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At the end of this lesson you should be able to: 1. Describe the process of rotary drilling; 2. Determine Rig Selection; 3. Describe the data Acquisition and Monitoring System
• Drilling for oil and natural gas requires two major constituents: manpower and hardware systems. The manpower encompasses a drilling-engineering group and Rig operation group. The first group provides engineering support for optimum drilling operations, including : rig selection and design of the mud program, casing and cementing programs, the hydraulic program, the drill bit program, the drill string program, and the well control program. •
After drilling begins, the daily operations are handled by the second group, which consists of a tool pusher and several drilling crews (derrick and motor personnel, drillers, etc.).
The hardware systems that make up a rotary drilling rig are • A power generation system • A hoisting system • A drilling fluid circulating system • A rotary system • Well blowout control systems • A drilling data acquisition and monitoring system
The Process of Rotary Drilling
• several elements are needed to drill the hole successfully and economically (illustrated in fig. 1-2), including: A force acting downward on a drill bit; Rotation of the drill bit;
Circulation of fluid, called drilling fluid (liquid. gas, or gasified liquid), from the surface through the tubular called the drill string, and back to the surface through the annular space, the area between the hole wall and the outside wall of the drill string.
Fig-2: Basic Element to Drill a Well Fig-1: vertical and Directional drilling
and is provided by the portion of the tubular (drill string) above the bit. depending on the hardness of rock and the type of drill bit in use. FORCE To drill through a rock. Fig-3: Packed Hole Assembly 5 .The Process of Rotary Drilling A. The amount of force varies. This force is provided by slacking off tension on the drilling line that supports the total weight of the drill string. a force (weight on bit / WOB) of a certain magnitude has to be applied downward on a drill bit.
Surface rotation is done through the use of a conventional rotary table or top drive motor. 6 . Bottom-Hole rotation is achieved by using down-hole motors (positive-displacement mud motors or mud turbines or electric motors) that directly rotate the drill bit without drill string rotation. the drill bit has to be rotated at a certain speed to cut and advance through the rock. Rotation of the drill bit may be accomplished from the surface or down hole.The Process of Rotary Drilling • Drill bit rotation In rotary drilling.
The Process of Rotary Drilling • Drilling Fluid Circulation a fluid has to be continuously circulated from the surface to the bottom and back to the surface again to dissipate the heat and remove cutting 7 .
circulating. • The power is transmitted to the various rig systems (hoisting. 8 .Rotary Drilling Rigs • The power of rotary rigs is generally generated by diesel or gas-driven engines. etc.) by means of mechanical or electrical drives. rotary.
requires that one or more DC generators be specifically assigned to a DC motor to meet the desired load requirement for a specific unit (pumps. 9 . etc. rotary motor. draw-works.) at a controllable desired speed. The electric drive system.Rotary Drilling Rigs The electric drive system was introduced to rotary rigs in the mid of 50’s for use in offshore operations.
Rotary Drilling Rigs • The overall efficiency of power-generating systems defined as follows: 1-1a or 1-1b The output power of an engine is generally expressed as a function of the engine rotary speed. N and the output torque. T: 1-2 10 .
Qf. and the fuel heating value: 1-3 11 .Rotary Drilling Rigs • The input power is expressed in terms of the rate of fuel consumption.
and engine efficiency of 40%.3).Rotary Drilling Rigs • Example 1 A drilling rig has three diesel engines for generating the rig power requirement.1)-(1. Determine the total daily fuel consumption for an average engine running speed of 900 rpm. the fuel consumption per engine can be solved for and is given by : 12 . average output torque of 1.000 BTU/lb. Solution: From equations ( 1. The heating value of diesel oil is 19.610 ft-lbs.
total Qf = 308 x 3 = 924 gal/day 13 .Rotary Drilling Rigs • Hence: For three engines.
5. 3. 2. 4. Power generation system Hoisting system Fluid circulation system Rotary system Well control system Drilling data acquisition and monitoring system 14 .Rig Selection • The main objective of rig selection is to choose from the available rigs the one that will closely meet the criterion for drilling a usable hole at the lowest overall cost of the proposed well. 6. • The selection process is the evaluation of all of the following rig systems: 1.
the crown block. the drilling (wire) line. respectively. the travelling block. the hook. Major components are the draw-work. and the elevator.Rotary Drilling System • Hoisting System Function: to hoist the drill and casing strings during drilling and casing operations. 15 .
2. 4. 5. Draw Work Crown Block Dead Line anchor Travelling Block Hook Drilling line 16 . 6. 3.HOISTING SYSTEM • Consist of : 1.
Determine the worst drilling loads or casing load.HOISTING SYSTEM • Hoisting Design Consideration The procedure to carrying out hoisting design calculation are as follow: 1. Determine the deepest hole to be drilled. 2. To select drilling line and derrick capacity. 17 . 3.
9616 Buoyancy factor = 0.000 ft Drillpipe = 5 inch OD. 8 inch / 2. 6.500 lb. 4. assuming an efficiency factors of 0. Hook load. Wire line design factor when running casing 7 inch of 29lb/ft.HOISTING SYSTEM • Example 2 The following well data refer to a 1.27 inch ID. 19.81 4.825 inch. Weight of drill string in air and mud. 18 .5 lb/ft Drill collars = 500 ft.5 inch block line with 10 lines strung of extra improved plough Steel wire rope strung to travelling block. assuming weight of travelling block and hook to be 23. 150 lb/ft Mud weight = 10 ppg Line and sheave efficiency Coefficient = 0. Dead line and fast line loads. 5.847 Determine: 1. 2.000 lb. Table-1 Hole depth = 10. 3. Wire line design factor during drilling if breaking strengths of wire is 228. Dynamic crown load.
2. Hook Load (unit in lb): Weight of string in the mud + weight of travelling block and hook Dead line load (unit in lb) : 3. HL : Hook Load. lb Fast line Load (unit in lb) : K = Line efficiency per sheave (see Table-1) 19 .HOISTING SYSTEM • Solution 1. Weight drill string in air (unit in lb) : Weight of DP and DC (unit in lb) Weight of drill string in mud (unit in lb): Buoyancy factor x weight drill string in air. Where : N: number of line strung.
.determine wire line design factor. Design factor when ruuning 7 inch casing 29 lb/ft (no unit): . 20 .determine hook load (weight of casing in mud + weight of block and Hook.calculate fast line load. .HOISTING SYSTEM 4. Wire line design factor (no unit): Breaking strength / fast line load 6. .calculate casing weight in mud (depth of hole x lb/ft x Buoyancy factor). Dynamind Crown Load (unit in lb) : Dead line load + fast line load + Hook Load 5.
the brakes. To determine the drawworks horsepower required for drilling a well.and up-hole movements of heavy loads of the drill string and casings or other equipment. Drawworks rated by input horsepower. Its components include the drum. An overall hoisting efficiency of 65% is recommended to calculate the required drawworks horsepower rating . the transmission. 2. and the cathead.Rotary Drilling System • Drawworks 1. And calculated as follows: 3. The drowworks is an assemblage of components that provides the hoisting and breaking power to enable the down. 21 . the hook horsepower is first calculated using the weight of the heaviest drill string in air. along with a reasonable hoisting speed. A minimum of 100 ft/min is recommended for rating a rig.
6 lb/ft drill pipe with an outside diameter (OD) of 4 ½ inches (in. Solution: 22 .000 lbs of drill collars? (the rotary table speed of 100 ft/min) and overall hoisting efficiency of 65%.) and 50.000 ft of 16.Rotary Drilling System • Example 3: What minimum drawworks horsepower is required in order to drill a well when using 10.
The output power is define as follows: The input power is define : 1-4 1-5 23 .Rotary Drilling System Block and drilling line. • • The principle function is to provide a mechanical advantage while raising and lowering the extremely heavy loads into the wellbore. Their efficiency is measured by equation (1-1a).
Utilizing equations (1.1a) becomes : 1-6 It can be easily established that. 1-7 24 . equation (1.Rotary Drilling System The magnitude of Ftp depends on the number of lines strung between the crown Block and the traveling block and the frictional forces induced between the contact surfaces of the lines and block sheaves.5).4) and (1.
Rotary Drilling System • Therefore . 25 . A rotary rig that can handle triples is equipped with 1. Example 1-4 . 1-8 where n is the number of lines strung between the crown block and the traveling block. Determine the time it takes to pull one stand at a hook load of 300.200 hp draw-works and 90 ft line strung (Ls).000Ibs. The output of the drawwork is 927 hp and the efficiency of the hoisting system is 81%.
Rotary Drilling System • Solution: 26 .
Rotary Drilling System This method neglects the effect of buoyancy and the weight of the block and hook. In directional holes. 27 . In straight holes. drag has to be Considered. buoyancy can be assumed to be offset by pipe drag.
and solids control equipment is unique to each rig. The main components of the system include • Mud pumps/air compressors • High-pressure surface connections • Drill string • Drill bit • Return annulus • Mud pits • Mud treatment equipment The configuration of tanks.Mud System Evaluation • The function of the Fluid circulating system in rotary drilling is to allow the movement of a drilling fluid from the surface to the hole bottom and back to surface again. 28 . stirring devices. shakers.
29 . Triplex pumps have three liners and move fluids only on the forward stoke (single acting).Mud System Evaluation • Mud pumps Rotary rig pumps are reciprocating positive-displacement units and are either duplex or triplex pumps. Duplex pumps have two liners and move fluid on the forward and backward stokes (double acting).
85 Solution: Determine hydraulic HP = (Flow rate (gpm) x Pressure) / 1713. pump pressure = 2000 psi and mechanical efficiency = 0. of mud Pump) Calculate the power requirement for the following pump: Flow rate = 1200 gpm. 30 .Mud System Evaluation Example 5 (Horse Power req.6 Power equired from motor = hydraulic HP / mechanical eff.
and (4) stripping the drill pipe in to or out of the hole. (2) controlling the removal of formation fluids from the wellbore. (3) pumping higher-density mud into the hole. 31 .Well Control System • Primary Function?? The system requirements are to safely permit: 1) shutting in the well at the surface.
and gas-handling facilities 8. Accumulators BOP are rated by API as 3 M (3000 psi). Ram preventers 2. Flow and choke lines and fittings 6. Spools 3. 10 M and 15 M. Kill lines and connections 7. Internal preventers 4. 5 M.Well Control System • The basic components of the well control system are: • Annular preventer 1. For HPHT well BOP’s are either 15 M or 20 M 32 . Casing head 5. Mud.
Well Control System • Ram preventer Pipe ram preventers are mechanical devices that close in the annular space around the drill pipe or casing when they are hydraulically activated. There are three types of ram preventers: • pipe ram or casing ram • Blind ram • Shear ram 33 .
• These kind of rams are activated only if all other preventers fail to shut the well. • Rams that are designed to shear off drill pipe while string is in hole are referred to as shear rams. 34 .Well Control System • Rams that are designed to close in the annulus when no pipe is present are called blind rams.
off. • These preventers will close and shut in the well regardless of the shape or diameter of the conduit that might be in the hole. 35 .Well Control System • Annular preventer : well control devices that employ a ring of reinforced synthetic rubber as a packing unit that surround the drill string to cause the shut.
36 .Well Control System • Drilling spools • are drill-through-type fittings that are placed in the BOP stack assembly to provide space between two consecutive pipe rams for temporary storage of tool joints during stripping operations and to allow attachment of the kill and choke lines.
Data Acquisition and Monitoring System The data acquisition and monitoring system of a rotary drilling rig consists of all the devices used to monitor analyze. The parameters that are of prime concern are the following: 1. salinity 4. temperature. Hoisting speed 5. Flow rate 10. Rotary speed 12. WOB 3. Hole depth 8. display. Pump Pressure 9. Mud density. Mud tank level 37 . flow properties 13. Pump stroke 2. Hook Load 7. Torque 11. Drilling rate 6. Record and retrieve information regarding drilling operations.
• Drilling breaks. • Excessive torques may indicate a bit bearing failure or an extremely high concentration of drilled cuttings in the wellbore annulus. 38 . which are easily seen on the drilling rate chart can provide information on changes of lithology and formation pressures.Data Acquisition and Monitoring System • Drilling problems ? • can be easily detected by the monitoring equipment.
• The proper maintenance of rotary speed.Data Acquisition and Monitoring System • A drastic increase in hook load or decrease in mud returning to the surface could indicate that a lost circulation zone has been encountered. mud properties. and now rates is of upmost importance for achieving optimum drilling conditions. that blowout is eminent. 39 . • A sudden increase in pit level indicates that formation fluids are entering the wellbore and. weight on bit. Hence.
40 .Special Systems for Offshore Drilling • Drilling at sea requires two special systems: 1. a motion compensating system for floating units and. a marine riser system. 2.
Special Systems for Offshore Drilling • Riser system and components The marine riser is an extension of the wellbore from the ocean floor to the derrick floor above the water surface. called riser connectors. Its purpose is to guide and protect the drill string and to serve as a conduit for the return of drilling fluid and cutting to the surface It is a structure that is made of 40-50-ft-long joints. 41 . which are connected by means of rigid. pressure-tight couplings.
which limits the drilling operation to bail joint angles of at maximum. the drill string has to pass freely through the joints.Special Systems for Offshore Drilling Large fixed-end moments are avoided by using ball joints at the riser ends. 4-5°. 42 . Ball joints are normally designed for rotations of up to 8-100 in any direction However.
Marine Riser 43 .
9616 Buoyancy factor = 0. Dead line and fast line loads. Dynamic crown load. 3. 8 inch / 2.SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEM • PROBLEM-1: The following well data refer to a 1. Weight of drill string in air and mud. 2. assuming an efficiency factors of 0. Wire line design factor during drilling if breaking strengths of wire is 228. 6. 19. Table-1 Hole depth = 12. assuming weight of travelling block and hook to be 23.500 lb.5 lb/ft Drill collars = 500 ft. 5.825 inch.81 4. 150 lb/ft Mud weight = 14 ppg Line and sheave efficiency Coefficient = 0. Hook load. 44 .000 ft 7 inch of 29 lb/ft.847 Determine: 1. Wire line design factor when running casing 12.000 ft Drillpipe = 5 inch OD.27 inch ID.5 inch block line with 10 lines strung of extra improved plough Steel wire rope strung to travelling block.000 lb. 4.
average output torque of 1.610 ft-lbs. 45 . Determine the total daily fuel consumption for an average engine running speed of 800 rpm.000 BTU/lb. and engine efficiency of 45%.SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEM • PROBLEM-2: A drilling rig has three diesel engines for generating the rig power requirement. The heating value of diesel oil is 18.
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEM • PROBLEM-3. 10 and 12 line strung between the crown block and travelling block. 8.000 lb load for 6. 46 . Compute the tension in the fast line when lifting a 500.
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEM • PROBLEM-4. 47 . Slip joint 6. 4. Pneumatic tensioning device. Marine riser 2. Discuss the function of this marine drilling equipment: 1. Bumper sub 5. Taut-line Inclinometer. Ball Joint 3.
Pump pressure 7.SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEM • PROBLEM-5 : Describe how the rig can be monitor : 1. Gas contents of mud 11. 48 . Rotary torque 5. Mud temperature 9. Hole depth 2. Mud salinity 10. Pump rate 6. Mud density 8. Penetration rate 3. Rotary speed 4. Pit level 12. Mud flow rate.
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