PREFACE As everybody knows, the textile industry is one of the best trades in the world.

Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career!

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INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages 2 Page No. 7 7

8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17

19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23

24 24 24 25 25

25 26 26 27

3 Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31

32 33 34 34 34 34

35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37

ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes 3

37 37 37 38

5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.4 Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill 4 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 73 73 .3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.

5 Documentation At Sight L/C 30days. 90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping 5 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 . 60days.

6 Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .

Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. T shirts. bed spreads. towels and made ups are Woven.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. sarees. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. Another is Knitted garments. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. width should be considered with more care. undergarments. But yarn counts. Rib. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. etc.000 sq. According to the structure of fabrics. trousers. Fleece. Hence nowadays. One is Woven garments. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. they are called by different names. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. blankets. Flat back rib. Polar fleece and Jacquards. reed & picks (warp & weft). By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. power looms and mill made. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. pyjamas and socks are Knits. round cutters are used. Shirts. style. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. This system is used worldwide. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. we will have only the garments to find GSM. finishing. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. Interlock. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. prints. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. Loop knit. But most of the times. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. fabric quality. sweatshirts. making and other references. French Rib. Making woven fabrics is simple. Pique. As this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. accurate GSM can not be achieved. And we will have to keep the garment for style.cms. With the help of this round cutter. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. colours. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. embroidery. the fabric has to be 7 . If we have fabrics.

Combed is superior quality. 25’s. Yarn prices based on the thickness. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. For this purpose. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. So when the yarn counts are increasing. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. etc. Combed and Carded. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. 60’s. 16’s. etc. the lesser the thickness. a special process is being done. the Yarn. 4’s. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. the thickness becomes lesser. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. 20’s. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. 10’s. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. Hence after knitting or weaving. 100’s. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. 36’s.5 inches. 8 . evenness. 40’s.8 cut very sharply to get the exact GSM.25 inches to 2. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. 24’s. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. Because of the same longer length of fibers. Because of this extra process. the higher the counts. strength. 34’s. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. According to the technical parameters. We can see. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. higher the counts. 80’s. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. the fabric will have very even look. raw material. hand feel. 30’s. availability. 38’s. higher the prices. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. There are 2 qualities of yarn. We must know. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. This process is called ‘Combing’. We can consider like this. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range.

the dyeing absorbency will be very less. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. To avoid this shrinkage problem. Grey Melange. due to higher shrinkage. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. etc. bleached mélange. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. For light colour mélange yarn. There are different mélange yarns. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. which is very important. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. 9 . In these yarns. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. They are Grey mélange.9 The processing (dyeing. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. Flax mélange. But as we use 100% Cotton. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. But we must think of shrinkage. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. Colour mélange. According to the required percentage and colour shades. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. Bleached Melange are used widely. Hence. In colour mélange yarn also. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. the cotton portion will be in light shade. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. But for dark colour mélange yarns. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. For example. Ecru Melange. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. Ecru mélange. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers.

For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. giving more resistance and silky feel. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. Rs. 10 . Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply. For easy reference. the yarn contains more cotton.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. we can not expect the consistency of shades. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP).10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. Cost wise. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together.250 per kg.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. as the combing process removes shorter fibers. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. As the finer cottons are used. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. like 60/2. 100/2. Medium colours: Rs. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. the dyed yarns are used. only combed yarns are used. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. In manual yarn dyeing. 80/2.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. For yarn dyeing. yarn strength and better quality.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. Dark colours: Rs. dull and dead cottons. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades.

By this process. to minimise the cost. these yarns are used for knitwear. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. This will give more life to the garments. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. This process is called Mercerising. In this method. fabrics have to be mercerised again. these dyed yarns are used. 5. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. These yarns do not create allergies to body. 4. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. Due to more heat. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. Then after mercerizing. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. In any case. The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. After combing and twisting. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. As mercerising is done two times. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. the yarn will be singed (gassed). Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. Used for making very expensive special garments. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). 11 . it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. 2. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. 3. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. After mercerising. Longer life of garments. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. Due to its high resistance properties. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. Further. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). underwear and hosiery.

12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.

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KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13

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When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”. 14

5cms. texture and grey GSM. Also as we have seen earlier. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. We have to note that a maximum of 3. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. it can be knitted in normal machines. polyamide (nylon). and 15 . machine gauge. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. we get the single yarn with blends. then there will be more fabric wastage. processed diameter is based on grey diameter. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. If the repeat width is more than 3. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. we have to be careful of their counts. viscose. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. If this diameter is larger than the pattern.5cms. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs.

Then only the knitting will be even. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. To select suitable denier. So. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. 16 . during knitting. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. we can use following conversion formula. Counts = 5315 Denier 5315 Counts Denier = Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. Also. we use the above formula. In order to select the suitable denier.

after compacting (on cutting table). there will be shade variations between lots. qualities of dyes & chemicals. To avoid shade variations. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. before processing.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. sleeves. 17 . wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. etc.Diameter – machine diameter. cuffs. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . .17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. Due to the above reasons. processing water quality. before finishing or compacting. compacting method & temperature. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. same knitting machine. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. before processing. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. sleeves and grey collars.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. processing timing. gauge. after compacting (on cutting table). rope. same dyeing factory and same finishing process. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations. processing methods.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. cuffs. collar. If we take more care during processing. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. twill tape: 1. processing and compacting. This is very important. Grey fabrics for body. . twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. before finishing or compacting.GSM – during knitting.Colour (shade. For example.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. At the same time. fastness as per approval) .Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . after processing. . after processing. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. we will get different results. we will not get the same result every time. . . To avoid shading between body. these variations can be limited.Diameter (as per Pattern) . . rib. after processing. rib. sleeves. rope. we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. we have to follow the following procedures. we have to check following things before knitting. collar and cuffs in one garment.

ribs. collars. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. processing time.18 2. patches. When we have to use yarn from different lots. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. twill tapes. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. 3. 2. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. Lab dips should not be referred. Once 1st lot is approved. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. 5. cuffs. etc) should be numbered during cutting. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. We must study the packing methods clearly. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. This is very important. 2. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. 3. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. Water temperature. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. pockets. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. cuffs. ribs. etc. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. Fabric program should be made accordingly. sleeves. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. sleeves. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. 18 . cuffs. 4. All the parts of one garment (body. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1.. 3. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. Fabric for body. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. 4. Collars. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). ropes. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. collar. Mixing of lots should be avoided. 6. before sending the fabrics for processing.

watch straps. 3. bedding. gloves. In April 1996. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. Benzidine. O-Anisidine.3’-dichlorobenzidine. 2. diapers and other sanitary items. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine.3’-Dimethyl-4.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). 2. 4.4-Xylidine. o-aminoazotoluene. purses.4’-Oxydianiline. 3. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs.4.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. briefcases. wigs. They are clothing.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane.6-Xylidine. Hence. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. p-Aminoazobenzene. 3.19 PROCESSING AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing. 4. belts. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene. 2. 2-Naphthylamine. 2. footwear. If the garment supplied by a supplier. 4.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. o-Toluidine. towels. hairpieces. 4-Aminobiphenyl.4-Diaminoanisole. hats. 3.5-Trimethylaniline. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. p-Cresidine. 19 . 2. 4.4-Toluylendiamine. wallets. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin.4’-Thiodianiline. p-Chloroaniline. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs. chair covers and toys. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer.

Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. But this is not acceptable. It is approximately Rs. it is banned in most of the countries. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. They are by using open winches. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. The fabric will have Chlorine smell.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. Also it will not give irritation to body. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. One is Chlorine Bleach. There will not be any smell. Also it will give irritation to body. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. before certifying to buyers. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. we can smell Chlorine. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching.30–35/kg. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. By using Continuous bleaching machine. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. In this case. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them. Another is Peroxide Bleach.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. Any bright shades like Milk white. Above all. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs.10 – 12 / kg. 20 . It will have lesser whiteness.7. If we smell the fabric deeply. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach.000 per colour. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. Winch bleach is the traditional method. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. If this fabric tested for azo contents. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments.

Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing.21 FABRIC DYEING: There are 3 qualities of dyeing. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. This combination is called Recipe. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. 1. only Azo Free dyes should be used. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. There are 2 types of dyeing. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. By using these dyes in dyeing. Even. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. As we discussed above. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). 21 . 2. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. Then only we will get required results. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. enzyme wash. Another is Soft flow dyeing. Discharge dyes are to be used. After checking whether the required shade is attained. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. When lab dips are made. Nowadays. During dyeing. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. When the winch is rotated by a motor. We will have more discussions on this. the fabrics will roll on winches. They are Reactive dyeing. acid wash. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. 3. fabrics will be removed from the winches. other Jersey fabric. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. For example. the Pigment dyes are to be used. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. should not be used. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. which is made with different yarn. it means Reactive dyeing only. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. This is the normal dyeing. One is Winch dyeing. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. the fabric will be very stiff. etc. According to the approved lab dip. After this. bulk dyeing will be done.

Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. In these cases. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. Blue. These types of machines are used in recent years. Dark Blue. In open winch dyeing. Orange. Lt Green. So after dyeing. the direct dyes will not be available. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. There will not be any colour patches. Temperature. fabric capacity. Yellow. etc are Medium colours. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. timing. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. They have to be cut and rejected. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Offwhite. Also the colour fastness will be better. But in soft flow dyeing. It will be much lesser. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. Light Red. 22 . Grey. As the winch is kept opened. Blue. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. For some shades. etc are Dark colours. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. the temperature of water will not be consistent. Light Grey. everything is computerised. dyes & water capacity. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. Medium Green. Lt Yellow. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. It is a closed winch. the temperature is consistent. These are called ‘Combination colours’. Military Green. Lt Orange. Red. etc are the darkest colours. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Brown. Lt Pink. For the regular shades. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Lt Blue. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. Navy. Dark Navy. Due to this.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. Due to this. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. etc are Light colours. Black. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. Olive Green. Green.

The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. etc. To do the fabric mercerising.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them.23 The costliest colour is Royal. we can get similar shade. Black. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. but also improved colour absorbency. Due to this mercerising. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to reduce the cost. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. By these colours. Due to this. Due to this and due to more processing time. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. But after knitting. We can get some reduction from the mill. Also to avoid the handling stains. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. Red. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . If the mercerising is not been done properly. but it will have poor colour fastness. (It is too expensive. 23 . the dyeing quality will be inferior. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn.45 to 50 per kg. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. these fabrics are to be washed.

we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. Diameter. The washing charge is normally Rs. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines. We must be aware of this important fact. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. nothing can be done. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases. twill tapes.1. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. The collars. GSM. smell and to get softer hand feel. 3. 1. Shrinkage. To remove these wrinkles. From these machines. We can get better result from these compacting machines. With these compacting machines. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. 2.50 / kg. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. ribs. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics.12 – 15 per kg. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). Steam calendering charge: Rs. glossy finish of fabric.24 Not only the fabrics.15 – 20 per kg. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs.5 per kg. 24 . There are no facilities in calendering machines.6 per kg. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. we can adjust following things. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. Some times. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. When we calender the fabrics.50 to 2. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. If we try to achieve these 3 things together.

ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. If the stroke of the printer differs. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. Charges for one side raising: Rs. etc. Viscose. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. Especially. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. After dyeing and after drying. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. as cotton is the natural fiber. They are as follows.25 HEAT SETTING: The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. Printing is done one colour by one colour.10 per kg. it will take more time for multi colour printing. But to get better result. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. PRINTING There are two different prints. Polyamide (Nylon). they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. 25 . the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. But for the blended fabrics. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. 1. the print quality will differ. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. They are all over prints and chest prints. it is better to do heat set in open width form. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. Acrylic. the heat set process is a must. Quick and time saving. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. Charges for Heat set: Rs. We can print the second colour. we have many advantages in rotary printing.25 – 30 per kg. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. Elastan (Spandex). require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. 2. fleece. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. only after drying the 1st colour. Loop knit (French rib). Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent.

We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. if the fabric absorbs the water. it means the fabric does not have softener. If the fabric is even slightly wet. For this. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. After printing. the fabric will get completely dried. Less wastage. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. These machines are very rare in use. Pigment prints. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. as the continuous process. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. Then the printing will look blurred. Though the films are made with computer. If the softener is added. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. Immediate drying. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. 2. The diameter of the screen is 64. Due to this. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. For printing in Rotary machines. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. 4. So when we print the same fabric on the second side.26 3. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. the print will be better than on the first side. it means the fabric has softener. seating and registration. Also before printing. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. If the fabric has softener. Perfect registration (placement).1cms. 3. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. This will create major problem in garmenting. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. Consistent printing colours and quality. 6. we can achieve perfection in printing. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. more care to be taken while making films. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. Some times. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Even though it will cost more. Rotary screens are in tubular form.1cms. 5. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. If the fabric does not absorb the water. 26 .

8. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. 3. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. kerosene is used as an alternate. 5. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. a round design may change into an oval shape. etc. Less process after printing. 3. 6. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. Then. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. 2. 7. For example. Advantages: 1. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. Print smell. a square design may change into a rectangle. 6. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. 27 . If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. Hence after printing on both sides. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. As the continuous process. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. Cheaper cost. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. 7. 2. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing.27 4. avoid smell. 4. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. Any shade is possible. as the normal procedure. the fabric is to be washed after curing. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Risk factors: 1. 5. Also due to the double job. 9. Rough hand feel. Selection or mixing colours are easier. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. after the print. If we need softer hand feel after printing. better shrinkage and better colour fastness.

To remove the print dusts. it is better to print in open width form only. 8. water is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. 4. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. To avoid this. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. It is called Third page image. They are called organic dyes. 3. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. 5. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. 6. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. They are made mainly from the vegetables. 7. Shade masters will prepare one shade. because of dull look and blurred print effect. this wash is essential. As an alternative for this. But this kind of water print is very rarely used. 2. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades.28 Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. Before bulk printing. the fabric will smell after printing. This is called water base prints. the print 28 . Reactive dyes to be used. For this. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). but after printing we will get entirely new shade. Procedures: 1. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic.

It means. As the water should not be recycled. (In some cases. as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Longer life for prints. Best colour fastness. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. 5. Advantages: 1. 2. For this. 4. Very expensive. Too many important processes to be followed. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. It is better to avoid this). if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. we can use pigment printing. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. we can easily use Pigment printing. 2. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. Risk factors: 1. By touch. 9. 29 . it is not used widely. Then fabric is to be dried. It is called River Wash.29 dusts will stick to the fabric again. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). 4. 3. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. Too much care to be taken in every process. Very soft hand feel. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. Importantly. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. in pigment printing. we have to use Discharge printing. But this will not have better fastness. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. Brightness of colours even after many washes.

After printing is completed. 3. 5. Risk factors: 1. Then after discharge printing. Softener should not be added in dyeing. 3. after the removal of dyeing colour. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. Better soft hand feel. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. 4. 8. That is. 2. the base colour White will be visible as printed. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. 7. 30 . Before bulk printing. After printing. 6. Advantages: 1. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. All colour shades can not be achieved. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. This is very important as during printing. the fabric to be printed only in open width form.30 Procedures: 1. Better colour fastness. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. When printing. Green. 2. after the removal of dyeing colour. Then after discharge printing. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. 5. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. and Navy. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. No river wash is needed. Can be printed manually too. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. Long lasting print quality. 2. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. To avoid this. Printing to be done with discharge dyes. Expensive print cost. Red. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. 4. 5. If White is one of the printing colours. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. 3. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). 4. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. It is called Third page image.

This machine is very costly (about Rs. Plastisol prints. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. Perfume prints. 2. etc. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost.: As we see. Quick production. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. print area and coverage. 8. 9. Therefore. 6. No stain in unprinted areas. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. 4.1 lakh). 5. They are as follows. Transfer prints. There are 2 types of machines. Like all over printing on rotary machines.31 All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). These costs will differ according to the dyeing shades. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. 3. Sticker prints. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. Reflective prints. Flock prints. Foam prints. With these machines. Glitter prints. Sugar prints. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. Motif prints. Better colour fastness. etc. Non-PVC prints. Water prints. 7. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours.40 lakhs). Better smoothness and sharpness. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. Embossed prints. 31 . Perfect colours and shades. Longer life for prints. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. Perfect placement and registration. number of colours. Foil prints. But prints will have the best quality. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. 1. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. No smell. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. Less wastage. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. Octopus machine will print automatically.

5 per kg. foil. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. glitters. foam. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. sugar. It is better to use Discharge dyes. Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. Batiks. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. it is better to check with the printers. To get the cost of other special quality prints. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. etc. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). as there will be no print smell. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. It does not matter. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. After the manual printing. 32 . Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. After plastisol print. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. flock. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only. Fusing cost is included in the above costs. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. etc.32 Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect.

now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. it is better to dry them in shadows). The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. The dipping will be done manually. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. the result will not be good). As Polyester thread will not get dyed. It will take few minutes only. 15. We have to remember that so far. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. 8. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. sleeves. And so on. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. If there is any other base colour except White. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. 18. 6. After the tie & dye process. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). If we do tie & dye in bit form. If we use normal embroidery threads. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. 2. the other colours will not fix properly. As the fixing agent is fixed now. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. 33 . neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. 3. And to be dried under shades naturally. 13. 5. 10. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. shrinkage and shape. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. Fabrics for body. But to get better result.33 Procedures: 1. 4. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. they will not get dyed. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. 11. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. shrinkage and shape of garment. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. This is the dyeing process. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. 14. 7. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. It may be stripes or any other design. 12. If we do tie & dye in garment form. nothing can be done about measurements. 17. 16. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. (If it is Chlorine bleached. (In case of emergency. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. by taking note of all the details. 9. 19.

Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. curtain cloths. 5.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form. 3. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. etc. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. flowers. processing. bed spreads and lungies. etc. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions.. we will get different qualities and results. etc. This is also called Wax printing. for 2 colours. can be made at affordable prices. Before cutting the bits for garments. churidars. the charge may be Rs. Enormous designs can be made. Hence after removing the waxes. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. 34 . The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. This is like printing. 2. depending on the design.18 to 20. The printing designs like stars. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. will be made by wax. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. Drying by machines is not possible. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. This is almost like tie & dye. 4. By this. As all the processes are done manually. BATIKS: This is also done manually. 2. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. Advantages: 1. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems..70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. 3. the charges will be based on number of colours. Mostly used for sarees. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. Approximately. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. 4. length and width of the bits. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. GSM. methods. For larger quantities. garmenting. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. cutting.34 20. As it is done manually. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. due to different dyes. Better colour fastness. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Risk factors: 1. During and after the process.

side slits and pockets. Procedures: 1. Fabric for body. 12. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. for stone washed effect. cuffs. placket box. collar. 2. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. (Depending on the required effect. 3. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. 7. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. garment dyeing method is followed. 10. cuffs are attached together. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. shoulder seam. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. etc. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. If the garment is processed more than enough. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. placket box. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). 11. neck rib. by taking note of all the details. etc. 6.mainly at neck seam around collar. there may be shade variations between these parts. To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. 5. cuffs. sleeve. For example. 9. Enzyme wash 4. 8. 2. the substances are to be used.35 GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. even though we have taken more care. Since many parts are attached. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. 35 . Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. collars. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . cuff. shrinkage and shape. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. rope. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). Denim (Jeans) wash. 5.. Stone wash. 4. After the fabrics are dyed. 1. side slits and pockets. sleeves. As the garments are dyed in vessels. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. After the garment dyeing. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. When we cut the fabrics for making garment. shoulder seam. Then body. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. Faded wash. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). shrinkage and shape. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. Acid wash 3.

Washed look can be achieved. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. 3. Due to the special effects and quality. are called Lot. cuffs. 3. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. There will not be any shade variation between body.: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. all over embroidery can be made. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. The garments. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). sleeves. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. 4. Advantages: 1. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. rejections of garments will be high. 36 . Due to the damages in garments. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems.36 13. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). There will be difference in shades and washing effect between lots. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. 5. dyed from one machine at one time. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. This will vary from machines to machines. it is expensive. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. there will not be any shrinkage further. some other special machines to be used. In these special acoba embroidery machines. etc. Risk factors: 1. 14. 2. Different qualities of washes are possible. collar. 2. 4. Hence average cost of garments will be increased.

No. For adult garments. Packing pins. specifications. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details.1. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. quantity. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. for making costing. Inner boards. Zippers. Anyhow. designer’s fabrics. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs.50 to 70 per gross.15 to 40 per gross. Cost of No.40 to 60 per gross. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs. Tissue papers. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. etc. Labels. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. Elastics. Polybags. wooden buttons – Varies as per design.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). etc in addition to the number of stitches.37 Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics.00 per 1000 stitches. though the number of stitches is lesser. Because of its own quality nature. But the minimum cost is around 2. Hang tags. Ropes. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Also each accessory has many dimensions. decorative fabrics.24 per zip. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs. Metal buttons.3 zippers are used. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality.5 zippers are used. Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees. fixing cost. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs.50 per garment.7 per zip.5 – 7 per zip.5 zippers. No. For children garments. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. qualities. number of colours and sizes of embroidery.10 to 15 per gross. blouses. etc.3 zippers is lesser than No. 37 . Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. etc.22 – 24 per zip. ACCESSORIES Buttons. curtain cloths. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. Due to competition. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. Twill tapes. Badges. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs.

Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. 12mm. thickness.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs. From 1.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs.0. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. From 2. Badges are in many types. It can be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. There are plain elastics and named elastics. It is approximately Rs. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic.1. Even if the tapes are pulled. width. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs. 2. 10mm. 2cm. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments. quality and quantity. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly.00 per metre. 6mm.38 Lock quality is to be checked.3. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. From 3. the prices will be different. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics. In these auto lock zippers. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe.30 to 40 per kg. etc. the zipper can not be opened. For the special pullers. Elastics with 1cm. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only.2. 8mm.50 per metre. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste.50 per metre. 38 .1. As these badges are very special.5cm. etc are used for legs of undergarments. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. The prices are based on quality. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed.50 per metre. Yarn price to be added with this charge. size labels.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. number of colours. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. wash care labels. Elastics with the width of 4mm. It depends on the design.75 per metre.

die-cut design and quantity. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. This is double weave. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands.0. Hence before using the printed labels. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board. colours. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments.30 to Rs. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing.08 per label. style. it is safer to check them too. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water. composition. tags are used and attached with the garments. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size. In these labels. sizes. This is an important thing.30 to Rs.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels. 39 . Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels.0. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes.0. colours. If the yarn colour bleeds. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. In these labels. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better.0.0. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. printing design. care instructions.0. Single colour (1. design.25” width x 10cm length): Rs.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs.0. This is single weave. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. There are 2 types of woven labels.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels. Damask labels are woven on both sides. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness. Hence the quality.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. Woven labels: Main label (2. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes.39 Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. number of colours.0.0. etc. single side or both sides printing.60 to Rs.10 per label. measurement. The tags can be made at cheaper prices. if printing and cutting are made manually. prices. With these machines also woven labels are made. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness. etc. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels. There are non-computerised looms are also available. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta. composition.0.15 per label.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs.0.0.

PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look.25 to Rs.0.50 each paper. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). measurements.15 each paper. If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used.0. For normal size. If there is anything special.0.0.0.80 per tag. Due to this.0. the price may be Rs.1.0.1.1.0.00 to Rs. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies.80 per bag. quantity.40 to Rs. Another is PE (Polyethylene). Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins.40 per bag. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags.65.00.00 to Rs. the price may be around Rs. special quality with die cut: Rs. PP bags have bright look.50 to Rs. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. the rejection of polybags will be more.0. As PE polybags are recyclable. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment. the price may be Rs.10 to Rs.30 to Rs. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs.0. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram.0. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags.0. most of the customers insisting to use PE only.60 to Rs. prints. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.50 per board. quality.00 per tag.30 to Rs.00 per board. 40 . nowadays. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs.50 per tag. normal quality: Rs.4. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs. die cut (scoring) and quantity.0. etc. One is PP (Polypropylene). With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. depends on quality of paper & print.30 to Rs.55. it may not be recyclable.40 If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. depends on paper quality.0. For special sizes. If the polybag is very thin.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread.0.

15. design. plastic hangers. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers.5. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments. Recycled papers should not be used.00 to Rs. The hangers are in different types. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style.24 per bag. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags.60 per garment.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. styles. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only. Also the hooks are in different types. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers. the cost will be Rs. sizes suitable for different garment styles. Hence approximately Rs. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. quantity.1.3. sizes.0.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments). etc. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. etc. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper. If the width of polybag is 12”.4. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers. 41 .25 will be the master bag cost per garment.00 to Rs.1.00 to Rs. the tape cost will be Rs. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside.41 If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape.25 to Rs. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea.00 approximately. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs.5.0.0.02 for one inch length. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers.20. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs.

pockets. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs. Lock stitches are used for making plackets. flat lock & lock stitch machines. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. trims and accessories to these Job workers. the charges for these jobs are very much higher.25.10 per pc. productivity. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. only the power driven machines are used. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). etc. packing methods and other works. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments.Lockstitch machines. number of jobs with over lock. . Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used.40. There are manual and power driven machines are used. . Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. Making. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs.42 Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs. 42 .1. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used. nowadays.00 to Rs. Though CMT is Cutting. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics.Flat lock machines. the charges for these jobs are higher. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. time consumption. local transport. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. CMT CHARGES (Cutting. . quality standards. V neck covering.25.Over lock machines. Making and Trimming charges.00 to pack 24 to 50garments. and attaching collars & labels. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). CMT charge depends on the style of garment.

20 per pc. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. EXW.10 to Rs. rail transport. If it is C&F By sea. C&F. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs.10 per pc. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. CIF: It is Cost. CFR. insurance premium and the freight. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. the charges to be added accordingly. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs. CIP. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. air transport.22 per pc. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight.13 per pc. While we confirm the orders from the customers. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. It includes local road transport. It means the buyer will pay the freight .12 per pc. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. Ex-factory. FAS.it may be road or rail transport. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. These above charges are approximate.12 to Rs. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB. CPT. It is the same as FOB. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs.14 per pc.10 per pc.20 per pc. FCA.12 per pc. sea transport. etc. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. 43 .43 Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. It means freight will be paid by the buyer.12 per pc. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. etc.8 per pc. If there are any extra works.15 per pc.18 per pc. it will be claimed by the buyer.12 per pc. Insurance and Freight. If it is C&F By air. CIF. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs.

The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. Local transport to the port. inspection. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. Their approximate capacity is as follows. 5. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. Mostly FOB. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. C&F. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): It is the same as FOB. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. If we have doubt about the terms. There are 2 types of loading. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). availability.44 EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. CIF terms are used. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. Port expenses – Loading. etc. Customs charges – Documentation. routing. In case of export to other countries. 4. Charges of freight. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. There are 20’. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. etc. 3. 6. 1. 44 . CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. 2. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges.

But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. 45 . These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. transshipment. etc. Colombo port is very big. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. the freight will be based on weight too.45 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . granite stones. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. In this case. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. the size of container is to be decided. but with more weight – Like steel. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). The nearest port is Colombo. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. This system is called transshipment. If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. To solve this problem. It is called Loose Container Load. etc. Sometimes.may be stuffed in one full container. the mother vessels do not come to this port. According to the volume of goods. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. distance between destinations. shipping lines and conference lines. And in Colombo port. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. For example. Though some ports have more sea depth. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. it is called FCL. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. This is called Consolidation of Goods. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. as Tuticorin port is small. routing & transit time. As this port is in the main sea route.

By using these Conference Lines.17. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area.44. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines. China. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs.76. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas.90.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs. This is also called transshipment. etc. Kuwait.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs.21.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 46 . Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between.58.1.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs.94.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs. Hong Kong. their partner company will use their vessel.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs. the goods will sail on one company’s ships. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too.000 – Rs. according to their capacities. This is a regular practice.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai. better connection in transshipments.99.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. Japan. (We will discuss about this in detail later).000 – Rs. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world.90. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only. Shipping lines: The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines.72. Taiwan.46 Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. safety.54.63.1. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. As we discussed above.1. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent.

there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights.110 per kg. As like sea shipments. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. 47 . If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. they will be prompt in their connections and timings. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines.80 to Rs. As the freight charges are very high. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill.22. The receipt is Airway Bill. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port).36. most of the shipments will go by sea only. we can use smaller airlines. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). Hence the shipment will be delayed. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). the goods have to be sent by air. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs. Depending on the destination and on the flight services. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air.140 per kg.100 to Rs. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. the goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. In these cases. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form. At the same time. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. Some times. So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air.47 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs.

1. sewing and packing.00 to Rs. When we consider the value of goods. price depends on quality. the charges will come about Rs.6. production. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. stuffing charges. customs clearing charges. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. charges of knitting. knitting fabrics. sales. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time.00 to Rs.02% of the total value of goods. advantages and risk factors. loading & unloading. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. shipping. We must remember that the quality depends on price. sea. latest procedures. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. transport and conveyance. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. charges of transport and conveyance. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. banking charges and commissions. is essential to make perfect costing. procedures. we have to bear the local transport to the port. transportation (road. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. over heads. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the 48 . processing and finishing of fabrics. air) and freight charges.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. methods and quality systems. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. etc. etc. this charge is very nominal. Each product will have different price according to its quality. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. routing. etc. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. To do perfect garment costing. documentation charges. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. It will come about Rs. etc. processing. marketing. finishing. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments. etc. sewing and packing of garments.4. etc. distance between ports. C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. volume of goods. market prices and availability.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods.2.48 Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB.

As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. Let us see them in detail now. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. 2. buttons. To work on the prices exactly. to be taken into consideration. cartons. we have to find out following things. As there are many different styles in garments. Price of a garment. Ladies Night dress.) 6. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. we must have full measurements of the garment. quality & quantity and payment terms. costings can be made for other styles too. Fabric cost per garment. 7. inner boards. But compulsorily. Cost of trims (labels. polybags. 5. Gross weight of other components of garment. tags. 4. Men’s Basic T shirts. etc.) 7. 6. Cost of a garment.49 customers. Fabric consumption. Cost of accessories (hangers. While we do the garment costing. 4. Men’s Pyjamas. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. 49 . twill tapes. etc) 9. Other charges (print. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. The method of making costing will vary from style to style. 3. To make the garment costing. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. bows. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. embroidery. 5. 10. 1. 2. 1. CMT charges 8. badges. we must have the measurements of Chest. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. 3. Due to the above practical reasons. Fabric cost per kg. Body Length and Sleeve Length. the customer’s price level. etc.

We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension.cms. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). GSM is Grams per Square Metre.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. In any case. Medium (M). Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. Even in Europe.000 sq. If the GSM is lesser. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. if the garment measurements are in Inches. The garment measurements for USA. If the GSM is higher. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM. In other words. USA.000 square centimetres). M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. if the area of the fabric is 10. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. As we have seen earlier. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. As we discussed earlier. (No style number or no size is needed to print). Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. TRIAL COSTING NO. the consumption will be lesser.54Centimeters. Large (L). S – XXL. Australia are measuring in Inches. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. Canada.50 The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. the consumption will also be relatively higher. 50 . the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. they have to be converted into Centimeters.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. To find the fabric consumption. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). That is. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. 1 Inch = 2.

It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. Sizes: S. Pique & Interlock. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. That is. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. the finished fabric may have more width than required. In case. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. Generally.000 pcs). 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. Thus. (22. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. 51 . Hem = 3 cms. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. if we are unable to control this. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. M. Hence due to either way. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. As the fabric is in tubular. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. For example.51 Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. Length = 78 cms. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. 63 or 64cms. L. Neck rib width = 3 cms. That is. XL. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag.

then we have to find out by which fabric width. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. Chest = 60 cms. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. the garments are based on weights. Let us assume that according to the patterns. In other words. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. Armhole circumference = 56 cms.52 Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. Gross weight : 197 grams. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. we should remember that the front body. 52 . Let us assume following are the measurements. to avoid shade variation. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. At the same time. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. Neck rib : 10 grams.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. In this case. If they are possible. (0. Length = 78 cms. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. Let us take the GSM is 140. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric.

among the possible widths. we have to select the suitable width.14 mtrs of 50” width. Then we will have to calculate as below. according to the patterns of that particular style of garment.53 We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. Thus. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). we can see that it will be 1. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. Let us calculate the same for 62”. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width.

00 9.00 Medium colours 40.00 Knitting charge = 8.00 8.00 65.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00 194.70 X 197 1000 = 40.13 (Round off: Rs.06 (Round off: Rs.40. For Medium colours = 203. As we had seen earlier.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours = 193.70 203.00 214.00 184.00 45. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight.70 Dark colours 135. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.00) For Light colours Likewise.00) = 224.44.70 X 197 1000 = 44.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight.38.00 8. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric. The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric.70 224. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened.25) Light colours Rs. only if they are all over printed on open width form.27 (Round off: Rs. let us work for Medium & Dark colours.00 6.00 Dark colours 44.00 Dyeing charge = 35.25 For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours Fabric cost per garment = 54 . It means.00 6.54 This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form.00 Compacting charge = 6. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment.00 10.20 X 197 1000 = 38. 38.20 Medium colours 135.

85 per garment. 0.0. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one).55 53. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label. badges. 1.0. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt). : Rs.25 per garment. inner boards. etc): For this Basic T shirt. COST OF TRIMS (zippers.0.85 10.20 1. Master polybag – Normal: Rs.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments.) Cost of trims (labels.70 58. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.00 = -= Rs.35 per garment.35 = Rs.51. 2. 1.50. cartons.00 1. tags.70 55 Medium cols 40.80 per garment. 2.45 1. buttons.30 per garment.50 = Rs. We require following things. elastic.10.85 10.10 Hang tag: Rs.55 OTHER CHARGES (Print.00 = Rs. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs.00 1.0.0. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2.35 52. twill tapes.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs.0.35 56. ropes. So there are no charges. let us see the costs of the required accessories. Polybag . Export carton – Normal: Rs.40 per carton to contain 48 garments. tags. cartons.Normal (not a special one): Rs.75 Dark cols 44. Light cols = Rs.00 -0. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier. polybags. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment. labels. 1. as example. etc. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. 3. 0.38.85 = Rs. Let us see what are the trims required for this style. 1.10.1.25 -0.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs.00 per garment. Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts. there is no need of print or embroidery. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment .15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. Let us see the cost of these things. So the total cost of accessories is Rs.20 = Rs. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers. embroidery.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. : Rs.

PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments.70 56 Medium cols 40. machineries. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No. bonus.50.) Cost of trims (labels.00 1. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. depreciation of machineries.85 = Rs. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment .00 1. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only. the quota system will be removed from January 2005. if any. tags.20 1. Anyhow.50 = Rs. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator.1 per garment. etc) and profit margin.55 53.00 = -= Rs. So we don’t have to add sea freight.35 = Rs. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price.35 56. incentives.3333. etc. SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. 1. It will vary from company to company depends on their size. interest for investments. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment.51. with the above costs of garments.56 We have found out the cost of garment. If the terms are C&F or CIF. standards.45 1. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example. It may be approximately Re. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. For our calculation. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment. Light cols = Rs. Now let us see these things in detail.00 -0.10.85 10. 0. let us work on 15% profit margin. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value. 1. profit.25 -0. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota.35 52. Let us recall our earlier costing.38. COMMISSION: For some orders.20 = Rs.70 58. cartons. electricity. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance. We have to add this commission. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price. sea freight / air freight).75 Dark cols 44. office salary.85 10.00 = Rs. etc.

Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer.00 = USD 1.57 Now we add the local transport Profit @ 15% As there is no commission to be paid Prices of garment = Rs. 1.35 For Medium colours: Rs. 57 Price / pc .If we made any change in buyer’s details. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices.15 8. L. Some Tips: For easy reference.05 ------68. we have to inform like this.45. FOB / C&F / CIF. It is USD 1.00 59. For 160GSM – USD 1.20 62.95 -----62.05 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. . These are approximate prices only. M. .60. .05 divided by 45. ratio.60. According to the measurements. Medium.60 FOB.00 = USD 1. we can mention the validity for our prices. we can quote the price to buyer as follows.60 = ------= Rs. XL. Medium and Dark colours are equal. Enquiry Style No. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333.00 = 1 USD. Then we will get following prices. regular packing and ratio.00 = USD 1.51 We understand that the quantities of Light.90 = Rs.60 divided by 45. it has to be mentioned.70 = Rs.00 = Rs.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned. .40 FOB.Quota category to be mentioned. the prices will differ.60. For 180GSM – USD 1.60 1.If the commission is added.90 68. packing methods. For 150GSM – USD 1. Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light.62. If the terms are C&F and CIF.68.40 per pc. it has to be mentioned. quantity and specifications.95 1. For Light colours : Rs.80 FOB. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours.If we expect any price hike in near future. XXL. .75 8. .Delivery terms to be mentioned.00 54. For 140GSM – USD 1. the approximate price can be remembered as follows. 7. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333.52.40 For Dark colours : Rs. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea.95 divided by 45. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S.50 FOB.

. XL. it will be clear for him. (Pls find the attached details).75 = 4.5 = 23 = 21. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Size.25 = 14. Style No. Quantity: 48. Sizes: S.75 = 2..2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No.25 = 17.5 = 16. RN no.40 Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage .Hanger pack.5 = 2.5 58 . Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. TRIAL COSTING NO. Also it will be clear for our reference. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.5 =7 = 1.000 pcs. L.000 pcs. Colour to be printed on back side. Quota Category: 4 Pls note the above prices are FOB. safety instructions printed.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . To be attached with second button with hang tag. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Size. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. M. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker.5 = 48 = 48 = 21. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. To be attached with second button with a silk rope.58 Quantity: 20. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB USD 1.

Let us recall the steps once again. Other charges (print. embroidery.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest. badges. CMT charges 8. Fabric cost per garment. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. etc) 9. So the body length for calculation will be 77. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres. Sleeve length from centre back is 21.75” = 10.5inches. 5.50 + 4 = 81. 2. the full measurements are given here. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. Fabric consumption. For our calculation.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 59 . 4. That is.) 6. buttons. Now let us do the calculation. etc. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average.59 For your reference.5 + 27. = 21. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. Gross weight of all parts of garment.5cm. Fabric cost per kg. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm.5 cm. Price of a garment. tags.5”. That is.) 7. So it will be 24 inches. etc. twill tapes. Remember. bows. polybags.5” – ½ (21. 4 cm is to be added with body length.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. 1. Cost of trims (labels. cartons.75” = 27. Cost of a garment. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point. Cost of accessories (hangers. 3. As this is all over print program. As this is all over print program. Body Length is 30. 61cms.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. That is 77. inner boards. 10.5”) = 21.5” – 10.

25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 2.75 Other charges (print. (0.20 60 . tags.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed. 2. the cost will be approximately the same as printed. for calculation.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Dyeing charge = 30.00 Open width compact = 12.95 Cost of garment = Rs. 98.00 Printing charge = 50.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs. etc) = Rs.00 – Carton. 15 grams. 382 grams.00 = Rs.131.) = -Cost of trims (labels.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.50 CMT charges = Rs. 5. 15 grams. packing materials = Rs.135.60 = (120.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Gross weight : 312 grams.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. embroidery. 98.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23. 3.00 235. it can be considered as printed.00 Knitting charge = 8. 40 grams. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258. rope.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. 2. 3. 18. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams. etc. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.258.

3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.61 Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is the FOB price is USD3.155. Quantity: 16. To be attached with the main label.50 Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric..: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC = Rs. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.000 pcs. L.45 per pc. XL. 20.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. M. Sizes: S. TRIAL COSTING NO. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.30 = Rs. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port. size and warning instructions printed. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 61 .

00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. etc) = Rs. Gross weight : 316 grams. 66. 5.00 Dyeing charge = 50.00 = Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 Cost of garment = Rs. 2.00 199.112. 3.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at 62 .00 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. tags.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10. 6. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs.00 Cost of trims (labels. Neck piping : 10 grams.00 Compacting = 6.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 Price of garment = Rs. 66. 15. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams. 12. 94.62 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams.50 per pc. TRIAL COSTING NO. packing materials = Rs.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. When giving this price to buyer. 97. 3.00 Cost of polybags.00 That is.209.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas . carton. the C&F price is USD2. (0.

There are 2 ways. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. size and warning instructions printed. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio.. Sizes: S. M. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. XXL. it is easier by using following formula. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. L. 2 Pockets = 70 grams 63 . Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption = 270 grams. XL.Solid dyed – Black. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. Quantity: 13.63 front centre outside waist . To be sewn at front waist.500 pcs.1x1 rib at bottom legs . Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.

But we don’t know the seat measurement. we get one full thigh circumference measurement. we can minimise the wastage. we can use ‘S’ cutting. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement. reasonably and competitively. Hence if the program is Solid program. This is not acceptable. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. By doing like this. Width wise. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2. We have to work prices with the largest measurements.64 Leg rib Total = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement. For using this formula. back rise & inseam.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. We know only thigh measurement. we can find consumption by using following formula. By this way. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. we must know the measurements of thigh.00 64 . the wastage will be more. the seat is the largest measurement. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. In this case. we can quote prices more accurately. Let us continue the costing.

00 CMT charges = Rs. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 3.00 Waist rope = Rs. Style No. the FOB price is USD2. 2. 2.00 6.00 Woven patch label = Rs. Colour to be printed on back side. 20%Grey Melange. 80.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 1. carton.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 16. packing materials = Rs.75 Price of garment = Rs. 0.00 60.111. To be attached with main label. TRIAL COSTING NO. tags. 4. 15.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck.108. Solid dyed – 60%White.00 = Rs.60 Cost of trims (labels.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs.50 That is. etc) = Rs.128. 3.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.70 =Rs.224.00 = 10.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs. 80.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224.85 per pc.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Cost of polybags. 65 . Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.65 Knitting charge = Dyeing charge (average) = Compacting = Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 18.25 Cost of garment = Rs.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 20%Black. Size.00 214. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label.

00 196. 15 grams. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm. 400 grams.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.205.80 X 400 66 .00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00 Knitting charge = 15.000 pcs. Sizes: S. XL. 40 grams.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205. 15 grams.66 Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Quantity: 72. Size.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams. (0. L. M. To be attached with main label. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.00 Compacting = 6. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. 40 grams.. and warning instructions printed.

: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 3.00 Polybag. Sizes: S.30 Cost of garment = Rs.. Polyester printed care label. TRIAL COSTING NO. 82.60 That is. L.60 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. the FOB price is USD2.00 Price of garment = Rs. Quantity: 7.00 CMT charges = Rs. 2. 2. That is 15cm.4 colour combinations. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.67 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. Size and warning instructions printed.30 Embroidery = Rs.90 per pc.130.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 = Rs. 3. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Consumption: 67 . tags. 82.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. etc) = Rs.00 Twill tape = Rs. M. carton.113.30 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 17. 1. packing materials = Rs. 2.110.00 Cost of trims (labels. 18. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.200 pcs per combination.

carton.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 338.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60.00 Compacting = 6.151.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.50 Cost of trims (labels.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237.35 per pc.00 = Rs. 2.70 Price of garment = Rs. Neck piping : 10 grams. 3.00 Polybag. packing materials = Rs. the FOB price is USD3.00 Washing charge = 5.80 Cost of garment = Rs.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. 19. 106.68 = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams. 68 . 2. 15.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372. Gross weight : 286 grams.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33.00 Knitting charge = 30.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 That is. 2.131. etc) = Rs.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372. (0. tags.127.106.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.

FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.00 Compacting = 6. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7. 116. this would be 25cm).200 pcs total. (For adult garments. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes.3 colour combinations. Polyester printed care label. the allowance for chest should be 6cm.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) .69 TRIAL COSTING NO.00 69 . Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. That is 20cm. 104. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched.00 Washing charge = 5.00 311. Size and warning instructions printed. Likewise.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 110.00 Knitting charge = 50. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. 98. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams. Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. Sizes: 92.

70 Fabric wastage @ 10% Fabric cost per Kg COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = 31.10 = 342.10

= 242.50 = 36.00 = 30.00 = 5.00 = 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50

Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60

COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.

36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20

NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.

70

71 PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 71

72 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 72

26.. transferring conditions. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. price. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. . before opening L/C. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. will be mentioned here. amount. B/L: As we see above. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. the amendments are made several times. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit.73 21. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. This is called L/C amendment. 22. There may be some mistakes. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. Without these documents. Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). let us see the importance and procedures of them. To avoid these amendment charges. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. documents dispatch instructions. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. description. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. 25. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. only with B/L or Airway bill. shipment date. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment. 73 . the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. it is a set of following originals and copies. 24. etc. he can not clear the goods from his customs. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. validity extension. after receiving this L/C. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. . So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. As we have to be careful of these important documents. Some times. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. In this case. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. changes or differences in address. 23.

Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. we must be sure of this clause in L/C. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. To avoid all these things. etc. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. as we sent one original B/L by courier. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. In ‘Documents required’ clause. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. They are only the copies. money. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier.. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3.74 Only the originals have got value. we don’t get the payment. Though we were careful in production. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a 74 . Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. With these original B/Ls only. After the air shipment. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. pricing. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. They are 1. documentation. Consignment copy. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier.’ If is mentioned other than this. There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). stress and tension. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. Hence they are very important. But it is a long process which will take more time. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. In this case. buyer can clear the goods. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs).. It is called Negotiable documents. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. quality.

the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. To be specified exactly. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). We have to remember. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. it is mentioned as follows. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill.75 week. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. To avoid this demurrage charges. in order to get the claim or discount. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. In spite of all these reasons. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. But as per L/C condition. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. it is not safe for the supplier. Besides. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. even commas. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. Here comes the problem for exporter. As the documents are still with them. etc are to be taken care. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. as we had seen in sea shipment above. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. the airport will charge for demurrage. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. After 3 days. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). full stops. Then. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. It will be heavy amount. 75 . Then after checking and scrutinizing them. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. To avoid this practical problem. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. Hence to be on the safer side. only due to the urgency. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank.

the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. we must 76 . they are making the payment at the sight of documents. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. even though the discrepancies are not true. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. At Sight L/C: As per this term. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. Even in this term. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. In this case. We have to note that this is the usual period. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. If everything is OK. 30 days L/C. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. 90 days L/C. in order to hold the documents for some days. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. In other words. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. he can do it. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. etc. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation.76 On receipt of these documents. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. 60 days L/C. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. 120 days L/C. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason.

The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. Here we have to see a very important thing. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). As these buyers are genuine. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. they will ask for some discounts or claims. Accordingly. Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. 30 days. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. After that he will not make the payment. Here comes the important thing. After 7 working days. They use to send the discrepancy letter first.77 know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a while or he does not want to pay our bills. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 77 . As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. Some times. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. fax or email to make the payment. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. Only difference is. They even say that they don’t want the goods. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. 90 days. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. 60 days.

the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. In some backward countries. etc. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. the other L/Cs for 60 days. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. By this kind of L/C. In some countries. number of renewals. Hence after taking delivery. are treated and followed. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. he will not have the facility to open L/C. If there is any quality problem. few partial shipments are allowed. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. If he does not have them. As we have seen. 2. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. In the same way. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. Normally they will not open L/Cs. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. But the overall maximum amount. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. 120 days. etc. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. validity. 90 days. the banks will ask the buyer 78 . If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. the buyer can get the L/C opened. In these terms. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. In this case. Let us see what they are. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. These are all normal L/Cs. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. Then without paying the money to the bank. only if he has financial strength. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. 1. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business.78 days from the date of receipt of documents’. As we have seen earlier. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. at least to get the payment without any claim. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller.

If the buyer is genuine. If the buyer opens L/C. As nothing can be done. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. etc. fax and email. At the same time. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. 79 . After the shipment. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. But in D/P terms. he will not show any interest in the goods. After 2 or 3 weeks. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. By these terms. the seller has to proceed with his production. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. the seller does not have any hold. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. As no buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. If the buyer is not genuine. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. 3.79 to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. He would avoid the seller completely. Without getting 100% confirmation. In this case. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. Due to any of these above reasons. Then the seller’s problem started. In these days. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. these buyers will not open L/C. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. On receipt of the documents in their bank. the buyer would not answer his call. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. In these terms. On the other hand. He would affect the seller psychologically. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. 4. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. But as this buyer is not genuine. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness.

(This is only a drama. If you want. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. Some times he may lose his business too. Some tips: To avoid this. But I have convinced my customer somehow. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. They will have different payment periods like 30days. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. 90days. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. 3. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. 45days. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. I will send your documents back. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. 2. In the D/P terms. other banking charges and bank interest. With this commission. I can not let you down because you are my friend. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. etc. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. friend. I can do this help for you. Believe me. I am sorry. 120days. If you agree for this. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. But in D/A terms. I don’t like to put you into big loss. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. I will send your documents back to you. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. 75days. So in this term.80 1. Even after this 80 . This is almost like D/P terms. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. 60days. He will not do anything with the samples). If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. the seller will have more risks of payment. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. In order to help you. Or he would agree for D/A terms. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. I know this is not fair. Pls think it over and let me know. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. I can try to sell the goods by myself. I tried with our customers. No body is interested to take the goods. Due to his commitments on this payment.

Working conditions of workers. etc. Customer Study. Attendance. Safety measures. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Also we must know about our customers. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. Also the marketing department controls Production. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. Some times. Merchandising. terms of payment. safety & environment of factory. of our company. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. preference. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. Product Study. Documentation. we must know about the capacity. etc. market situation and general policy of our company. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing.. Costing & Pricing. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. commitment to customers. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. benefits to workers. Work Study. Purchase. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. salary and wages. Hours of working. overheads. Pollution. labour laws. etc. Marketing is very most important. Maternity leave for women workers. either buyer’s bank or the seller can not do anything. bribe. Benefits to workers. It is also called as Sales. strengths. Sampling and Quality. 81 . Communication. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Shipping and Payment. pollution.81 period. etc. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. Market Study. machineries. staff and workers. financial strength. Instead of giving details about them. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. weaknesses. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. MARKETING For every product. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers.

An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. . Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. . and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid. Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights.All exit doors should open outwards. a person is a child until the age of 18.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. . the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child. We must be aware the buyers strategy. 82 . we must have sufficient knowledge in these things. moral or social development. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. Safety Building and Fire Safety . first aid equipment.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical.Exits should not be blocked by cartons.82 indirect approach. . Because of the competition in their sales. or suffers mental or bodily harm. . fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. fire extinguishers. etc. First Aid . As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. . etc. indecent behaviour.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory. mental. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times. such as emergency exits.If emergency exits are locked. These procedures are called Code of Conduct.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. and thus be available to all staff at all times. spiritual. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors. . Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age.

on time and be fair in respect of work performance. . . .The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. and the ventilation should be adequate. . The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . and for the quality of the garments. .In developing countries. . . . All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer.All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association.It is important for the workers' well-being. Fans should be provided when needed. at all times of day. she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age. but not a recommended.Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy.All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. . Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery.The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed. Factory Conditions . Wages and Working Hours . they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will. prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories. gender. in case of an accident in the factory. . . and they should have the right to bargain collectively.83 . .Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment.No worker should be discriminated against because of race. religion or ethnic background.All workers should be entitled to an employment contract. .Wages should be paid regularly. level.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated.All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. . it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. .A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice.If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. . Working hours per day should be only 8 hours.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions. Also after returning back to work. . Workers’ Rights Basic Rights . that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds.Sanitary facilities should be clean. following an injury during work in the factory. or engage in sexual harassment.Bonded workers.

Housing Conditions .All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. With these details. fire extinguishers. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. some Social Organisations or Media Persons.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. . quality. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country. There should be ‘open door’ policy. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. teamwork. child labour. and preferably separated for men and women. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. . they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries. low wages. fast pace of working and constant improvement. some times. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation. Also the company policies must be known to every worker. etc. cruelty of labour. Also they are against to the bonded labour system. This will help us always to take the right 84 . Basic values include believing in people. from the buyers’ countries.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. Nowadays. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. etc.Fire alarms. . Due to this. . unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. unsafe factories. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours.Separate dormitories. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. . the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness.84 workers in the factory. Environment . and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. contact person’s name. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. capacity. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business.

He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. Production Manager. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. grudges and grievances very well. He will have easy approach. On the other hand. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. honestly. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. he should not get angry with him. That too. but should think that they are HELPING him. When a Head realise this fact. when we are doing marketing. So whenever needed. assistants. the head may get personal satisfaction. Managing Director. we will not get angry with him. telephone operators. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. whenever needed. Factory Manager. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. The Head may be the Chairman. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. So everyone will discuss with him freely. When a person. By doing like this. Department Head. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. Likewise. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. or even Security Head. All the Heads should remember one thing always. he can not do anything by himself alone. securities. That is the reason. In simple words. the Head is having his employees.85 decisions in right time. He will have a pleasing personality. Section Head. according to our policies. Then only he can take appropriate. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. subordinates and other departments. who is helping us. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. it is very essential for us. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. Administration Manager. In the same way. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. Marketing Manager. subordinates. expectations. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. because the subordinates are helping the Head. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. has done a mistake. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. workers. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. juniors. Supervisors. office boys. he can 85 . CEO.

dedication and quest for knowledge & information. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. then he will not show any interest in learning further. concentration. etc. He must know about raw materials and other materials. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. advantages and disadvantages. involvement. Especially in garments trade. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. We can see changes everywhere at every time. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. etc. If they have self confidence. decorative works. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. It may be difficult. new patterns. There is no end for learning. prints. It is the same for garment also. For that we must have self interest. methods of production. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. finding and solving problems in production. production. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. and they should be their Chief for ever. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. colours. yarn composition. This is called Product Judgement. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. new styles. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. immediately on seeing a garment. If a man feels that he knows everything. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. Simply saying. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. etc. measurements. utility. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. changes are inevitable. but it is not an impossible thing. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. possibilities and impossibilities. he can not sell even a small pen. To keep their positions. speciality of garments. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. quality & blends of new fabrics. we can expect rapid changes for every season. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. fabric quality. We have to learn continuously. quality. appearance. complete pictures of pricing. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. etc of the garment should come in to his mind.

it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. etc. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. colours. Buyer has to work on pricing.87 specifications given by buyers. before confirming the styles. etc. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. Even after the deep study. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. colours. new working systems. financial changes. etc. styles. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. In other words. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. So. foreign exchange. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. analysis and experiment of all these things. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. new products. international market. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. etc. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. Due to this. national market. before April / May 2005. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. new regulations. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. Style & fit. That is. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. local market. colours. For example. It is not an easy thing. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. let us take the summer garments. world economy. fashion forecast. Thus. fabrics. measurements. new methods. design forecast. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. updating banking regulations. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. colour forecast. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. the consumers would be 87 . If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced.

the store sales would also be good. of satisfying our family members. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. the Intention. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. Some times. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. etc. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. if the goods are really good in all aspects. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. When the food is made at home. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. Why and how? It is simple. They will not mind increasing prices too. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. poor colour fastness. Sometimes. Also as they are happy with our performance. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. But above all. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. On the other hand. unsuitable measurements. Only because of this reason. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody..88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. if reasonable. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. the home made food tastes more than outside food. At the same time. Or else. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. As a result. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. fit. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. So while executing the buyers’ orders.

89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89

90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.

Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).

We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90

91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91

Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. So it should be handled at most care. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. The buyer will understand. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. We must be honest to ourselves and others. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. packing list. If there is any L/C amendment. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. various payment terms. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. Certificate of Origin. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. then try to find a solution and then will help us. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. 92 . not to show our strength in language. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. Tough guys dress easy. GR form (Exchange control). But when we have a friendly. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. For any terms. etc are the shipping documents. there will not be any problem of payment. then appreciate. They must be very good in business. etc. risk factors. There are mainly two types of documents. AEPC endorsed invoice. we had seen the importance of L/C. Only our communication can establish. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. After shipping the documents. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. They are shipping documents and bank documents. They are Invoice. documentation. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. Packing list. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. Visa. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. may be poor in English. Export Certificate. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. Honest people like simplicity. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. If there are some small mistakes. GSP Form A. Our purpose is to make clear message. this is also an important department. Inspection certificate. These documents are called bank documents.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs.

everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. He will also check these details with his clearing agents.. So. before stuffing the goods in to container. then he will confirm. he may suggest any other option. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. By this way. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. finishing. there may be some changes in prices. each department will take care of each job. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. other job works. etc. name of the line or airline. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. This department involves not only with money. connection details. CMT. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. it is responsible for the price. shipping. 93 . quality and delivery of the purchased items. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. they will produce the documents as per the old information. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). trims. But in small and medium companies. etc. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. In big companies. we will be safe too. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. Also the charges of processing. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing.93 Some times. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. shipment date. And this distribution system will be perfect. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. So the raw materials. Any decision can be taken. etc. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. quantities. To make this possible. this kind of systems can not be expected. whether the company is big or medium or small. accessories.

Sampling. At the same time. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. production. friendly. By the same way. So it is a very valuable department.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. Lab dips. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. it is very important to develop a healthy. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. Internal & external communication Earlier. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. Preparing purchase orders. and smooth relation with buyers. Some times. they have very high value. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. communication. 94 . Helping documentation department. In any case. Advising and assisting production. As we discussed earlier. internal communication is also very much valuable. shipping and payment. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. we can get these problems solved amicably. Mediating production and quality departments. Preparing internal order sheets. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. Internal & external communication. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. Advising quality department about quality level. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. Accessories & trims. documentation. When we have this kind of understanding relation. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also.

if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. We may have to spend too much on these samples. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . then also we will have to send these samples.Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples .Fashion show samples .Proto samples or fit samples . quality standards and price level. Some times. Whenever they have enquiries.Pre-production samples . Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments.Photo samples . Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office.Production samples . Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. Sometimes. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. We have to send many samples to buyers. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 . they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. they may not be correctable. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often.Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. they will bring orders to us. product range. buyer may need samples. They are .Wash test samples . If they want to develop new style in new fabric. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. For one enquiry. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. Prevention is better than cure. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company.95 Even a small omission.

we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. We might have spent more money. improper measurements. the approved samples should be followed in production. measurements. style and fit. by showing these samples. buyer may comment on fabric. So these samples are very important. After getting the approval. If the order is for 3 colours. but in the actual measurements and specifications. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. Some times. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. He too can not help us in this regard. we may not get order for even a single style. Of course these samples will help us for our business. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. some times. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. we can not blame the buyer. etc for making these samples. etc. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. Expected sales may not be possible. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. colour fastness. for the styles which we don’t get orders. To avoid this embarrassing situation. unsuitable colours. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. buyers may do some changes in measurements. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. All the buyers don’t need these samples. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. Based on these samples. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. Some times. etc of salesmen samples. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. 96 . making.96 style. style and fit. But as we don’t get orders. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. unmatched prints or embroidery. Any way. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. we may get orders for all 5 styles. 3 styles or 1 style. due to poor quality. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. measurements. time.

97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. They will accumulate the sales quantities. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. In this case. Sometimes. But we can get higher prices for these orders). Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. We should not get any remark or comment. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. we can correct them in production. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. they may do wash test also. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. for some styles. If they don’t get samples on time. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. But each order will get small quantity only. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. packing box. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. 97 . If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. Some times. These samples can be sent from production. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. they will place orders repeatedly. colours. etc. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. In any case. hang tag.

98 . he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. Hence before proceeding lab dips. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. By this way. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). he has to take some extra care. just a tip). (Some times. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. This is not cheating. it will differ in sun light. Different buyers follow different matching. . we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system.Sodium light matching (show room). we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. we may think they are closer. Before sending the lab dips to buyer.Ultra Violet matching. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. Each of these above matching will give different results.Tube light matching. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. If we expect any comments in these samples. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips.Sun light matching.98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. at least 1 week time will be wasted. . And even if we get some comments from buyers. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. To adjust this wasted time. . When sending the lab dips to buyer. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. he will have to make them again. Our reliability will get questioned here). They are . hence there might be some mistakes. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. If we see lab dips in the morning. if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. we may think they are not suitable. etc. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. tags. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. For example.

The other departments may not need these information. The description. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. inner boards. But the other information like description. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. From the merchandising department only. price or price target. After getting the buyer’s approvals. like buyer’s address. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. delivery date. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. measurements. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. etc to buyer for approval. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics.99 While making lab dips. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. Also as usual. polybags. zippers. he should order them for bulk. So while preparing internal order sheets. accessories. merchandiser and buyer. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. This will save a good time. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. export price. etc. trims. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. If the bar codes are not clear. They should be advised to the purchase department. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. 99 . The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. specifications. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. weight. When sending lab dips to buyer. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. colours. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. quantity. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. hang tags. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. He may omit some information to other departments. quality standards. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. diameter and width of required fabrics. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. labels.

online. ETD. Category. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. quality. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. for the better flawless production. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. comments and instruction. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. status and problems of each stage of production. quantity. shipping lines. If we work with the buyers directly. B/L instructions. description. ETA. mid final and final. documents. the number of inspections will be limited. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. documents and shipping departments. 100 .100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. port discharge. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. initial. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. etc. vessel connections. he will have to advise and assist production. delivery terms. HS code. payment terms. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. purchase order number. though there is a separate production departments. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. Some times. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely.

accessories and trims. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. As we see in the earlier chapters. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. But the garment production is not that much simple. At the same time. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. but also involves the fabric production. Since 1996. responsible and sensitive process. In these times of rising costs. Furniture and Shoes. This is called Work Study method.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. This may be a single sentence. planning is important. we will see garment production in detail. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. nowadays. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. 101 . valuable. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. the production department looks after not only the garment production. time and cost. Now let us see this in detail. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. which is called production cost. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. But there is another important cost. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. Upholstery. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. overheads. It includes the wages. quantity. increasing competition. proper planning is essentially needed. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. Accordingly for the better production of garments. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. garment styles. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. production lead time and targeted shipment date. For helping to reduce the production cost. electricity and maintenance of production floors. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. So now.

But when we use these advanced GSD systems. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. This is not true. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. quality control and packing. It helps us to cost our products. The SMV of cutting. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. In order to balance this. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. Upper Critical Limit = 0. flat lock and single needle. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%.5 minutes for production from cutting. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes.46 + 10% = 0. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. with a high level of accuracy. while 70% to 80% is handling time.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. prior to the start of the production process. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. sewing. By this latest system. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. It means for this particular garment takes 11. This is called Line Balancing. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. For example. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments.5. In GSD systems. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11.46 – 10% = 0.414 102 . When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock.5 = 0. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. pressing. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. this effect is negligible.

pressing. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. We can find out the production capacity by working as below. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines.174 garments. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. That is. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. Say 60%. 103 .125 hours can be the effective hours. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. sewing and finishing. sewing.5 = 1. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. Say 110%. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line.57. quality checking and packing. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting. When we plan for 25 machines. For example. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed.250 hours.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. let us take 50% of this total hours. Working hours on week days = 9. Say 90%. Hence the productivity output will be more.57. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output.125 x 60 11. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. We do this.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. 30. Single needle machine operations will take more time.174 garments. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. It is to be decided according to the number of workers. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine.

35. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production.22.00. colour shades (dyeing. they will not cooperate with work study department. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates. diameter or width. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. solid. The fabrics may be in tubular form.00.94 = Rs.125 x 60 = Rs. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting. colour fastness. Cost Per Minute = 35. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. Also if the cutting is made manually. open width form.000 30. management and the production lines.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. Allowances for cutting. yarn stripes. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. dyed yarns) and hand feel. 104 .000 per month. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners.1. But with so much patience. costing department. all over printed. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently. prints. marketing department.5 x 1. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. etc.94 Cost Per Minute So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly. GSM. the patterns are to be made accordingly. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers.

knitting mistakes. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. printing mistakes. pockets. But this should not be acceptable. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. This is called line system. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. oil stains and other mistakes. Then our whole calculation will be changed. They may mark them in any vacant places. If this not been followed. Especially. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. nothing can be done with the cut bits. by using line system in their production. it is important to cut the 105 . colour shade and hand feel. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. Feeding between these operations should be even. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly.105 If shrinkage. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). the cutting can not be commenced. some markers may not care about this wales direction. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. plackets and other patches. diameter. Once they are being cut. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. yarn mistakes. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. They made this possible. During World War II. dyeing mistakes. sewing. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics.

we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. When the bits are numbered. This will help to avoid shading in packing. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. the body. 106 . Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. As we had seen earlier. This is very important. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. Markings. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. At the same time. If we find any bit having a mistake. Because of this carelessness. in order to avoid shade variation. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. Though they are in the same lot. we will have to reject the full garment. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. In case of ‘S’ cutting. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. When cutting manually and by lay. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. So when cutting the fabrics. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. flat lock machines and single needle machines. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program.106 hems along the lines. we can reject the bit simply. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained.

4 threads. Though they know better. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. But this is not enough. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. If they correct these mistakes then and there. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. there will not be a big problem. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. the sewing methods. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. When making sewing. In order to get better production result. Speedy sewing is appreciable. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. trimming and packing. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. because this has safety thread stitch.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. attaching collars & pockets. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. The production managers. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. patches and badges. attaching labels. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. But most of the operators don’t do this. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. Hence nowadays. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. making. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. 5 threads and 6 threads. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. Both manual and power driven machines are available. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. Stitches should have required strength.

damages. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. TRIMMING: After sewing. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. button holes and embroidery. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. When they trim the threads of buttons. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. they should cut with extra care. 108 . So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. This is very important. If they handle carelessly. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. general appearance. This is an important thing to be followed. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. garment shapes. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. labeling.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. oil stains. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. shade variations and overall finishing of garments. The end user will wash the garments. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers. stitching quality. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. print or embroidery mistakes. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements.

The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. our way of working. production. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. Hence individual packing. . we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. Buyers may face problems from the workers. we have to make various types of samples. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . training and by our systems. documentation. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. etc. our methods. Before purchasing cartons. our approach.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. bar codes. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. hang tags.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. our policies. etc. If we don’t follow them properly. So a special team is needed for making samples. our dress code. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. finishing. communication. Labels. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows.in our language. In a company the quality is expected in management.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. 109 . These general qualities can be controlled by practices. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. . our reaction. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. . pattern maker.Fabrics. if the weight is above their local standard weight. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. before using them. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. . way of expression. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. marketing.

cutting. patterning. maintenance of machineries. fabrics. In this system. Most of the times. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. because every one is doing his duties well. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. Quality Assurance Dept. profit or loss. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. At the same time. delay in shipment. shipment. production departments and merchandising departments. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. But practically. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. nobody can be blamed. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. labour management. yarn. production sufferings or loss. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. costs. When there are major quality problems. finishing. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. They will not listen to the practical problems. 110 . Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. By this way. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. quality of garments. the shipment will be affected. knitting. future orders. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. quality. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. production cost. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. productivity. production. pressing and up to packing. inspections and mainly the shipment date. processing. intimation to buyers. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. sewing. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. rejections. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. inspections. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. etc. but the corrective measures. etc. the quality department will not be appreciated. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. Quality Audit Dept. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. etc.

But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. he discusses with the merchandising team. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. Now. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. For example. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. they will not have answer. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. So in my opinion. I suggest making some changes in this system. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. etc. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. the merchandiser understands the problem. There will not be any use of these reports. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. This is the cause of all the problems. as everybody join their hands and heads together. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. but also to correct them. lesser number of stitches. Their responsibilities can be different. In worse cases. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. improper trimming. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. But their views and intention must be the same. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. As the routine of their jobs. loose threads on buttons & labels. As an unwritten rule. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. The management. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. When a person knows better about the garments. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. It has to work under the merchandising department. they find suitable solution quickly. restricting or preventing mistakes. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. loose thread ends. Even buyers know about these things. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. This is what happening in most of the factories.

LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. . easily. .To bleaching. .Single yarn strength. .Yarn counts. fabric handling. . . . wear resistance. etc. Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality. . 112 . Let us see the important tests below.Bursting strength.To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. water resistant. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested. . . .Acid / alkaline / water spotting .To light. fabric weight (GSM). etc). (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details). safety. The important tests are to test colour fastness .Fibre content and . azo test. sea water & chlorinated water. etc.To dry cleaning.112 rectified or corrected immediately. . colour fastness. Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments. amicably and permanently.Yarn friction. dimensional stability (shrinkage). .To dry heat / hot pressing.Yarn twist.Evenness & hairiness.To normal water. Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding .To perspiration (like sweat. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality.Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content.Composition of blends. . Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. . saliva. .Yarn shrinkage.To washing.Yarn diameter.

the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers. Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided. Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label.Soil release performance .Drape coefficient . They can become discoloured and sun-bleached.Water repellency .Abrasion resistance .Snagging resistance .Bow & skew.Dry cleaning .Water proofness .Washing and flat dry . Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for .Crease recovery. . WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.Random tumble pilling .Free formaldehyde content .Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for . The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight.Washing and tumble dry .113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. washing instructions and wash care labels. appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by .Relaxation . In the earlier chapters. Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out.Wrinkle recovery .Steaming.Water resistance . 113 .Pilling resistance .Wrinkle recovery .Stretch & recovery . But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat.Moisture content . we had seen the importance of washing methods. Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron. The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric. dimensional stability.Rust proof .

cotton. 114 . For example. Max. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. to give it a "fuller" feel. The machine should only be half filled. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Max 40 degree Celcius. max 40C". Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. High temperature. Hand wash only. Normal spin. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. do not rub or ring out. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. Dry heavy knitted garments. Do not soak. Spin for one minute only. Do not rub. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. Rinse thoroughly. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. Do not wash in water. Avoid leaving garments to soak. linen. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. with washing instructions "hand wash. half a minute only. do not ring out. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. demand special care. for example. A short spin removes excess water best. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. there is a figure indicating the temperature. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. This can result in discolouration. Within the bowl. 200C. In a separate spin dryer. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment.

for a maximum of one minute. For example. The line refers to the water added. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. On the other hand. avoid tumble drying 115 . Low temperature. polyamide (nylon). Do not dry clean. wool. Do not iron or rotary iron. For example. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. natural silk. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. Max 150C. Must not be bleached. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. acrylic. Many garments can also be tumble dried. Max 110C. The letters CL. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used.115 Medium temperature. Water must be removed from the garments before drying.

QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. colour. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. as tumble drying weak the garment. durability. Hang dry. materials. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. size. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. component parts and garments. Flat dry. but also to the production processes. finish. Do not tumble dry. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. product variations. as per the instructions of buyers. Quality parameters include finish. fit. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . High heat in the tumble drier.116 garments that you particularly cherish. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. Tumble dry low. damages and imperfections. Tumble dry normal. materials. Tumble dry.

They have to make sure that safety. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. trims. where necessary. tickets. . using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. accessories. as required. .checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. .117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods.applying safety precautions relevant to the task. . The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. quality. Or some measurements may not be achieved. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered.taking required action where standards of fabrics. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . They are to be measured. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims.assessing operational capability of machineries used. environmental. 117 . Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output. When the measurements are being checked. colour. trims. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. regulatory authorities and the company. specifications. accessories and garments. In these cases. fabric weight. . work standards and patterns. specifications. equipment or personnel. .maintaining accurate records. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. patterns. quantity and finish.interpreting work instructions. interpret and follow information on job instructions. standard operating procedures. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size.identifying improvements. sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments.

The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. . Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours.safety policies. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. Each end user will have different taste of colours. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. sewing. Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. . It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers.the action taken promptly. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. 118 . . fabric qualities. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. colours. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications.118 If there is any change in the measurements. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. . etc. decoration. physical measurements and checks against patterns. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. garment styles.job procedures and work instructions.waste and pollution management. So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. making and measurements. Quality checks include visual inspection. Also each of them will have different body fits. including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies.

By saying like this. if there is any measurement problem. They don’t even bother to know about them. colours. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. checkers. fabric quality. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. The colours. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. The reason is this. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. So logically. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. So when a garment is having measurement problem. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. they would argue about the measurement deviations. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. We can not do anything on them. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. style and fit than to measurements. the presentation is also important for packed garments. 119 . The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. workmanship. From their reports. styles are most important than the measurements. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. fabrics. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. they don’t care much about the measurements. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. In most of the factories. colours. the garment can be accepted. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. attractive colours and suitable styles . We are fully responsible for them. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. After making their quality reports. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands.

On the other hand. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. But if the presentation of packing is not good.120 The things like hang tags. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. If they are not satisfied with the quality. 120 . sometimes. When they do only final inspections. collar bones. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. only some garments can be checked selectively. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. pre-final and final inspections. pilot batch. bands. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. the more quality can be improved. Even then. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. So after rechecking. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. price tags. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. online. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. inner boards. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. This is also called Assured Quality Level. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. At the same time. They are initial. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units.065 to 15. middle. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. Then the final inspection will be very easy. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things.0 and 2. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. tissue papers. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. Usually the levels 4.5 are used in garment inspections. without doing initial or online inspections. Also by these inspections. When we do the inspections. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. The more number of online inspections. special branded tags. This is unsafe for the factory. These things will not be of any use to the end users. the garment can not be sold. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship.

At the same time. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. it is not an impossible thing. But there is one thing is commonly needed. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. sincerity and hard working. In order to reach these higher levels. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. self confidence. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. We should remember that this is a team work. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. It is not easy. honesty. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. That is coordination. On the other hand.

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