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Over the years, research in the area of quality management has been extended from goods to services. As we see the growth of the service sector, issues like service quality are gaining paramount importance. Scholars in Marketing and Human Resource Management are devoting increasing attention to the personal interaction between the customer and the employee on the 'frontline' of service businesses (Mattson 1994). In the past decade, changes in the financial services industry, specially the retail-banking sector, have increased competition and have led banks to emphasize the importance of service quality as a means for achieving competitive advantage. Retail banks have realized the need to adopt a people-oriented approach, as compared to solely the profit-oriented approach, towards improving customer service. In this context, organizational commitment of frontline employees is gaining importance in determining the quality of services delivered to the customer. In face to face transactions as those seen these transactions the customer-contact personnel during the service encounter largely determine the level of service quality delivered (Zeithaml and Bitner 2000). They represent the bank and directly influence the service quality perceptions of the customer. A recent study conducted by Papasolomou-Doukakis (2003) suggests that the changes in the UK financial services industry have necessitated retail banks in adopting 'internal marketing' to achieve competitive advantage by providing superior customer service through customer-focused and service-oriented employees. Successful organizations worldwide realize that the path to satisfied customers is through satisfied employees (Gronroos 1985; Gummesson 1987; Greene et al. 1994; Varey 1995). Internal marketing emerges as a solution to the problem of delivering consistently high service quality (Rafiq and Ahmed 2000). The main idea behind the concept of internal marketing is to create motivated and customer conscious employees at every level in the organization (George 1990). In fact, one of the important consequences of internal marketing is to increase the organizational commitment of employees (Caruana and Calleya 1998). The quality of service received by the customers is due, in part, to the commitment that employees have towards their employer (Unzicker et al. 2000)."Service quality suffers when
employees are unwilling or unable to perform a service at the level required" (Zeithaml et al.
1990, p.89). Willingness to perform implies the 'discretionary effort' undertaken on the part of the employees. In contact businesses such as retail banks, the quality of service delivered cannot be separated from the 'quality' of the service provider (Lewis 1989) and all kinds of behaviours and actions of customer-contact employees during the service encounter cannot be directed and controlled by the management. Hence, during the 'moments of truth' (Carlzon 1987) or service encounters, it is the willingness of these employees to engage in discretionary effort that determines the level of service quality delivered and the satisfaction of the customer (Zeithaml et al. 1990). The willingness of employees to accept and support organizational goals and to behave in a manner likely to promote them is reflected upon in their organizational commitment. Only committed employees would have the urge to engage in discretionary efforts and organizational citizenship behaviour leading to customer satisfaction, commitment and retention (Zeithaml et al. 1990). An environment in which employees are satisfied and committed is one that is conducive to customer satisfaction (Sergeant and Frenkel 2000).Research indicates that organizational commitment exerts a strong positive influence not only on internal service quality (Boshoff and Mels 1995) but also on external service quality (Boshoff and Tait 1996). Any organization¶s success will be jeopardized if its employees fail to accept its missions, goals and objectives (Unzicker et al. 2000) and fail to believe in what the company stands for (Congram and Friedman 1991). Long-term customer relationships could be built only with long-term committed workforce (Boshoff and Allen 2000), as it is unlikely to get loyal customers without loyal employees (Reichheld 1996). Hence, organizational commitment of customer-contact employees influences the level of service quality delivered to the customers (Boshoff and Mels 1995; Boshoff and Tait 1996).
This research is aimed at exploring the importance of the role of customer contact employees' organizational commitment in relation to the service quality delivered to the customers. We empirically test the relationship between different types of
organizational commitment and the service quality of customer contact employees in the financial services sector.service quality relationship. One bad encounter on either side can have a negative impact on the mind of the customer regarding service quality perceptions.2 Importance of the Study The internal marketing paradigm espouses the human resource . Bowen et al. Greater service quality is thought to be offered by the private sector and the relation between service quality and organizational commitment in public and private banks is studied here. 1. The banking industry of India has become a highly competitive industry with the upcoming of the private sector banks. 1999). especially in today's competitive financial service industry. It is generally observed that organizations pay inadequate attention to understanding the complex nature of organizational commitment of the customer-contact employees who represent the organization to the customer and can directly influence service quality. employee commitment continues to be one of the most exciting issues for both managers and researchers (Suliman and lies 2000b). and this relationship demands serious consideration (Schneider and Bowen 1995. By financial sector we include both public sector and private sector banks. Thus there is a need to study the link between employee commitment and service quality. 2. Literature review Service Quality: . Since the 196O's. Service quality plays a major role in getting customer satisfaction and creating brand loyalty in banking sector.
In many service firms it is the customer-contact employee. Hence. 1988). we adapted the SERVQUAL (Parasuraman et al. The 'service performance gap' refers to the difference between actual service delivery and the firm's service quality specifications. 2000). "Customer contact employees are well placed to effectively judge the quality of services that they deliver" (Sergeant and Frenkel 2000. peer appraisal. 1996). Literature highlights four ways to measure job performance: self appraisal. Hartline and Ferrell. also known as the Gaps Model. It has significant effect on the 'service quality gap' as service performance is directly correlated to service quality (Chenet et al. 2000). It provides a method to measure service quality known as the SERVQUAL instrument/ scale. the customer-contact employees during the service encounter largely determine the level of service quality delivered to customers. it is the service performance gap that influences our study. which is the service quality of the customer-contact employees. This instrument has been adapted and used in literature while studying the service quality of front-line employees in face-toface encounters (Boshoff and Tait. It is the most frequently used measure of service quality (Mattson 1994) and consists of five dimensions (tangibles. Since we are looking at the service quality of the employees only. only those dimensions of SERVQUAL are taken that relate to the service quality delivered by the customer contact employee. supervisory evaluation and consumer evaluation (Behrman and Perreault 1982). responsiveness. Boshoff and Mels (1995) argue that contact employees are quite . 1988) instrument to measure the dependent variable.l9). Because service delivery occurs through human interaction. p. and not the service itself. defines service quality as the difference between customer's expectation and perception of the service delivered. assurance and empathy). Hence. which provides a source of differentiation and creates competitive advantage (Burgers et al. Boshoff and Mels (1995) clearly argue that self-rating is valid and correlates highly with other measures of performance and this has been supported by various researchers like Churchill et al (1985) and Pym and Service quality is the result of human interaction between the service provider and the customer.The service quality model (Parasuraman et al. reliability. 1996.
Boshoff and Tait 1996. Iverson et al. In branches. Organizational commitment deals with the attitudes of the people towards their organization. Ganster and Dwyer 1995) while some have. Organizational commitment (Affective. Though committed employees are believed to work harder for the firm than those who are not committed (Zeithamlt al. 1990. even established a negative relationship (Hartline and Ferrell 1993). Sergeant and Frenkel 2000. a high correlation between customers' and contact employees' perceptions of service quality has been found across several studies (Schneider and Bowen 1985). Only those items were selected that pertained specifically to employee-related aspects of service quality. surprisingly. 1980. all five dimensions of service quality were taken into account. Ulrich et al. research has yielded mixed results as regards the relationship between organizational committment and performance. Moreover. 1991. Also. Boshoff and Allen 2000) in measuring performance.'s (1974) uni-dimensional conceptualization of commitment. Boshoff and Tait 1996. many studies have effectively used employees' perceptions of service delivery (Schneider et al. Sergeant and Frenkel 2000). Normative and Continuance): Organizational commitment is the extent to which an individual identifies and is involved with his or her organization and/or is willing to leave it (Greenberg and Baron 1997). Benkhoff 1997. Boshoff and Mels 1995. Benkhoff (1997) argues that the lack of a clear relationship between commitment and performance and consequently the disappointing research outcomes are due to Porter et al. some see no relationship at all (Mathieu and Zajac 1990. Some researchers have established a positive relationship (Zeithaml et al. 1990). Allen and Meyer's three- . 1996.aware of the challenges faced by customer interaction and that their perceptions of service delivery should receive more attention. the customer contact employees of the bank evaluated their own performance in terms of service quality on a shortened and adapted version of the SERVQUAL instrument (Parasuraman et al. In this study. Majority of the studies in marketing involving organizational commitment have identified the construct with its affective conceptualization only (Caruana and Calleya 1998).Auld (1965). 1988). Jaworski and Kohli 1991.
(1989) argue that "one might expect the on-the-job behaviour of those who are 'affectively' committed to the organization to differ from that of employees whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance commitment" . absenteeism and citizenship behaviour (Somers 1995). identified with and involved in the organization. Organizational commitment was measured with the revised three component scale of organizational commitment (Meyer et al. service recovery performance (Boshoff and Allen 2000) and capacity to satisfy customers (Sergeant and Frenkel 2000). Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model links each component of commitment to specific work and behavioural outcomes. The scale (18 items) has been extensively used by several researchers in several studies (McDonald and Makin 2000. The scale comprised six items each for affective commitment. Continuance commitment measured the extent to . 1993).component commitment scales are emerging important to overcome this problem (Suliman and lies 2000a and b. Each facet of commitment is likely to influence employee retention and on-the-job behaviour (Meyer and Allen 1991). Suliman 2002). Normative commitment measured the extent to which the employees felt obliged to stay with the organization. Jacobsen 2000) and has been well accepted for reliability and validity. identification with and involvement in the organization. Affective commitment measured the extent to which the employees felt that they were emotionally attached to. job performance. Allen and Meyer's (1990) three-component model of commitment: Affective Commitment: This refers to the employee's emotional attachment to. Meyer et al. Normative Commitment: This refers to the employee's feelings of obligation to stay with the organization Continuance Commitment: This refers to the commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization. normative commitment and continuance commitment.
.which the employees felt committed based on the costs that were associated with leaving the organization.
Title: ³Commitment and Service Quality Relationship: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Banks´ 3.1.1 General objective: 1) To study the relation between organizational commitment and service quality 3.normative commitment private sector banks 2) To empirically test the nature of relationship between affective commitment .2 Specific objectives: 1) To empirically test the nature of relationship between affective commitment . and b) has implications for the decision to continue membership in the organization" . 3) To test the difference in commitment .1. between the private and public sector bank employees.normative commitment and continuance commitment and service quality in public sector banks.1 Research Objectives 3.2 Definitions: 3. and continuance commitment and service quality in 3.2.1.service quality and the inter-relationship.1 Theoretical Definitions: Organizational Commitment: Meyer and Allen (1994) state that organizational commitment is "a psychological state that characterizes the employee's relationships with the organization.
1993). 1988). 3. Allen. Allen. Allen. (Meyer." (Williams) y Affective organizational commitment was defined as the magnitude with which an employee identifies with the organization (Meyer. Continuance commitment: y It is the commitment to the organization brought up by the necessity of staying in the organization so that the life of the employee does not get affected Normative commitment: . Normative Commitment y Normative Commitment: This refers to the employee's feelings of obligation to stay with the organization(Meyer. 1993). Continuance Commitment y Continuance Commitment: This refers to the commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization.2 Operational definition: Affective commitment: y It is the commitment to remain with organization and to have a feeling to belonging and emotional attachment to the organization.& Smith.2.& Smith.Affective Commitment y Affective commitment refers to employees' perceptions of their emotional attachment to or identification with their organization. y Continuance commitment is "a tendency to 'engage in consistent lines of activity' Service quality: y Service quality as the difference between customer's expectation and perception of the service delivered (Parasuraman et al.& Smith. 1993).
3 Hypothesis: HI: Affective commitment positively influences service quality. H3: Continuance commitment negatively influences service quality. H4: Organizational commitment has positive influence on service quality H5: Better service quality is provided by private banks compared to public sector banks .y It is the commitment to the organization brought about by a sense of obligation and loyalty to the organization . Service quality: y To understand what the customer requires and delivery of services to the customers without delay and to take genuine interest in solving their problems. H2: Normative commitment positively influences service quality. 3.
normative commitment & continuance commitment .3.4 Development of Conceptual Framework: The researchers have developed a conceptual frame work for this research based on the research variables.The study is confined to private and public sector banks in and around Cochin. continuous commitment and normative commitment and service quality. . AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT CONTINUOS COMMITMENT NORMATIVE COMMITMENT SERVICE QUALITY 3.5 Scope of the study: A quantitative research has been carried out to examine and explore the relationship between affective commitment. such as between affective commitment.
Therefore.. That is why co relational research design has been adopted in order to test the hypothesis. Moreover. the present study was characterized as a co relational study. continuous commitment and normative commitment and service quality within the context of banking industry in Cochin.4. Here affective commitment . 4. continuous commitment and normative commitment are considered as independent variable and service quality is considered as dependent variable.. since most financial products are perceived as high-involvement. the research that study the relationship between two or more variables is referred to as a co-relational study. A co relational study provides a measure of the degree between two or more variables. The conceptual framework illustrates the name of research variables and relationship with them. it is the . if any changes in the independent variable have a changing effect on the dependant ones as well. the researcher intended to identify whether any relationships exists between these measured variables or not. So the researcher is attempting to find out. The preceding conceptual framework of the proposed model depicts the pattern and structure of the co-relational relationships among the set of measured variables. thereby proving that a relationship exists. Retail banking sector was chosen because the evaluation of a service for bank customers often depends on their evaluation of the service encounter with the customer-contact employee. complex and almost similar. The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship among the measured variables. According to Cooper & Schindler (2003).2 Sample The research was conducted branches of a four public sector and four private sector banks in and around Cochin area. In this study the researcher are going to investigate the relationship between affective commitment . In this research.1 Research design This study has been design to test its hypotheses by conducting a co-relational research.
ICICI Bank and Axis Bank in the private sector. Although the questionnaire included question inquiring the age of the respondents most of them did not give their ages. Indian Overseas Bank in the public sector and Federal Bank. The various banks which were surveyed are State Bank of India . South Indian Bank . we have measured service quality as perceived to be delivered by the customer contact employee. State Bank of Travancore . which provides a source of differentiation and creates competitive advantage (Burgers et al. The questionnaires were distributed to 120 employees in the branches of 8 major banks covering the public sector and private sector. The sample size is 80 of this study .Union Bank of India.3 Survey Instrument The researchers will use questionnaire method in order to gather data from this study. Hence. second section consists of continuous commitment. and not the service instrument itself. The questionnaire is divided into four sections. 4. third section consists of normative commitment and last section consists of service quality. First section consists of affective commitment. 2000). .customer contact employee. A structured questionnaire will be used in this research to collect data from the respondents..
210 .850 .e both the private and public sector banks data was taken into consideration.001 .006 Residual 28.Results A) H1.453a R Square .362 3 2.117NC+0.205 Adjusted R Square .066 -. NC. Here the entire data i. H3 :The relation between affective commitment . Error of the Estimate .334 . . Model Summary Model 1 R .000 1 Regression 7. Predictors: (Constant).041 NC. .440 2. AC . Sig.828 119 NC a.185 Std.257 -2. .000 CC -. continuous commitment and service quality was tested and the following result was obtained.238 15.785 . Predictors: (Constant).245 AC .117 CC. CC.621 .005 SQ= 3. Dependent Variable: SQ Dependent Variable: SQ .184CC .184 . H2. Error Mean Square Beta Model Squares df F t Sig.061 Total 35. AC Coefficientsa ANOVAb Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Sum of Model B Std.466 116 .b.191 .260 3.000a.49537 a. 1 (Constant) 3.454 10.621 + 0. a.normative commitment.210AC ± 0.
In the regression analysis.005).t-value 3. Dependent Variable: SQ SQ= 3. p-value =0.334 .224 Std.289 . Error . pvalue 0.785.298 3.t-value 2.390 Sig.44 .000 . Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 Standardized Coefficients Beta T 14.257 .5% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variables.H2 .85 .H3 are found to be true.001 B (Constant) OC 3. It is seen that all the three commitments are significant and have relation with service quality.432 .t-value=-2. Continuous commitment shows a negative relation with service quality (beta value=-0. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly indicate that the model is significant and holds good.066 a.006) .240 . From the model summary it is seen that 18. p-value 0. . Hence the three hypothesis H1.432 + 0.041 . B) H2 : The overall relation between organizational commitment and service quality is tested here. normative commitment. however the strongest relation is shown by affective commitment(beta =0.001) followed by normative commitment (beta =0.224OC . and continuance commitment were taken as independent variables whereas service quality was taken as the dependent variable. affective commitment.
017) and normative commitment( beta value=0.722 Sig.00) are significant in the case of private sector bank employees.519.135 2.t-value=4.094 Std. .298.050 . Dependent Variable: SQ SQ= 3.p-value =0.017 .519 -.318.000 .055 .465 4.379 + 0.080 -1. t-value= 2.normative commitment and continuance commitment and service quality in private sector banks Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) AC NC CC a.148 .080. They also show a positive relation with service quality But a negative relation exists between continuous commitment and service quality but this relation is not significant that is indicated by the 0.091 significance value.The above result proves that organizational commitment has a positive influence on service quality which is indicated by the standardized coefficient 0.379 .060 . C) H4: The nature of relationship between affective commitment .318 .001.148AC +0. .203 -.244 Standardized Coefficients Beta T 15.094CC B 3.091 From the regression table it is seen that the only affective (beta value=0. Error .223 .000 .thus the hypothesis H4 is proved. pvalue=0. the hypothesis is significant because the sig value is 0.203NC -0.465 .
D) The nature of relationship between affective commitment . Dependent Variable: SQ B 4.862 2.111 .123 . Error . .111NC -0.033 SQ=4.209 Std.normative commitment and continuance commitment and service quality in public sector banks.376 . t-value= 2.123 +0.000 .307.209 AC+ 0.018 -3.021 1.021 p-value=0.191 Sig.371 .068 . Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) CC NC AC a.376 .t-value= -3.412 .p-value =0.004) are significant in the case of public sector bank employees.060 .307 Standardized Coefficients Beta T 10.004 . .033) and continuous commitment( beta value= -0.095 -.191 .246 .068 p-value.even though normative commitment shows a positive relation with service quality this relation is not significant indicated by the 0.371CC From the regression table it is seen that the only affective (beta value=0. Affective commitment show a positive relation with service quality and continuous commitment shows a negative .123 -.
between the private and public sector bank employees. As can be seen from the mean values. . This proves the H5 that the service quality offered by private sector is greater than public sector banks. Error Mean .32258 .3633 3.82524 .04164 .68307 .08064 A T-test was done to compare the service quality and organizational commitment of private and public sector banks.62466 Std.service quality and the inter-relationship.10654 . the mean for both organizational commitment and service quality are higher for private sector banks than the means for public sector banks.6009 Std.08818 . Deviation .E) H5 : The difference in commitment . Group Statistics BANK SQ PUBLIC PRIVATE OC PUBLIC PRIVATE N 60 60 60 60 Mean 4.0950 4.5222 3.
It may also develop as a feeling to reciprocate the rewards paid in advance or costs associated with employment incurred by the organization (SchoU 1981. Caruana et al. Those employees who feel emotionally attached to the organization and who are 'affectively' committed to the organization would be willing to exert greater effort on behalf of the organization than those who are not. These results support the arguments presented in literature (Allen and Meyer 1990. 1997). the receipt of special favours or investments from the organization obliges the employee to remain with the organization. Employees who value organizational goals and identify with the organization are likely to perform better than the employees who merely stay under an obligation (normative) or a particular need to continue (continuance). It implies reciprocity by obligation. continuance and normative) are distinct and show different relationships with service quality in both the cases. Allen and Meyer 1991). Thus. it does not necessarily oblige him/her to perform well (Meyer and Allen 1991). Continuous commitment has been found to be negative in both private and public sectors but there is no relation between continuous commitment and service quality in . In both call private and public sector banks affective commitment displays a significant positive relationship with service quality. Normative commitment develops due to the internalisation of normative pressures prior to entry or following entry into an organization (Weiner 1982). All three components (affective. However.6. 1 Finding The results support the concept of a three-component model of commitment and accept Organizational Commitment as a multi-faceted construct in both the cases (phone and face-to-face encounters). though normative commitment obliges an employee to remain in the organization and be committed to it. Normative commitment has been found to affect service quality significantly in case of private sector but not in public sector.
lies et al. he/she would be willing to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization as compared to situations where employment is more or less guaranteed. 1997) with performanceMeyer and Allen (1991) argue that anything that increases the cost associated with leaving an organization has the potential to create continuance commitment. They also argue that continued employment in an organization is a matter of necessity for the employee with high continuance commitment. lies et al. Some of the employees may be less committed to their work due to their lack of experience. Meyer and Allen 1991. job security. if an employee believes that continued employment requires considerable performance. which may also affect the way they deal with customers.2 Limitations : y y The influence of managers on the employees is not taken into consideration The experience of the employees at the respective office is not considered 6.the case of private sector banks. All this entails a plethora of issues as regards availability of job opportunities. Hence. job design. 1996) or no relationship (Meyer et al. Continuance commitment is negatively related to the availability of job alternatives (Meyer and Allen 1991) and positively to organizational tenure (Becker 1960). promotional opportunities available for career advancement. . as literature normally talks of continuance commitment being a discouraging and negative organizational aspect (Meyer et al. 1993. 1996) and having either negative (Meyer et al. 1989. and the nature of the link between continuance commitment and performance is likely to be dependent upon the implications of that behaviour for employment. Allen and Meyer 1990. Caruana et al. 6. 1989.3 Scope for Future Research The organizational commitment in banks can also be tested taking into consideration the influence of managers behaviour and attitude towards the employees of the bank which may in turn affect the service quality of the bank¶s employees.
The three-component model of commitment.service quality relationship. .7. we conclude that it is the nature of commitment that matters in the commitment . in relation to service quality further supports the argument that not all forms of commitment are significantly related to service quality. Conclusion The results of our study add to the internal marketing literature in understanding the importance of organizational commitment as a determinant of service quality. depicting multi-dimensionality of the commitment construct. Hence.
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Please note that this research is meant strictly for academic purpose only. 3. 5. I am doing a research on the topic Organizational Commitment Service Quality Relation in Banks .Questionnaire Dear Sir/Madam I am doing my MBA at Rajagiri Centre for Business Studies. Bank of employment: For the following questions please mark any column for 1 to 5 where 1 stands for strongly disagree and 5 for strongly agree . I really feel as if this organization's problems are my own* I do not feel a strong sense of 'belonging' to my organization I do not feel 'emotionally attached' to this organization I do not feel like 'part of the family' at my organization This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me 2. 4. I would be happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization. Kakkanad. 6. 1 2 3 4 5 1. I would be grateful if you could fill up the questionnaire for me. 7. As part of my course. Right now. . staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now. even if I wanted to 8.
I would feel guilty if I left my organization now 16. I do not feel any obligation to remain with my current employer 14. I would not leave my organization right now because I have a sense of obligation to the people in it 18. When problems occur. Even if it were to my advantage. If I had not already put so much of myself into this organization. I am never too busy to respond to the req uests of my customers 24. I do so 21. Too much in my life would be disrupted if I decided I wanted to leave my organization now 10. When at work I am well dressed 20. I provide him/her with individual attention . I do things right the first time 22. I feel that I have too few options to consider leaving this organization 11. This organization deserves my loyalty 17. I give them all my attention in an effort to solve them speedily 23. When a client has a problem. I treat all clients courteously 25. I am knowledgeable about the company's products and services 26. I owe a great deal to my company 19.9. I do not feel it would be right to leave my organization now 15. One of the few negative consequences of leaving this organization would be the scarcity of available alternatives 13. I might consider working elsewhere 12. When I promise a client that I will do something by a certain time.
My behaviour instills confidence in my customers .27.
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