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Derivation of Constitutive Relations for Elastic-Plastic Materials

(Infinitesimal strain derivation based on Drucker's Postulate)



1. Study of tension test for metal bar

Observations:

OP : Linear elastic response, σ = Eε .
PY : Non-linear elastic response, σ = f (ε ) .

   Y , the bar returns to original length.

Y : "Yield limit". Loading beyond Y causes permanent or "plastic" strain ε P .


 C , ε = ε E + ε P .
εP is the strain that would remain if bar were completely un
   C .
If we unload to D and then load again, a small hysteresis loop occurs. P ′
may be different from C .

We idealize this observed behavior by the following assumptions.
 
       

  
    CD and DP′ coincide).
  OP ) = Slope( CD ) (i.e., elastic response is independent of plastic strain).
   
!   


 


 #  

Our idealized tension test σ-ε diagram appears as

Another phenomenon usually observed if the bar is cycled through ten 
 
   $%
  $      
 
   
We also neglect this effect and assume YC = YT .



 "
Definition
The material is said to be stable (work hardening or perfectly plas  
  


 




Drucker's Postulate of Stability and Results

Let the stress be some value σ at a point A of the tension test. Suppose the
*

external loads are changed and cause the stress to in


  σ , the yield limit,
then to σ + ∆σ causing a plastic strain increment ∆ε
P
. Then let the load
decrease so that stress returns to σ at point A ′ .
*


' WL be the work done by the applied loads,
∆W L = areashaded 
   
   ∆WL = (σ − σ * )∆ε P ≥ 0 (equality iff ∆ε P = 0 ).

 &

If σ * = σ , (i.e. if σ * is at elastic limit) when loads are increased, then
1
    ∆ω L = ∆σ∆ε P ≥ 0 for stable material.
2
∴ If material is stable, the work done by loads in a cycle of adding and removing
stress is non-negative and vice versa.
 
 stability ⇔ (σ − σ * )∆ε p ≥ 0 σ < 0   (1)
∆σ∆ε ≥ 0, σ =σ *   
If ∆σ causes ∆ε
P
in time ∆t , then in the limit

∆ε P ∆σ
 ε = lim ,σ = lim
P
  ,
∆t → 0 ∆t ∆t → 0 ∆t

  ( 1 ) is equivalent to 

(σ − σ * )ε P ≥ 0 
    . (1′) 
σε P ≥ 0 

ε P is plastic strain rate σ is stress rate.
Note : Even through we have assumed the process is rate-independent, it is
convenient to use time as a parameter and work with rates. The con  
)
 *       

 
   



  
  *
 ( 1′ ) from a compression or torsion test. This leads
us to generalize these concepts to general 3-dimensional stress states.


2. Generalization of tension test concepts to 3-D state of stress 

Assumption 1. At any time t, ε ij (x,t ) consists of an elastic part ε ijE and a plastic
part ε ijP so that

   ε ij = ε ijE + ε ijP ,

 (

,
   σ ij = Cijklε klE 
or
 ε ij = K ijklσ kl 
E

with
   K ijkl = K klij = K jikl 
and
   K ijkl do not depend on ε ijP or t.

Note : Such a strain decomposition would not be entirely satisfactory for finite
deformation but it is O.K. for infinitesimal theory.

From the observation of the yield point and the subsequent curve in 1-D, we are
lead to the concept of a
Yield surface and loading function.


σ ij can be represented by a point in a 9
For fixed x (position or particle),
dimensional vector space. Take σ 11 ,σ 12 ," as the coordinates of the point σ
referred to a rectangular Cartesian set of axes. Suppose at t = 0, the material is in
the stress free (reference) state. Assume that there is a simply connected
neighborhood of the origin in stress space at t = 0 that contains only elastic states.
That is, for σ ij in this neighborhood, a small change ∆σ ij will cause only an

elastic change in strain, ∆ε ij , so 


E

 +
that ∆ε ij = 0 . The boundary of this region (in stress space) we call the initial yield
P

surface and assume it is represented by



  f 0 (σ ij ) = 0 or f 0 (σ 11 ,σ 12 ,"σ 33 ,") = 0 ,

, f 0 < 0 is inside and f 0 > 0 is outside the surface. 

At any later time t > 0, assume that we have again a yield surface (enclosing a
simply connected region) such that stress points inside represent elastic state and
stress points on the surface represent plastic state, i.e., stress state for which
∆ε ijP ≠ 0 are possible for arbitrarily small ∆σ ij .
' *   *
   ./
0/
1  
 loading surface and it generally depends on the manner in
which body has been deformed, i.e., it depends not only on the values of εijP at t

but also on all values taken between 0 and t.


 
 
 ,
 
2  
*  ,
3 
  

   x in the
body.)



 
  
   σ ij for which ∆ε ijP = 0 ) do
not alter f. We can now summarize in




 -
Assumption 2. There exists a loading function f such that at time t if σ ij is such
that 
5/6 ∆σ ij if small enough, causes only ∆ε ijE , "elastic state",

./6 ∆σ ij can cause ∆ε ijP (for arbitrarily small ∆σ ij ) "plastic state",


0/6 

  *


Assumption 3. The material is stable, i.e., the work done by an exter

 


  
 
     ,

   !

 

We now derive the consequence of Assumption 3 for general stress states.
Consider a unit cube of material in a homogeneous state σ ij* , ε ij* at time t * .
(Assume each element of cube has same deformation history.) An external agency
changes stress to σ ij (t ) during t * ≤ t ≤ t 3 with
 σ ij = σ ij at t = t3 
*
  
The loading cycle is
 t * ≤ t ≤ t1" elastic deformation (loading),
 t1 ≤ t ≤ t2" plastic states (loading),
 t2 ≤ t ≤ t3" elastic unloading.

# σ -space, the loading cycle can be represented as in Fig.
The work done by the agency (on the unit cube) is

 4
t3
W = ∫ * (σ ij − σ ij* )εij dt
t
    
t3
= ∫ * (σ ij − σ *
ε +ε
ij )( ij
E P
ij )dt.
t

But

∫ ∫ ∫
t3 t3 t3
(σ ij − σ ε ij ) ij dt
* E
= σ ε
ij ij dt
E
−σ *
ij εijE dt
   t *
t *
t * 
= I1 − I 2 .

( noteσ ij = Cijkl ε ij )
E
   

∫ σ ε
t3
I1 = *
E
ij ij dt
t

d 1 E E

t3
   =  Cijkl ε kl ε ij dt 
t* dt  2 
=0
σ ij(3) = σ ij* so ε ij E (3) = ε ijE .
*
  Since

And εij ≠ 0 only for t1 ≤ t ≤ t2 .
P
' 2,  I 2 = 0 .

∫ (σ
t2
 ∴ W= ij −σ ij* )εijP dt ≥ 0 , (by assumption 3)
t1

for all possible cycles.


' t2 − t1 = δt > 0 be small and use Taylor series to expand W (t2 ) about t = t 1.

[
W (t 2 ) = (σ ij − σ ij* )εijP ]
t =t1
(δt ) +
1
2
[
σ ij εijP + (σ ij − σ ij* )εijP ]
t =t1
(δt ) 2 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 

The necessary and sufficient conditions for W( t 2 ) ≥ 0 are 


  (σ ij − σ ij* )εijP ≥ 0   σ ij ≠ σ ij 
*

  σ ij εijP ≥ 0   σ ij = σ ij* 



 
, σ
*
ij is any stress state inside or on the yield surface at time t.

The second condition, σ ij εij ≥ 0 , is often called the "uniqueness" equation. It
P

is analogous to positive definite strain energy in an elastic body when


proving uniqueness.
 7

 
Corollary 1. 
 
At the point σ ij on the yield surface in 9-D stress space draw a vector paralleled to
εijP . For any σ ij* inside the yield surface, assumption (3), or equation (2) says the
vector (σ ij − σ ij ) makes an angle ≤ 90D with the vector εij . Draw the hyperplane
* P

perpendicular to εij through σ ij . All σ ij* satisfying eq. (2) lie on or to one side of
P

it.



So the yield surface lies on or to one side of the hyperplane perpen
 εij
P

for all σ ij on the surface. Hence the surface is convex.



Stress remains on yield surface while εij ≠ 0 (Consistency).
P
Corollary 2.

(2) gives σ ijεij ≥ 0 for σ ij* on yield surface. Therefore σ ij makes an an  ≤ 90D
P

with εij . If angle exceeds 90D , stress point moves inside yield surface and
P

εijP = 0 .

 8
Corollary 3. 


ε ijP is normal to the yield surface at a regular point of the yield sur 
  




 
 
∂f
    εij
P
= λ whereλ = λ (x,t ) > 0. (3) 
∂σ ij


Loading, Neutral loading, Unloading from plastic state are character 
σ ij as follows


∂f
 f = 0, σ > 0 , : loading from a plastic state, εijP ≠ 0 ,
∂σ ij ij

 
∂f
 f = 0, σ = 0: : neutral loading from a plalstic state,
∂σ ij ij
∂f
σ ij < 0 . : unloading from a plastic state, εij = 0 .
P
 f = 0,
∂σ ij

3. Associated flow rule



Since stress point must remain on yield surface during loading, we must have f = 0 .
Assumng
f = f (σ ij ,ε ijP ) = 0 ,

We

∂f ∂f
 f = 0 = σ ij + P εijP 
∂σ ij ∂ε ij
or, by eq. (3), we get

∂f ∂ f ∂f
 σ ij + λ = 0 .
∂σ ij ∂σ ij ∂ε ijP

For a work hardening material (as opposed to a perfectly plastic material),

∂f P
 ε ≠ 0  εijP ≠ 0 
∂ε ij
P ij


or equivalently by (3), we get

∂f ∂ f
≠0 if εij ≠ 0 
P
∂ε ijP ∂σ ij

 

∂f
σ ij
∂σ
 λ = − ≥0 .
ij
∂ f ∂f
∂σ ij ∂ε ijP


So equation (3) becomes, for loading at a regular point of work harden 
 

∂f
σ
∂f ∂σ pq pq ∂f
εijP = λ = −  
∂σ ij ∂f ∂f ∂σ ij
∂σ kl ∂ε klP

together with
∂f
 f = 0, σ > 0 .
∂σ ij ij

For neutral loading, σ ij lies in tangential plane

∂f
 f = 0, σ = 0 
∂σ ij ij
and (4) gives
εijP = 0 .

Note : For a perfectly plastic material, we cannot show λ explicitly, because

∂f ∂f
 = 0, σ = 0 .
∂ε ij
P
∂σ ij ij


Vertices and Edges on Loading Surface
(a common occurrence, e.g. Tresca yield surface)

Consider two regular surfaces intersecting in a line given by

 f1 (σ ij ) = 0, f 2 (σ ij ) = 0 ,

  f1 , f2 depend on the history of the deformation. From stability considerations
εijP lies in the plane defined by and between the two normals to f1 and f2 . So



∂f 1 ∂f 
εijP = λ1 + λ2 2 
∂σ ij ∂σ ij 

  λ1 ≥ 0, λ2 ≥ 0  . 
σ ij εijP ≥ 0 







For unloading, σ ij points inside both yield surface,

 εijP = 0 ,
∂f 1 ∂f 2
 σ ij < 0, σ < 0 .
∂σ ij ∂σ ij ij

 
For neutral loading, σ ij points along f1 = 0 or f2 = 0 , or both. εij = 0 , one of
P

∂f1 ∂f 2
σ ij , σ is zero and the other is zero or negative.
∂σ ij ∂σ ij ij


loading, there are two possibilities (with εij ≠ 0 ).
P

 

  


    
   

     

f1 = 0 , f2 < 0 . So
∂f 1 ∂f
 σ ij + 1P εijP = 0 ( f1 = 0) ,
∂σ ij ∂ε ij
∂f 2 ∂f
 σ ij + 2P εijP < 0 ( f2 < 0) ,
∂σ ij ∂ε ij
 σ ij εijP ≥ 0, λ1 ≥ 0, λ2 ≥ 0 . 


 
         ε ijP , but the indeterminancy is only in

  
 
         ε ijP .

2) Stress point stays on both loading surfaces. Then λ 1 , λ 2 are re
  
∂f 1 ∂f
 σ ij + 1P εijP = 0 ( f1 = 0) ,
∂σ ij ∂ε ij
∂f 2 ∂f
 σ ij + 2P εijP = 0 ( f2 = 0) ,
∂σ ij ∂ε ij
 


 σ ij εijP ≥ 0, λ1 ≥ 0, λ2 ≥ 0 .
From the equation of εij at the vertex,
P


∂f1  ∂f 2
 εij = λ1 + λ2
P
 .
∂σ ij ∂σ ij

  
∂f1 ∂f  ∂f ∂f 
 σ ij + 1P  λ1 1 + λ2 2  = 0 ,
∂σ ij ∂ε ij  ∂σ ij ∂σ ij 
∂f 2 ∂f  ∂f ∂f 
 σ ij + 2P  λ1 1 + λ2 2  = 0 
∂σ ij ∂ε ij  ∂σ ij ∂σ ij 
or
∂f 1 ∂f 1  ∂ f 1 ∂f 2  ∂ f1 
− λ − λ = σ
∂ε ijP ∂σ ij
1
∂ε ijP ∂σ ij
2
∂σ ij  ij

 . (5) 
∂f ∂f ∂ f ∂f ∂f
− 2P 1 λ1 − 2P 2 λ2 = 2 σ ij 
∂ε ij ∂σ ij ∂ε ij ∂σ ij ∂σ ij 

(5) are solved for λ1 and λ2 which must also satisfy

 λ1 ≥ 0, λ2 ≥ 0, σ ij εijP ≥ 0 .

 

 
   



       σ ij , which
determine the range of directions for which stress point remains at the vertex. It
may happen that (5) reduce to one equation in which case we can show that
∂f1 ∂f 2 ∂f1 ∂f 2
  !  
 , on the plane containing , are
∂ε ij ∂ε ij
P P
∂σ ij ∂σ ij
parallel and
∂f1 ∂f 2
  

  σ ij are such that the projections on the plane of ,


∂σ ij ∂ε ijP
have the same direction.
          ε ij if this situation prevails for a finite time.
P


Summary of developments thus far

Assumption 1 

 ε ij = ε ijE + ε ijP ,
 ε ijE = K ijklσ kl ,
 K ijkl = K klij = K jikl .


Assumption 2 Yield surface (loading function), yield conditions f ( σ ij ) = 0
depends on history of deformation.

 f < 0" , elastic state
f = 0 . . . plstic state
f > 0" inadmissible

when f < 0 , εij = 0 and while εij ≠ 0 , then f = 0.
P P



Assumption 3 Material is stable

 (σ ij − σ ij* )εijP ≥ 0, σ ij εijP ≥ 0 ,


 
   σ ij lies inside or on the current yield surface.
*

#$ % % 
 
 
Unloading σ ij moves stress point inside f = 0, εijP = 0 .
∂f
   &    σ < 0 .
∂σ ij ij
∂f ∂f 2
   &   1 σ ij < 0, σ < 0 .
∂σ ij ∂σ ij ij

Neutral Loading σ ij moves stress point along current yield surface. For
work hardening materials, εij = 0 and
P
f = 0.
∂f
   At regular point, σ = 0 .
∂σ ij ij
∂f ∂f 2
   &   
  1 σ ij , σ vanishes.
∂σ ij ∂σ ij ij

Loading σ ij moves outside current yield surface but yield surface changes so
that f = 0 is satisfied, εij ≠ 0 .
P

∂f
  At regular point, σ > 0 ,
∂σ ij ij
∂f
σ rs
∂ f ∂σ
    εijP = λ , λ = − rs
≥ 0 .
∂σ ij ∂f ∂f
∂σ kl ∂ε klP
∂f ∂f 2
  &   
  1 σ ij , σ > 0
∂σ ij ∂σ ij ij

εijP lies in a fan formed by adjacent normals

∂f1  ∂f 2
 εij = λ1 + λ2
P
    .
∂σ ij ∂σ ij

λ1 , λ2 are restricted by λ1 ≥ 0, λ2 > 0, σ ij εijP ≥ 0 and by both or one of
f1 = 0, f2 = 0 , depending on weather or not the stress point remains at the corner.

 "