2 2 r = [1.3 0.75]

y = [ -1 1 ]

2 2

I

Observations on Basis Decomposition

• We can consider any vector as a sum of

weighted orthonormal basis vectors

• The weights are determined by an inner

product calculations (also known as projections)

– Consist of element-by-element multiplications

followed by addition of the resulting products

x=[ 1 1 ]

2 2 r = [1.3 0.75]

• Inner product calculations:

y = [ -1 1 ]

2 2

I

Can We Decompose Functions?

• Consider a periodic function such as a square wave

weighted sum of basis functions?

• If so, what would be a good choice for such basis

functions?

• How would we calculate the weights?

Consider Sine Wave Basis Functions

• Suppose we consider sine waves of progressively

increasing frequencies as our basis functions

sin(ωot)

sin(2ωot)

t

sin(3ωot)

t

– Available at: http://www.falstad.com/fourier/

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 7

Issue: Sine Waves Are Limited

• A sine wave corresponds to an odd function

sin(ωot)

odd function

Consider Cosine Wave Basis Functions

• Even function definition:

cos(ωot)

cos(2ωot)

t

cos(3ωot)

t

Combine Cosines and Sines

• If we use both cosine and sine waveforms as basis

functions, we can realize both even and odd

functions (and any combination)

Even Odd

t t

cos(ωot) sin(ωot)

t t

cos(2ωot) sin(2ωot)

t t

cos(3ωot) sin(3ωot)

t t

The Fourier Series

• A periodic waveform, x(t), with period T can be

represented as an infinite sum of weighted cosine

and sine waveforms

x(t)

Intuition for Fourier Series

• Compare Fourier Series to vector decomposition:

Vector Decomp. Fourier Series

calculations are analogous to vector inner products!

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 12

Sine Wave Example

Ksin(ωot) K T

t

-K

(DC Average is 0)

Graphical View of Fourier Series (Sine)

Ksin(ωot) K T

t

-K

index or frequency

an af

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 14

Fourier Series of Cosine

Kcos(ωot) K T

t

-K

an af

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 15

Fourier Series of Cosine with DC component

K(cos(ωot)+1) 2K T

an af

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

K K

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 16

Fourier Series of Phase-Shifted Cosine

K T

t

-K

• Using a well known trigonometric identity:

an af

Kcosθ Kcosθ

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

bn bf

Ksinθ Ksinθ

0 n 0 f (Hz)

0 1 2 3 0 1/T 2/T 3/T

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 17

Vector View of Phase-Shifted Cosine

K T

t

-K

• Using a well known trigonometric identity:

Q = sin(ωot)

Kcos(ωot - θ)

Ksin(θ)

θ

I = cos(ωot)

Kcos(θ)

M.H. Perrott © 2007 Intro to Fourier Series, Slide 18

Square Wave Example

x(t)

A T/2

t

-A

• By inspection:

T

– DC average = 0 ⇒ a0 = 0

– x(t) is odd ⇒ an = 0 (n ≥ 1)

Summary

• Vector decomposition provides a nice starting point

for understanding Fourier Series

– Vector decomposition into a sum of weighted basis vectors

an infinite sum of weighted cosine and sine functions

– We can look at waveforms either in ‘time’ or ‘frequency’

– Useful tool: even and odd functions

– Fourier Series definition covered today is not very compact

• We will look at a simpler formulation based on complex

exponentials

– Fourier Series only deals with periodic waveforms

• We will introduce the Fourier Transform to deal with non-

periodic waveforms

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