PREFACE As everybody knows, the textile industry is one of the best trades in the world.

Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career!


INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages 2 Page No. 7 7

8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17

19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23

24 24 24 25 25

25 26 26 27

3 Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31

32 33 34 34 34 34

35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37

ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes 3

37 37 37 38

7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill 4 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 73 73 .1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.4 Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.

90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping 5 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 . 60days.5 Documentation At Sight L/C 30days.

6 Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .

Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. style. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre.cms. embroidery. One is Woven garments. sweatshirts. accurate GSM can not be achieved. fabric quality. But most of the times. Hence nowadays. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. undergarments. prints. trousers.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. etc. we will have only the garments to find GSM. power looms and mill made. colours. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. blankets. Loop knit. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. And we will have to keep the garment for style. According to the structure of fabrics. pyjamas and socks are Knits. Making woven fabrics is simple. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. As this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. Flat back rib. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. If we have fabrics. the fabric has to be 7 . By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. Shirts. sarees. Polar fleece and Jacquards. reed & picks (warp & weft). width should be considered with more care. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. This system is used worldwide. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. towels and made ups are Woven. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. T shirts. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. Fleece. round cutters are used. Interlock.000 sq. With the help of this round cutter. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. But yarn counts. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. they are called by different names. Another is Knitted garments. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. making and other references. Rib. finishing. French Rib. Pique. bed spreads. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10.

Hence after knitting or weaving. This process is called ‘Combing’.8 cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. evenness. Because of the same longer length of fibers. 40’s. etc. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. etc. the fabric will have very even look. So when the yarn counts are increasing. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. 30’s.5 inches. 38’s. availability. According to the technical parameters. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. 34’s. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. 25’s. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. the higher the counts. We can see. 20’s. 16’s. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. 100’s. 8 . Yarn prices based on the thickness. the Yarn. 60’s. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. hand feel. higher the prices. 10’s. Because of this extra process. strength. the thickness becomes lesser. 4’s. 24’s. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. We must know. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. There are 2 qualities of yarn. 36’s. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. 80’s. Combed and Carded. the lesser the thickness. higher the counts. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths.25 inches to 2. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. raw material. Combed is superior quality. We can consider like this. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. a special process is being done. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. For this purpose. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM.

it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. Grey Melange. In colour mélange yarn also. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. bleached mélange. To avoid this shrinkage problem. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. They are Grey mélange. Hence. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. For example. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. which is very important. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. But for dark colour mélange yarns. Bleached Melange are used widely. Ecru mélange. But we must think of shrinkage. According to the required percentage and colour shades. In these yarns. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. Colour mélange. 9 . also the shrinkage can not be controlled. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns.9 The processing (dyeing. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. There are different mélange yarns. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. due to higher shrinkage. Ecru Melange. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. But as we use 100% Cotton. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. etc. Flax mélange. the cotton portion will be in light shade. For light colour mélange yarn. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level.

These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades.250 per kg. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. dull and dead cottons. yarn strength and better quality. Dark colours: Rs. 10 . Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. As the finer cottons are used. Medium colours: Rs. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. the yarn contains more cotton.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. like 60/2. 80/2. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. In manual yarn dyeing. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. For easy reference. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. the dyed yarns are used. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply. Rs. Cost wise. giving more resistance and silky feel. For yarn dyeing.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. 100/2. we can not expect the consistency of shades. as the combing process removes shorter fibers. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP). But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. only combed yarns are used.

This process is called Mercerising. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. 4. Further. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. 3. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. the yarn will be singed (gassed). The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. As mercerising is done two times. these yarns are used for knitwear. 5. underwear and hosiery. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. Used for making very expensive special garments. 2. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. After mercerising. By this process. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). Longer life of garments. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). After combing and twisting. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. These yarns do not create allergies to body. Due to more heat. In this method. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. In any case. Then after mercerizing. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. these dyed yarns are used. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. This will give more life to the garments. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. to minimise the cost. fabrics have to be mercerised again. 11 . Due to its high resistance properties.

12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.



KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13


When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”. 14

polyamide (nylon). then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. then there will be more fabric wastage. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. texture and grey GSM. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. we have to be careful of their counts. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. and 15 . If this diameter is larger than the pattern. it can be knitted in normal machines. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. viscose. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. processed diameter is based on grey diameter.5cms. We have to note that a maximum of 3. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. we get the single yarn with blends. Also as we have seen earlier. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. machine gauge.5cms. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. If the repeat width is more than 3.

So. we use the above formula. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. during knitting. In order to select the suitable denier. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. Also. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. Then only the knitting will be even. Counts = 5315 Denier 5315 Counts Denier = Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. To select suitable denier. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. we can use following conversion formula. 16 . 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric.

Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. sleeves. cuffs. these variations can be limited. there will be shade variations between lots.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . collar.Diameter – machine diameter. . Due to the above reasons. This is very important. rib. before finishing or compacting. we have to check following things before knitting. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. . before processing. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations.Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. . rib. sleeves and grey collars. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. we will not get the same result every time. after compacting (on cutting table). To avoid shading between body.Colour (shade. fastness as per approval) . before finishing or compacting.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. we will get different results. twill tape: 1. . same knitting machine.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. qualities of dyes & chemicals. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. rope. etc. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. after processing. For example. we have to follow the following procedures. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. If we take more care during processing. . sleeves. cuffs. twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. after processing. Grey fabrics for body. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. before processing.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. processing and compacting. 17 .GSM – during knitting. processing water quality.Diameter (as per Pattern) . we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. after compacting (on cutting table). collar and cuffs in one garment. same dyeing factory and same finishing process. rope. . after processing. At the same time.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. compacting method & temperature. processing timing. gauge. To avoid shade variations. processing methods.

Once 1st lot is approved. All the parts of one garment (body. ribs. pockets. etc) should be numbered during cutting. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. We must study the packing methods clearly. cuffs. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. sleeves.18 2. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. collars. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. 18 . cuffs. 4. Fabric for body. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. ribs. sleeves. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. 2. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. Mixing of lots should be avoided. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. When we have to use yarn from different lots. 2. processing time. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. Lab dips should not be referred. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. 5.. 3. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. Water temperature. Collars. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. etc. 3. twill tapes. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. ropes. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. patches. collar. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. cuffs. Fabric program should be made accordingly. 3. before sending the fabrics for processing. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. 6. This is very important. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. 4.

It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. diapers and other sanitary items.4.19 PROCESSING AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing. 3. 2. 2. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only.5-Trimethylaniline. wallets. 3. 4. 2. p-Cresidine. 3. watch straps. 19 .4-Xylidine.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane. 2. footwear. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. If the garment supplied by a supplier. They are clothing. 2-Naphthylamine. 3. Hence. Benzidine. wigs. o-Toluidine. 4.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). In April 1996. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. belts.3’-dichlorobenzidine.4-Diaminoanisole. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. towels. bedding. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. 4. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer.3’-Dimethyl-4. 4.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. O-Anisidine.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. hairpieces. 2. 4-Aminobiphenyl. o-aminoazotoluene. gloves. chair covers and toys. hats. p-Aminoazobenzene.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane.4’-Thiodianiline. p-Chloroaniline. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene.4’-Oxydianiline. purses. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin.6-Xylidine.4-Toluylendiamine. briefcases.

Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them. Also it will not give irritation to body. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric.000 per colour. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. Winch bleach is the traditional method. 20 . One is Chlorine Bleach. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. we can smell Chlorine. If this fabric tested for azo contents. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. Another is Peroxide Bleach.7. It will have lesser whiteness. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. Also it will give irritation to body. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. If we smell the fabric deeply. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. Above all. before certifying to buyers. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. But this is not acceptable. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs.10 – 12 / kg. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. By using Continuous bleaching machine.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. Any bright shades like Milk white. It is approximately Rs.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. There will not be any smell. it is banned in most of the countries. They are by using open winches. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. In this case. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs.30–35/kg.

should not be used. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). According to the approved lab dip. During dyeing. 3. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. the fabric will be very stiff. fabrics will be removed from the winches. When lab dips are made. Another is Soft flow dyeing. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. 2. We will have more discussions on this. This is the normal dyeing. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. other Jersey fabric. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. One is Winch dyeing. only Azo Free dyes should be used. which is made with different yarn. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. Even. bulk dyeing will be done. etc. After checking whether the required shade is attained. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. As we discussed above. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. By using these dyes in dyeing. This combination is called Recipe. When the winch is rotated by a motor. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. After this.21 FABRIC DYEING: There are 3 qualities of dyeing. it means Reactive dyeing only. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. enzyme wash. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. Discharge dyes are to be used. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. acid wash. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. the fabrics will roll on winches. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. 21 . there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. For example. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. 1. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. Then only we will get required results. Nowadays. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. There are 2 types of dyeing. They are Reactive dyeing. the Pigment dyes are to be used. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing.

But in soft flow dyeing. Orange. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. Blue. In open winch dyeing. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. Navy. the direct dyes will not be available. Dark Blue. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. It is a closed winch. everything is computerised. the temperature is consistent.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. For some shades. They have to be cut and rejected. etc are Dark colours. Lt Orange. Lt Blue. Lt Yellow. etc are Light colours. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. Light Red. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. It will be much lesser. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. In these cases. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. timing. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. Yellow. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. Also the colour fastness will be better. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. etc are Medium colours. etc are the darkest colours. Lt Pink. Grey. 22 . Light Grey. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. Olive Green. These types of machines are used in recent years. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. Offwhite. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. There will not be any colour patches. Due to this. For the regular shades. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. Green. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. These are called ‘Combination colours’. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. dyes & water capacity. Dark Navy. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Lt Green. Medium Green. Temperature. Red. Blue. Black. As the winch is kept opened. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Brown. Due to this. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. fabric capacity. the temperature of water will not be consistent. Military Green. So after dyeing. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly.

The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness.23 The costliest colour is Royal. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. Also to avoid the handling stains. Black. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. 23 .80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. etc. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. Red. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to reduce the cost. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. the dyeing quality will be inferior. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. Due to this.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. We can get some reduction from the mill. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn.45 to 50 per kg. (It is too expensive. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. To do the fabric mercerising. If the mercerising is not been done properly. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. we can get similar shade. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. these fabrics are to be washed. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . Due to this and due to more processing time. but also improved colour absorbency. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. But after knitting. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. By these colours. Due to this mercerising. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. but it will have poor colour fastness.

twill tapes. ribs. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. From these machines. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. glossy finish of fabric. Shrinkage. 3. The washing charge is normally Rs. There are no facilities in calendering machines. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. With these compacting machines. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form.50 / kg. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). We can get better result from these compacting machines. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. smell and to get softer hand feel. Some times. Steam calendering charge: Rs. 1. If we try to achieve these 3 things together. GSM. 2. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. The collars. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. When we calender the fabrics. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting.15 – 20 per kg.5 per kg. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. We must be aware of this important fact. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also.6 per kg.12 – 15 per kg.24 Not only the fabrics. 24 . Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics.1. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs. Diameter. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines. To remove these wrinkles. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. we can adjust following things.50 to 2. nothing can be done.

ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. They are as follows. After dyeing and after drying. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. 2. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. only after drying the 1st colour. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. Loop knit (French rib). We can print the second colour.10 per kg. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. Quick and time saving. But for the blended fabrics.25 HEAT SETTING: The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. we have many advantages in rotary printing. Charges for Heat set: Rs. it is better to do heat set in open width form. Acrylic. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. PRINTING There are two different prints. 25 . The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. as cotton is the natural fiber. fleece. etc. the print quality will differ. it will take more time for multi colour printing. the heat set process is a must. 1. Polyamide (Nylon). Printing is done one colour by one colour. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. But to get better result. Charges for one side raising: Rs. Elastan (Spandex). Viscose. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set.25 – 30 per kg. the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. Especially. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. If the stroke of the printer differs. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. They are all over prints and chest prints.

2. Also before printing. If the fabric does not absorb the water. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. it means the fabric does not have softener. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. Pigment dyes (inks) are used.26 3. Consistent printing colours and quality. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. 26 . These machines are very rare in use. If the fabric is even slightly wet. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. 4. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. Due to this. For printing in Rotary machines. Pigment prints. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. Some times. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. we can achieve perfection in printing.1cms. Rotary screens are in tubular form. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. as the continuous process. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. 6. For this. more care to be taken while making films. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. If the fabric has softener. Though the films are made with computer. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. This will create major problem in garmenting. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. Even though it will cost more. seating and registration.1cms. Immediate drying. the print will be better than on the first side. After printing. 5. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. Perfect registration (placement). screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. 3. it means the fabric has softener. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. if the fabric absorbs the water. the fabric will get completely dried. Less wastage. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). The diameter of the screen is 64. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. If the softener is added. Then the printing will look blurred.

2. Rough hand feel. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. 8. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. after the print. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. 6. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. 5. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. Advantages: 1. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. 6. 9. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. Also due to the double job. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. 7. avoid smell. 3. as the normal procedure. 3. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. 5. a round design may change into an oval shape.27 4. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. a square design may change into a rectangle. 27 . Risk factors: 1. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Cheaper cost. kerosene is used as an alternate. Then. Hence after printing on both sides. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. Print smell. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. If we need softer hand feel after printing. etc. 7. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. Less process after printing. Any shade is possible. As the continuous process. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. 4. Selection or mixing colours are easier. 2. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. the fabric is to be washed after curing. For example.

Softener should not be added in dyeing. water is used in place of turpentine or kerosene.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. It is called Third page image. To avoid this. but after printing we will get entirely new shade. the fabric will smell after printing. 8. 4. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. 5. But this kind of water print is very rarely used. Shade masters will prepare one shade. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. 7. For this. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 3. because of dull look and blurred print effect. Reactive dyes to be used. Procedures: 1. it is better to print in open width form only. To remove the print dusts. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. They are called organic dyes. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. Before bulk printing. As an alternative for this. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. 2. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. They are made mainly from the vegetables. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. This is called water base prints.28 Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. 6. this wash is essential. the print 28 .

it is not used widely. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric.29 dusts will stick to the fabric again. Then fabric is to be dried. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Too many important processes to be followed. 4. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. in pigment printing. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. Best colour fastness. 9. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. Very expensive. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. By touch. (In some cases. 2. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. It means. It is called River Wash. Brightness of colours even after many washes. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. It is better to avoid this). But this will not have better fastness. we can easily use Pigment printing. 5. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. 2. Very soft hand feel. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. Too much care to be taken in every process. 4. we can use pigment printing. 3. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). For this. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. Risk factors: 1. As the water should not be recycled. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. Importantly. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. we have to use Discharge printing. Advantages: 1.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. Longer life for prints. 29 . as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base.

Better colour fastness. Can be printed manually too. 4. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. 3. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. Risk factors: 1. Expensive print cost. No river wash is needed. 2. 30 . 3. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. If White is one of the printing colours. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. the base colour White will be visible as printed. Green. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. after the removal of dyeing colour. after the removal of dyeing colour. This is very important as during printing. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. Then after discharge printing. All colour shades can not be achieved. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. Softener should not be added in dyeing. When printing. After printing is completed. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. and Navy. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. 8. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. 6. It is called Third page image. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. 5. After printing. 4. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. 3. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. To avoid this. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). Then after discharge printing. Red. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. Before bulk printing. Printing to be done with discharge dyes. 2.30 Procedures: 1. 2. 4. 7. Advantages: 1. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. 5. Better soft hand feel. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. 5. Long lasting print quality. That is. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour.

Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). Better colour fastness. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. 3. Less wastage. But prints will have the best quality. No smell. Perfect placement and registration. 6. Foil prints. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. Better smoothness and sharpness. Octopus machine will print automatically. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. print area and coverage. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. Transfer prints. Reflective prints. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. 2. 7. 4. Non-PVC prints. 5. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. No stain in unprinted areas. Like all over printing on rotary machines. etc. With these machines. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. Nowadays only the machine prints are used.31 All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs.: As we see. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. Plastisol prints. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. 9. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. Quick production. etc. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). Motif prints. There are 2 types of machines. 31 . 8. Sticker prints.1 lakh). Water prints. Perfume prints.40 lakhs). Foam prints. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. These costs will differ according to the dyeing shades. Embossed prints. number of colours. This machine is very costly (about Rs. Glitter prints. Longer life for prints. Perfect colours and shades. Sugar prints. 1. Therefore. Flock prints. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. They are as follows. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines.

32 Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. flock. glitters. etc. It does not matter. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. After plastisol print. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. Batiks. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. It is better to use Discharge dyes. it is better to check with the printers. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. as there will be no print smell. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). foam. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. sugar.5 per kg. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. To get the cost of other special quality prints. Fusing cost is included in the above costs. foil. etc. After the manual printing. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. 32 . This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect.

Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. 18. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. it is better to dry them in shadows). If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. 8. 2. (If it is Chlorine bleached. 14. 13. 5. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. nothing can be done about measurements. the other colours will not fix properly. 9. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. 17. And so on. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. This is the dyeing process. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. 7. 10. 16. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. 19. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. And to be dried under shades naturally. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. If there is any other base colour except White. 6. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. shrinkage and shape. they will not get dyed. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. The dipping will be done manually. shrinkage and shape of garment. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. But to get better result. sleeves. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). by taking note of all the details. It will take few minutes only. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. If we do tie & dye in bit form. If we use normal embroidery threads. 12. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. the result will not be good). 15. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. 11. 33 . After the tie & dye process. We have to remember that so far. It may be stripes or any other design. 3. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. 4. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. If we do tie & dye in garment form. As the fixing agent is fixed now. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. Fabrics for body.33 Procedures: 1. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. (In case of emergency.

The printing designs like stars.34 20. GSM. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. Before cutting the bits for garments. processing.18 to 20. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. will be made by wax.. the charges will be based on number of colours. 5. etc. This is also called Wax printing. due to different dyes. 4. 3. garmenting. 2. 2. Mostly used for sarees. etc. for 2 colours. Approximately. bed spreads and lungies. As it is done manually. For larger quantities. Drying by machines is not possible. By this. churidars. 3. flowers. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. Risk factors: 1. depending on the design. length and width of the bits. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. 34 . This is like printing. methods.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. we will get different qualities and results. Hence after removing the waxes. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. Advantages: 1. This is almost like tie & dye. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. BATIKS: This is also done manually. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. 4. Enormous designs can be made. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. can be made at affordable prices. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. During and after the process. As all the processes are done manually. cutting. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. the charge may be Rs. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions.. etc. Better colour fastness. curtain cloths. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons.

Acid wash 3. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. shrinkage and shape. shrinkage and shape. the substances are to be used. 35 . side slits and pockets. 10. 12. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. As the garments are dyed in vessels. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). After the fabrics are dyed. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. Faded wash. cuffs. Fabric for body. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . 1. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. Procedures: 1. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. Then body. for stone washed effect. 9. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. rope. cuff. collars. placket box. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. 2. side slits and pockets.35 GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes.. there may be shade variations between these parts. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. even though we have taken more care. Stone wash. sleeve. 3. by taking note of all the details. 6. 5. 8. sleeves.mainly at neck seam around collar. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. garment dyeing method is followed. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). Denim (Jeans) wash. 7. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. 11. placket box. cuffs are attached together. neck rib. Since many parts are attached. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. (Depending on the required effect. For example. shoulder seam. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). If the garment is processed more than enough. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. shoulder seam. etc. 5. collar. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. Enzyme wash 4. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. cuffs. 4. etc. When we cut the fabrics for making garment. After the garment dyeing. 2.

4. collar. There will not be any shade variation between body. cuffs. 4. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. 14. 5. some other special machines to be used. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. 3. There will be difference in shades and washing effect between lots. Different qualities of washes are possible. The garments. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. Due to the special effects and quality. 3. Due to the damages in garments. are called Lot. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. In these special acoba embroidery machines. Washed look can be achieved. This will vary from machines to machines. 2.36 13. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. 2. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). As the shrinkage is controlled completely. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. Risk factors: 1. etc. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. Advantages: 1. rejections of garments will be high. dyed from one machine at one time. 36 . nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. there will not be any shrinkage further. sleeves. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies.: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. all over embroidery can be made. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. it is expensive.

etc in addition to the number of stitches. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. For adult garments.7 per zip.3 zippers are used. Ropes. though the number of stitches is lesser. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. Elastics. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs.1. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Inner boards. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Badges. Due to competition. Packing pins. fixing cost.15 to 40 per gross. curtain cloths. decorative fabrics. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs. Because of its own quality nature. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs.40 to 60 per gross. Also each accessory has many dimensions. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs.5 zippers.24 per zip. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost.10 to 15 per gross.50 per garment. quantity. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs. specifications. Polybags. Labels. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. Hang tags. etc. Cost of No.5 – 7 per zip.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees. 37 . For children garments. Anyhow.22 – 24 per zip. Zippers. But the minimum cost is around 2. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. No. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs. qualities. wooden buttons – Varies as per design. ACCESSORIES Buttons. blouses. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. designer’s fabrics.37 Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. No.00 per 1000 stitches. Tissue papers.50 to 70 per gross. etc.3 zippers is lesser than No. for making costing. etc. Metal buttons.5 zippers are used. Twill tapes.

Badges are in many types. Yarn price to be added with this charge. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. From 1. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. For the special pullers.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs.50 per metre. From 2.0. There are plain elastics and named elastics.1. 6mm.00 per metre. thickness. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. 12mm. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers. 38 .5cm.75 per metre.50 per metre. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics.50 per metre. 2cm. 10mm. Elastics with the width of 4mm.3. Even if the tapes are pulled.30 to 40 per kg. From 3. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments. the zipper can not be opened. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. It can be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers. etc. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. 2. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. In these auto lock zippers. the prices will be different. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. etc are used for legs of undergarments.1.38 Lock quality is to be checked. quality and quantity.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. As these badges are very special. width. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste. size labels. wash care labels. 8mm. It depends on the design. It is approximately Rs. Elastics with 1cm. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed. The prices are based on quality. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. number of colours.2.

0. tags are used and attached with the garments.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. This is an important thing. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels. composition. measurement.0. Damask labels are woven on both sides.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs. design. Woven labels: Main label (2. printing design. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing. 39 . There are 2 types of woven labels.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels. style. This is single weave. sizes. colours. Hence the quality. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also. In these labels. There are non-computerised looms are also available. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.0. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta. colours.30 to Rs. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. The tags can be made at cheaper prices. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands.0. If the yarn colour bleeds. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes.39 Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity.25” width x 10cm length): Rs.10 per label. prices.08 per label.0. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. etc.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water.0.0.0. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier.15 per label. Hence before using the printed labels. it is safer to check them too. With these machines also woven labels are made.0. This is double weave.0.60 to Rs. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size. die-cut design and quantity. In these labels. number of colours. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. care instructions. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels.0.0. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels. single side or both sides printing. Single colour (1. composition. etc.30 to Rs. if printing and cutting are made manually. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users.

00 per board. it may not be recyclable. 40 . the rejection of polybags will be more. As PE polybags are recyclable.40 If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut. prints.0.15 each paper. Another is PE (Polyethylene).0. depends on paper quality.1. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.0.80 per tag.0.0. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used.50 per board.65.40 to Rs. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos.4. normal quality: Rs. If there is anything special. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram. most of the customers insisting to use PE only.55.00. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). If the polybag is very thin. quality. etc. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs.10 to Rs.0.0. special quality with die cut: Rs.30 to Rs.0. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags.0.60 to Rs.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags.0.00 per tag. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity. the price may be around Rs. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment. the price may be Rs.0.00 to Rs. Due to this.80 per bag.50 each paper.25 to Rs.0. die cut (scoring) and quantity.1. PP bags have bright look.50 per tag.40 per bag.1.0.00 to Rs. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs.0. the price may be Rs. For special sizes. quantity. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins.30 to Rs. One is PP (Polypropylene). PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look. measurements. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. For normal size.30 to Rs. depends on quality of paper & print.0.50 to Rs. nowadays.

the tape cost will be Rs. Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside. Recycled papers should not be used. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs.1. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs.5.41 If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape.00 to Rs. the cost will be Rs.4. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs.25 to Rs. sizes.00 depends on the measurements and gauges.24 per bag. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers. styles. etc. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper.0. Hence approximately Rs. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags.00 to Rs. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers. etc. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time.5.00 to Rs.20. sizes suitable for different garment styles.0.60 per garment. plastic hangers.02 for one inch length. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. design.1.3.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments).25 will be the master bag cost per garment. 41 . The hangers are in different types. quantity. If the width of polybag is 12”.0. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments. Also the hooks are in different types. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea.00 approximately. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.15. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers.

and attaching collars & labels. 42 . CMT charge depends on the style of garment. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting. Making and Trimming charges. flat lock & lock stitch machines. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used. Making.Over lock machines. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). only the power driven machines are used. etc. nowadays. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs.25. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread.25.40. . charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. the charges for these jobs are very much higher.42 Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. trims and accessories to these Job workers. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. V neck covering.10 per pc. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. number of jobs with over lock. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity.00 to pack 24 to 50garments. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments.Flat lock machines. pockets. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM. packing methods and other works. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). . Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. quality standards. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used.1. CMT CHARGES (Cutting. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. There are manual and power driven machines are used. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. Lock stitches are used for making plackets.Lockstitch machines. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. time consumption. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. the charges for these jobs are higher. local transport. Though CMT is Cutting.00 to Rs. . productivity.

FAS. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. It is the same as FOB. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs. C&F. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. it will be claimed by the buyer. insurance premium and the freight. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods.12 per pc. Ex-factory. the delivery terms are to be confirmed.12 per may be road or rail transport. It means the buyer will pay the freight . It includes local road transport. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. 43 .10 to Rs. CIF.15 per pc. CIP. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs.20 per pc. CIF: It is Cost.22 per pc.20 per pc.12 to Rs.12 per pc. the charges to be added accordingly. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. rail transport. sea transport.14 per pc. EXW. air transport.43 Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. While we confirm the orders from the customers. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. FCA.13 per pc. These above charges are approximate.10 per pc.10 per pc. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs. etc. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board.12 per pc. Insurance and Freight. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. If it is C&F By air. CFR. If it is C&F By sea. It means freight will be paid by the buyer.8 per pc. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. If there are any extra works. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs. CPT.18 per pc. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. etc.

FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. inspection. CIF terms are used. availability. C&F. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. 3. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). Charges of freight. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. In case of export to other countries. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. 5. 2. There are 20’. If we have doubt about the terms. etc. Local transport to the port. Their approximate capacity is as follows. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. 6.44 EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. 4. Mostly FOB. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): It is the same as FOB. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. routing. Customs charges – Documentation. etc. There are 2 types of loading. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. 44 . Port expenses – Loading. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. 1.

Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. As this port is in the main sea route. etc. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. it is called FCL. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . etc. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume.45 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. the mother vessels do not come to this port. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. shipping lines and conference lines. This system is called transshipment. Sometimes. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. as Tuticorin port is small. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours.may be stuffed in one full container. For example. granite stones. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). routing & transit time. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. In this case. According to the volume of goods. the size of container is to be decided. 45 . Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). Colombo port is very big. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. It is called Loose Container Load. The nearest port is Colombo. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. Though some ports have more sea depth. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. And in Colombo port. the freight will be based on weight too. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. To solve this problem. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. but with more weight – Like steel. transshipment. If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. distance between destinations. This is called Consolidation of Goods.

54. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai.63.1.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs.90. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. Japan.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area. By using these Conference Lines. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too. Hong Kong.000 – Rs.17.58.46 Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments.94.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs.90.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. safety. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between.72.000 – Rs. China.99. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port. Kuwait.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas. (We will discuss about this in detail later). Shipping lines: The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines. As we discussed above.44. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships.1. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L. better connection in transshipments. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only. etc.76. Taiwan. according to their capacities. This is a regular practice.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 46 . Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent. This is also called transshipment.1.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs. their partner company will use their vessel.21.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs. the goods will sail on one company’s ships.

So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. As like sea shipments. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment. most of the shipments will go by sea only.100 to Rs.47 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. Depending on the destination and on the flight services.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). Hence the shipment will be delayed. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. As the freight charges are very high.110 per kg. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. At the same time. In these cases. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume. the goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. 47 .140 per kg. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines.22. the goods have to be sent by air. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. they will be prompt in their connections and timings.36. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. Some times.80 to Rs. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port). we can use smaller airlines. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. The receipt is Airway Bill.

banking charges and commissions. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments. is essential to make perfect costing. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. stuffing charges. To do perfect garment costing. volume of goods. Each product will have different price according to its quality. marketing. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the 48 . CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. shipping. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. finishing. methods and quality systems. sewing and packing. the charges will come about Rs. etc.1. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer.48 Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time.00 to Rs. we have to bear the local transport to the port. etc. processing and finishing of fabrics. etc. advantages and risk factors. distance between ports. customs clearing charges. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. price depends on quality.02% of the total value of goods. sales. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. routing. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. knitting fabrics. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. etc. charges of knitting. documentation charges. processing. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. sewing and packing of garments. over heads. C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. It will come about Rs.4. latest procedures. loading & unloading.2. charges of transport and conveyance.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. transportation (road. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. production. transport and conveyance. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges.6. this charge is very nominal.00 to Rs. market prices and availability. etc. sea. air) and freight charges. etc.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. procedures. When we consider the value of goods. We must remember that the quality depends on price.

Let us see them in detail now. to be taken into consideration. 5. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. etc. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. 5. 7. Men’s Pyjamas. the customer’s price level. 4.49 customers. But compulsorily. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. Ladies Night dress. 2. Fabric consumption. 1. Other charges (print. 2. 3. Fabric cost per garment. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. polybags. embroidery. While we do the garment costing. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. Gross weight of other components of garment. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. twill tapes. 49 . we have to find out following things. costings can be made for other styles too. As there are many different styles in garments. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. Cost of trims (labels. Body Length and Sleeve Length. 4. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. CMT charges 8. we must have full measurements of the garment. bows. 10. tags. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. The method of making costing will vary from style to style. quality & quantity and payment terms. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. Fabric cost per kg.) 7. we must have the measurements of Chest. 3. Men’s Basic T shirts. To make the garment costing. inner boards. Due to the above practical reasons. etc. 6. buttons. Cost of accessories (hangers. etc) 9. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption.) 6. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. To work on the prices exactly. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. Cost of a garment. 1. cartons. Price of a garment. badges.

Large (L). Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. (No style number or no size is needed to print). 50 . TRIAL COSTING NO. the consumption will also be relatively higher. USA. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. the consumption will be lesser.50 The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. if the area of the fabric is 10. The garment measurements for USA. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). S – XXL.000 sq. If the GSM is higher. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. To find the fabric consumption. Australia are measuring in Inches. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. That is.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. Even in Europe. If the GSM is lesser. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). 1 Inch = 2. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. Medium (M). we have to follow the below procedure step by step. Canada.54Centimeters. As we have seen earlier. if the garment measurements are in Inches.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.000 square centimetres). As we discussed earlier. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. In any case. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10.cms. they have to be converted into Centimeters. GSM is Grams per Square Metre. In other words. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM.

As the fabric is in tubular. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. That is. Hem = 3 cms. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. That is. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. Neck rib width = 3 cms. for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey.000 pcs). Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. XL. L. if we are unable to control this. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. For example. the finished fabric may have more width than required. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. 63 or 64cms. Thus. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. (22. Sizes: S. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance.51 Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. Pique & Interlock. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. Hence due to either way. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. In case. Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. M. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. Generally. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. 51 . Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. Length = 78 cms. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.

At the same time. In this case. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric. Length = 78 cms. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. then we have to find out by which fabric width. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. Let us assume following are the measurements. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. we should remember that the front body. (0. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics.52 Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. Chest = 60 cms. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. Neck rib : 10 grams. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. Let us take the GSM is 140. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. the garments are based on weights. In other words. to avoid shade variation. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). Sleeve Length = 24 cms. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. Gross weight : 197 grams.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. 52 . Let us assume that according to the patterns. If they are possible.

So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. Then we will have to calculate as below. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction.14 mtrs of 50” width. Let us calculate the same for 62”. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. among the possible widths. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). Thus. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. we can see that it will be 1. according to the patterns of that particular style of garment. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length.53 We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. we have to select the suitable width.

For Medium colours = 203.70 Dark colours 135.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00 10.20 X 197 1000 = 38. let us work for Medium & Dark colours. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight.25 For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours Fabric cost per garment = 54 . FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.25) Light colours Rs.00) = 224.00 45.00 8.00) For Light colours Likewise.40.00 194. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened.00 8. The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric.44.70 224.00 Knitting charge = 8.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours = 193.00 Compacting charge = 6. It means.00 214. As we had seen earlier.06 (Round off: Rs.00 65.00 6.70 X 197 1000 = 44. 38.38.20 Medium colours 135.00 Dyeing charge = 35. only if they are all over printed on open width form.00 6.00 9.54 This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form.13 (Round off: Rs.70 203.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193.27 (Round off: Rs. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric.00 184.00 Medium colours 40.70 X 197 1000 = 40.00 Dark colours 44. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight.

0.00 1.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. let us see the costs of the required accessories. Export carton – Normal: Rs.25 per garment. 2.1. Master polybag – Normal: Rs.50.10 Hang tag: Rs. tags. labels. Let us see the cost of these things. : Rs.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. 0. 1. ropes. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers.55 OTHER CHARGES (Print.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs.) Cost of trims (labels.45 1.0.Normal (not a special one): Rs. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt). Polybag .0. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier. So there are no charges.85 per garment.85 = Rs.70 58.25 -0.50 = Rs.38. embroidery.0. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs.00 = -= Rs.10.70 55 Medium cols 40.0. etc): For this Basic T shirt. Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts. twill tapes. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label. 1.51.20 1.55 53.85 10. etc.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs.35 per garment. polybags.80 per garment. cartons.35 = Rs. So the total cost of accessories is Rs.75 Dark cols 44. tags. 3. there is no need of print or embroidery. 2.00 = Rs.00 -0. Light cols = Rs.30 per garment. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment .85 10.0. inner boards.00 per garment. Let us see what are the trims required for this style.35 56.10. 1.40 per carton to contain 48 garments. elastic. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2. as example. badges. 1. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one). buttons. COST OF TRIMS (zippers.20 = Rs. cartons. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags.00 1.35 52.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments. We require following things.0. : Rs. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.

incentives.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. It will vary from company to company depends on their size.70 56 Medium cols 40. Let us recall our earlier costing. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price. depreciation of machineries.3333. If the terms are C&F or CIF. electricity. with the above costs of garments. standards. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price. let us work on 15% profit margin.35 56.00 -0. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. etc) and profit margin.00 = -= Rs. Light cols = Rs. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. office salary. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. cartons. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator. 0.00 = Rs.51. Now let us see these things in detail.50. if any. We have to add this commission. machineries. etc.00 1.85 10. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment. For our calculation. So we don’t have to add sea freight.00 1. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example. sea freight / air freight).45 1. It may be approximately Re.25 -0.) Cost of trims (labels. interest for investments. tags. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment . the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’. bonus. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only.75 Dark cols 44. 1. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota.55 53. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No.10. profit. SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt.50 = Rs.85 = Rs. Anyhow. etc. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance. 1.70 58.35 = Rs. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now.20 1.85 10.35 52. COMMISSION: For some orders.38.1 per garment. the quota system will be removed from January 2005.20 = Rs. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags.56 We have found out the cost of garment.

3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light.51 We understand that the quantities of Light.40 FOB.05 ------68. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333. L. These are approximate prices only. Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. XL. For 150GSM – USD 1. . According to the measurements.90 68.90 = Rs. M. For Light colours : Rs.60. we can mention the validity for our prices. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours. the prices will differ.57 Now we add the local transport Profit @ 15% As there is no commission to be paid Prices of garment = Rs.05 divided by 45.05 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer.62.52. For 160GSM – USD 1. For 180GSM – USD 1. we have to inform like this. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea.00 = USD 1. Medium and Dark colours are equal.If we made any change in buyer’s details.60 divided by 45.75 8. we can quote the price to buyer as follows. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.15 8. .50 FOB. 57 Price / pc .60. FOB / C&F / CIF. Medium.00 54. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333.68. For 140GSM – USD 1. It is USD 1.00 = 1 USD.If we expect any price hike in near future.00 = USD 1.95 -----62. XXL.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned.Delivery terms to be mentioned. ratio.60.35 For Medium colours: Rs. 7.If the commission is added. Some Tips: For easy reference. . regular packing and ratio. .00 = USD 1.60 FOB.80 FOB.20 62.70 = Rs.45.40 per pc. packing methods. 1.60 1.95 divided by 45.95 1.40 For Dark colours : Rs. Then we will get following prices.00 59.60 = ------= Rs. quantity and specifications. it has to be mentioned. . Enquiry Style No. If the terms are C&F and CIF. it has to be mentioned.Quota category to be mentioned. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S. .00 = Rs.

5 =7 = 1.000 pcs.75 = 4.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No.75 = 2..5 = 16. M. Style No. Also it will be clear for our reference.000 pcs. safety instructions printed. To be attached with second button with a silk rope. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Quota Category: 4 Pls note the above prices are FOB. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.5 = 48 = 48 = 21. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker. Colour to be printed on back side.25 = 14.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB USD 1.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape .. (Pls find the attached details). Quantity: 48. Sizes: S.5 58 .12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.5 = 2. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.Hanger pack. XL. Size.5 = 23 = 21. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. To be attached with second button with hang tag. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. RN no. TRIAL COSTING NO.58 Quantity: 20.40 Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . L. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format. Size.25 = 17. it will be clear for him.

So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm.75” = 27. As this is all over print program. embroidery. 4 cm is to be added with body length. 61cms. = 21. inner boards.5inches. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm. Body Length is 30. etc. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30.5 + 27. That is. etc) 9. 1. CMT charges 8. That is 77. For our calculation.5 cm. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point. Now let us do the calculation. badges.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21.5”) = 21. polybags. 5. That is. So it will be 24 inches.5” – ½ (21. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point.5cm. buttons.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. twill tapes. Fabric cost per kg. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. Cost of accessories (hangers. cartons. Remember.50 + 4 = 81. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. Cost of trims (labels. Fabric cost per garment. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81.5” – 10.) 6. 10. Sleeve length from centre back is 21.) 7. the full measurements are given here. 2. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres. Price of a garment. 4.59 For your reference. Cost of a garment. As this is all over print program. Other charges (print. So the body length for calculation will be 77.5”. etc. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. Let us recall the steps once again.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm. Fabric consumption. bows. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 59 . If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. 3. Gross weight of all parts of garment. tags.75” = 10.

382 grams. packing materials = Rs. the cost will be approximately the same as printed.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15. 18. it can be considered as printed.00 235. 98. 3.135. 2.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23. 3.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.20 60 . FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120. for calculation. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams. 98.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258.131. embroidery.00 = Rs. 2.60 = (120.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 5.00 Printing charge = 50. (0.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Gross weight : 312 grams.00 Open width compact = 12.95 Cost of garment = Rs. tags.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 15 grams. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.50 CMT charges = Rs.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.) = -Cost of trims (labels. rope.75 Other charges (print. etc) = Rs. 2. 15 grams.00 Dyeing charge = 30.258.00 – Carton. etc.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. 40 grams.00 Knitting charge = 8.

Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 61 . Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. XL.50 Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. size and warning instructions printed. Quantity: 16. 20.000 pcs. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no.61 Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is the FOB price is USD3. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.155. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.30 = Rs. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem.45 per pc. M. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck..: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC = Rs. To be attached with the main label. Sizes: S. L. TRIAL COSTING NO. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.

00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas . When giving this price to buyer.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.112.62 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs. 97. (0.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. carton.00 199.00 Dyeing charge = 50. 66. 15. Gross weight : 316 grams.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10. 2. Neck piping : 10 grams. 66.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 That is. 3. tags.50 per pc. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135.00 Cost of garment = Rs.00 Price of garment = Rs.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209. 12. packing materials = Rs. 6.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at 62 .209. the C&F price is USD2. 94. 5. etc) = Rs.00 Cost of trims (labels. 3.00 = Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8.00 Cost of polybags.00 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.00 Compacting = 6.

Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. size and warning instructions printed. Quantity: 13. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton.. 2 Pockets = 70 grams 63 .Solid dyed – Black. M. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. XL.1x1 rib at bottom legs . Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. There are 2 ways. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption = 270 grams. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.500 pcs. To be sewn at front waist. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. XXL. Sizes: S.63 front centre outside waist . Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio. L. it is easier by using following formula. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.

we get one full thigh circumference measurement. By doing like this. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2.00 64 . We have to work prices with the largest measurements. By this way. This is not acceptable. Width wise. Let us continue the costing. we can use ‘S’ cutting. reasonably and competitively. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. we can find consumption by using following formula. Hence if the program is Solid program. For using this formula. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. In this case. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. But we don’t know the seat measurement. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. the seat is the largest measurement. we can minimise the wastage. we can quote prices more accurately. the wastage will be more. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. We know only thigh measurement. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. we must know the measurements of thigh. back rise & inseam.64 Leg rib Total = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 .

1.00 214.60 Cost of trims (labels.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.128.00 60. 3. 2. Style No.00 Waist rope = Rs. etc) = Rs. Solid dyed – 60%White.108. 80.00 Woven patch label = Rs. tags.65 Knitting charge = Dyeing charge (average) = Compacting = Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 18. 65 .90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. the FOB price is USD2. Size.224. 16.70 =Rs. TRIAL COSTING NO.25 Cost of garment = Rs.00 6. 20%Grey Melange.85 per pc. To be attached with main label.75 Price of garment = Rs. carton. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label. 15.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 Cost of polybags. 80.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs.00 = 10. 3.50 That is. 0. 2. 4. 20%Black. packing materials = Rs. Colour to be printed on back side.111.00 = Rs.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.

00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9. L. Size.00 Knitting charge = 15. To be attached with main label. XL.00 196.66 Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Quantity: 72. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.000 pcs. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams.00 Compacting = 6. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm.. 15 grams.205.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45. 15 grams.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. 40 grams. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.80 X 400 66 .80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. 40 grams. 400 grams. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. and warning instructions printed. (0. Sizes: S. M.

TRIAL COSTING NO. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton. 2.130.110. L. 82.30 Embroidery = Rs.90 per pc.00 Twill tape = Rs.67 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. etc) = Rs. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. 82.00 CMT charges = Rs. the FOB price is USD2. 2. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 17.00 Cost of trims (labels. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. tags.113. Consumption: 67 .200 pcs per combination. That is 15cm.4 colour combinations. Sizes: S.. 3. packing materials = Rs. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.00 Price of garment = Rs.60 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Quantity: 7. 18. M. 1. Size and warning instructions printed.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. carton.30 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck. Polyester printed care label.30 Cost of garment = Rs.60 That is.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. 2. 3.00 Polybag.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 = Rs.

2. 3. Gross weight : 286 grams.00 Polybag. 19.68 = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams.00 338.00 CMT charges = Rs. (0.00 = Rs. 2. packing materials = Rs.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372.151.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60.106. tags.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.127.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.131. 15.00 Knitting charge = 30. 2.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 Washing charge = 5.70 Price of garment = Rs. Neck piping : 10 grams.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372. carton.80 Cost of garment = Rs.00 Compacting = 6.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.50 Cost of trims (labels.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33. 106.35 per pc.00 That is. the FOB price is USD3.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. 68 . etc) = Rs.

Label: Woven Brand label at neck. 104. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes. 98.00 311.69 TRIAL COSTING NO. That is 20cm. Sizes: 92.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) . (For adult garments. Likewise. 110. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. Polyester printed care label.00 Compacting = 6.00 Washing charge = 5. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams. Size and warning instructions printed. Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.3 colour combinations. 116. this would be 25cm).00 Knitting charge = 50..200 pcs total.00 69 . FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. the allowance for chest should be 6cm. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.

70 Fabric wastage @ 10% Fabric cost per Kg COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = 31.10 = 342.10

= 242.50 = 36.00 = 30.00 = 5.00 = 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50

Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60

COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.

36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20

NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.


71 PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 71

72 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 72

Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. 25. Some times. etc. let us see the importance and procedures of them. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit.. 26.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. will be mentioned here. he can not clear the goods from his customs. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. transferring conditions. price. 73 . There may be some mistakes. Without these documents. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. 23. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges. description. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. To avoid these amendment charges. it is a set of following originals and copies. only with B/L or Airway bill. 22. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. .73 21. amount. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. As we have to be careful of these important documents. after receiving this L/C. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. B/L: As we see above. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. This is called L/C amendment. 24. the amendments are made several times. changes or differences in address. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. In this case. shipment date. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. before opening L/C. . documents dispatch instructions. validity extension. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport.

stress and tension. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail.. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. After the air shipment. There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). we don’t get the payment. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a 74 . Hence they are very important. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. pricing. we must be sure of this clause in L/C.’ If is mentioned other than this.74 Only the originals have got value. With these original B/Ls only. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. buyer can clear the goods. money. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. Though we were careful in production. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). quality. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. In ‘Documents required’ clause.. In this case. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. It is called Negotiable documents. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. documentation. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. To avoid all these things. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. etc. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. as we sent one original B/L by courier. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. But it is a long process which will take more time. They are 1. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. They are only the copies. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. Consignment copy.

he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. 75 . buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. It will be heavy amount. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. In spite of all these reasons. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. After 3 days. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. in order to get the claim or discount. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). full stops. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. But as per L/C condition. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. it is not safe for the supplier. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. We have to remember. Hence to be on the safer side. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. Then. even commas. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. As the documents are still with them. it is mentioned as follows. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. the airport will charge for demurrage. as we had seen in sea shipment above. To avoid this demurrage charges. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. Besides. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. To be specified exactly. only due to the urgency. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. To avoid this practical problem. etc are to be taken care. Here comes the problem for exporter. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’.75 week. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill.

As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. In this case. 120 days L/C. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. 90 days L/C. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. he can do it. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. 60 days L/C. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. We have to note that this is the usual period. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. we must 76 . In other words. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. even though the discrepancies are not true. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. in order to hold the documents for some days. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. Even in this term. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. 30 days L/C. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. If everything is OK. etc. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. At Sight L/C: As per this term.76 On receipt of these documents.

it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 77 . After 7 working days. Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. Here comes the important thing. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. Accordingly. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. 90 days. They even say that they don’t want the goods. As these buyers are genuine. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. Here we have to see a very important thing. Only difference is. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone.77 know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a while or he does not want to pay our bills. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. After that he will not make the payment. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. Some times. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. fax or email to make the payment. they will ask for some discounts or claims. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. 30 days. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. 60 days. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port.

In some countries. Normally they will not open L/Cs. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. As we have seen. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. etc. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. Let us see what they are.78 days from the date of receipt of documents’. 2. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. In this case. If he does not have them. 120 days. are treated and followed. Then without paying the money to the bank. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. the buyer can get the L/C opened. only if he has financial strength. validity. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. he will not have the facility to open L/C. 90 days. Hence after taking delivery. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. If there is any quality problem. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. By this kind of L/C. As we have seen earlier. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. the other L/Cs for 60 days. the banks will ask the buyer 78 . the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. few partial shipments are allowed. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. In these terms. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. 1. at least to get the payment without any claim. In some backward countries. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. etc. In the same way. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. These are all normal L/Cs. But the overall maximum amount. number of renewals. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use.

4. Then the seller’s problem started. After 2 or 3 weeks. If the buyer opens L/C. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. If the buyer is genuine. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. In these days. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. But in D/P terms. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. the seller has to proceed with his production. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. In these terms. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. Without getting 100% confirmation. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. 3. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. these buyers will not open L/C. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. In this case. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. At the same time. As no buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. On the other hand. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. 79 . some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. After the shipment. He would avoid the seller completely. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. he will not show any interest in the goods.79 to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. On receipt of the documents in their bank. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. the seller does not have any hold. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. the buyer would not answer his call. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. etc. If the buyer is not genuine. He would affect the seller psychologically. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. Due to any of these above reasons. But as this buyer is not genuine. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. fax and email. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. By these terms. As nothing can be done.

If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. other banking charges and bank interest. I can do this help for you. the seller will have more risks of payment. I tried with our customers. But I have convinced my customer somehow. If you agree for this. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. They will have different payment periods like 30days. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. Pls think it over and let me know. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. With this commission. I know this is not fair. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. Due to his commitments on this payment. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. Some tips: To avoid this. But in D/A terms. No body is interested to take the goods. 3. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. I will send your documents back to you. etc. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. I can try to sell the goods by myself. 60days. Some times he may lose his business too. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. Or he would agree for D/A terms. Believe me. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. In the D/P terms. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. In order to help you. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. friend. (This is only a drama. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. I don’t like to put you into big loss. 90days. So in this term. He will not do anything with the samples). seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. This is almost like D/P terms.80 1. 2. 45days. 75days. Even after this 80 . And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. If you want. 120days. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. I am sorry. I can not let you down because you are my friend. I will send your documents back. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance.

Benefits to workers. salary and wages. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. Also we must know about our customers. of our company. safety & environment of factory. Work Study. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. Attendance. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Product Study. Safety measures. Merchandising. preference. strengths. Sampling and Quality. commitment to customers. Maternity leave for women workers. Purchase. machineries. Instead of giving details about them. Some times. Customer Study. labour laws. financial strength. Costing & Pricing. Market Study. Also the marketing department controls Production. we must know about the capacity. terms of payment. benefits to workers. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. Marketing is very most important. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. Working conditions of workers. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. Hours of working. etc. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. MARKETING For every product.. Communication. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. It is also called as Sales. either buyer’s bank or the seller can not do anything.81 period. Shipping and Payment. etc. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. pollution. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. bribe. etc. etc. overheads. staff and workers. Documentation. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. Pollution. market situation and general policy of our company. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. 81 . weaknesses. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing.

Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. fire extinguishers. .All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. and thus be available to all staff at all times. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child.82 indirect approach. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. or suffers mental or bodily harm. Because of the competition in their sales. As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. moral or social development. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. indecent behaviour. . mental. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical.If emergency exits are locked. Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid.Exits should not be blocked by cartons.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. a person is a child until the age of 18. . the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. etc. First Aid . Safety Building and Fire Safety . first aid equipment.All exit doors should open outwards. etc. We must be aware the buyers strategy. spiritual. . . . fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. 82 . Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. .Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times. such as emergency exits.An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things.

. but not a recommended. . .No worker should be discriminated against because of race.Sanitary facilities should be clean. Factory Conditions . . . that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . following an injury during work in the factory. and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. . she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age.All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing.Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit. . Wages and Working Hours . religion or ethnic background.Bonded workers. prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories. it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. .The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed. and they should have the right to bargain collectively. or engage in sexual harassment.Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care.Wages should be paid regularly.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. at all times of day.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions. . on time and be fair in respect of work performance. Working hours per day should be only 8 hours. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will.The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. gender. . Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery. .If foreign workers are employed on contract basis.It is important for the workers' well-being. Workers’ Rights Basic Rights . and for the quality of the garments. level. and the ventilation should be adequate.In developing countries. .A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice. Fans should be provided when needed. .83 .All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. Also after returning back to work. . .The legal minimum wages should be a minimum. . in case of an accident in the factory. .All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment.All workers should be entitled to an employment contract.

With these details. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff.Separate dormitories. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. low wages. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours.Fire alarms. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation. from the buyers’ countries. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. cruelty of labour. unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. Due to this. and preferably separated for men and women. fire extinguishers. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. fast pace of working and constant improvement. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. . Basic values include believing in people. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. Housing Conditions . Nowadays. Also they are against to the bonded labour system.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. unsafe factories. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. Also the company policies must be known to every worker. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. . capacity. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. Environment .All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. some times. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. . And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously. There should be ‘open door’ policy.84 workers in the factory. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. . etc. teamwork. etc. contact person’s name. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. child labour. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. quality.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. . This will help us always to take the right 84 .

or even Security Head. subordinates and other departments. we will not get angry with him. All the Heads should remember one thing always. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. In the same way. Then only he can take appropriate. juniors. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. subordinates. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. expectations. when we are doing marketing. In simple words. who is helping us. So he will have real close relation with colleagues.85 decisions in right time. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. He will have a pleasing personality. because the subordinates are helping the Head. Factory Manager. That is the reason. Marketing Manager. workers. securities. he can not do anything by himself alone. Supervisors. On the other hand. according to our policies. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. but should think that they are HELPING him. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. whenever needed. honestly. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. Section Head. telephone operators. That too. Department Head. Managing Director. So whenever needed. So everyone will discuss with him freely. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. He will have easy approach. it is very essential for us. When a Head realise this fact. CEO. the Head is having his employees. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. he can 85 . he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. has done a mistake. The Head may be the Chairman. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. Production Manager. he should not get angry with him. Likewise. the head may get personal satisfaction. grudges and grievances very well. By doing like this. When a person. office boys. Administration Manager. assistants. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job.

We can see changes everywhere at every time. concentration. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. finding and solving problems in production. It may be difficult. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. To keep their positions. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. fabric quality. Especially in garments trade. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. changes are inevitable. but it is not an impossible thing. He must know about raw materials and other materials. colours. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. dedication and quest for knowledge & information.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. measurements. If they have self confidence. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. involvement. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. etc. we can expect rapid changes for every season. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. quality & blends of new fabrics. appearance. prints. For that we must have self interest. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. possibilities and impossibilities. decorative works. It is the same for garment also. utility. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. This is called Product Judgement. new styles. etc. speciality of garments. complete pictures of pricing. production. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . immediately on seeing a garment. he can not sell even a small pen. and they should be their Chief for ever. quality. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. advantages and disadvantages. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. We have to learn continuously. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. etc. then he will not show any interest in learning further. Simply saying. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. If a man feels that he knows everything. There is no end for learning. new patterns. yarn composition. methods of production.

it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. design forecast. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. styles. Style & fit. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. etc. let us take the summer garments. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. etc. world economy. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. colour forecast. colours. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. new working systems. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. the consumers would be 87 . etc. before April / May 2005. In other words. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. new regulations. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. international market. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. etc. analysis and experiment of all these things. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. financial changes. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. Thus. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. fabrics. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. So. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. Even after the deep study. For example. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. colours. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. foreign exchange. fashion forecast. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. local market. That is. updating banking regulations. measurements.87 specifications given by buyers. new products. Due to this. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. It is not an easy thing. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. before confirming the styles. national market. new methods. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. colours. Buyer has to work on pricing.

Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. As a result. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. They will not mind increasing prices too. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. Some times. fit. When the food is made at home. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. poor colour fastness. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. At the same time. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. But above all. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. On the other hand. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. the store sales would also be good. Why and how? It is simple. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . Also as they are happy with our performance. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. if the goods are really good in all aspects. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. the home made food tastes more than outside food. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. Or else. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. the Intention. Sometimes. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers.. Only because of this reason. if reasonable. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. unsuitable measurements. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. etc. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. So while executing the buyers’ orders. of satisfying our family members.

89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89

90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.

Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).

We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90

91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91

As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. We must be honest to ourselves and others. So it should be handled at most care. For any terms. Our purpose is to make clear message. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. we had seen the importance of L/C. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. there will not be any problem of payment. not to show our strength in language. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. Visa. They are Invoice. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. These documents are called bank documents. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. GSP Form A. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. AEPC endorsed invoice. Export Certificate. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. If there are some small mistakes. this is also an important department. then appreciate. They must be very good in business. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. Only our communication can establish. 92 . we must discuss with the buyer honestly. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. GR form (Exchange control). But when we have a friendly. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. etc are the shipping documents. then try to find a solution and then will help us. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. various payment terms. Packing list. The buyer will understand. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. If there is any L/C amendment. risk factors. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. packing list. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. documentation. Tough guys dress easy. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. After shipping the documents. There are mainly two types of documents. may be poor in English. Honest people like simplicity. etc. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. Certificate of Origin. They are shipping documents and bank documents. Inspection certificate.

In big companies. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. quality and delivery of the purchased items. this kind of systems can not be expected. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department.. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. shipment date. quantities. it is responsible for the price. Any decision can be taken. finishing. By this way. connection details. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. we will be safe too. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. So. etc. So the raw materials. he may suggest any other option. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. before stuffing the goods in to container. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. then he will confirm. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. accessories. they will produce the documents as per the old information. And this distribution system will be perfect. other job works. name of the line or airline. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. each department will take care of each job. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. etc. CMT. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. 93 . So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. shipping. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). To make this possible.93 Some times. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). there may be some changes in prices. This department involves not only with money. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. Also the charges of processing. whether the company is big or medium or small. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. trims. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. etc. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. But in small and medium companies.

At the same time. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. Lab dips. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. communication. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. As we discussed earlier. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. we can get these problems solved amicably. Preparing internal order sheets. When we have this kind of understanding relation. Advising and assisting production. Sampling. they have very high value. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. Preparing purchase orders. Advising quality department about quality level. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. shipping and payment. So it is a very valuable department. documentation. By the same way. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. production. Mediating production and quality departments. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. friendly. In any case. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. Helping documentation department. it is very important to develop a healthy.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. and smooth relation with buyers. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. 94 . Internal & external communication Earlier. internal communication is also very much valuable. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. Internal & external communication. Accessories & trims. Some times.

Fashion show samples . they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. product range. then also we will have to send these samples. We have to send many samples to buyers. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. they will bring orders to us. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office.Wash test samples . Whenever they have enquiries.Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. quality standards and price level. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. Sometimes. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers.Pre-production samples .95 Even a small omission. they may not be correctable. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 .Salesmen samples or promotional samples . For one enquiry. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. Prevention is better than cure. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Some times. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. They are .Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples . But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements.Proto samples or fit samples .Photo samples . this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department.Production samples . buyer may need samples. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. We may have to spend too much on these samples. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company.

improper measurements. colour fastness. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. we can not blame the buyer. So these samples are very important. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. the approved samples should be followed in production. unsuitable colours. due to poor quality. Some times. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. To avoid this embarrassing situation. etc for making these samples. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. After getting the approval. But as we don’t get orders. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. measurements. but in the actual measurements and specifications. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. Of course these samples will help us for our business. Based on these samples. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. style and fit. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. Some times. If the order is for 3 colours. unmatched prints or embroidery. by showing these samples. measurements. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. buyer may comment on fabric. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. buyers may do some changes in measurements. we may not get order for even a single style. 3 styles or 1 style. style and fit. Any way. etc. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. All the buyers don’t need these samples. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. some times. We might have spent more money. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. time. 96 . Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. for the styles which we don’t get orders. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. etc of salesmen samples. Expected sales may not be possible. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. we may get orders for all 5 styles.96 style. He too can not help us in this regard. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. making. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders.

97 . So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. colours. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. we can correct them in production. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. They will accumulate the sales quantities. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. In this case. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. These samples can be sent from production. But each order will get small quantity only. In any case. If they don’t get samples on time. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. We should not get any remark or comment. they will place orders repeatedly. Some times. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. Sometimes. hang tag. for some styles. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. etc. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. But we can get higher prices for these orders). But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. packing box. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. they may do wash test also. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies.

If we see the same in the evening or the next day. hence there might be some mistakes. Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. And even if we get some comments from buyers. By this way. at least 1 week time will be wasted. . it will differ in sun light. Before sending the lab dips to buyer.98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. If we expect any comments in these samples. . we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. 98 . . he has to take some extra care. Each of these above matching will give different results. etc. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. tags. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily.Tube light matching. They are . Hence before proceeding lab dips. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. Different buyers follow different matching.Sun light matching. Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. we may think they are closer. he will have to make them again. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. This is not cheating. When sending the lab dips to buyer. just a tip). And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. To adjust this wasted time. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape.Ultra Violet matching. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. Our reliability will get questioned here). If we see lab dips in the morning. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade.Sodium light matching (show room). it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. For example. (Some times. we may think they are not suitable. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately.

They should be advised to the purchase department. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. 99 . polybags. zippers. delivery date. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. So while preparing internal order sheets. labels. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. he should order them for bulk. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. If the bar codes are not clear. merchandiser and buyer. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. This will save a good time. like buyer’s address. accessories. etc.99 While making lab dips. specifications. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. The other departments may not need these information. But the other information like description. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. The description. He may omit some information to other departments. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. inner boards. etc to buyer for approval. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. Also as usual. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. measurements. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. price or price target. After getting the buyer’s approvals. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. diameter and width of required fabrics. colours. quantity. When sending lab dips to buyer. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. export price. weight. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. trims. hang tags. quality standards. From the merchandising department only.

Category. HS code. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. ETD. B/L instructions. port discharge. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. documents and shipping departments. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. initial. etc. payment terms. though there is a separate production departments. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. 100 . Some times. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. he will have to advise and assist production. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. ETA.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. online. shipping lines. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. If we work with the buyers directly. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. delivery terms. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. the number of inspections will be limited. comments and instruction. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. quantity. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. quality. purchase order number. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. vessel connections. for the better flawless production. mid final and final. status and problems of each stage of production. documents. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. description.

but also involves the fabric production. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. Since 1996. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. Furniture and Shoes. the production department looks after not only the garment production. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. But there is another important cost. quantity. valuable. proper planning is essentially needed. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. we will see garment production in detail. Now let us see this in detail. So now. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. For helping to reduce the production cost. accessories and trims. production lead time and targeted shipment date. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. time and cost. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. garment styles. which is called production cost. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. overheads.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. Upholstery. increasing competition. planning is important. electricity and maintenance of production floors. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. 101 . This may be a single sentence. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. In these times of rising costs. responsible and sensitive process. It includes the wages. This is called Work Study method. But the garment production is not that much simple. Accordingly for the better production of garments. nowadays. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. As we see in the earlier chapters. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. At the same time.

we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. this effect is negligible. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. The SMV of cutting.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness.46 + 10% = 0. sewing. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. pressing. flat lock and single needle.5 = 0. with a high level of accuracy.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0.5 minutes for production from cutting. For example. Upper Critical Limit = 0. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. In order to balance this. while 70% to 80% is handling time. By this latest system. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated. This is called Line Balancing. It helps us to cost our products. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. It means for this particular garment takes 11. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. quality control and packing.5. prior to the start of the production process. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11.46 – 10% = 0. But when we use these advanced GSD systems.414 102 . We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. This is not true. In GSD systems. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock.

the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly.57. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. It is to be decided according to the number of workers.5 = 1.174 garments. pressing.250 hours. Say 60%. Say 90%. We can find out the production capacity by working as below. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. 30. 103 .125 x 60 11. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line. That is. We do this. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. sewing and finishing. When we plan for 25 machines. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. Say 110%. Hence the productivity output will be more.57.174 garments.125 hours can be the effective hours. Single needle machine operations will take more time. Working hours on week days = 9. For example. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. let us take 50% of this total hours. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output. sewing. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. quality checking and packing.

22.000 per month. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently.1. colour shades (dyeing.000 30. Allowances for cutting. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. management and the production lines. 104 . PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting. solid.125 x 60 = Rs. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly. all over printed. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. The fabrics may be in tubular form. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. the patterns are to be made accordingly. diameter or width. yarn stripes. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. dyed yarns) and hand feel. prints. etc. marketing department.94 = Rs.5 x 1. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. GSM. costing department.00. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. colour fastness. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. they will not cooperate with work study department.35.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems.94 Cost Per Minute So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11.00.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. But with so much patience. Cost Per Minute = 35. open width form. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below. Also if the cutting is made manually.

to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. They may mark them in any vacant places. it is important to cut the 105 . oil stains and other mistakes. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. some markers may not care about this wales direction. Feeding between these operations should be even. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. colour shade and hand feel. But this should not be acceptable. diameter. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. knitting mistakes. printing mistakes. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. This is called line system. During World War II. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. by using line system in their production. If this not been followed. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system.105 If shrinkage. pockets. Especially. nothing can be done with the cut bits. plackets and other patches. Then our whole calculation will be changed. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. dyeing mistakes. Once they are being cut. They made this possible. sewing. yarn mistakes. the cutting can not be commenced.

At the same time. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. As we had seen earlier. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. Markings. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. in order to avoid shade variation. When cutting manually and by lay. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. flat lock machines and single needle machines. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. Because of this carelessness. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. 106 . we will have to reject the full garment. When the bits are numbered. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too.106 hems along the lines. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. This will help to avoid shading in packing. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. This is very important. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. So when cutting the fabrics. In case of ‘S’ cutting. If we find any bit having a mistake. the body. we can reject the bit simply. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. Though they are in the same lot.

Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. attaching labels. 4 threads. 5 threads and 6 threads. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. trimming and packing. Though they know better. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. If they correct these mistakes then and there. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. Stitches should have required strength. attaching collars & pockets. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. because this has safety thread stitch. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. Speedy sewing is appreciable. In order to get better production result. When making sewing. patches and badges. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. Both manual and power driven machines are available. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. making. The production managers. Hence nowadays. there will not be a big problem. the sewing methods. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. But this is not enough. But most of the operators don’t do this. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. Single needle machines are used for making plackets.

This is very important. damages. TRIMMING: After sewing. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. oil stains. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. When they trim the threads of buttons. This is an important thing to be followed. garment shapes. print or embroidery mistakes. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. If they handle carelessly. 108 . shade variations and overall finishing of garments. labeling. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. The end user will wash the garments. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. they should cut with extra care. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers. stitching quality. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. button holes and embroidery.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. general appearance. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels.

the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. communication. If we don’t follow them properly.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. our dress code. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric our language. our policies. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows. . Buyers may face problems from the workers. . hang tags. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. 109 . pattern maker. our reaction. documentation. Hence individual packing. etc.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. . if the weight is above their local standard weight.Fabrics. our way of working. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. finishing. before using them. production. our approach. Labels. . training and by our systems. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. etc.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. way of expression. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . Before purchasing cartons. bar codes. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. we have to make various types of samples. So a special team is needed for making samples. In a company the quality is expected in management. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. marketing. our methods. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications.

At the same time. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. pressing and up to packing. delay in shipment. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. labour management. fabrics. sewing. patterning. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. future orders. Quality Audit Dept. etc. 110 . inspections. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. In this system. nobody can be blamed. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. costs. finishing. They will not listen to the practical problems. But practically. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. Most of the times. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. knitting. the shipment will be affected. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. profit or loss. etc. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. When there are major quality problems. quality of garments. By this way. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. yarn. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. productivity. shipment. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. the quality department will not be appreciated. maintenance of machineries. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. quality. because every one is doing his duties well. inspections and mainly the shipment date. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. cutting. production departments and merchandising departments. production cost. intimation to buyers. but the corrective measures. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. processing. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. Quality Assurance Dept. etc. production sufferings or loss. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. rejections. production. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment.

it is very easy for him to find mistakes. But their views and intention must be the same. Their responsibilities can be different. they will not have answer. Now. In worse cases. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. For example. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. they find suitable solution quickly. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. It has to work under the merchandising department. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. This is the cause of all the problems. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. but also to correct them. The management. I suggest making some changes in this system. As an unwritten rule. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. loose threads on buttons & labels. improper trimming. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. When a person knows better about the garments. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. There will not be any use of these reports. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. Even buyers know about these things. the merchandiser understands the problem. etc. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. he discusses with the merchandising team. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. lesser number of stitches. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. As the routine of their jobs. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. as everybody join their hands and heads together. restricting or preventing mistakes. So in my opinion. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. This is what happening in most of the factories. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. loose thread ends. the quality controllers report the merchandiser.

Evenness & hairiness.112 rectified or corrected immediately.Yarn shrinkage.Single yarn strength. easily. .To bleaching. etc).Acid / alkaline / water spotting . . . colour fastness. . Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested. amicably and permanently. LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. . .To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details). .Yarn twist.To dry cleaning. sea water & chlorinated water. .Composition of blends. fabric weight (GSM).Yarn counts. . Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. etc. dimensional stability (shrinkage).Fibre content and .Yarn friction. etc. . .Yarn diameter. fabric handling. . Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding .To light. water resistant. . The important tests are to test colour fastness . Let us see the important tests below. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality. Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality.To dry heat / hot pressing. .To washing.To normal water. wear resistance. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments.Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content.To perspiration (like sweat. safety. .Bursting strength. 112 . azo test. . saliva.

They can become discoloured and sun-bleached. Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label. The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Bow & skew. the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers. Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for . In the earlier chapters.Drape coefficient .Wrinkle recovery . .113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage.Washing and flat dry .Pilling resistance .Snagging resistance . dimensional stability.Water proofness . Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron. Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out.Dry cleaning .Wrinkle recovery .Water repellency .Random tumble pilling .Water resistance . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided. WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.Free formaldehyde content .Rust proof .Steaming. 113 .Relaxation .Washing and tumble dry . appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by . The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight.Soil release performance . But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat. washing instructions and wash care labels. we had seen the importance of washing methods.Crease recovery.Stretch & recovery .Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for .Abrasion resistance .Moisture content .

Spin for one minute only. cotton.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. For example. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. with washing instructions "hand wash. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. High temperature. linen. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. Normal spin. This can result in discolouration. do not ring out. for example. Avoid leaving garments to soak. 114 . Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Do not wash in water. do not rub or ring out. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. 200C. Within the bowl. Do not rub. Dry heavy knitted garments. The machine should only be half filled. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. to give it a "fuller" feel. half a minute only. Rinse thoroughly. Max. demand special care. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. Hand wash only. max 40C". Max 40 degree Celcius. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. there is a figure indicating the temperature. A short spin removes excess water best. Do not soak. In a separate spin dryer.

115 Medium temperature. Low temperature. acrylic. The letters CL. Do not iron or rotary iron. Do not dry clean. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. The line refers to the water added. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. Many garments can also be tumble dried. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. For example. On the other hand. For example. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. Max 110C. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. avoid tumble drying 115 . polyamide (nylon). for a maximum of one minute. Must not be bleached. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. natural silk. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. wool. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. Max 150C.

Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . materials. size. Hang dry. colour. as per the instructions of buyers.116 garments that you particularly cherish. Do not tumble dry. High heat in the tumble drier. Tumble dry normal. Tumble dry low. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. Flat dry. Quality parameters include finish. damages and imperfections. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. but also to the production processes. Tumble dry. durability. finish. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. as tumble drying weak the garment. fit. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. component parts and garments. product variations. materials.

housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. patterns. colour. 117 . accessories and garments.taking required action where standards of fabrics. specifications.checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. work standards and patterns. .interpreting work instructions. environmental.maintaining accurate records. . tickets.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. When the measurements are being checked. They have to make sure that safety. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. . accessories. interpret and follow information on job instructions. trims. . order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. They are to be measured. trims. regulatory authorities and the company. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. equipment or personnel. fabric weight.applying safety precautions relevant to the task. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. Or some measurements may not be achieved.assessing operational capability of machineries used. standard operating procedures. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims. as required. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. . sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. specifications. quality. In these cases. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size. where necessary. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. quantity and finish. . Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered.identifying improvements.

garment styles. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects.waste and pollution management. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. fabric qualities. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. physical measurements and checks against patterns. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. . Also each of them will have different body fits. Each end user will have different taste of colours. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. .the action taken promptly. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels.118 If there is any change in the measurements. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. . Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. 118 . So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. policies. including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. sewing. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production.job procedures and work instructions. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours. colours. decoration. Quality checks include visual inspection. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. making and measurements. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. . Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations.

We can not do anything on them. 119 . We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. if there is any measurement problem. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. colours. So when a garment is having measurement problem. By saying like this. styles are most important than the measurements. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. workmanship. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. After making their quality reports. So logically. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. We are fully responsible for them. fabric quality. In most of the factories. they don’t care much about the measurements. they would argue about the measurement deviations. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. From their reports. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. checkers. attractive colours and suitable styles . They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. They don’t even bother to know about them. colours. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. the garment can be accepted. fabrics. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. the presentation is also important for packed garments. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. The reason is this. The colours.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. style and fit than to measurements. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. Hence I suggest the quality controllers.

The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. pre-final and final inspections. They are initial. the garment can not be sold. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. middle. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. sometimes. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. But if the presentation of packing is not good. If they are not satisfied with the quality. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. Usually the levels 4. On the other hand. Also by these inspections. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. the garments will become worse than before rechecking.5 are used in garment inspections. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. When they do only final inspections. Even then. special branded tags. bands. The more number of online inspections. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. This is also called Assured Quality Level. only some garments can be checked selectively. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. price tags. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. So after rechecking. collar bones. 120 . inner boards. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. online. This is unsafe for the factory. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. without doing initial or online inspections. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0.120 The things like hang tags. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. tissue papers. the more quality can be improved. At the same time. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. These things will not be of any use to the end users. Then the final inspection will be very easy. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed.0 and 2. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. pilot batch. When we do the inspections.065 to 15.

businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. sincerity and hard working. It is not easy. On the other hand. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. honesty. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . it is not an impossible thing. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. At the same time. We should remember that this is a team work. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. That is coordination. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. self confidence. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. In order to reach these higher levels. But there is one thing is commonly needed. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades.

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