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New Light on Some Mediæval Maps

Author(s): C. Raymond Beazley

Source: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Apr., 1900), pp. 378-389
Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of
British Geographers)
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witha nativeuponthesehills; he wasa shepherd, andevidentlya pureSason,tor-

his " yes" wasa " ja"asperfectasanyI haveheardin Germany.I showedhimthe
1-inchmap,and thoughhe had never seen a map beforesave in school,in five
minuteshe hadfairlygraspedthe wholething,but the applicationhe madewasa
little surprising." I have often seen peopleon bicycleswith these maps, they
ask the way,thenlookat the mapandgo the rightway, yon can nevertell a man
the wrongway with a maplike that." 'Thatepisodegave a little insightinto
whatwe mayperbayscall the " slimness" of the Susse2peasant.
Sir CHARLES W1LSON: I hopeyou will allowme to conveyto Dr. Mill your
verywalmthanksforthe paperthathe has beenkindenoughto giveus. I thinkit
is oneof the mostsuggestiveandvaluabletbatI haveheardfora longtimein this
room,anAthe mannerin whichit has beendeliveredmust havebeenagreeableto
all of you. I thillkthatProf.Lapworthis ratherinclinedto lay uponDr. Milltoo
heavya burden. I amafraidif he wereto attemptthe 400 memoirsto the 40@
sheetsof the Survey,he wouldhavemorethan his workcut out for him for his
naturallife. I hope andbelieve,however,that this schemewill go on, that Dr.
Millwill be ableto undertake someof the memoirs,andthat we shallbe fortunate
enoughto obtainthe co-operation of othergentlemenwhowill write memoirsfor
the sheetsin the admirable way in whichDr. Mill has treatedthis one. I have
read the memoirin its writtenform,and I can assureyou thatyou will find it
estremelyinteresting;you will miss the e2rcellent delivery,but there is much o£
interestwhich Dr.Mill has not had time to touch uponthis evening. I hope
manyof his admirable illustrationswill be publishedwith the paper. In many
ways the sheets selectedforthe specimenmemoirareinteresting;but I neednot
point out to you that tbereareequally,i£ not moreinteresting,sheets of which
memoirsmight be written-for instance,those which courer the dearelopmentof
parisbesin a districtoriginallycoveredwith forest.
I hopeyou will allowme to returnDr. Milla verycordialvote of thanksforhis
laboursandthe interestingwayin whichhe has communicated themto us.


Is this paper we are concernedwith variousinter-connectedgrollps
of medisevalmaps, which have hitherto suffered from undeserved
neglect even morethan those of the Beatus family, but are certainly
not surpassedin interest by the latter. For nowheredo we find the
survivalof ancientgeographicalideasin the medinvaltime morestrik-
ingly than in the allied designsof Laulbertof St. Omer,the Macrobius
andSallustmap-illustrations, and the " Glimate" and T-O sketches.
I. Lambert,Canonof St. Omer,wasthe coml)ilerof an encyclopediaF
called LiberFloridqbs, composedof es:tractsfrom 192 differentworks.
In this he has left us a chroniclewhich reachesdownto A.D.1119, ana
must have been finishedbefore ] 125. This chroniclecontains,more--
over, variousmaps, includinga mappemonde,which has survivedin

three diSerent forms- to name only the principal in the manuscript#

of Ghent, Wolfenbuttel, and Pari#.t
That of Ghent #eemsto have been written by Lambert him#elf; bllt
it only gives us Europe, among the three continent# of the world's
scheme. The lesser map-#ketche# include a chart of the winds, one of
the chief towns of the Oikoumene, two Macrobian zone-maps, four
astrological schelne#, and a T-O map. The intention is clearly es-
pressed (but not realized) of supplying a complete mappemonde, to
remedy the deficiencie#noticed above in the world-map.
The Wolfenbuttel manu#cript is closely related to the Paris es-
ample: both are probably copies from the same original, and may be
dated about A.D. 1150. In both, moreover, the mappemonde i# com-
plete (although the Europe of the#e de#ign# i8 lel#S detailed than in
" Ghent "), and both pos#e##a feature of peculiar intere#t. Nowhere
else in media3va1cartography do we find a greater prominence given
to the Unknown Southern Continent,the Au#tralian land of the " fabled
Antipod#," than in the Wolfenbuttel and Paris redactions of Lambert'#
mappemonde. The Paris map is, howevers much more imperfect than
the other copies. All name# of seas are wanting, the Mediterranean
appear# no broader than a river, and there is a want of all clear di#-
tinction between the variou# continents and countries. Eere, too, the
writing i# exceedingly difficult; and Lambert'smaterial has been greatly
altered from the stage we find in the Ghent copy.
On these maps the seas and river# are usually green, the mountain#
red. Each of the three copie# ha# peculiaritie# of it# own; thus, while
Wolfenbuttel and Pari# both give the Southern Continent beyond the
equator, Pari# alone contain# the inscription explaining the #ame, and
throwing so much light on mediseval ideas of the world. The#e ideas,
as here expres#ed,are in close agreement with, and are obviou#lyderived
from, certain views of ancient Greek geographers, e#pecially Erate#
of Mallo#. Atcording to t,hi# theory, the Oikoumene, formed in the
#hape of an ellip#e, was only one of four earth-ma##e#,or quarters,
which lay as it were like #mall i#lands in the va#ter expanse of an
ocean encircling all and dividing the various land# from one another.
Of the#e four lands, the first, of cour#e,wa# our Eabitable World, the
terra coynita of Europe, A#ia, alld Africa. The second was the southern
continellt jU#t referred to, south of the equator, and #eparated from
Africa (a# then conceived) by a torrid strait of #ea. The other two
were on the reverse #ide of the earth-globe, and corre#pondedin #ome
re#pects with the North and South America of later di#coveries.

i The Ghent MS. i3 in the UniversityLibrary,

oncein Libraryof St. Bavon,see fols.
28 and 241; the other two MSS. are numberedrespect-ivelyWolfenbuttel,1 Gudiana
Lat., Paris, Bib. Nat., Suppl. lat. 10 bis. On Lambert'smap Konrad Miller iB
in just the
Theeelandmas#e#weredividedby a tropicalaranof ocean,
earth-island#, Lambert
sameway as the first two. Amongthe#e four third,
he suggest# the
clearlydelineatesthe two on our side; while
#ide) by the little circles
andperhap#also the fourth (on the other
placed or Romanworld,at the extreme
in the marginof the Oikoumene^,
to Para-
and we#t. Thesecirclesare referredby the draughtsmantersnis
and hele tbe latter
diseand "our Antipode.s"respectively;

A T-O 1bIAP.
(Sallust type, Leijpzig,Elerexth Centuf, City Libxary,

serlse,but in a
clearly used, not in the ordinaryand morerestricted be understood
" is to
sciont;ficmanner. The "land of our antipodes
on the other side
as the continentalmass exactly oppositeto Europe, to be inter-
of the globe; and the Paradise-Islandis also (probably)
southern continent of ourhemi-
pretedas precisely antipodeanto the in Lambert's
sphere. It is possiblethat the expressionof this theory
mapwas derivedimmediatelyfrom Macrobiusor
time, and its
in any case it was widely difused in the later imperial
occurrencehere is anotherproofof the C103e dependenceof med;seval
geograwphy uponclassicalantecedent#.
The e2ractlanguageof ourpresente2ramples mustbe noticed. First,
in the TerrestrialParadise,we have the customar;>r sourcesof the four
sacredrivers,the Tigris, Euphrates,Gihon,and Pison. Like Rosmas,
" the Indiantraveller,"Lambertevidentlyintends these rivers to have
a subterraneancourse between Paradiseand our Worldi but there is
no indicationin Eosmasof the fourfoldseheme,or even of the Southern
continent, partially reproducedby Lambert. Secondly, as to " our
antipodes,"markedby the little circle to the west of Europe,Lalnbert
expressly declares this land to be inhabited by living, though not
necessarilyhuman,beings; and assuresus that these beings have their
day and night in an oppositerelation to ours. Thirdly, as to the
Southern,Australian,or trans-equatorialland of ourhemisphere,belomr
Africa, Lambertdefinesit as c4A region of the soutb, temperate{in
climate but unknown to the Sons of Adam,Eaving nothing which
belongsto ourrace." The equatorialseat which here dividedthe land
lnasses was not visible, he adds,to human eisre,since it was always
heatedby the full strength of the sun, which preventedany approach
of mankind,and allowed not of any passae across to this southern
sone. But herein, proceedsLambert,44as some philosophersbdieve,
thereis a raceof antipodswho are quite differentbeingsfromourselves
through the differenceof regions and cliinates. For when we are
scorchedwith heat, they are chilled with cold; and, whereaswe are
allowedto discerll the northernstars,this is entirelydenied to them.
Days andnights they have of one length; but the haste of the sun in
the endingof the winter solstice causes them to suEerwinter twice
To the southof this temperateAustralia,Lambertadds,with a true
understandingof the climatic gradationsof our Wc)rld,was a zone of
extremecold,uninhabitableby living creatures.
The crookedline, runnitlg over the Equator,and markedby three
star pictures,probablyindicatesthe ecliptic or apparentpath of the
sun, whoseobliquityis clearlysuggested, just as the traditiorlalT-O
formof 4'OurWorld,"th0 Northernor RomanOikoumene,is plainly
From all this it will be expected,as a leatter of course,tbat the
content and detail of Larnbert'smap, like his general conception,
will be markedlisrantique in character,and this expectationdoes not
misleadus. l'hough elsewhererealizedto a greateror less extent,the
relationshipbetween the latter classicalcartographyand that of the
middle ages is seldoa to be found in such completee2:pressionas in
the case of Lambert. Of the one hundredand eighty legendsin this

8 " Mediterraneunl mare."


mapa great numberare entirely ancient; the modernnamesare few,

such as Norway,:Planders,Bavaria,and somcothers; even with Isidore
thereare not manypointsof agreement;and the connectionwith Orosius
and Julius Honoriusis not muchmoredefinite. With the Anonymous
Geographerof Ravenna,there are, on the other hand,some surprising
points of contact; the relationship,as far as names go, with Martiamls
Capella,with Solinus,with Beatus,with Aethicusof Istria, or with the
AethicanRecensionof Julius Honoriusdoes not estend beyonda few


small and sometimesdoubtful points. Even with the Bible there are
not many links; amongthe chief of these is the mention of Enoch
and Elias in Paradise, a feature found nowhere else in mediseval
The fact thus remains,that the detail, as well as the ground-plan,of
Lambert'smappemonde is not to be foundin earlierworksof nlediseval
character,and must be referredfor the mostpart to a lost designof the
ancientworld. The chief additionsto this pre-mediseval workaremade

by Lamberthimself, and referto the geography of his own time. We must

not suppose that the present e2rampleis a compilation fromthe writings
of a large number of authors. Plenty are named in the liber Floridusj
but they are only ueed in the way of extract, and do not much aff8ect
Lambert'smap, except, for instance, in the natural history details, which
he has there inserted, -such as the fauns of India, the apes of Partha, and
the parrots and elephants of Arabia, to which, by a strange omission, he
has not added the snakes of Ireland. Lambert's " Eyrcanian tigers " are
perhaps from AmmianusMarcellinus; his " Arabian lions " from Strabo;
his " Indian pygmies " from Isidore; his " trees of the Sun and Moon"
from the Alexander Romance of the Pseudo-Eallisthenes; while his
" Griffins of the North " might be derived from many authors. But
there is no evidence, either in the te2rtor in the map of Lambert, that
:hehad any deep or thorough knowledge of the ancient writers whom
he names, and from whom some have supposed that he derived his-
geography. The geography in question, on the contrary, was probably
taken almost bodily from a map-design, closely similar to that used OF
designed by Macrobius.
II. The connection between the map of Lambert of St. Omer ani
the writings of Macrobiusextends also to the zone- or climate-maps, of
which one group is often known as " Macrobius designs." From
Lambert's picture of the Oikoumene, it is also clear that the so-called
T-O lnaps are not unrelated to his work. Among the climate-maps
(which all illustrate the various, usually five, zones or belts or chief
climatic areas of the world) there are, as we have said, a number which
add to this a special reference to certain passages in Macrobius. Am-
brosius Aurelius Macrobius, who filled high oflices of state under the
Emperor IIonorius, was probably a Greek by birth, and a pagan by
religion. In his famous commentary on the CiceronianDream of Scipio,.
he discussed (at the fifth chapter of the second book) the question of
the terrestrial zones; and to this passage the DIacrobiansketches chiefly
refer. Theisralso draw some of their material from certain paragraphs
at the end of the first book of the same commentary, where Macrobius
deals with the attraction of the earth, and the question of antipodesr
and from the seventh chapter of the second book, where the celestial
zones and the currents of the ocean are explained. Macrobius shares
with Sallust the peculiarity of special map-illustration, arising out of
specifie passages in the works of each; but whereas the Sallust maps
stand comparatively apart, these Macrobian sketches, as we have seen,
are clearly members of a large and interesting family.
Among the sketches in question, some give us nothing but the five
zones; others picture the two earth islands of the eastern hemisphere,
which we have noticed in Lambert of St. Omer. IIere the encircling
and dividing ocean, as in the maps of the 4 Liber iE'loridus,'covers most
of the Earth's surface; and the land masses are reduced, in Cicero's

words,to the position of " specks" upon the mrater.Here,moreover,

the oceancurrents,fromthe equatorto the poles, are clearlyindicated,
and apparentlyconceivedas the principalcauseof the tides.
It is doubtfulwhether the Macrobiusplans were soon alteredby
medinval copyists to the uncertainorientationwhich we find in the
manuscripts. But there is no doubt that Macrobiushimself put the
north at the top, for in the fifth chapterof the secondbookhe says
expresslythat the q4pper temperatezone is inhabitedby men of ourrace.
In one of the zone mapshere referredto, a distinctionis also drawn
between the domesticatedfolk of this same temperatezone and the
wild men of the woodswho inhabitedarcticand torridlands.
We have alreadyalludedto the fact that in the ' LiberFloridus' of
Lambertof St. Omerthere are, besides the mappemonde,various
Macrobiandesigns; and indicationsof the saxnecharacter,written or
sketched,may be found in many other medinval authors. Thus,the
venerableBede,in his ' De teinporumratione,'discussesthe five zones;
;andthis work is accompaniedby a Macrobianmap,which is perhaps
fromthe pen of the famousNorthumbrian scholarof the eighth century.
Onthis map the equinoctialbelt is described,and the fourgreat seg-
mentsof the Earth's circuit are deSned,in strict ag;reementwith the
original Macrobianlanguage. Again, Honorius of Autun, in his
' Imago Alundi' (of the early twelfth century),reproducesMacrobian
ideas,as Bede did beforehim, both in his text and in an illustrative
sketch-map. Oncemore,Williaxnof Conches(de Conchis),who taught
at Paris in the middle of the twelfth century, wrote a work on the
' Philosophyof Nature,'which containsthreeMacrobianmaps. Oneof
these merelysketchesthe five zonesand the zodiac; anothershowsthe
two earthislandsof the easternhemisphere,as in Lambert; the third
is lnore like a simpls T-O design. Ea(,h of thess has a dilferent
orientation. Yet again, the Abbess lIerrade of Landsberg,in her
4 Gardenof Delights' (of about 1180), gives us a slight zone mapwith
the ecliptic,after the maImerof Wlacrobius; while anotherof the same
killd is to be foundin the 4De sphaeraMundi' of John Halifas of Efoly-
wood,in Yorkshire,the celebrated" Sacrobosco," who flourishedand
wrotoin Paris about 1220. Lastly, we may notice in certain manu-
scripts of Hyginu#,one of which is perhapsof the sisth century, a
zonemapwhichdepictsthe four land masses,nor merelyin Macrobian,
but in full liratesianfashion.
III. The remainingclimate-mapsare not alwayseasyto distinguish,
except by the absenceof definiteMacrobianreference,andthe addition
of non-Macrobian matter,fromthe zoneschemesjust noticed. But the
sketch of Petrus Alfonsus of Huesca (of about 110()) is obviously
designedwith the specialpurposeof illustrating the Arabicconceptior
of the world-centrecalled" Arym." This was sometimesviewed as a
mathematicalcentre-pointfor the Oikoumen8, or in a wider sensefor

the whole earth-circleor easternhemisphere;#ometimesas a homeof

accur#ed#pirits, and sometimesa# a my#teriou#and lonely mountain
in the midstof the Indianocean. In the eleventh-centurywritings of
Gerardof Cremona,if not earlier,it passe#into Latin thought; it is
very prominentin RogerBacon, and here in PetrusAlfonsusand other
examplesof media3val cartographyit i# adoptedas a geographicalasioIn
of equalimportancewith the chief climate#and cele#tialdirections.
IJndoubtedlythese climate maps, both Macrobianan(l non-Macro-
bian, had their origin in Greek speculationand science. The type
repre#entedb;ythem was a favouritewith the Arabs; thus DIa#uditells
us he had often examined#uch works,and among them he distin-
guished those of Marinusof Tyre as the best. The gene#i#of the
climate#chemeswas apparentlyas follow#. lElima meant first the sup--
posedslopeof the earthfroma highernorthto a lower south,orviceversd.
Secondly,Hipparchusthe astronomer,about B.C. 160, gave to the term
the specialmeaningof differentbelts,orzone#,of the curvedor#pherical
earth#urface,as determinedby the differentlength# of the longe#tday-
at Syene,Alexandria,Con#tantinople, and #O forth. Thirdly,this con-
ception pas#edinto ancient cartography,and was embodiedwith an
immensebodyof othermatteron the mapsof Ptolemy,and the " #cien--
tific" school. La#tly,the climate#chemewa#abstracted,#O to #ay,from
all else, and sketchedin lough outline maps intended for the use of
beginner#. It i# the work#of thi# latter class which concernus here.
IV. The mapof Lambertof St. OmerconnectsU# not only with the
Macrobiu#map# and the climate designs, but also with that curious
variety of medisevalcartographyknown a# the T-O schemes. These
are very numerous,though at the same time verJrsimi]arin character;
at least eighty manu#cript#, reachingfrom the eighth to the fifteenth
centuries,containde#ign#of this tisrpe;and the conceptionof one and
in the lines of Dati-
all is fully e2rpressed
" Un T dentro a un O mostra il disegno
Como in tre pareefu diviso il mondo."

however,the T and O formationsare

In someof the earliest e2ramples,
not combined; thus, in the oldest Isidoriananalogue#,we have the-
T formationa#sociatedwith #quareand oblong,a# well a# with round,
As early as the fifth centurybefore Christ,someof the Ionic philo--
#opher#hit uponthis a# a convenientform for indicatingroughlythe
chief divisionsof the habitableworld; and,in spite of Aristotle'#con--
tempt, it survived as a popularfavourite. For along with the more
scientific geographyof the ancient world, there was al#o a popular
#ystemrepresentedin #omeof it# phase#by the zoneor climate#ketche#,
and the fourfold Kratesian #chemes we have already referred to;
anotherside of the #amecome#out in the T or T-O de#igns. In the

sniddle of the
esecationof these, (;reece was placed by some in the what-
Oikoumend, and Delphi,or Delos,in the middle of Greece. But
always meant as
ererthe differencesof detail,the T or T- O mapswere known
picturesof the grouping of the great land masses of the
conceptionof a
world;and were usually associatedwith the allied horizon.
centrefor the "cir¢uit of the earth,"the infinitely extended
of a globular earth; but
Thusthey did not necessarilydeny the theory a surface,
with its aspect as
theywereconcerned,and only concerned,
observer. The
ilator elightly curved, as apparent to the ordinarsr
no means uniform; some making
esecutionof the T plan was by
someAsia,the largestof the continents,* though no one gave
to Africa,then usually belieared to end in its south-
warddirectionon this side of the equator.
The "threefold division" (trifaria orbisdivis20)of certain
is probablyexpressedin somesof the Sallust maps better
rigidly symme-
thanin the T-O plansof thesusual type, and was less we have a
tricaland morereconcilablewith scientificviews. of
equal continents
threefolddivision of the Oikoumeneinto fairlsr though
has a certain
Europe,Asia, and Africa; but in this type Asia
slight preponderance, the T has lost its rigidity, the idea of a central
rather to rest
pointis not expressed,and the generalconceptionseems tripartite
masses, than upon any e2ract
uponthe great faet of threeland perhaps
of the T-O familJr, we may also
divasionof the same. In some which
see traces of the threecornered world pictures, or descriptions,
others, were in favour in ancient schools, and
aecordingto Orosiusand based
were used along with fourfold or quadripartitepresentations, to
chief winds,
uponthe four greatquartersof the heavensandthe four
descriptionof a
aonveyrough ideasof geographyto learners. A clear
have seen, and
T mapis given by St. Augustine,who must certainliywhen scholars,
probablyused,a workof this kind; and that at a time of a
politicians,and men of affairswere providedwith representations in ribbon
wholly diferent character,resemblingthe type of road-map
formwhich has eomedownto us ln the PeutingerTable. survived
The moreimportantof the T and T-O mapswhich have ninth
of St. Isidore; one of the
are the following: Two in the works
of the sameage;
contury(now at Madrid);the similarStrassburgmap one in the
theSt.Omerdesignofaboutl010; the plans in Lambert;
chronicleof the Sis Ages of the World,by lIermannus
Contractus;and, mostelaborateof all, the Byzantine
eleven of vFhichoccur
of lllO.t Besidesthese,there are manyothers,
Asia nineteen, and
* Thus Pliny, out of sisty parts, gives Europe twenty-eight, exactly equal to
which made Europe
Africa thirteen. Orosius refers to a reekoning
other two continents, while he also notes the views o£ others, which made Asia equal
,to Europe and Africa together.
t St. John's College Library, Cod. membr,
fol. :svii., fol. 6.

in Isidorealone,but we neednot do morethan add a word about some

of the chief examplesalreadisr mentioned. Among these the two main
Isidoriandesigns are found in the treatise of that Father,commonly
known as the ' Etymologies' or ' Origins' (siv. 2, 3). These are,
perhaps,the best examplesof the familiyas a whole, and are often
spoken of as archetypal. Eere, beside the three continents,we have
the names of the three sons of Noah,one for each continent. Hence
these are also called Noachicmaps. The east is at the top, and the
" Great" or Mediterraneansea occupiesthe whole of the T-formed
intersectionof the continents. Otherschemesof this kind developthe
simple titles (Asia, Shem,and so forth) by explanatorJr inscriptions,
which declare,for instance,that Asia has its namefroma QueenAsia,
and is inhabited by twentiy-sevenpeoples; that Africa is derived-from
Afer, a de#cendant of Abraham,and hasthirty raceswith 360cities; and
that Europe,namedafter the Europaof mythology,is overspreadby
the fifteentribes of the sons of Japheth,who possess120 cities.
The Strassburgplan, of about 870, attempts rather more of detail,
giving U8, in Europe, the name#of Greece, Italy, Esrisia,and four
divisionsof Germany; the Amazons,India, and somescripturalnames
in Asia; Carthage and some other places or regions in Africa.
Jerusalemis markedby a Greek cross,but not in the centre of the
The St. Omersketchof lOlOaccompaniesa collectionof Homilies,
and gives us the newer names of England and Eibernia, Thule, and
Scandinavia; but the so-called"Oxford" of lllO is fuller still. In
many ways this i8 the leadingexatnpleof the T-O family. Of course
we mustnothereexpectanythingmorethana simpleandslight presenta-
tion of Earth-knowledge;its contentis maialy Biblical,but it contains
some features #uggesting a high antiquit;y(such as the inclusion of
Africa under Europe) and other clear mark#of Greek or Byzantine
origin. Thus, the four quartersof the heaven have the Greektitles
of Anatold,Disis (8vzrts),
etc., combinedwith Latin equivalents,Oriens,
Occidens,and so forth. lIere also is one of the first exampleswhere
Jerusalemappearswith the cross and the hill of Zionas the aentreof
the Earth. The beginnings, moreover, of some other favourite
medinval traditions are roughlisrsketched such as the 72 races of
greaterAsia, the 27 tribes of Shem,the lS of Japheth,the 30 of Ham,
the 33 of Armenia,as well as the lq tribes of Israel,and the Disisio
ilpostoloru7n.We are not #urprisedto find an utter misplacementof
many of the chief names; thus Constantinopleis in Asia Minor,
Armeniain the south of Asia, Palestine and Judea in adjoiningplots
of what is labelled " Europe,"but which,as far as the drawing goos,
belong to Africa. The 72 * races of GreatAsia are based perhapson

* Cf. GFervaseof Tilbury, WOtia Imperialia,' ii. 1.

may be fairly
the70 of the Mosaic table, and the whole design by the first
aecribedto a copy of a lByzantine work brought home
Crusaders. to the T-O
V. Manyof the Sallust mapsconformin every respect the addi-
and may be considereda varietyof the latter, but with
chaptersof the
tionof distinct referenceto the 17th, 18th, and l9th makes
' just as the Macrobiansection of the climate-maps
'Jugurtha; of the ' Com-
to certainpassagesin the first and second books
reference are also, as
mentary on the Drearnof Scipio.' The Sallust examples
and conventional than the
alreadysuggested,rather less symmetrical of this
ordinaryspecimensof T-O cartography. The relationship Lelewel,
by Spohn and Wuttke;
groupof designs was first noticed
the study of the
Philippi,and KonradMiller have greatly developed As yet we
salne;but it is probablycapable of still further expansion.
of thesethe earliest
knowof eight largerand five smallerSallustmaps;
one other at
andthree of tlle most importantare now at Leipzig;
of aboutA.D. 980,
Gorlitzis of special interest. The oldest example, for book-bind-
OCCU1Sin a fragmentof a Catilina
manuscript,once used
ing. It is faded and obscure,but the tracesof a city pictureof Xome,
discernible. This
somesmallersketches,and various names are still
the lEediterranean,
mapconformsto the regularT-O type, employing continents.
divide the thlee
Tanais,andNile in the usual mannerto is the
century, also at Leipzig,*
AnotherSallustdesign of the eleventh Baby-
pictures of Rome, Troy,
mostelaborateof this family,giving us
indicationsof the
lorl,Carthage,Cyrene,and Jerusalem;togetherwith
rivers; and of the Alps,
Nile, I)anube,Tanais, and Rhine, among among
Atlas, and the Pyrenees
Lebanon,the Riphean hills, Mount the T-O
a rather free handling of
mountains. In the generaldesign which
Gorlitz of the twelfth century,
conceptionis adopted,as in the
of this type, but
is one of the best and least conventionalspecimens
more pronounced
marredby an inolinationto centralize Jerusalem,
members of this group. In another tenth-century
than in the earlier
of no interest, we have the characteristic
Sallust design, otherwise its several
Emperor divided the whole world into
note, " Julius the
It was probablyat anearlydate,long anteriorto our
was inserted to illustrate
Salltlstman?b8crtptX that the normalSallustmap adapted to a par-
the 17thchapterof the ' Jugurtha.' This special plan,
in most manuscripts by a simple T-O
ticulartext,was howeverreplaced The oldest
sketch,lackingall definitereference to Sallust materials.
exampleshowsU#, perEaps,the originaltype, a pre-Christian this point o£
out Jerusalemand with an overshadowingBome. Fromthan Wuttke,
view we shall be led to push the archetypefurther
well as Sallust.
* In a manus¢riptcontainingLucanand Capellaas

who is satisfiedwith the authorshipof a priest in the northof Italy,

between A.D.600 and 700. Accordingto KonradMiller's view, the
two oldest Leipzig copies,including the show specimenof about 1060,
alreadynoticed,belongto one familJr;the Gorlitzandthirteenth-century
Leipzig to another. iEfewould maintain, and no doubt rightly, the
separateexistenceof both these familiesas early as about850; and the
commonoriginalmayfairlybe referredto a time beforethe destruction,
if not beforethe conversion,of the RomanEmpirein the West.

THEfollowing communicationhas been received from Mr. Malcolm
Fergusson,the surveyorto the expedition,datedNovember10, 1899:-
"I beg to sendyou a statementof ourmovementsandworkup to date.
" We arrivedat BlantyreonJune28, andproceededthence to Zomba,
Fort Johnston,and LakeNyasa,arrivingthere on July 11. We stopped
aboutthe lake till August 1S, whenwe left for Tanganyika. Dr. Gill,
the AstronomerRoyal of Capetown,very kindly wired up the time
to me at Blantyre, making all arrangementsfor this with the Cape
Government. I was also enabledto find the error of my watches at
Nkatabay, on Nyasa, and Kituta,on Tanganyika,from bearingstaken
by the BoundaryCommission. We arrived at Tanganyika on Sep-
tember20, and proceededup the lakeon September28, calling at certain
places,whosebearingsI took by astronomicalobservations,and which
I appendlater. I enclosea tracingof an existinglnapwhich I managed
to obtain here, fromwhich you will be able to see the approximate
positionsof places on the shorewhere I took my observations. I arn
unable to send you a new map, owing to the lack of materialsfor
drawing, etc., but the coast-line seems fairly correct,and only the
positionsof placesrequirealteration. The exact positionof my places
of observationare markedby a dot within a red circle.
" We arrivedat Usamburaon Octoberal, and landed solne of the
loads,whencewe returnedimmediatelyto Kituta to pick up Messrs.
Berridgeand Mathows,who had remainedat Sumbu,and we are now
on our way up again, expecting to arrive at Usamburato-morrow.
We visited the mouth of the Lukuga outlet of Tanganyika. The
mountains,which are very high all along the western shore of the
lake, slopedowngraduallyfromTembwion the south,and fromXtowa
on the north, towardsthe Lukuga valley, which near the shore is a
sandy delta with low sandhills, and through which the river flows
sluggishly in severalsmall streamlets,uniting abouta mile inland. It
then flowsbetween soft red sandstonecliffs,being froln 50 to 100 feet
wide. The nativessay that it increasesconsiderablyin size in the rains.
NO.IV. APRIL, 1900.] 2D

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