Lula´s Brazil: A rising Power, but going where?

Andrew Hurrell (2008)
For many around the world, the assertive foreign policy of Lula is seen as a progressive force in global affairs. In spite of orthodox domestic macroeconomic policy, and the little progress os structural reforms such as taxation, land redistribution or tackling violent crime. Brazil foreign policy is widely regarded as a s great success story. A Nationalist Worldview Lula´s administration brought with it a view of foreign policy that stressed the instability of the international environment and the concentration of power on the USA and its allies which furthers inequality. Nationalist approach: Stresses the idea that globalization is a working force which strengthens the developed world by the exploitation the vulnerabilities of other nations. Lula combines this pessimistic framework with the belief that there is scope for an activist and assertive foreign policy. This led to the formulation of autonomy and multipolarity to enhances Brazil international and regional standing. The Multilateral Route Cornerstones of Bbrazil´s foreign policy under Lula: 1.- Multilateralism: Increase presence in multilateral institutions: UN security Council, Doha Round. ¿Cómo lograr afianzar la presencia internacional Brasileña? UNASUR, MERCOSUR; 2.- Promoción de la agenda social y de desarrollo interna en el exterior: Hambre Cero, Combate a la injusticia social, racismo, la enfermedad y el hambre. 3.- Profesionalización del servicio diplomático y la política exterior: Capacidad de cabildeo, de generar dialogo consensos y estabilidad. 4.- Dialogo Sur-Sur: A buscado expandir sus relaciones con otros países en desarrollo como China, India, Sudáfrica, Rusia. Embracing the Third World In the 1970s it played an important role in the Group of 77, and the New International Economic Order project. Also the National Economic development came to be institutionalized within and around the Brazilian state: it gave rise to a set of assumptions: importance of economic and political sovereignty, the imperative of developing a more important international role, the factor usa. The Cardoso Legacy Neoliberal Globalization over Traditional foreign policy patterns. The central issues of the Cardoso administration was domestic economic stability, reform rather than foreign policy. In his view Brazil needed to accommodate itself to the US power and international political norms. Brazil came to accept the activities of NGOs and it engaged more positively on international negotiations (ddhh y derechos humanos). By the end of 1990s the Cardoso foreign policy of autonomy via participation has come to

Not only have economic. as India is with China. the narrowness of many accounts of electoral democracy and a powerful resurgence of economic nationalism. and energy ties increased but the protracted violence and the narco-economy of the Andean region have had profound effects on patterns of violence in Brazil. Positive aspects: biofuel cooperation. Without any serious geopolitical challenge in the region. Relations with Washington Recently policy making in Brazil has aimed at prudent coexistence with the United States. stressing economic orthodoxy and large-scale-targeted social programs. Brazil is not closely linked to major American geopolitical interests. and on climate change Brazil has maintained its principle of common but differentiated responsabilites . nor is there a large Brazilian diaspora in the United States pushing for improved ties.face serious challenges. But the Cardoso administration was convinced that structural reform at home was possible and necessary and that democracy had become an overriding value. infrastructural. Other sources of conflict and fear come from the supposed threat posed over the Amazon and the unilateralism and interventionism which fuel anti-Americanism. . Washington has taken it for granted and for long periods. military and economic resources made available to sustain achievements. and the issue of nuclear proliferation. But it has combined this domestic accommodation with a high degree of optimism as to what to achieve abroad. Brazil pretensions to regional leadership have encountered Venezuela´s Hugo Chavez both as a leader with his own ideas about hemispheric integration and a symptom of deep-rooted discontent within LA to the USA. Pakistan. Equally important the political complexion of the region has changed dramatically in ways that make it very difficult for Brazil to steer regional developments or to project its own model: chavismo as a leftsided radical political project reflects the perceived failures of economic liberalism. possible collaboration and minimal collision but it has shied away from any kind of special relationship. However there is great gap between the rhetoric of leadership and the concrete political. Brazil is also prepared to assume a more assertive political role in the region: Its leadership in UN mission to Haiti and its willingness to mediate in Colombia. Regional Destiny? Assertive regional leadership: Non-hegemonic leadership to relaunch MERCOSUR and establish closer ties with its neighbors seeking new areas of cooperation. to avoid having a regional policy at all like since 2001. Lula´s foreign policy overestimates the willingness of the region to fall into line behind Brazilian pretensions to a global role as the region´s leader. There is also strong and widespread opposition to US policy in Colombia. and Washington dislikes the Brazilian stress on furthering the Doha Round agenda. Most difficult. the economic relation is nothing like America´s with Mexico. Some resistances had come from Argentina in regards to the UN issue. Washington´s view of Brazil as a moderating force but this depicts a special limit. which is seen as dangerously militarizing conflicts in the Andean region. The Lula government has been rather modest in its domestic policy ambitions. Serious differences persist over the two countries preferred models of regional economic integration: Brazil rejects NAFTA-like approach.

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