The presence of Christian tradition in literature is neither more nor less valid than those of any other religious system – Celtic. The second thing to consider in talking about the history of a literature is the criteria of grouping its periods. Due to the rapid changes taking place in human lives in the later five periods.All of them are presented for the sake of artistic purposed. The influence of Greek on English literature can be clearly seen from the fact that Latin was the most dominant language of education until fairly recently and has had enormous effect on English literary works from the earliest time. Here is list of the periods of English literature. PERIOD. they divided into som of sub-periods. Up to now there is not yet agreement among scholars about how to devide the periods of English literature/. Yet the most recent divisions are tended to be based on “a series of periods”. A. Moslem. A literary work produced in in India. has to have knoeledge about the scriptures its it is to know Greek and Roman mythology and literary tradition. The Jideao-Christian tradition as embodied in the Bible has also given English literature a rich store of mythic incident. Yoruba. similar to other forms of culture. This point is essential because. C.CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION The first thing necessary to consider when we are talking about history of English literature is the fact that the term ‘English literature’ refers not only to a specific nation but to the literatures produced in the whole English-speaking countries. symbol and allusion in the heroic legends of the Ola and new testaments. all literature is naturally developed by taking certain sources as their origin. This fact causes everyone who wants to succed in studying Englsih literature. Buddhism. 1649-1719 RESTORATION Period
: Restoration Period
. regardless of his or her religious belief. 450-1066 1066-1500 1500-1649 : OLD ENGLSIH (ANGLO-SAXON)
: MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD : RENAISSANCE PERIOD (1) 1558-1660 : Elizabethan Period (2) 1603-1625 : Jacobean Period (3) 1625-1649 : Caroline Period : (1) COMMONWEALTH 1649-1660 1660-1682 : AND
D. another thing important to consider before undertaking a discussion of the history of English literature is its antecendences. or Hindu. New Zeland or even Singapore must be included into English language literature. B. Last but not least.
PERIOD F.(3) (4) E. H. G.
. 1713-1789 1789-1832 1832-1900 1900-1939 :
: Elizabethan Period : Jacobean Period (AUGUSTAN)
: ROMANTIC PERIOD : VICTORIAN PERIOD : THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (1) 1901-1914 : Edwardian Period (2) 1914-1939 : Modernist Period : CONTEMPORARY
the language was developed to be the Middle English (1100-1500) and the modern English (1500-now). In 410 the Roman legion in occupation of Britain were withdrawn for service at home. Old English Literature The language of the earliest English literature came from many different place. Three subject of the first English literature are : war. personal sadness and happiness. The three invaders (Angles. Celt of England were unable to resit the invasions of Angles. was also very dominant. The glorious period did not last long. Some of the names of days are put from their gods name. a kind of National history. like Beowulf. In 43 AD. Saxon and Jutes who came from the Northern Germany. or symbolic cuts and scratches on woods and stones. The missionaries spread not only Christianity among the people but also introduced the Roman alphabet to replace the rune. Realizing this. The Englishman called them “Danes”. The whole English almost over run except the South were Alfred “The Greatesr King of the Wessex” defeated the Danish leader. in order to understand the history of certain literature. A generation later. Christian monks in the monasteries who is the first wrote down the words of the early literature and only a few fragment remain of all the writing
. Sweden and Denmark. The language they used called Anglo Saxon. the North of England was Christianized by the Irish mission under St. Later on. and ‘Friday’ after ‘Friga’. Saxons and Jutes) were formerly barbarians worshipped heathen gods. religion.. The first settlers of British island were Celts. With this new facility people could record the oral stories into written works. The most important work of his age is The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Patrick and Columba. e. ‘Tuesday’ after ‘Tive’. people. the Roman Empire conquered and colonized the entire British island excep Scotland. under the reign of Claudius. while Celtic strain is stronger in Scotland and is dominant in Wales. They became great centers of Christianity and scholar learning in the 7th and 8th centuries. ‘Thursday from ‘Thor.g ‘Wednesday’ from ‘Wooden’. This gave us the old continental Anglo-Saxon stories. This was very important step for the development of English literature. because the Wales are the only thorough descendant of Celtic. British was covered into Christianity. The Englishman of today is essentially Teutonic in character and temper. and cultures. a branch of Indo-Europe who had live in Western Europe.CHAPTER II
OLD ENGLISH (ANGLO SAXON) PERIOD (600-1485) Literature is essentially a reflection of the life of the people who makes it. The Angles who firstly settled along the eastern coast of the island became the most powerful. They named the whole country Angle-Land or England. England was invaded by Norman or Scandinavian from Norway.
He wrote many books. They give us a lot of information of this period. Another great figure in the prose of Old English literature is Aelfric. The spoken tradition led to the first tradition of written literature. They reflect the two cultures. his most interesting poem is The Dream of the Rood. He was an important translator as well as writer. mostly about the Bible. The word rood means cross in Old English. A monk from Winchester in the South of England. a monk. The main heroic text is called Beowulf. The poem has the sad ending. Two other personal but anonymous poems are: The Wanderer and The Seafarer (sailor). rather than imaginative writings. Beowulf is a story about a brave young man from Southern Sweden who is fight with a terrible monster to help King of the Danes. Old Englsih was beginning to develop into a different language. known as the Venerable Bede. and fight a dragon which breath fire until died. Beowulf is the first hero in English literature. theologian. historian.The very first fragment is called ‘Caedmon’s Hymn’ hymn=religious song. closer to the English we know today. BEOWULF AND LONG POEM Several poems are preserved in the Exeter Book. At the same time. His work include Catholic Homiliees (homilies = religious talk) and Lives of the Saints. The major figure in this era is Bede.
. the name of hero of the long anonymous poem. some historic. but we know nothing about him. It describe events which are part of the periods memory : invasions and battles. and chronologist who lived between 673 and 735. Another name from the early medieval period is Deor. Bede’s historia ecclesiastica leaves gaps tantalizing to secular historian. Cynewulf’s is another important name from this centuries.which is complete in 731/732 and divided into five books. but the best known today for his Historia eclesiastica gentis Anglorum (“Ecclesiastical History of The English People”). some legendary. Christianity and Heroic actions. called Middle English. POEM Many of the earliest books were histories.that the monk kept.
it was led by William Duke of Normandy.CHAPTER III
MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD (1066-1485) This period is the name given to the transition period during which Old Englsih was changing to Modern English. He describing a society that is changing. These ballads are initially in oral form. The most valuable work produced on the French influence is Layamon’s Brat and the most interesting of all is The Owl and Nightingale. both secular and religious. Chaucer greatest work is The Canterbury Tales. Another famous poet of this era is William Langland who wrote. By taking the French literature as its model. There are many aspects to The Canterbury Tales. In addition. It is also the first major work in English Literature. Piers Plowman which uses the dream-vision poem to write a long series of dream stories. This even is very important not only to completely English literature but also significantly influenced the development of English language. English literature revived at the beginning of the 13th century. Normand took power and William became a King of England. The Norman conquest was the last successful invasion of Britain. began to appear. It is a social allegory which stress the important of hard workings and honesty in life. Not long after the conquest. Chaucer The greatest literary figure of this time is Geoffrey Chaucer. better architecture. it also important to note that in this era Robin Hood. the University of Cambridge and Oxford were established. and they generally reflect daily life of lower class people in England at that time. progress in painting and music. He introduced England to French (a language derived from Latin). a verse debate between two birds mentioned in the title about life. He was influence by many kind of writing and used many European models.
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. The Anglo-Saxon only used by uneducated people. Another impact of the conquest is the parallel use of both English and French. people and their value are changing too. The Canterbury Tales is still the great mirror of it’s time. among other. Religion is less important and making money is a new ambition.