TRADITIONAL BOSNIAN HOUSE

-most significant studies of Bosnian house form: Rudolf Meringer, Josip Pospišil, Jovo Popović, Juraj Neidhardt, Dušan Gabrijan, Muhamed Kadić, Astrida Bugarski and Džemal Čelić Common characteristics of Bosnian House: -the architecture of a traditional Bosnian house reflects the connection of men with the natural conditions like climate, vegetation and construction material -Perennial principles: o orientation o privacy of family life o purity of the place o purity of inhabitants o respect towards nature o respect towards the others 1. The oldest houses have the common “Ground horizon” – every function of the house is performed close to ground: sitting, sleeping, cooking,… which is reflected in the organization of the house and the furniture inside the house - Development of the above ground floor level is a reflection of a higher civilization 2. Individual character of the self standing building is another basic common characteristic o the traditional Bosnian house -the main functional and formal element of the Bosnian house is a pitched roof -the composition of the geometrical volumes gives the special formative expression to the house Criteria for Typological Classification of the Bosnian House • Anthropological • Geographical • Cultural • Historical _______________ • Location and setting • Material • Functional and Spatial organization • Form • Construction and constructive system Basic typology of the Bosnian House: o Various types of the timber house o Some types of the stone houses o Some varieties of the adobe and wattle and daub houses The primitive types of houses: 1. Cone shaped “SPIKY HOUSE”, “HOLLOWED HORN” -the archetypal house is circular – circular for of house corresponds to the first space that human being defined for the purposes of their shelter and defence -the most elementary and one of the oldest human hubs

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“BUNJA” – circular stone hut -circular dry stone wall hut spread around the Mediterranean area -in Bosnia some Bunjas are presented in the area of Duvno -it is very old pre-Slavenic type of house used in the areas where there is a lack of wood as a construction material -it disappeared due to the fact that circular form did not allow extension and evolution the house 2 . 2m in radius. positioned on the sledges -bigger cottage on sledges so it can be moved to the mountains during summer and then moved back to the villages during the winter 4. “POVOZAČA” – bigger movable cottage with timber skeleton and walls made of wattle.-it is spiky cone shaped construction made of timbers.on a sort of sledges so it can be moved across the grass -hut for a single person 3. a kind of a movable wooden tent. “KREVE” – movable wooden tent on sledges -sledge cottage. covered with branches or straw or turfs 2. covered by straw or turfs.the smallest hut.

“LJETNICA” – summer shepherd cottage -it is a small single spaced house (3mx5m) that was used by shepherds during the summers -it served for preparation of cheese as well. PILE DWELLING -simple. usually single space timber structure elevated from the ground -used mostly in wetland areas as well as at the rivers` or lakes` banks The elementary basic oldest types of houses do not serve today for permanent housing -they are usually used as seasonal shepherd’s hubs -they have almost disappeared Various types of the timber house: SINGLE GROUND FLOOR HOUSE -the oldest type of the house is single space ground floor house that might be log. stone or adobe house -it has similar shape that does not depend very much on the material 3 . so it had a fire place and primitive shells in its interior 6.5.

-evolution of the timber and stone house is different and when it develops the new diversifying types are established -the part o the house with fireplace as a central and basic was considered to be a house. 4 . -this part is still named house (KUCA) in Bosnian -the new parts were called “separation” and from 19th century they are called rooms LOG HOUSE -the basic formal characteristic of a log house is relation between the roof and the ground floor volume -the roof with large eaves is 4 times higher than the ground floor walls -the borders of the roof are at the level of the human head -the horizontality and law expression of the walls is additionally stressed by horizontal lines of the logs.

LOG HOUSE “CHARDAK BETWEEN THE RAFTERS” -developed form of the timber house that expresses the economy of the space -the house is developed in vertical sense -the huge volume of the roof space is used for establishing one or two rooms that are called chardak -chardak is usually above the room 5 .

possibility of the partition. sometimes there is an extension with the toilet as well. disposition of the smoke… -the smoke is disposed through a shaft (dimaluk) and then dispersed freely into the roof spacethe smoke conserved timber roof construction -the space of dimaluk was used for meat smoking -the upper floor rooms are approached by wooden stairs that are added to the house. service space or as a shelter for animals -magaza is usually constructed in stone -the space above magaza is timber structure composed of kitchen and rooms. construction. and on the first floor there is a gallery from which the rooms can be entered -Abdestluk (the ablution place) and small storage are located on the gallery.LOG HOUSE “HOUSE ABOVE MAGAZA” -the ground floor is magaza used as a storage. The fire place is open DIMALUČARA-house with smoke shaft -this is the most usual type of traditional house -it manifests invention of the solution for the numerous basic house problems-organization of space. 6 .

which means that they have a smoke shaft in the centre of the house 7 .CHARDAKLIJA-house with projection -this house always has two floors -the ground floor is magaza (stone or adobe) -the upper floor is a living space with a fireplace -the upper floor projects over all four walls of the ground floor -the toilet is constructed as overhanging structure that is approached through a small buffet corridor -chardaklija houses are usually dimalučara type of house.

if found. used as the shelter for animals -ground floor house with more rooms and saddled roof is common type at the south of Bosnia -it can be easily developed in longitudinal direction simply by adding new spaces 8 . but today they are.Stone house types-ground floor house -stone houses can be single space houses.

STONE CHARDAK -the word chardak comes from the Persian word “chartaq” (char-four and taq-arch) -in Bosnian house it is the most raised. elevated space outwardly oriented and is usually overhanging timber projection above the stone walls -stone chardaks in Neretvica region usually have three floors with magaza in the ground floor 9 .

Blagaj. Trebinje) 10 . Stolac. Livno.“KULA” (TOWER) HOUSES -Kula houses are residential buildings with more then two floors -they represent the defensive form of architecture that derives from feudal way of living in the large feuds but it is planted in town centres as well (Mostar.

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Particular functional spaces at the GF 5.ELEMENTS OF OTTOMAN HOUSE FORM IN BOSNIAN IN RELATION TO AUTOHTONE FORMATIVE ELEMENTS -sharply defined characteristics not found in the other cultures -SYNTHESIS AND TYPOLOGICAL CONSOLIDATION CAME AFTER 17TH CENTURA WITH A SHORT LIFE (150-200 YEARS) 1. Articulation from the street inwards 4. Only the ground floor adapted to the site. Ktja (kitchen) o Izba-slavic “room”/”hub” o Ćiler-lat. Two-story differentiation of the house 2. Upper floor aggregated by square or rectangular rooms without functional demarcation 6. edging up to the street front 3. cellarium “storage room” • Upper Floor: o Odaje (oda)-square or rectangular rooms o Čardak o Ćošak Jazluk… 12 . Individual sitting in the garden… -linguistic analysis: • Ground Floor: o Kuća-praslav.

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