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Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career!
INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages 2 Page No. 7 7
8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17
19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23
24 24 24 25 25
25 26 26 27
3 Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31
32 33 34 34 34 34
35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37
ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes 3
37 37 37 38
4 Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill 4 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 73 73 .4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.
60days. 90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping 5 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 .5 Documentation At Sight L/C 30days.
6 Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .
round cutters are used. According to the structure of fabrics. they are called by different names. Rib. sarees. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. Hence nowadays. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. Fleece. This system is used worldwide.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. undergarments. sweatshirts. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. finishing. French Rib. power looms and mill made. But yarn counts. Pique. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. Making woven fabrics is simple. width should be considered with more care. T shirts. style. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. prints. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. But most of the times. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. the fabric has to be 7 . And we will have to keep the garment for style. we will have only the garments to find GSM. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. If we have fabrics.000 sq. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. fabric quality. accurate GSM can not be achieved. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. making and other references. Shirts. Interlock. bed spreads. As this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. Flat back rib. trousers. Another is Knitted garments. colours. One is Woven garments. Loop knit. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. reed & picks (warp & weft). It can be found out by any one of the below ways. the fabric will be cut into a small bit.cms. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. embroidery. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. towels and made ups are Woven. blankets. etc. pyjamas and socks are Knits. Polar fleece and Jacquards. With the help of this round cutter. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM.
100’s. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. For this purpose. 30’s. We can see. 38’s.8 cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. the lesser the thickness. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. 36’s. 40’s. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. 60’s. 16’s. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn.5 inches. availability. Combed is superior quality. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. According to the technical parameters. etc. Yarn prices based on the thickness. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. This process is called ‘Combing’. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. hand feel. 24’s. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. higher the counts. 80’s. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. evenness. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. Because of the same longer length of fibers. We must know. Combed and Carded. strength. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. There are 2 qualities of yarn. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. 10’s. 4’s. 8 . the Yarn. etc. the fabric will have very even look. So when the yarn counts are increasing. higher the prices. a special process is being done. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. Hence after knitting or weaving. 20’s. raw material. the thickness becomes lesser. Because of this extra process. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0.25 inches to 2. We can consider like this. 25’s. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. the higher the counts. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. 34’s.
bleached mélange. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. Ecru mélange. But as we use 100% Cotton. 9 . colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. Grey Melange. They are Grey mélange. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. For example. There are different mélange yarns. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. But we must think of shrinkage. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. Flax mélange. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn.9 The processing (dyeing. due to higher shrinkage. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. To avoid this shrinkage problem. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. Colour mélange. In these yarns. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. the cotton portion will be in light shade. Hence. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. According to the required percentage and colour shades. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. Ecru Melange. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. etc. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. which is very important. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. In colour mélange yarn also. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. Bleached Melange are used widely. For light colour mélange yarn. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. But for dark colour mélange yarns. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns.
Also the yarn should have more yarn strength.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. yarn strength and better quality. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. like 60/2.250 per kg. As the finer cottons are used. only combed yarns are used.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. dull and dead cottons. as the combing process removes shorter fibers. 80/2. 100/2. In manual yarn dyeing. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. Cost wise. Rs. giving more resistance and silky feel. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP).30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. For easy reference. 10 . Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. the dyed yarns are used. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. For yarn dyeing.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. we can not expect the consistency of shades. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. Medium colours: Rs. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless. the yarn contains more cotton. Dark colours: Rs.
the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. these dyed yarns are used. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). After mercerising. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. This will give more life to the garments. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. Due to its high resistance properties. the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. fabrics have to be mercerised again. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. After combing and twisting. This process is called Mercerising. to minimise the cost. By this process. Due to more heat. Used for making very expensive special garments. Further.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). As mercerising is done two times. Then after mercerizing. In this method. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. Longer life of garments. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. In any case. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. 4. 11 . as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. These yarns do not create allergies to body. underwear and hosiery. these yarns are used for knitwear. 5. the yarn will be singed (gassed). (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. 3. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. 2.
12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.
KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13
When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”. 14
If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. texture and grey GSM. We have to note that a maximum of 3. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. machine gauge. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. viscose. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. we get the single yarn with blends. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. and 15 . processed diameter is based on grey diameter.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. Also as we have seen earlier. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs. If the repeat width is more than 3. it can be knitted in normal machines. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. polyamide (nylon). When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes. then there will be more fabric wastage. If this diameter is larger than the pattern. we have to be careful of their counts.5cms.5cms.
we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. 16 . But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. In order to select the suitable denier. Then only the knitting will be even. Also. we can use following conversion formula. during knitting. Counts = 5315 Denier 5315 Counts Denier = Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. To select suitable denier. So. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. we use the above formula. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn.
we have to check following things before knitting. processing water quality. same dyeing factory and same finishing process.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. twill tape: 1. rib. before finishing or compacting. . after processing.GSM – during knitting. At the same time.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. This is very important. processing timing. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. after processing. cuffs.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. before processing.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. collar. . sleeves and grey collars. If we take more care during processing. processing and compacting. . there will be shade variations between lots. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity.Colour (shade. same knitting machine. before processing. we will get different results. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. rope. before finishing or compacting. twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. qualities of dyes & chemicals. . Grey fabrics for body. cuffs. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. gauge. sleeves. rib.Diameter – machine diameter. after compacting (on cutting table). For example. To avoid shade variations. . etc. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. 17 . we have to follow the following procedures. .Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . after processing. we will not get the same result every time. these variations can be limited. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. rope. Due to the above reasons. processing methods. collar and cuffs in one garment. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. sleeves. To avoid shading between body. compacting method & temperature.Diameter (as per Pattern) . fastness as per approval) . after compacting (on cutting table). Hence regarding knitted fabrics.
2. 5. Fabric for body. When we have to use yarn from different lots.18 2.. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. cuffs. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). 3. sleeves. sleeves. ribs. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. ribs. 3. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. patches. 18 . Once 1st lot is approved. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. processing time. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. Fabric program should be made accordingly. All the parts of one garment (body. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. twill tapes. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. 3. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. pockets. 2. We must study the packing methods clearly. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. ropes. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. Lab dips should not be referred. 6. cuffs. cuffs. before sending the fabrics for processing. Mixing of lots should be avoided. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. etc. Collars. This is very important. collars. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. Water temperature. 4. etc) should be numbered during cutting. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. collar. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. 4.
In April 1996. They are clothing.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene.6-Xylidine. 3. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. 3. p-Cresidine.19 PROCESSING AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing. o-aminoazotoluene. O-Anisidine. gloves. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. Benzidine. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin. 3.3’-dichlorobenzidine.4’-Thiodianiline. chair covers and toys.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. 3. o-Toluidine. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer. purses.4-Xylidine. 4.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane. watch straps. 4. 2. p-Chloroaniline. hairpieces. briefcases.5-Trimethylaniline.4.4’-Oxydianiline. 2. 2. 4-Aminobiphenyl. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this.4-Diaminoanisole. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations.4-Toluylendiamine. 19 . Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. 2. 2. belts.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). 2-Naphthylamine. diapers and other sanitary items. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. footwear.3’-Dimethyl-4. Hence. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. bedding. 4. hats. If the garment supplied by a supplier. 4. wigs. p-Aminoazobenzene. wallets. towels.
soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. we can smell Chlorine. before certifying to buyers. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. One is Chlorine Bleach. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs.000 per colour. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. By using Continuous bleaching machine. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. There will not be any smell. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers.7. Any bright shades like Milk white. Winch bleach is the traditional method. 20 . If we smell the fabric deeply. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments. It is approximately Rs. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. It will have lesser whiteness. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. In this case. They are by using open winches. it is banned in most of the countries. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. Above all. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. Also it will not give irritation to body. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. Another is Peroxide Bleach. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. If this fabric tested for azo contents. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. But this is not acceptable. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs.10 – 12 / kg.30–35/kg. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. Also it will give irritation to body.
2. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. There are 2 types of dyeing. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. For example. According to the approved lab dip. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. This is the normal dyeing. They are Reactive dyeing. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. When lab dips are made. As we discussed above. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. 21 . When the winch is rotated by a motor. After checking whether the required shade is attained. This combination is called Recipe. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. Then only we will get required results. We will have more discussions on this. the fabric will be very stiff. After this. One is Winch dyeing. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books.21 FABRIC DYEING: There are 3 qualities of dyeing. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. it means Reactive dyeing only. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. the Pigment dyes are to be used. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. the fabrics will roll on winches. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. etc. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. acid wash. Discharge dyes are to be used. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. bulk dyeing will be done. should not be used. enzyme wash. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. which is made with different yarn. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. 1. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. 3. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. Another is Soft flow dyeing. only Azo Free dyes should be used. Nowadays. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. By using these dyes in dyeing. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. fabrics will be removed from the winches. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. During dyeing. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. other Jersey fabric. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. Even.
dyes & water capacity. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. In open winch dyeing.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. There will not be any colour patches. fabric capacity. It will be much lesser. Blue. These types of machines are used in recent years. Black. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. Medium Green. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. timing. Temperature. Due to this. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Also the colour fastness will be better. the temperature is consistent. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. For some shades. As the winch is kept opened. 22 . Orange. Dark Navy. But in soft flow dyeing. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. Military Green. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. Blue. For the regular shades. etc are Light colours. It is a closed winch. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Dark Blue. Yellow. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. etc are Dark colours. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. Brown. Lt Yellow. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. Due to this. Olive Green. So after dyeing. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. everything is computerised. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. Red. Lt Pink. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. etc are Medium colours. etc are the darkest colours. the temperature of water will not be consistent. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. Green. Navy. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. Lt Orange. Lt Blue. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. the direct dyes will not be available. Grey. Light Grey. They have to be cut and rejected. Light Red. Offwhite. Lt Green. These are called ‘Combination colours’. In these cases.
Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades.23 The costliest colour is Royal. the dyeing quality will be inferior. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. Also to avoid the handling stains. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. etc. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. Due to this. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. Due to this mercerising. these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. But after knitting.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. (It is too expensive. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster.45 to 50 per kg. but also improved colour absorbency. if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. Black. To do the fabric mercerising. We can get some reduction from the mill.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to reduce the cost. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. we can get similar shade. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. 23 . these fabrics are to be washed. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. but it will have poor colour fastness. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. Due to this and due to more processing time. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. Red. If the mercerising is not been done properly. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. By these colours.
If we try to achieve these 3 things together. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. Diameter. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases.50 / kg. glossy finish of fabric. Some times.12 – 15 per kg. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. When we calender the fabrics. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. From these machines. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics.15 – 20 per kg. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. 1. smell and to get softer hand feel. ribs. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. With these compacting machines. We can get better result from these compacting machines. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs.24 Not only the fabrics. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. The collars. There are no facilities in calendering machines. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. 2. GSM. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. 3. To remove these wrinkles. we can adjust following things.1. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. 24 . STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. Steam calendering charge: Rs.6 per kg. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. The washing charge is normally Rs.50 to 2. nothing can be done. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. Shrinkage. twill tapes. We must be aware of this important fact.5 per kg.
As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. we have many advantages in rotary printing. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. But for the blended fabrics. They are as follows. the heat set process is a must. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. Polyamide (Nylon). After dyeing and after drying. it is better to do heat set in open width form. 1. They are all over prints and chest prints. Elastan (Spandex). Charges for Heat set: Rs. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. We can print the second colour. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester.10 per kg.25 – 30 per kg. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. Loop knit (French rib). the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. etc. the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. as cotton is the natural fiber. fleece.25 HEAT SETTING: The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. Printing is done one colour by one colour. it will take more time for multi colour printing. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. PRINTING There are two different prints. If the stroke of the printer differs. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. Viscose. Acrylic. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. Charges for one side raising: Rs. Especially. But to get better result. 2. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. the print quality will differ. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. only after drying the 1st colour. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. 25 . Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. Quick and time saving.
we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. seating and registration. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. If the softener is added. Pigment prints. 26 . Consistent printing colours and quality. This will create major problem in garmenting. Then the printing will look blurred. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. These machines are very rare in use. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. more care to be taken while making films. Also before printing. Some times. 5.1cms. the print will be better than on the first side. Immediate drying. 4. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. For printing in Rotary machines. Though the films are made with computer. 2. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. as the continuous process. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. Perfect registration (placement). The diameter of the screen is 64.1cms. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. If the fabric does not absorb the water. After printing. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. it means the fabric has softener. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines.26 3. Even though it will cost more. if the fabric absorbs the water. Rotary screens are in tubular form. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. If the fabric is even slightly wet. Less wastage. 6. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. Due to this. we can achieve perfection in printing. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. If the fabric has softener. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. it means the fabric does not have softener. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. the fabric will get completely dried. For this. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. Softener should not be added in dyeing. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. 3. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens.
Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. 5. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. a round design may change into an oval shape. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. etc. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. kerosene is used as an alternate. a square design may change into a rectangle. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. after the print. 4. If we need softer hand feel after printing. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. Rough hand feel. 6. Risk factors: 1. 7. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. Less process after printing. 2.27 4. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. Advantages: 1. Also due to the double job. 7. Print smell. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. 6. 9. 5. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. Hence after printing on both sides. Selection or mixing colours are easier. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Then. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. as the normal procedure. As the continuous process. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. 8. 2. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. avoid smell. 27 . For example. 3. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. Any shade is possible. Cheaper cost. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. the fabric is to be washed after curing. 3. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form.
but after printing we will get entirely new shade. To avoid this. Softener should not be added in dyeing. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. As an alternative for this. Reactive dyes to be used. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. 4. the print 28 . Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. 6. Shade masters will prepare one shade. To remove the print dusts.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print.28 Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. because of dull look and blurred print effect. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. 5. 2. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. it is better to print in open width form only. water is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. Procedures: 1. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). The preparation of printing colours is not easier. For this. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. the fabric will smell after printing. 7. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. this wash is essential. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. They are called organic dyes. Before bulk printing. 3. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. It is called Third page image. They are made mainly from the vegetables. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. This is called water base prints. 8. But this kind of water print is very rarely used.
As the water should not be recycled. Longer life for prints.29 dusts will stick to the fabric again. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. it is not used widely. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. Advantages: 1. It means. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. in pigment printing. we have to use Discharge printing. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). 3. 4. It is better to avoid this). Too much care to be taken in every process. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Very expensive. But this will not have better fastness.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. For this. 29 . We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. Very soft hand feel. Brightness of colours even after many washes. 2. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. 9. Importantly. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. Too many important processes to be followed. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. By touch. 4. we can use pigment printing. Best colour fastness. 5. Then fabric is to be dried. 2. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. Risk factors: 1. (In some cases. It is called River Wash. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. we can easily use Pigment printing.
It is called Third page image. No river wash is needed. 5. Green. 7. Risk factors: 1. the base colour White will be visible as printed. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. Before bulk printing. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. 3. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. 30 . 5. 4. Expensive print cost. after the removal of dyeing colour.30 Procedures: 1. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. To avoid this. after the removal of dyeing colour. and Navy. Printing to be done with discharge dyes. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. Then after discharge printing. Better colour fastness. 5. Advantages: 1. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). 2. After printing. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Can be printed manually too. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. When printing. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 4. Long lasting print quality. 6. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. That is. 4. Then after discharge printing. This is very important as during printing. 8. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. All colour shades can not be achieved. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. 2. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. 3. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. Better soft hand feel. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. 3. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. Red. After printing is completed. 2. If White is one of the printing colours.
Foil prints.31 All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. Plastisol prints. Therefore. Reflective prints. 4. Flock prints. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. etc. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. They are as follows. 9. Like all over printing on rotary machines. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. Sticker prints. There are 2 types of machines. Embossed prints. With these machines. etc. These costs will differ according to the dyeing shades. Water prints. Foam prints. 7. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. Nowadays only the machine prints are used.1 lakh). Quick production. 1. 31 . No smell. But prints will have the best quality. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. Better colour fastness. 3. Sugar prints. 6. 2. print area and coverage. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. No stain in unprinted areas. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. Perfect colours and shades. Transfer prints. Perfume prints. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs.40 lakhs). One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM).: As we see. This machine is very costly (about Rs. Non-PVC prints. Less wastage. Perfect placement and registration. Octopus machine will print automatically. Better smoothness and sharpness. 8. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. Glitter prints. Longer life for prints. 5. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. number of colours. Motif prints.
To get the cost of other special quality prints. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). Fusing cost is included in the above costs. it is better to check with the printers. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. It does not matter. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. foam. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours.32 Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. sugar. etc. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. Batiks. foil. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only. as there will be no print smell. etc. After plastisol print. flock. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. After the manual printing. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. 32 . glitters. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. It is better to use Discharge dyes.5 per kg. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness.
it is better to dry them in shadows). As Polyester thread will not get dyed. We have to remember that so far. sleeves. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. But to get better result. 10. It may be stripes or any other design. If we do tie & dye in garment form. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. the result will not be good). If there is any other base colour except White. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. 13. This is the dyeing process. (In case of emergency. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. 4. by taking note of all the details. And to be dried under shades naturally. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. If we use normal embroidery threads. 5. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. After the tie & dye process. the other colours will not fix properly. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. 8. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. (If it is Chlorine bleached. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. It will take few minutes only. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. they will not get dyed. 9. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. 12. 18. As the fixing agent is fixed now. shrinkage and shape. 19. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. 6. 11. The dipping will be done manually. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. 7. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. 14. Fabrics for body. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India).33 Procedures: 1. 17. And so on. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. 3. 15. 33 . Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. nothing can be done about measurements. 16. If we do tie & dye in bit form. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. shrinkage and shape of garment. 2.
GSM. This is almost like tie & dye. This is also called Wax printing. length and width of the bits. BATIKS: This is also done manually.. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. flowers. 4. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. due to different dyes. Better colour fastness. Risk factors: 1. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. depending on the design. 3. 5. This is like printing. methods. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. For larger quantities. processing. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. As all the processes are done manually. Advantages: 1. cutting. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. will be made by wax. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. etc. curtain cloths.34 20. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. etc. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. the charges will be based on number of colours. etc. for 2 colours. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form.. 2. During and after the process.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. 34 . The printing designs like stars. bed spreads and lungies. can be made at affordable prices. As it is done manually. we will get different qualities and results. 2. 4. the charge may be Rs. Mostly used for sarees. Drying by machines is not possible. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. Approximately. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly.18 to 20. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. churidars. garmenting. 3. Enormous designs can be made. Before cutting the bits for garments. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. Hence after removing the waxes. By this.
To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. garment dyeing method is followed. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. cuff. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. side slits and pockets. If the garment is processed more than enough. etc. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. 2. cuffs are attached together. placket box. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. shrinkage and shape. cuffs. there may be shade variations between these parts. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. After the garment dyeing. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). When we cut the fabrics for making garment. As the garments are dyed in vessels. 5. For example. 3. 6. sleeves. 35 . rope. by taking note of all the details. (Depending on the required effect.. Fabric for body. We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). collars. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. Procedures: 1. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. Enzyme wash 4. After the fabrics are dyed. 12. Stone wash. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). 9. shrinkage and shape. the substances are to be used. Acid wash 3. sleeve. 5. etc. cuffs. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. placket box. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. collar. side slits and pockets. for stone washed effect. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. Faded wash. 10. 8. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. Since many parts are attached. neck rib. shoulder seam.35 GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. Then body. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect).mainly at neck seam around collar. shoulder seam. Denim (Jeans) wash. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . 7. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. even though we have taken more care. 1. 11. 4. 2.
rejections of garments will be high. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. Different qualities of washes are possible. are called Lot. 3.36 13. In these special acoba embroidery machines. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. There will be difference in shades and washing effect between lots. sleeves. 5. 3. 36 . Advantages: 1. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. 4. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). 4. 2. Washed look can be achieved. Risk factors: 1. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. Due to the damages in garments. cuffs.: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. 2. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. etc. some other special machines to be used. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. 14. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. dyed from one machine at one time. The garments. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. There will not be any shade variation between body. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. Due to the special effects and quality. it is expensive. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. all over embroidery can be made. there will not be any shrinkage further. This will vary from machines to machines. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. collar. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours.
etc.37 Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics.10 to 15 per gross.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). For adult garments. designer’s fabrics. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. ACCESSORIES Buttons. etc in addition to the number of stitches. 37 .50 per garment. etc. quantity.50 to 70 per gross. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. Badges. Polybags.5 zippers. Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees.15 to 40 per gross. Tissue papers. Twill tapes. For children garments.7 per zip. curtain cloths.1. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. qualities.5 zippers are used. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs.24 per zip. Inner boards. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. But the minimum cost is around 2. decorative fabrics. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. Labels. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. though the number of stitches is lesser. No. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. Also each accessory has many dimensions.40 to 60 per gross. Ropes. specifications. Due to competition. blouses. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs. etc. fixing cost. Hang tags. Cost of No. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs.3 zippers are used. Zippers.00 per 1000 stitches.5 – 7 per zip. Packing pins. No. Elastics. for making costing. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs.3 zippers is lesser than No.22 – 24 per zip. Metal buttons. Because of its own quality nature. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. wooden buttons – Varies as per design. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. Anyhow.
etc are used for legs of undergarments. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers.38 Lock quality is to be checked. the prices will be different. 2. thickness. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics. 2cm. 10mm. the zipper can not be opened. From 2.1. Even if the tapes are pulled.50 per metre. wash care labels.5cm. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. The prices are based on quality. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe.1. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. Elastics with the width of 4mm.50 per metre. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. Cost of Labels: There are main labels.2. From 3. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed. size labels. There are plain elastics and named elastics. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly. In these auto lock zippers. 12mm. etc.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs.50 per metre. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels.00 per metre.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. number of colours. It can be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers. 6mm. Elastics with 1cm.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs.75 per metre. From 1. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. For the special pullers. width. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. 38 . 8mm.0. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. It is approximately Rs.30 to 40 per kg. quality and quantity. Badges are in many types.3. It depends on the design. As these badges are very special. Yarn price to be added with this charge. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing.
Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board. Woven labels: Main label (2. measurement.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness. style.0.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. etc. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users. This is an important thing.0. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. tags are used and attached with the garments.0.25” width x 10cm length): Rs. The tags can be made at cheaper prices. colours. care instructions. sizes.10 per label.60 to Rs.0.0. it is safer to check them too. composition. Damask labels are woven on both sides. composition. Hence the quality. This is double weave. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also. In these labels. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta. etc. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. die-cut design and quantity.0. This is single weave.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels. With these machines also woven labels are made.08 per label.0.39 Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels. 39 .0. single side or both sides printing. design.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. There are 2 types of woven labels.0. colours. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size.0. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs.0.30 to Rs. number of colours. printing design. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water. If the yarn colour bleeds. Hence before using the printed labels. prices. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs. There are non-computerised looms are also available.30 to Rs.15 per label. if printing and cutting are made manually. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside. In these labels. Single colour (1. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes.0.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs.
it may not be recyclable.0. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags. normal quality: Rs. If there is anything special. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs.4.40 to Rs.80 per tag.1.00 to Rs.40 If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut. If the polybag is very thin.0.30 to Rs. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. Another is PE (Polyethylene).0. most of the customers insisting to use PE only.00 to Rs.50 to Rs. depends on quality of paper & print.1. measurements.10 to Rs.0. Due to this. die cut (scoring) and quantity.65. One is PP (Polypropylene). Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. 40 .30 to Rs.30 to Rs. the price may be around Rs. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look.50 per board.0. nowadays. the price may be Rs.0.0. If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used. the rejection of polybags will be more.0. etc. special quality with die cut: Rs. quality.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment.50 per tag.00 per board. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. As PE polybags are recyclable.15 each paper. For normal size. For special sizes.25 to Rs.40 per bag.80 per bag. prints. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.0. depends on paper quality.50 each paper.1. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs.0.0.55. PP bags have bright look. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity.0.0. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram. quantity.0.60 to Rs. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). the price may be Rs.0.00.00 per tag.
25 will be the master bag cost per garment.02 for one inch length. The hangers are in different types. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea.1. etc. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser.00 to Rs. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments). Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers.0. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only.0.3.60 per garment.5. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs. Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag.5. etc. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs.24 per bag. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper. sizes. Hence approximately Rs.0. plastic hangers. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style.00 to Rs. 41 . Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs.15. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments.4. Recycled papers should not be used.41 If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers.1. styles.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. quantity. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers. the cost will be Rs.00 approximately. If the width of polybag is 12”. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton. design.20. Also the hooks are in different types.25 to Rs. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers. the tape cost will be Rs. sizes suitable for different garment styles.00 to Rs.
Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. trims and accessories to these Job workers.25. Making. only the power driven machines are used. .42 Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. etc. local transport. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. packing methods and other works. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. the charges for these jobs are very much higher. Though CMT is Cutting. CMT charge depends on the style of garment. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs. V neck covering. nowadays. . charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. .Lockstitch machines. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). The productivity with these over lock machines is very high.00 to Rs.25. There are manual and power driven machines are used. Making and Trimming charges. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. pockets. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. number of jobs with over lock.1. quality standards. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. time consumption. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread. the charges for these jobs are higher. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). Thus cost per garment will be around Rs.10 per pc. 42 .00 to pack 24 to 50garments. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM. Lock stitches are used for making plackets. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs.40.Over lock machines.Flat lock machines. productivity. flat lock & lock stitch machines. and attaching collars & labels. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. CMT CHARGES (Cutting.
the charges to be added accordingly.10 per pc. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs. insurance premium and the freight. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs.43 Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. CFR. air transport.12 per pc.22 per pc. While we confirm the orders from the customers.14 per pc. It means the buyer will pay the freight . Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business.12 per pc. CIF. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. it will be claimed by the buyer.15 per pc.12 to Rs. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. It is the same as FOB. CIP. These above charges are approximate. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. sea transport. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight.10 per pc.10 to Rs. 43 . CPT. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. EXW.20 per pc. etc.12 per pc. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB. If it is C&F By air. Insurance and Freight. Ex-factory. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs.18 per pc.8 per pc.12 per pc. If there are any extra works. FCA.20 per pc. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. etc. It means the price is inclusive of the cost.13 per pc.it may be road or rail transport. rail transport. CIF: It is Cost. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs. It includes local road transport. It means freight will be paid by the buyer. If it is C&F By sea. FAS. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. C&F.
unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). 44 . Mostly FOB. routing.44 EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. 1. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). If we have doubt about the terms. There are 20’. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. Port expenses – Loading. 2. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. C&F. There are 2 types of loading. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. CIF terms are used. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. Charges of freight. Local transport to the port. inspection. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. 3. 5. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. etc. availability. 6. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. Customs charges – Documentation. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. 4. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. Their approximate capacity is as follows. In case of export to other countries. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): It is the same as FOB. etc.
as Tuticorin port is small. the size of container is to be decided. As this port is in the main sea route. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. granite stones. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer .45 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. In this case. etc. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. To solve this problem. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. but with more weight – Like steel. These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. routing & transit time. 45 . Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. transshipment. etc. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. Though some ports have more sea depth. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube).may be stuffed in one full container. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. For example. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. And in Colombo port. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. distance between destinations. This is called Consolidation of Goods. According to the volume of goods. It is called Loose Container Load. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. shipping lines and conference lines. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. Colombo port is very big. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. Sometimes. the freight will be based on weight too. the mother vessels do not come to this port. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. The nearest port is Colombo. it is called FCL. This system is called transshipment.
It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs. Japan. according to their capacities. Kuwait. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world. As we discussed above. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai.58. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area. better connection in transshipments.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs.54.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. Hong Kong.99. etc.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs.1. By using these Conference Lines.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 46 . This is also called transshipment. This is a regular practice. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port. (We will discuss about this in detail later).000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs.17.44.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs.000 – Rs. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L.63.90. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. China. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs. Shipping lines: The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines.184.108.40.206.46 Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. their partner company will use their vessel. safety. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent.76.000 – Rs.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only.90.72. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. the goods will sail on one company’s ships. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. Taiwan.
In these cases. Depending on the destination and on the flight services. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent.22.100 to Rs. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. they will be prompt in their connections and timings. As like sea shipments. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports. we can use smaller airlines. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume.110 per kg.47 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs. The receipt is Airway Bill. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form. 47 . there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. Hence the shipment will be delayed. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. most of the shipments will go by sea only. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. the goods have to be sent by air.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port). the goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. Some times. At the same time. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. As the freight charges are very high. To American and Canadian airports: Rs.80 to Rs. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later).140 per kg. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination).36. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines.
It will come about Rs. sea. over heads. sewing and packing.02% of the total value of goods. production. we have to bear the local transport to the port. this charge is very nominal. distance between ports. charges of knitting. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. methods and quality systems. latest procedures. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. air) and freight charges. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments.4. procedures. etc. processing and finishing of fabrics. etc. sewing and packing of garments.6. volume of goods. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. etc.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. transportation (road. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories.48 Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. finishing. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments.00 to Rs. etc.1. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. etc. is essential to make perfect costing. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. the charges will come about Rs. stuffing charges. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. We must remember that the quality depends on price.00 to Rs. price depends on quality. routing. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time. When we consider the value of goods. etc. Each product will have different price according to its quality. processing. knitting fabrics. To do perfect garment costing. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. banking charges and commissions. documentation charges. shipping. customs clearing charges. marketing. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. loading & unloading. advantages and risk factors. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. market prices and availability. sales. charges of transport and conveyance. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the 48 . C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms.2. transport and conveyance.
Other charges (print. As there are many different styles in garments.) 7. etc. 4. to be taken into consideration. 1. Fabric cost per kg. 3. 49 . tags. Due to the above practical reasons. 10. Let us see them in detail now. Cost of trims (labels. we must have full measurements of the garment. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. Gross weight of other components of garment. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. 2. badges. 3. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely.49 customers. Cost of a garment. embroidery. buttons. 5. CMT charges 8. the customer’s price level. 5. bows. While we do the garment costing. 4. twill tapes. Price of a garment. To work on the prices exactly. etc. But compulsorily. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. Fabric cost per garment. Men’s Pyjamas. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. polybags. inner boards. we have to find out following things. 1. 6. Fabric consumption. 2. Cost of accessories (hangers. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. etc) 9. costings can be made for other styles too. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. To make the garment costing. we must have the measurements of Chest. Men’s Printed Polo shirts.) 6. The method of making costing will vary from style to style. 7. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. cartons. quality & quantity and payment terms. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. Body Length and Sleeve Length. Ladies Night dress. Men’s Basic T shirts.
the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). GSM is Grams per Square Metre. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. TRIAL COSTING NO. S – XXL. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. To find the fabric consumption.000 square centimetres). USA. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). If the GSM is lesser. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. if the area of the fabric is 10. Medium (M).000 sq. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. As we have seen earlier. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. That is. The garment measurements for USA.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. Even in Europe. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios.50 The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. In other words. As we discussed earlier.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. 50 . they have to be converted into Centimeters. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM.54Centimeters. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). the consumption will also be relatively higher. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. Australia are measuring in Inches. Large (L). weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10. 1 Inch = 2.cms. If the GSM is higher. Canada. (No style number or no size is needed to print). Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. if the garment measurements are in Inches. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. the consumption will be lesser. In any case. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL.
Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps.000 pcs). Hem = 3 cms. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. Length = 78 cms. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. As the fabric is in tubular. 51 . In case. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. For example. That is. Thus. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. Neck rib width = 3 cms. 63 or 64cms. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. the finished fabric may have more width than required. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. Hence due to either way. for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. That is. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. M. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. Pique & Interlock. Generally. L.51 Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. (22. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. if we are unable to control this. Sizes: S. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. XL.
If they are possible. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. 52 . And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. the garments are based on weights. Let us take the GSM is 140. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. In other words. (0. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. then we have to find out by which fabric width. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. we should remember that the front body. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width.52 Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. Let us assume following are the measurements. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric. Let us assume that according to the patterns. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. At the same time. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. Length = 78 cms. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. Gross weight : 197 grams. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. to avoid shade variation. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). In this case. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. Chest = 60 cms. Neck rib : 10 grams. Sleeve Length = 24 cms.
When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams.53 We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. Thus. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length. Let us calculate the same for 62”. Then we will have to calculate as below. among the possible widths. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. we have to select the suitable width. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction.14 mtrs of 50” width. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. we can see that it will be 1. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . according to the patterns of that particular style of garment.
00 6.20 X 197 1000 = 38.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours = 193. The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric. For Medium colours = 203.38. let us work for Medium & Dark colours. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193.06 (Round off: Rs.25 For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours Fabric cost per garment = 54 .13 (Round off: Rs.00 8.25) Light colours Rs.00 65.70 X 197 1000 = 44.00 Dyeing charge = 35.00 6.00 10.00) For Light colours Likewise.00 45. 38.70 Dark colours 135.00 Dark colours 44.00 Compacting charge = 6. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.27 (Round off: Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8. As we had seen earlier.70 X 197 1000 = 40.00 214.44.00 184.40.20 Medium colours 135.00) = 224. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened.70 203.00 9.00 194. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment.00 8. only if they are all over printed on open width form. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9. It means.54 This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight.70 224.00 Medium colours 40.
Master polybag – Normal: Rs. buttons.1. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one).00 = -= Rs.45 1. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers.35 52. 1.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs. 2. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label. 1.0. etc): For this Basic T shirt. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2. Let us see the cost of these things. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment . let us see the costs of the required accessories.80 per garment.00 1.70 55 Medium cols 40. ropes.85 per garment.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts. 3.85 10.35 per garment. tags.25 per garment.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments. Export carton – Normal: Rs. 0. 2.0. Let us see what are the trims required for this style.Normal (not a special one): Rs.70 58. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt).00 -0.00 per garment. cartons.55 53. inner boards. as example. 0. So the total cost of accessories is Rs.75 Dark cols 44.50.85 = Rs. elastic. labels. etc. So there are no charges.35 56.20 = Rs.50 = Rs.40 per carton to contain 48 garments.85 10. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier.30 per garment. Light cols = Rs.35 = Rs. 1. tags.) Cost of trims (labels. Polybag . embroidery.0.25 -0. polybags.10. : Rs. badges. 1. : Rs. twill tapes. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment.0.0.20 1. COST OF TRIMS (zippers.00 = Rs.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs.51. We require following things.0.55 OTHER CHARGES (Print.00 220.127.116.11 Hang tag: Rs. cartons. there is no need of print or embroidery.
00 = Rs.3333.25 -0. 0.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. electricity. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota. For our calculation. It will vary from company to company depends on their size.70 56 Medium cols 40. with the above costs of garments. office salary.45 1. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment.00 1.10. depreciation of machineries. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments.85 10. etc. standards. SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt. sea freight / air freight).20 = Rs. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment . the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’. So we don’t have to add sea freight. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. Let us recall our earlier costing. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. tags.00 = -= Rs. let us work on 15% profit margin. if any. cartons.20 1. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. 1. COMMISSION: For some orders.50. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only.70 58.35 52. If the terms are C&F or CIF. etc) and profit margin.00 1.85 = Rs.50 = Rs. interest for investments.) Cost of trims (labels. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price. the quota system will be removed from January 2005. etc.35 = Rs. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value.75 Dark cols 44. Anyhow. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No. 1.38.85 10. incentives. Light cols = Rs. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example. We have to add this commission.35 56.55 53. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price. profit. machineries. Now let us see these things in detail. bonus.56 We have found out the cost of garment.00 -0. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator.1 per garment. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance.51. It may be approximately Re.
40 per pc. For 150GSM – USD 1. Some Tips: For easy reference. .95 1.00 = USD 1.00 = Rs. L. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea.90 = Rs. Then we will get following prices.00 54. quantity and specifications. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S. .60.Quota category to be mentioned.05 ------68.45. it has to be mentioned.60 = ------= Rs. packing methods. XXL. According to the measurements.95 -----62. we can quote the price to buyer as follows. 7.00 = 1 USD.40 For Dark colours : Rs. we can mention the validity for our prices.Delivery terms to be mentioned.40 FOB.00 = USD 1.If we expect any price hike in near future.60 1. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333. we have to inform like this. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer. For 180GSM – USD 1.51 We understand that the quantities of Light. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333. FOB / C&F / CIF. the prices will differ. . regular packing and ratio. 57 Price / pc . .75 8.60. M. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.50 FOB.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned. Medium and Dark colours are equal.95 divided by 45.00 = USD 1. it has to be mentioned. XL. ratio. For Light colours : Rs. . Enquiry Style No.68.60 divided by 45. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours. It is USD 1. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices.90 68.If the commission is added. If the terms are C&F and CIF.05 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. These are approximate prices only.35 For Medium colours: Rs.00 59.05 divided by 45.62.70 = Rs. Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. For 160GSM – USD 1.80 FOB.60 FOB. Medium.57 Now we add the local transport Profit @ 15% As there is no commission to be paid Prices of garment = Rs.52.60.20 62. For 140GSM – USD 1.15 8. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light.If we made any change in buyer’s details. . 1.
To be attached with second button with a silk rope. Colour to be printed on back side. (Pls find the attached details).5 58 .75 = 2. L. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem. TRIAL COSTING NO. XL.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB USD 1.5 = 2. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.000 pcs. Size.5 = 16. Quantity: 48. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. RN no. safety instructions printed.5 =7 = 1.. Sizes: S.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape .40 Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . Also it will be clear for our reference. Size. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Quota Category: 4 Pls note the above prices are FOB. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.58 Quantity: 20. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch.25 = 14. To be attached with second button with hang tag.5 = 23 = 21.. it will be clear for him.5 = 48 = 48 = 21. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker. Style No.75 = 4. M.Hanger pack.000 pcs. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30.25 = 17.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No.
Cost of accessories (hangers. That is.59 For your reference. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest. 4 cm is to be added with body length. inner boards. etc. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. CMT charges 8. Sleeve length from centre back is 21.50 + 4 = 81.5inches. etc. the full measurements are given here.5 + 27. 3. 4. twill tapes. For our calculation.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 59 . we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. Fabric consumption. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81. 2. As this is all over print program.) 7.5” – ½ (21. So the body length for calculation will be 77. Let us recall the steps once again. tags.5” – 10. 1. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm.5”) = 21. = 21. Cost of trims (labels. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. Fabric cost per garment. That is 77. cartons. badges. So it will be 24 inches.5”. Other charges (print. polybags. Cost of a garment.75” = 27. As this is all over print program. 5. That is. buttons.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm.75” = 10. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. Fabric cost per kg. Remember. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. Price of a garment.5 cm. 61cms. Now let us do the calculation. bows. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm. 10.) 6. Body Length is 30. etc) 9.5cm. embroidery. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. Gross weight of all parts of garment.
00 – Hanger polybag = Rs. packing materials = Rs.00 235.00 Printing charge = 50. 15 grams.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs. 2. for calculation. 18. it can be considered as printed.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. rope. 382 grams.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Gross weight : 312 grams. 3.00 Open width compact = 12.258.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23. 2. (0.135. 15 grams. 5. 2. 40 grams.00 Dyeing charge = 30.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 98.00 Knitting charge = 8. embroidery.60 = (120. etc.) = -Cost of trims (labels.95 Cost of garment = Rs. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. 98.75 Other charges (print.131.00 – Carton.50 CMT charges = Rs.20 60 .50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed.00 = Rs. etc) = Rs. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258. tags. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams. the cost will be approximately the same as printed. 3.
61 Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is the FOB price is USD3. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 61 . Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Sizes: S. M. TRIAL COSTING NO.000 pcs. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. 20. Quantity: 16. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port.30 = Rs. To be attached with the main label.45 per pc. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem..3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no.50 Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.155. XL. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. size and warning instructions printed. L.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC = Rs.
carton. 66.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs.00 = Rs.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 Cost of trims (labels.112.00 Price of garment = Rs. 3.00 199.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Gross weight : 316 grams.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.62 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams.00 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209. 15.00 Knitting charge = 8. 5. 94. 2.00 CMT charges = Rs. packing materials = Rs.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 12.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10.00 Dyeing charge = 50. 3. tags.50 per pc.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas .00 Cost of polybags.00 That is.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams.00 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. the C&F price is USD2.209. 97.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135. etc) = Rs. (0. When giving this price to buyer. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 Cost of garment = Rs. Neck piping : 10 grams. 6.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at 62 . 66.00 Compacting = 6. TRIAL COSTING NO.
it is easier by using following formula. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.1x1 rib at bottom legs . size and warning instructions printed. Quantity: 13. There are 2 ways.500 pcs. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton.. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. 2 Pockets = 70 grams 63 .63 front centre outside waist . 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. Sizes: S. To be sewn at front waist.Solid dyed – Black. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. XL. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. M. XXL. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio. L. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption = 270 grams.
Hence if the program is Solid program. we can use ‘S’ cutting. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. we can minimise the wastage. Width wise. By this way. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. we can find consumption by using following formula. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. We have to work prices with the largest measurements. But we don’t know the seat measurement. In this case. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. This is not acceptable. we get one full thigh circumference measurement.00 64 . reasonably and competitively. back rise & inseam. By doing like this. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. We know only thigh measurement. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. Let us continue the costing. we can quote prices more accurately. For using this formula. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. the wastage will be more.64 Leg rib Total = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement. we must know the measurements of thigh. the seat is the largest measurement. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2.
1. 80. Colour to be printed on back side.50 That is.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs. 15.75 Price of garment = Rs.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224. packing materials = Rs.111. To be attached with main label.00 Woven patch label = Rs.00 = Rs. TRIAL COSTING NO. 20%Grey Melange.25 Cost of garment = Rs.00 6. Size. the FOB price is USD2.65 Knitting charge = Dyeing charge (average) = Compacting = Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 18.00 = 10. 20%Black. 80.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.60 Cost of trims (labels. carton.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs. 2.00 60. Solid dyed – 60%White. 3. etc) = Rs.85 per pc. 0.00 Cost of polybags.00 214.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.108. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label. 4. 65 . 2.128.00 CMT charges = Rs. 3.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Style No. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 Waist rope = Rs. 16. tags.70 =Rs. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.224.
XL. M. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Quantity: 72.00 Compacting = 6. To be attached with main label.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. 400 grams.00 Knitting charge = 15. and warning instructions printed. 40 grams. 40 grams. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. (0. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Size.00 196.205. Sizes: S.66 Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.80 X 400 66 . 15 grams. 15 grams.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.000 pcs. L.80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams.
Label: Woven Brand label at neck. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag..90 per pc. Quantity: 7.60 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. packing materials = Rs. 3. Size and warning instructions printed.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 Twill tape = Rs. tags. 18.4 colour combinations. 82.00 = Rs.30 Embroidery = Rs. 2. 17.00 Cost of trims (labels. 82.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style.00 CMT charges = Rs.67 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Consumption: 67 .00 Polybag. 2. 3. etc) = Rs.200 pcs per combination. Sizes: S. the FOB price is USD2. TRIAL COSTING NO. M. That is 15cm.110. 1.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Polyester printed care label.30 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.60 That is.30 Cost of garment = Rs. 2.113. L.00 Price of garment = Rs.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck.130. carton. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.
Neck piping : 10 grams.70 Price of garment = Rs. 15. 19.00 Compacting = 6.151.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. the FOB price is USD3. 3. etc) = Rs.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 That is.35 per pc.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. 106.106.00 CMT charges = Rs. 2. carton.00 Knitting charge = 30.131.50 Cost of trims (labels.00 Polybag.80 Cost of garment = Rs.127.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 2. 68 .68 = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372. packing materials = Rs.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60. Gross weight : 286 grams. (0.00 338. 2.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. tags.00 = Rs.00 Washing charge = 5.
the consumption will be more than feeder stripes. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. 104. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.00 69 . Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. That is 20cm. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250.00 Washing charge = 5. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 110. Size and warning instructions printed.200 pcs total. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.00 311. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Likewise.. this would be 25cm).00 Knitting charge = 50.69 TRIAL COSTING NO.00 Compacting = 6. Polyester printed care label. 98.3 colour combinations.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Sizes: 92.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) . 116. the allowance for chest should be 6cm. (For adult garments. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams.
70 Fabric wastage @ 10% Fabric cost per Kg COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = 31.10 = 342.10
= 242.50 = 36.00 = 30.00 = 5.00 = 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50
Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60
COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.
36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20
NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.
71 PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 71
72 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 72
amount. validity extension. only with B/L or Airway bill. 25. will be mentioned here. As we have to be careful of these important documents. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). before opening L/C. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. shipment date. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. transferring conditions. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. B/L: As we see above. price. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. after receiving this L/C. 22. . Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. . it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. etc. In this case. description. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. Some times. 26. There may be some mistakes. Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). the amendments are made several times. 23. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. Without these documents. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. 24. To avoid these amendment charges. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment.. let us see the importance and procedures of them. This is called L/C amendment. documents dispatch instructions.73 21. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. 73 . Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. it is a set of following originals and copies. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. he can not clear the goods from his customs. changes or differences in address. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos.
we don’t get the payment. In ‘Documents required’ clause. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. money. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. But it is a long process which will take more time. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. They are only the copies. It is called Negotiable documents. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a 74 . It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill. quality. as we sent one original B/L by courier. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods.. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. etc. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. After the air shipment. Consignment copy.’ If is mentioned other than this. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. buyer can clear the goods. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). documentation. we must be sure of this clause in L/C.. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. In this case. To avoid all these things. Hence they are very important. They are 1. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. With these original B/Ls only. pricing. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). Though we were careful in production. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents.74 Only the originals have got value. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. stress and tension. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………………….
‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. To avoid this practical problem.75 week. as we had seen in sea shipment above. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. only due to the urgency. etc are to be taken care. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. It will be heavy amount. We have to remember. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. in order to get the claim or discount. 75 . we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. In spite of all these reasons. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. it is not safe for the supplier. But as per L/C condition. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. As the documents are still with them. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. even commas. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. full stops. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. After 3 days. To be specified exactly. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. Hence to be on the safer side. the airport will charge for demurrage. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. To avoid this demurrage charges. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. Then. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. it is mentioned as follows. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. Here comes the problem for exporter. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. Besides.
then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. In this case. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. we must 76 . In other words. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. etc. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. even though the discrepancies are not true. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. 120 days L/C. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. If everything is OK. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. At Sight L/C: As per this term. We have to note that this is the usual period. 60 days L/C. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. Even in this term. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. 30 days L/C. 90 days L/C. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. in order to hold the documents for some days. he can do it. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay.76 On receipt of these documents. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank.
It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 77 . they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. 30 days. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. Here we have to see a very important thing. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. As these buyers are genuine. they will ask for some discounts or claims. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer.77 know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a while or he does not want to pay our bills. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). Accordingly. 60 days. Here comes the important thing. After 7 working days. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. They even say that they don’t want the goods. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. 90 days. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. Some times. fax or email to make the payment. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. After that he will not make the payment. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. Only difference is.
This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. the other L/Cs for 60 days. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. 1. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. etc. Let us see what they are. By this kind of L/C. only if he has financial strength. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. the buyer can get the L/C opened. As we have seen earlier. If there is any quality problem. Then without paying the money to the bank. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. validity. etc. the banks will ask the buyer 78 . are treated and followed. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. In some backward countries. These are all normal L/Cs. Normally they will not open L/Cs. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. 90 days. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. he will not have the facility to open L/C. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. In these terms. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. If he does not have them. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. In the same way. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. But the overall maximum amount. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. 120 days. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. number of renewals. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. 2. In some countries. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. Hence after taking delivery. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. few partial shipments are allowed. As we have seen.78 days from the date of receipt of documents’. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. at least to get the payment without any claim. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. In this case.
he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. After the shipment. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. As nothing can be done. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. Due to any of these above reasons. Without getting 100% confirmation. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. But in D/P terms. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. In this case. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. By these terms. As no buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. In these terms. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. he will not show any interest in the goods. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. etc. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. He would avoid the seller completely. 4. fax and email. the buyer would not answer his call. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. On the other hand. But as this buyer is not genuine. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. He would affect the seller psychologically. If the buyer is genuine. At the same time. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. After 2 or 3 weeks. the seller has to proceed with his production. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. On receipt of the documents in their bank. In these days. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. Then the seller’s problem started. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. If the buyer opens L/C. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. 3. If the buyer is not genuine. these buyers will not open L/C. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. the seller does not have any hold. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. 79 . Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market.79 to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened.
So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. Believe me. 75days. 90days. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. 120days. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. Even after this 80 . I can do this help for you. I will send your documents back. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. Some tips: To avoid this. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. In order to help you. If you agree for this. He will not do anything with the samples). D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. (This is only a drama. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. Due to his commitments on this payment. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. But I have convinced my customer somehow. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. I don’t like to put you into big loss. I can not let you down because you are my friend. 45days. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. I will send your documents back to you. This is almost like D/P terms. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. I can try to sell the goods by myself. So in this term. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. I know this is not fair. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. the seller will have more risks of payment. Pls think it over and let me know. friend. I tried with our customers. etc. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him.80 1. 2. They will have different payment periods like 30days. But in D/A terms. Some times he may lose his business too. other banking charges and bank interest. If you want. No body is interested to take the goods. Or he would agree for D/A terms. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. In the D/P terms. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. 60days. With this commission. I am sorry. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. 3.
The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Work Study. pollution. Customer Study. Also the marketing department controls Production. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. Marketing is very most important. MARKETING For every product. Product Study. Costing & Pricing. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. financial strength. Safety measures. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing. It is also called as Sales. etc. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. safety & environment of factory.. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. etc. either buyer’s bank or the seller can not do anything. etc. Sampling and Quality. etc. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. we must know about the capacity. Shipping and Payment. Merchandising. Some times. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. preference. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. Communication. bribe. Also we must know about our customers. weaknesses. machineries. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. Maternity leave for women workers. overheads. Hours of working. Attendance. labour laws.81 period. Market Study. benefits to workers. staff and workers. Working conditions of workers. Instead of giving details about them. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Pollution. terms of payment. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. strengths. of our company. market situation and general policy of our company. Documentation. salary and wages. Purchase. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. commitment to customers. 81 . I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. Benefits to workers.
Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. a person is a child until the age of 18. . Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. .All exit doors should open outwards. Because of the competition in their sales.82 indirect approach.If emergency exits are locked. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors. fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted.An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. First Aid . fire extinguishers. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. etc. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. . and thus be available to all staff at all times. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. such as emergency exits. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. . . first aid equipment. . we must have sufficient knowledge in these things. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. We must be aware the buyers strategy. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times. etc. mental. Safety Building and Fire Safety . . spiritual.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted.Exits should not be blocked by cartons. 82 . moral or social development. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. indecent behaviour.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory. or suffers mental or bodily harm.First aid equipment must be available in each factory.
Bonded workers. . . at all times of day. . .All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. in case of an accident in the factory. but not a recommended. and the ventilation should be adequate.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care.It is important for the workers' well-being.Wages should be paid regularly. . that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. Fans should be provided when needed. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer. . . . religion or ethnic background. and for the quality of the garments. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated. Factory Conditions . following an injury during work in the factory. and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions.All workers should be entitled to an employment contract.No worker should be discriminated against because of race.Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment. . . Working hours per day should be only 8 hours.In developing countries. and they should have the right to bargain collectively.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable.If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. .83 . prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories.All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. . . Workers’ Rights Basic Rights .Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy. or engage in sexual harassment. gender. level. Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery. Wages and Working Hours . . it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. Also after returning back to work. . . on time and be fair in respect of work performance. she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age.A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 .The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum.The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed.All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will. .Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions.Sanitary facilities should be clean.
. capacity. teamwork. Housing Conditions . cruelty of labour.All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. This will help us always to take the right 84 . granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management.84 workers in the factory. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. Also the company policies must be known to every worker. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. low wages. etc. Environment . If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. Nowadays. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. . from the buyers’ countries. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. There should be ‘open door’ policy. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. some times. fast pace of working and constant improvement.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country. unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business.Separate dormitories. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. etc. With these details.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. child labour. Due to this. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor. Also they are against to the bonded labour system. . So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. contact person’s name.Fire alarms.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries. fire extinguishers. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. Basic values include believing in people. and preferably separated for men and women. . . the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. unsafe factories. quality.
So whenever needed. CEO. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. has done a mistake. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. Factory Manager. So everyone will discuss with him freely. Then only he can take appropriate. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. subordinates. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. Supervisors. When a person. grudges and grievances very well. telephone operators. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. the Head is having his employees. Managing Director. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. Section Head. because the subordinates are helping the Head. He will have easy approach. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. the head may get personal satisfaction. expectations. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him.85 decisions in right time. when we are doing marketing. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. office boys. Likewise. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. In simple words. On the other hand. workers. That is the reason. or even Security Head. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. Department Head. it is very essential for us. who is helping us. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. whenever needed. That too. Administration Manager. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. he should not get angry with him. according to our policies. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. but should think that they are HELPING him. we will not get angry with him. Production Manager. juniors. He will have a pleasing personality. subordinates and other departments. By doing like this. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. Marketing Manager. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. All the Heads should remember one thing always. he can 85 . then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. honestly. assistants. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. securities. The Head may be the Chairman. In the same way. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. When a Head realise this fact. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. he can not do anything by himself alone.
they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. We can see changes everywhere at every time. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. yarn composition.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. involvement. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. quality. This is called Product Judgement. If they have self confidence. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. appearance. but it is not an impossible thing. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. colours. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. dedication and quest for knowledge & information. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. new styles. speciality of garments. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. prints. It may be difficult. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. production. We have to learn continuously. changes are inevitable. possibilities and impossibilities. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. then he will not show any interest in learning further. and they should be their Chief for ever. etc. Especially in garments trade. It is the same for garment also. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. etc. advantages and disadvantages. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. measurements. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . Simply saying. concentration. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. He must know about raw materials and other materials. decorative works. etc. methods of production. To keep their positions. If a man feels that he knows everything. finding and solving problems in production. fabric quality. we can expect rapid changes for every season. quality & blends of new fabrics. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. utility. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. For that we must have self interest. There is no end for learning. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. he can not sell even a small pen. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. complete pictures of pricing. immediately on seeing a garment. new patterns.
So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. styles. new methods. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. colours. let us take the summer garments. measurements. before confirming the styles. Even after the deep study. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. etc. Due to this. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. Thus. fashion forecast. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. Buyer has to work on pricing. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. before April / May 2005. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. etc. colour forecast. colours. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. new regulations. design forecast. etc. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. foreign exchange. new products. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. local market. etc. For example. Style & fit. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. It is not an easy thing. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. financial changes. the consumers would be 87 . colours. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country.87 specifications given by buyers. world economy. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. So. international market. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. new working systems. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. fabrics. analysis and experiment of all these things. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. national market. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. updating banking regulations. In other words. That is. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005.
88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. the store sales would also be good. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. Why and how? It is simple. So while executing the buyers’ orders. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . poor colour fastness. But above all. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. Only because of this reason. if the goods are really good in all aspects. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. Some times. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. They will not mind increasing prices too. As a result. the home made food tastes more than outside food. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. Sometimes. if reasonable. Also as they are happy with our performance. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. fit. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers.. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. etc. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. the Intention. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. When the food is made at home. unsuitable measurements. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. At the same time. On the other hand. Or else. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. of satisfying our family members. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers.
89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89
90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.
Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).
We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90
91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91
They must be very good in business. documentation. there will not be any problem of payment. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. GR form (Exchange control). GSP Form A. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. AEPC endorsed invoice.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. For any terms. There are mainly two types of documents. These documents are called bank documents. then appreciate. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. etc are the shipping documents. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. If there are some small mistakes. We must be honest to ourselves and others. Only our communication can establish. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. we had seen the importance of L/C. various payment terms. etc. They are shipping documents and bank documents. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. They are Invoice. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. The buyer will understand. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. not to show our strength in language. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. If there is any L/C amendment. Inspection certificate. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. Certificate of Origin. After shipping the documents. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. So it should be handled at most care. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. Packing list. this is also an important department. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. then try to find a solution and then will help us. Our purpose is to make clear message. packing list. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. Tough guys dress easy. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. But when we have a friendly. Export Certificate. Honest people like simplicity. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. Visa. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. risk factors. may be poor in English. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. 92 .
CMT. he may suggest any other option. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. etc. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. then he will confirm. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. And this distribution system will be perfect. name of the line or airline.93 Some times. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. finishing. To make this possible. So the raw materials. shipping. this kind of systems can not be expected. connection details. etc. there may be some changes in prices.. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. shipment date. Also the charges of processing. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. it is responsible for the price. other job works. Any decision can be taken. quality and delivery of the purchased items. whether the company is big or medium or small. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. we will be safe too. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. they will produce the documents as per the old information. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. quantities. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. 93 . etc. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. But in small and medium companies. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. In big companies. By this way. This department involves not only with money. So. accessories. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. each department will take care of each job. trims. before stuffing the goods in to container.
Lab dips. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. documentation. Preparing purchase orders. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. Advising quality department about quality level. and smooth relation with buyers. internal communication is also very much valuable. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. Sampling.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. In any case. Preparing internal order sheets. At the same time. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. Some times. they have very high value. Advising and assisting production. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. we can get these problems solved amicably. As we discussed earlier. 94 . The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. Helping documentation department. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. friendly. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. it is very important to develop a healthy. By the same way. Accessories & trims. communication. When we have this kind of understanding relation. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. production. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. Mediating production and quality departments. Internal & external communication. shipping and payment. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. Internal & external communication Earlier. So it is a very valuable department. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments.
Whenever they have enquiries. Prevention is better than cure. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. We have to send many samples to buyers. quality standards and price level. they may not be correctable.Shipment samples Let us see about these samples.95 Even a small omission. product range. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. We may have to spend too much on these samples. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. buyer may need samples. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric.Production samples . These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers.Fashion show samples . Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. They are . Some times. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries.Photo samples . But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 .Proto samples or fit samples . But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. For one enquiry. they will bring orders to us.Wash test samples . then also we will have to send these samples.Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples .Pre-production samples . Sometimes. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices.
we can not blame the buyer. 3 styles or 1 style. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. Based on these samples. Some times. buyer may comment on fabric. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. Any way. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. due to poor quality. some times. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. style and fit. Expected sales may not be possible. we may not get order for even a single style. Of course these samples will help us for our business. These samples are needed to check the measurements. improper measurements. measurements. After getting the approval. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. He too can not help us in this regard. 96 . buyers may do some changes in measurements. making. etc. the approved samples should be followed in production. unmatched prints or embroidery. etc of salesmen samples. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. Some times. All the buyers don’t need these samples. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. but in the actual measurements and specifications. etc for making these samples. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. To avoid this embarrassing situation. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. we may get orders for all 5 styles. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. unsuitable colours. If the order is for 3 colours. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. time. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. measurements. We might have spent more money.96 style. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. for the styles which we don’t get orders. But as we don’t get orders. style and fit. by showing these samples. colour fastness. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. So these samples are very important. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing.
If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. we can correct them in production. for some styles. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. If they don’t get samples on time. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. These samples can be sent from production. colours. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. But we can get higher prices for these orders). etc. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. In any case. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. 97 . hang tag. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. They will accumulate the sales quantities. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. We should not get any remark or comment. they may do wash test also. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. packing box. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. But each order will get small quantity only. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. In this case. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. Sometimes. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. they will place orders repeatedly. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Some times. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies.
Each of these above matching will give different results. tags. at least 1 week time will be wasted. . Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade.Tube light matching. he has to take some extra care. This is not cheating. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. we may think they are closer. If we expect any comments in these samples. When sending the lab dips to buyer.Ultra Violet matching.98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. just a tip). And even if we get some comments from buyers. If we see lab dips in the morning. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. Before sending the lab dips to buyer. Different buyers follow different matching.Sodium light matching (show room). Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. etc. it will differ in sun light. 98 . we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. By this way. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. hence there might be some mistakes. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. To adjust this wasted time. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. (Some times. . If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. he will have to make them again. For example.Sun light matching. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. Our reliability will get questioned here). It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. . it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. Hence before proceeding lab dips. They are . Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. we may think they are not suitable. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything.
Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. merchandiser and buyer. export price. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality.99 While making lab dips. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. specifications. price or price target. 99 . measurements. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. diameter and width of required fabrics. inner boards. labels. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. hang tags. etc to buyer for approval. The description. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. So while preparing internal order sheets. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. If the bar codes are not clear. weight. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. he should order them for bulk. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. They should be advised to the purchase department. This will save a good time. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. colours. But the other information like description. Also as usual. From the merchandising department only. When sending lab dips to buyer. trims. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. He may omit some information to other departments. The other departments may not need these information. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. quality standards. delivery date. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. accessories. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. like buyer’s address. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. etc. polybags. After getting the buyer’s approvals. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. zippers. quantity.
status and problems of each stage of production. delivery terms. the number of inspections will be limited. B/L instructions. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. HS code. he will have to advise and assist production. etc. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. purchase order number. port discharge. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. 100 . initial. for the better flawless production. If we work with the buyers directly. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. though there is a separate production departments. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. payment terms. shipping lines. ETA. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. documents and shipping departments. quantity. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. quality. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. Some times. vessel connections. comments and instruction. description. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. Category. ETD. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. online. documents. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. mid final and final. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level.
In these times of rising costs. This may be a single sentence. which is called production cost. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. accessories and trims. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. responsible and sensitive process. As we see in the earlier chapters. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. For helping to reduce the production cost. overheads. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. At the same time. But the garment production is not that much simple. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. Now let us see this in detail. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. 101 . PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. increasing competition. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. Since 1996. garment styles. nowadays. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. time and cost. Accordingly for the better production of garments. quantity. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. So now. It includes the wages. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. But there is another important cost. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. This is called Work Study method. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. but also involves the fabric production. valuable. Furniture and Shoes. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. we will see garment production in detail. production lead time and targeted shipment date. planning is important.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. proper planning is essentially needed. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. the production department looks after not only the garment production. electricity and maintenance of production floors. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. Upholstery. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control.
46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. It means for this particular garment takes 11. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. while 70% to 80% is handling time. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. this effect is negligible.46 + 10% = 0.5 minutes for production from cutting. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. For example.414 102 .46 – 10% = 0. quality control and packing. prior to the start of the production process. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. pressing. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. with a high level of accuracy. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%. The SMV of cutting. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment. Upper Critical Limit = 0. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. But when we use these advanced GSD systems. flat lock and single needle. sewing. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. In GSD systems. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. By this latest system. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. This is called Line Balancing. In order to balance this. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed.5.5 = 0. It helps us to cost our products. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated. This is not true.
57. Say 110%. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. We can find out the production capacity by working as below.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. Working hours on week days = 9. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. Say 90%. sewing. Say 60%. When we plan for 25 machines.125 hours can be the effective hours. It is to be decided according to the number of workers. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines.5 = 1. sewing and finishing.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. quality checking and packing. 30. That is.125 x 60 11. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. Single needle machine operations will take more time. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting.250 hours. 103 . For example.57. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output.174 garments. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine.174 garments. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly. We do this. pressing. Hence the productivity output will be more. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. let us take 50% of this total hours.
35. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. solid. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates. GSM.000 per month. marketing department. all over printed. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. colour fastness. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. yarn stripes. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment.5 x 1. they will not cooperate with work study department. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. costing department. Also if the cutting is made manually. management and the production lines. The fabrics may be in tubular form.125 x 60 = Rs. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage. etc. prints. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. colour shades (dyeing. open width form.00.94 = Rs. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently. dyed yarns) and hand feel. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics.00. Allowances for cutting. the patterns are to be made accordingly.94 Cost Per Minute So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly. Cost Per Minute = 35. diameter or width. But with so much patience.22. 104 . PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production.000 30.1.
printing mistakes. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines.105 If shrinkage. Then our whole calculation will be changed. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. This is called line system. diameter. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. colour shade and hand feel. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. it is important to cut the 105 . The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. knitting mistakes. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. by using line system in their production. They made this possible. oil stains and other mistakes. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. pockets. some markers may not care about this wales direction. the cutting can not be commenced. But this should not be acceptable. If this not been followed. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. Especially. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. nothing can be done with the cut bits. They may mark them in any vacant places. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. dyeing mistakes. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. yarn mistakes. sewing. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. Feeding between these operations should be even. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. During World War II. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. plackets and other patches. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. Once they are being cut. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay).
This is very important. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. This will help to avoid shading in packing. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. So when cutting the fabrics. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. flat lock machines and single needle machines. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. If we find any bit having a mistake. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. As we had seen earlier. Markings. Though they are in the same lot. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. Because of this carelessness. we will have to reject the full garment. we can reject the bit simply. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. At the same time. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. When cutting manually and by lay. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. the body. In case of ‘S’ cutting. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. in order to avoid shade variation. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls.106 hems along the lines. 106 . sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. When the bits are numbered. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them.
Both manual and power driven machines are available. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . Hence nowadays. When making sewing. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. Speedy sewing is appreciable. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. making. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. attaching collars & pockets. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. Stitches should have required strength. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. If they correct these mistakes then and there. The production managers. there will not be a big problem. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. Though they know better. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. patches and badges. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. But most of the operators don’t do this. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. In order to get better production result. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. But this is not enough. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. the sewing methods. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. because this has safety thread stitch. 5 threads and 6 threads. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. 4 threads. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. attaching labels. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. trimming and packing.
oil stains. This is very important. TRIMMING: After sewing. labeling. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. print or embroidery mistakes. garment shapes. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. This is an important thing to be followed. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. they should cut with extra care. The end user will wash the garments. When they trim the threads of buttons. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. stitching quality. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. general appearance. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. If they handle carelessly. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. damages. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. 108 . So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. button holes and embroidery. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. shade variations and overall finishing of garments.
. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. our way of working. Hence individual packing.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. marketing. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. documentation.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval.in our language. our approach. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. communication. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. finishing. . if the weight is above their local standard weight.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. etc. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications. 109 . our reaction. In a company the quality is expected in management. Buyers may face problems from the workers. So a special team is needed for making samples. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. . . bar codes. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. Labels. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. before using them. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . Before purchasing cartons. our dress code. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders.Fabrics. we have to make various types of samples. our methods. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. pattern maker. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. our policies. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. hang tags. etc. If we don’t follow them properly. production. training and by our systems. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. way of expression. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly.
production departments and merchandising departments. nobody can be blamed. labour management. etc. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. etc. productivity. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. finishing. production sufferings or loss. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. By this way. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. quality of garments. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. At the same time. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. the quality department will not be appreciated. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. the shipment will be affected. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. maintenance of machineries. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. profit or loss. In this system. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. costs. 110 . fabrics. production. They will not listen to the practical problems. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. Most of the times. Quality Audit Dept. Quality Assurance Dept. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. production cost. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. sewing. cutting. rejections. because every one is doing his duties well. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. quality. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. etc. delay in shipment. inspections and mainly the shipment date. intimation to buyers. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. future orders. knitting. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. but the corrective measures.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. yarn. shipment. When there are major quality problems. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. But practically. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. inspections. processing. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. patterning. pressing and up to packing. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation.
This is the cause of all the problems. For example. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. they will not have answer. When a person knows better about the garments. There will not be any use of these reports. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. loose thread ends. loose threads on buttons & labels. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. as everybody join their hands and heads together. This is what happening in most of the factories. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. improper trimming. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. But their views and intention must be the same. As the routine of their jobs. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. It has to work under the merchandising department. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. etc. they find suitable solution quickly. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves. the merchandiser understands the problem. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. So in my opinion. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. he discusses with the merchandising team. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. lesser number of stitches. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. In worse cases. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. Their responsibilities can be different. Even buyers know about these things. As an unwritten rule. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. restricting or preventing mistakes. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. but also to correct them. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. I suggest making some changes in this system. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. The management. Now.
etc).Yarn friction. LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. . fabric weight (GSM). .To dry heat / hot pressing.To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. wear resistance.112 rectified or corrected immediately. . easily.To bleaching.Evenness & hairiness. . Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. .To normal water.Single yarn strength. Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding . . water resistant.To washing. . Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments. azo test.Composition of blends. The important tests are to test colour fastness . . .Yarn counts.Yarn diameter.Acid / alkaline / water spotting . dimensional stability (shrinkage). etc. colour fastness. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality. . saliva.To perspiration (like sweat. . .Bursting strength. sea water & chlorinated water. safety.Fibre content and .Yarn shrinkage.Yarn twist.To light. . Let us see the important tests below. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested. etc. 112 . .To dry cleaning. Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality. fabric handling. amicably and permanently. .Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content. . (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details).
Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for . Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label.113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.Pilling resistance .Washing and flat dry .Snagging resistance . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Abrasion resistance . The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight.Rust proof . In the earlier chapters. 113 .Soil release performance .Wrinkle recovery . The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Random tumble pilling .Stretch & recovery .Dry cleaning . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out. dimensional stability.Relaxation .Wrinkle recovery .Drape coefficient . But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat. washing instructions and wash care labels.Steaming.Water resistance . the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers.Water repellency . . Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron.Crease recovery. They can become discoloured and sun-bleached.Water proofness .Free formaldehyde content .Bow & skew.Moisture content . we had seen the importance of washing methods.Washing and tumble dry . appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by . Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for .
in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. Do not rub. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. to give it a "fuller" feel. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. Do not soak. half a minute only. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. In a separate spin dryer. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. Spin for one minute only. Hand wash only. do not ring out. Rinse thoroughly. 114 . High temperature. linen. Do not wash in water. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. Max. This can result in discolouration. Max 40 degree Celcius. A short spin removes excess water best. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. Dry heavy knitted garments. max 40C". Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. with washing instructions "hand wash. demand special care. The machine should only be half filled. Normal spin. do not rub or ring out. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. For example. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. cotton. Avoid leaving garments to soak. for example. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. 200C. there is a figure indicating the temperature. Within the bowl.
the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. acrylic. Do not dry clean. wool. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. Max 150C. Many garments can also be tumble dried. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. Max 110C. Do not iron or rotary iron. avoid tumble drying 115 . Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. The letters CL. polyamide (nylon). For example. Must not be bleached. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. The line refers to the water added. natural silk. For example. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. for a maximum of one minute. On the other hand. Low temperature. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane.115 Medium temperature. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin.
fit. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . Tumble dry normal. Quality parameters include finish. component parts and garments. Tumble dry low. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. Tumble dry. durability. damages and imperfections.116 garments that you particularly cherish. as per the instructions of buyers. colour. as tumble drying weak the garment. finish. materials. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. Do not tumble dry. Flat dry. materials. but also to the production processes. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. size. product variations. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. Hang dry. High heat in the tumble drier.
. . They are to be measured. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. standard operating procedures. . Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . fabric weight. quantity and finish. environmental. quality. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production.checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. They have to make sure that safety. 117 . accessories and garments. When the measurements are being checked. accessories. work standards and patterns.maintaining accurate records.taking required action where standards of fabrics. colour. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims.applying safety precautions relevant to the task. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting.interpreting work instructions. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered. patterns. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read.assessing operational capability of machineries used.identifying improvements. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output. . sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. interpret and follow information on job instructions. order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. specifications. where necessary. trims. as required. trims. . the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. tickets. regulatory authorities and the company. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. equipment or personnel.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. . In these cases. Or some measurements may not be achieved. specifications.
Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements.118 If there is any change in the measurements. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. Each end user will have different taste of colours. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. Quality checks include visual inspection. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. . physical measurements and checks against patterns. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects. 118 . fabric qualities. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for .the action taken promptly. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. decoration. . including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. sewing.job procedures and work instructions. etc. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels. garment styles. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. .safety policies. making and measurements. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. colours. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. . Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. Also each of them will have different body fits.waste and pollution management. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production.
But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. workmanship. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. By saying like this. 119 .119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. they would argue about the measurement deviations. So when a garment is having measurement problem. The reason is this. They don’t even bother to know about them. style and fit than to measurements. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. they don’t care much about the measurements. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. the presentation is also important for packed garments. fabrics. colours. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. After making their quality reports. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. From their reports. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. the garment can be accepted. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. We are fully responsible for them. if there is any measurement problem. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. checkers. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. fabric quality. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. attractive colours and suitable styles . So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. So logically. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. colours. The colours. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. In most of the factories. We can not do anything on them. styles are most important than the measurements. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands.
At the same time. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. Also by these inspections. inner boards. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. the garment can not be sold. Then the final inspection will be very easy. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits.5 are used in garment inspections. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. bands.120 The things like hang tags. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. On the other hand. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. This is unsafe for the factory. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. When we do the inspections. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. online. pre-final and final inspections. This is also called Assured Quality Level. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. sometimes. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. without doing initial or online inspections. pilot batch. middle. the more quality can be improved. They are initial. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made.065 to 15. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. But if the presentation of packing is not good. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. special branded tags. only some garments can be checked selectively. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. The more number of online inspections. If they are not satisfied with the quality. collar bones. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. Usually the levels 4. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. So after rechecking. Even then. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. These things will not be of any use to the end users. price tags. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. 120 .0 and 2. tissue papers. When they do only final inspections. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. Why because to attract their customers and the end users.
At the same time. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. On the other hand. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. It is not easy. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. We should remember that this is a team work. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. In order to reach these higher levels. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . honesty. it is not an impossible thing. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. That is coordination.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. self confidence. sincerity and hard working. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. But there is one thing is commonly needed.