## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

A Novel Model for Synchronization and Positioning

by using Neural Networks

Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh*, Siamak Janianpour and Javad Haddadnia

Department of Electrical Engineering

Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University

Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iran

Email: h.ghayoumizadeh@gmail.com*

Abstract— In this paper by using a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a

synchronization and positioning system is designed. Parameters

that cause the system to be far from ideal condition such as

S-Parameters, Noise Figure, IIP3, and Gain are considered that

is one of the advantages of this system. In this stage this process is

a little slow so by adding the neural network to the system the

speed of synchronization is increased. By using the neural

network the time needed to calculate the time difference of

arrival (TDOA) is significantly decreases.

Keywords-component; Global Positioning System, Low-noise

amplifiers, Neural networks.

I. INTRODUCTION

The TDOA approximation has so many different

applications such as communication, electronic war and

medical engineering. Following some of these applications will

be discussed. One of the most important applications of TDOA

is in positioning of the transmitters. Nowadays radar and sonar

systems are widely used with many different military or

nonmilitary applications and their importance in security

problems are so that they are parts of the strategic system of

each country so to protect the radars; the usage of the passive

radar is become popular, increasingly[1]. Although in these

type of radars the basic principle of the radars are dominant but

the transmitter of the radar is omitted from the system and by

omitting the transmitter the receiver will become hidden from

the sight of the enemies. The place of transmitter is one of the

most important parameters that assign the duties of the radar.

Another application of TDOA is in measurement and

controlling the coolant current of the atomic reactors. Also it

can be used to localize the position of brain that controls the

simultaneity of the activities in epileptic patients. Further it is

used in global positioning system (GPS), recently. Contrary to

other methods, this system will not affect the normal operation

of the satellites, because the time delay is calculated passively.

Also there is no need to carry extra hardware in spaceships and

this will reduce the cost of this procedure.

By calculating the received uplink signal TDOA using three

or four satellite on earth orbit, the position of the transmitters

can be localized. When the transmitter is located on the earth,

three satellites and when the elevation of the transmitter is not

known, four satellites are needed to localize the position of the

transmitters. So in the passive systems, approximation of the

delay time between the signals receive time from two different

sensors plays a significant role in measurement of the distance

and direction of the transmitters. When a signal is emitted into

the environment from transmitter, it spreads with a specific

speed, so two receivers with different distance from the

transmitter, sense the signal with a time delay. If S(t) is the

emitted signal from transmitter and assume that there is just

one way for signal transmission, then the signals first will

receive to the nearest receiver and with a delay to the next

receiver, the delay time is shown with D. So the goal is to

measure this delay and approximation of this delay has a

significant role in synchronization and positioning process [2].

II. SYNCHRONIZATION

The controll system is shown in fig. 1. In this circuit the

LNA model is used in S-parameters block. In this block the

values of S-parameters, Noise Figure and IIP3 are changeable.

In this circuit the Gaussian Signal is used as input

(Fig. 2). Also the white noise is applied to the signal and

considered as a non ideal factor.

Figure 1. Controlling system designed for Synchronization

48 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

Figure 2. The Gaussian Signal that is applied to the control

circuit as input

The structure of the synchronization is so that the input

delay of T1 is considered by the integer delay block. After the

amplification stage, the changes of the S-parameter are exerted

to the input signal that simulates the LNA stage, and it is

transferred to the output. The second input in this simulation

that is also the Gaussian signal, is multiply to the first signal

with a delay and it is transferred to the output. The point is that

the second output also has delay equal to T2 that is shown in

the “integer delay 2” block. Now by using a feedback from the

output to the second input, the delay is changeable so that the

both inputs become concurrent.

The easiest and most effective way for synchronization of

the both input signals is to multiply the feedback output with

the first input, and simultaneously check the output until the

output becomes maximal. Now the delay can be recorded and

stored. When the both inputs become synchronize the output

will become maximal.

III. LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER (LNA)

In this paper the model of an inductorless low-noise

amplifier (LNA) is used. [3] This LNA is designed for ultra-

wideband (UWB) receivers and for microwave access,

covering the frequency range from 0.4 to 5.7 GHz using 0.18-

μm CMOS technology. Simulation results show that the

voltage gain reaches a peak of 19.6 dB in-band with an upper

Figure 3. LNA circuit that is used in the controlling circuit.

3-dB frequency of 5.7 GHz. The IIP3 is about -3 dBm and the

noise figure (NF) ranges from 3.06-3.8 dB over the band of

interest. Input reflection coefficient S11 is below -8.79dB for

the design. The LNA consumes 5.77 mW from a low supply

voltage of 1.8 V. A figure of merit is devised to compare the

proposed designs to recently published wideband CMOS

LNAs. The proposed topology achieves a lower NF than that of

the topology capacitive cross-coupling with inductors, with the

additional advantage of removing the bulky inductors. It is

shown that the LNA is designed without on-chip inductors that

its performance is comparable with inductor-based designs.

The LNA circuit that is used in this system is shown in fig. 3.

LNA properties such as gain, IIP3 and etc. that are used for

synchronization in this system are given in TABLE I.

Also an example of the test results is shown in

TABLE II.

TABLE I. LNA PROPERTIES THAT ARE USED IN SIMULATION

TABLE II. TEST RESULTS

FOM No.of Coils Power(mW) IIP3 (Dbm) Gain (db) S

11

(dB) NF (dB) BW(GHz) Technology

3.68 0 5.77 -3 19.66 <-8.79 3.06 ~ 3.8 0.4 ~ 5.7 0.18μm

S22 S21 S12 S11 Frequency OIP3(dbm) Noise Figure (db) Gain Delay Gain1 Output

-8.64 -49.76 1.76 -9.32 3.5E6 inf 0 100 5 -10

-8

10

49 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

By evaluation of the test results, some points are

achievable:

1. The delay time is respectively related to noise, noise

figure, initial delay and OIP3. The LNA gain will affect

the delay time but it has a little impact. Also the impact

of S-parameter is so small that it is neglect able.

2. By increasing the noise figure the delay time will

increase. Also in high value of the LNA gain its

increase will cause an increase in delay time, but noise

figure does not show such a behavior.

3. The effect of the OIP3 in comparison with S-parameter

is higher. (by changing the S-parameter values not a big

change is observed.

4. By increasing the OIP3 value the delay time is

decreased.

But the problem in designing such a controlling system is

that about 45 second is needed to process such a big amount of

data and it is one of the disadvantages of this system, because

moreover to input delay time we will lose the time needed for

the calculation process of software that is very bad for

synchronization systems. So to reduce the calculation time the

neural network is used.

IV. USAGE OF NEURAL NETWORK IN SYNCHRONIZATION

In this system a linear neural network is used. To minimize

the errors in these networks, the training process is done by

using squares least mean algorithm (Fig. 4).

The neural network that is used in this process must be so

fast and so accurate. First of all the goal is to synchronize the

signals with each other by using the neural network. To train

the neural network the previous Gaussian signal is used that is

shown in fig. 5.

The objective function of the neural network can be

achieved from multiplying of two Gaussian signals that is

shown in fig. 6.

Now many samples of Gaussian signal with different delay

time are applied to the neural network for training purpose. For

instance to test the designed neural network the signal that is

shown in fig. 7 is used. Also to test the robustness of the

network, samples that contain noise and have different delays

in comparison with original signals are used.

Figure 4. The structure of linear neural network used in this control system.

Figure 5. The initial signal that is used to train the neural network

Figure 6. The objective signal that is used to train the system.

An example of the signal that is used for test purpose is

shown in fig. 7. The noises and delays are obviously shown in

this figure.

Figure 7. The test signal that contains noise and delay

50 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

Now the results achieved by using neural networks are

shown in fig. 8. The neural network tries to find the appropriate

delay time that leads to the objective function by using the

iterative methods. If you look at the fig. 8 carefully you will see

that some parts of the chart are drawn thicker and or bolded.

That is caused by increasing the accuracy of the neural network

and the number of iterations. In other words, in this method

two signals are studied by different random delays and the

delay that cause the output to reach the objective function is

recorded.

In the proposed method the noise in the Gaussian signal,

has a small effect on calculation of the delay time that is clearly

shown in fig. 8.

By decreasing the accuracy of the network the segregation

of the signals with different delay time are shown more clearly

(fig. 9).

Figure 8. The output of the neural network.

Figure 9. The more detailed chart of the output signal.

In this method the speed of delay calculation in

significantly increased and the calculation time is decreased. It

is good to mention that the Gaussian signal enters the system

periodically and the system must be able to sweep the input

continuously. To consider the noise in this system, for

synchronization other techniques must be added to this system.

Now we are going to describe these techniques. Assume a

signal like the signal in fig. 10 is given to the system as input.

First an intact period of the signal must be given to the system

as the training sample.

V. USAGE OF NEURAL NETWORK IN POSITIONING

There are so many methods for positioning systems based

on the calculation of the signal time-of-flight. One of these

methods is TDOA. In this method to calculate the position of

the TAG, the distance between the TAG and a node is

calculated and it is compared with the distance of the TAG

with another node. In this method the TAGs are just the

transmitter and the nodes are just receiver. In 2 dimensional

systems 4 TAGs and in 3 dimensional systems 5 TAGs are

used.

Figure 10. Three period of signal with consideration the effect of noise.

Figure 11. Geometrical structure of a 3D TDOA.

51 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

In this study the unknown position of the TAG is shown

with function E (Equation 1).

E=(x,y,z) (1)

And the receivers are defined as (Equation 2):

P

0

, P

1

, ..., P

m

, ..., P

N

.P

m

= (x

m

, y

m

, z

m

), 0 ≤ m ≤ N (2)

Where N is the function dimension.

The distance between the each transmitter and the receiver

is defined as Rm and R0 is the distance between transmitter

and the false origin (it is assumed that one of the receivers is

located at the false origin). As it is shown in fig. 11 the

resultant time is calculated as follows (Equation 3):

0

T T

m m

0 0 0t ÷ = (3)

In this equation,

m

0t is the time that the signal needs to

arrive to the m

th

receiver. The delay time that is considered in

this stage must refer to the calculated time in synchronization

stage. Now, the time duration (τ

m

) can be calculated by using

correlation function

( )

0

P P

m

×

.

Substituting R

0

instead of

0

T 0 in above equation and after

some rearrangements, finally we will have a line equation with

constant coefficients (equation 4)[4,5].

0 = + + + x D x C x B x A

m m m m

(4)

That A

m

, B

m

, C

m

and D

m

in equation 4 are defined as

follows.

1

1

2 2

0t 0t

x x

A

m

m

m

÷ =

(4a)

1

1

2 2

0t 0t

y y

B

m

m

m

÷ =

(4b)

1

1

2 2

0t 0t

z z

C

m

m

m

÷ =

(4c)

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2 2 2

1

0t 0t

0t 0t

z z x z z x

D

m

m m m

m m

+ +

+

+ +

÷ ÷ =

(4d)

It is very easy to calculate the three unknown parameters

(x,y,z) that are the coordinates position of the transmitter, by

solving the three equations with one of the different methods

such as singular value decomposition, numerical analysis or

etc. In this study the numerical analysis is used. TDOA is

mostly used in open areas for personal uses, air traffic control

(ATC) or military systems.

A sample of positioning process is shown in fig. 12.

Because of linearity of the equations, theoretically there

isn’t any error in this process but the practical problem, is the

signal transfer time calculation from the transmitter to the

receiver. In this paper the role of clock pulse generation and

synchronization is significant. To increase the accuracy of the

system, the clock pulse must be synchronized in every node. If

the generated clock pulse was in the order of 1ns, the best

achievable accuracy in the positioning system is about 30

centimeter that means we can find the position of the

transmitter with maximum error of 30 centimeter.

Figure 12. Positioning with TDOA method

REFERENCES

[1] Fujiwara, R.; Mizugaki, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Maeda, D.; Miyazaki, M.; ,

"TOA/TDOA hybrid relative positioning system using UWB-IR," Radio

and Wireless Symposium, 2009. RWS '09. IEEE , pp.679-682, 18-22

Jan. 2009.

[2] Dawei, L.; , "Application of assisted TDOA positioning technology in

vehicle positioning and navigation," Mobile Technology, Applications

and Systems, 2005 2nd International Conference on , pp.5 pp.-5, 15-17

Nov. 2005.

[3] Ali Shirzad Nilsaz, Mohsen Khani Parashkoh, Hossain ghauomy-zadeh,

Zhuo, Zou, Majid Baghaei-Nejad, Li-Rong Zheng. “low power .18um

cmos ultra wideband inductor-less lna design for uwb receiver”.Asia

Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems,2010.

[4] Kian Meng Tan; Choi Look Law; , "GPS and UWB Integration for

indoor positioning," Information, Communications & Signal Processing,

2007 6th International Conference on , pp.1-5, 10-13 Dec. 2007.

[5] Rabinowitz, M.; Spilker, J.J., Jr.; , "A new positioning system using

television synchronization signals," Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

, vol.51, no.1, pp. 51- 61, March 2005.

[6] Wenjuan Jia; Chunlan Yang; Guocheng Zhong; Mengying Zhou; Shuicai

Wu; , "Fetal ECG extraction based on adaptive linear neural network,"

Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI), 2010 3rd International

Conference on , vol.2, pp.899-902, 16-18 Oct. 2010.

52 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

AUTHORS PROFILE

Siamak Janianpour received the B.Sc. degree in

mechanical engineering with honors from the

Islamic Azad University Tehran south branch,

Tehran, Iran, in 2008. He is now M.Sc. student in

electrical and electronic engineering at Sabzevar

Tarbiat Moallem University in Iran. His current

research interests are computer vision, pattern

recognition, digital image processing and analysis,

intelligent systems, intelligent healthcare systems

and etc. He is a member of the IEEE.

Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh received the B.Sc.

degree in electrical engineering with honors from

Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar,

Iran, in 2008. He is now M.Sc. student in electrical

and electronic engineering at Sabzevar Tarbiat

Moallem University in Iran. His current research

interests include computer vision, pattern

recognition, image processing, artificial neural

network, intelligent systems, fuzzy logic and soft

computing and etc.

Javad Haddadnia received his B.Sc. and M.Sc.

degrees in electrical and electronic engineering

with the first rank from Amirkabir University of

Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 1993 and 1995,

respectively. He received his Ph.D. degree in

electrical engineering from Amirkabir University

of Technology, Tehran, Iran in 2002. He joined

Tarbiat Moallem University of Sabzevar in Iran

since 2002 as an associated professor. His research

interests include neural network, digital image

processing, computer vision and medical

Engineering. He has published several papers in

these areas. He has served as a Visiting Research

Scholar at the University of Windsor, Canada

during 2001- 2002. He is a member of SPIE,

CIPPR, and IEICE.

53 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

- Part B-5
- bibliografia
- syllabus2
- Nonlinear Wavelet Thursday
- M21HDFST Scientific Doc
- Complexity Theory ( Pavard)
- Syllabus - Mathematica - PHAS2443
- En
- Object Tracking Tren Tensorflow
- EE Electrical Engineering
- nerosolution.docx
- 2032552.pdf
- GATE SYLLABUS
- A 5.8 GHZ Low Noise Amplifier for Wireless LAN Applications in Silicon Bipolar Technology
- Bro Splitting Methods for Partial Differential Equations With Rough Solutions Analysis and Matlabr Programs EMS Series of Lectures in Mathematics 2010
- Ann & Dif Equation
- EK4233_bab_1-konsep_biaya_dan_estimasi_biaya
- PHD_Dissertation_Vardakos_ver_2.pdf
- Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in Ecology - A critical review of the used techniques
- S Rajasekaran_FN in SE
- Report
- Neural Network Inverse Modeling for Optimization
- m 161 Course Outline.
- Session 01_Paper 07
- 26
- WSN_Localization.pdf
- 13009480 Estimation of Concrete Compressive Strenght by Ultasonic Pulse Velocity
- Flack 2017 Ptrsa
- The Finite-Difference–Time-Domain Method and its Application to Eigenvalue Problems
- 2000-IJNMF-HWK

- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS March 2016 Part I
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS December 2017 Full Volume
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS January 2018 Full Volume
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS April 2016 Part I
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS June 2015
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS October 2015
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS December 2017 Part II
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS Special Issue February 2016
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS December 2015
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS April 2016 Part II
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS November 2015
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS February 2018 Full Volume
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS January 2016
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS March 2016 Part II
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS December 2017 Part I
- Base Station Radiation’s Optimization using Two Phase Shifting Dipoles
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS July 2015
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS August 2015
- A Survey
- Security Architecture with NAC using Crescent University as Case study
- Policy-Based Smart Adaptive Quality of Service for Network Convergence
- Low Footprint Hybrid Finite Field Multiplier for Embedded Cryptography
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS March 2015
- Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS April 2015
- Unweighted Class Specific Soft Voting based ensemble of Extreme Learning Machine and its variant
- International Journal of Computer Science IJCSIS September 2015
- An Analysis of Various Algorithms For Text Spam Classification and Clustering Using RapidMiner and Weka
- Fraudulent Electronic Transaction Detection Using Dynamic KDA Model
- Embedded Mobile Agent (EMA) for Distributed Information Retrieval
- An Efficient Model to Automatically Find Index in Databases

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading