NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.

1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07

Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety 7.1 Scope 7.1.1 This chapter provides reference to NASA requirements and guidelines for the design, construction, operation, inspection, and maintenance, of pressure and/or vacuum piping, vessels and systems. 7.1.2 The GRC policy for use and certification of flexible hoses is defined in Appendix A of this chapter. 7.1.3 The GRC Pressure Systems Testing Manual is given in Appendix B. A method to calculate the restricted distance required during testing is given in Appendix C. 7.1.4 Basic cryogenic system and vessel information is provided in Appendix D. 7.2 Applicability The provisions of this chapter are applicable to the Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Plum Brook Station. 7.3 Authority 7.3.1 The authority for the pressure system safety program at GRC comes from the following: a. NPD 8710.5, “NASA Safety Policy for Pressure Vessels & Pressurized Systems”; b. NPR 8715.3, “NASA Safety Manual”; c. NASA STD 8719.17, “NASA Requirements for Ground Based Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems (PV/S); Glenn Safety Manual, Chapter 1 and Chapter 1A. 7.4 Policy and NASA References 7.4.1 NPD 8710.5 provides the basis for NASA STD 8719.17 and subsequently the GRC safety policies on pressure systems. 7.4.2 NASA STD 8719.17 provides certification requirements for new and existing ground based PV/S, (code and non-code PV/S). The standard applies to all ground based equipment designed for, or operating at, positive or negative gauge pressure. See NASA Standard 8719.17 or the GRC Pressure Systems Office (PSO) for exclusions to pressure system certification requirements. 7.4.3 For systems which cannot be certified per NASA Standard 8719.17, see the Glenn Safety Manual, Chapter 1, Appendix A, for GRC Risk Assessment Codes and variance procedures and GRC-P3.10.01, “Pressure Systems Risk Assessment Codes for Safety Permits”.

Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.

NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07

Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety 7.4.4 The GRC Pressure Systems Office web site (within the Facilities Division web site), provides risk assessment procedures and checklists, and supplemental information on preparing pressure system variances (or call 216-433-2973). 7.5 Responsibilities 7.5.1 The Pressure Systems Manager (PSM) is responsible for implementation at GRC of NPD 8710.5, NASA Safety Policy for Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems and NASA Standard 8719.17, NASA Requirements for Ground-Based Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems (PV/S). 7.5.2 The Pressure Systems Office (PSO), reporting to the PSM, is responsible for pressure system and vessel inspection, non destructive examination (NDE), risk assessment and configuration control. The mechanical integrity assessment of pressure vessels and systems via the technical implementation of NPD 8710.5 and NASA Std. 8719.17 is the primary responsibility of the PSO. 7.5.2.1 PSO pressure systems engineers are responsible for conducting all phases of pressure vessel and pressure system (PV/S) design, fabrication, repair, alteration, testing, inspection, and fitness-for-service analysis necessary for the re-certification of PV/S in accordance with NASA NPD 8710.5, NASA STD 8719.17, and all applicable consensus codes and standards (i.e. ASME B&PV and piping codes, NBIC, API, CGA, CFR49, DOT, TEMA, EJMA, NFPA, etc….). These engineers recommend and evaluate non-destructive examinations and inspections performed on all types of PV/S (high pressure gas, cryogenic liquids, hydrogen, oxygen, fuels, wind tunnels, refrigeration, and hydraulic), and determine suitable inspection and recertification frequencies. Pressure systems engineers are qualified in characterizing and analyzing flaws in accordance with latest applicable code requirements and engineering practices, and recommend NDE, ISI, and/or prepare necessary repair specifications to resolve safety issues. Pressure systems engineers resolve issues in dealing with the recertification of existing pressure systems and vessels due to lack of existing system documentation and changes in consensus codes and standards in terms of safe design and construction acceptability. They are also responsible for creation of specifications for system inspections. 7.5.3 The responsibilities of GRC Area Safety Committees are defined in Chapter 1A of the Glenn Safety Manual. Safety Committees are responsible to issue safety permits for process systems and test cells only upon meeting certification or acceptable risk requirements as determined by the GRC pressure systems manager and the pressure systems office (per NASA Standard 8719.17). This requires that a PSO risk assessment or a GRC Safety Variance be included in any permit application package containing a pressure vessel or pressure system. 7.5.4 NASA employees and contractors are responsible to ensure that the pressure vessels and systems which they operate meet the requirements of NPD 8710.5 and NASA Std. 8719.17.

Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.

NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07

Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety APPENDIX A – Flexible Hoses Flexible hoses in use at GRC shall meet the specific application requirements (such as fluid compatibility, pressure, temperature, etc….). A common hose construction for high pressure or hazardous services at GRC is a PTFE liner or tube with a stainless steel overbraid. Reinforced rubber or thermoplastic compositions are also used for appropriate applications. Flexible hoses shall be used only when required for connection of portable equipment, or for vibration isolation when no other feasible means is available. Hazards associated with flexible hoses include flying debris and violent whipping action of the hose due to breakage. Additionally failure of such hoses could result in hazardous commodity leakage and loss of system control. Therefore flexible hoses in many applications must be specified correctly and periodically inspected and certified (as defined below). Hoses must be identified with physical marking as to verify proper application and facilitate inspection and tracking. Hose assembly requirements: a. A hose shall be purchased for the specific fluid that flows through it. Since manufacturers rate hoses for suitability with specific fluids, these compatibility ratings and the manufacturer's pressure and temperature ratings shall be used for determining acceptability. b. The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of the hose must meet or exceed the maximum design pressure of the system. The burst pressure of the hose must be specified by the manufacturer to be at least four times the MAWP. c. At the time of fabrication, steel braided (over braid covering) hose assemblies shall be pressure tested by the manufacturer according to applicable national consensus codes and standards (NCCS). Documentation of such testing must be included with each hose assembly. This does not apply to standard hydraulic hose or other rubber / thermoplastic hose which the manufacturer has certified to be manufactured, tested and assembled to a national standard such as SAE or ISO. Individual assemblies of these hoses are generally not tested by the manufacturer. d. Hose assemblies shall be tagged with a permanent stamped metal tag or marked along the length of the hose (generally hydraulic or utility hoses). The tag or marking shall show the date of the pressure test (if applicable), the maximum design pressure, the manufacturer and part number, and the fluid it will accommodate. The burst pressure may be given on the hose exterior if clearly identified (not to be confused with operating pressure). e. All hoses which may whip and cause physical injury to personnel or equipment damage shall have restraints installed to prevent excessive whipping action should breakage occur. Kellems type restraints (or similar) may be used. Restraints shall be placed at each end and at least every six feet of longer hoses. An evaluation of the potential force should be made to ensure adequate strength of the restraint and anchor points. The manifold or other pressure piping shall not be used as an anchor. Tube trailers are provided with anchoring points for harnesses.

Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.

and maintain appropriate records. ii) Installation per manufacturer’s and or national consensus code requirements. reinforced rubber or thermoplastic hose) and hydraulic system hoses. owner operators will certify. iv) Hoses shall be replaced if any degradation is found. nominal size. research facilities and rigs shall be included in the Pressure Systems Office certification program. kinks. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. and material compatibility with working fluid. vi) Hoses shall meet all required commodity and pressure specifications. material of construction. rated working pressure. ii) Documentation including identification tag number or serial number. rated working pressure. (1) Certification requires the following: i) Manufacturers' pressure test records shall be furnished with the hose and will be maintained by the Pressure Systems Office (PSO). All steel braided (over braid covering) hoses in stationary or mobile process systems. iv) Installation per manufacturer’s and/or national consensus code requirements. v) Inspection records per manufacturer recommendations and/or national consensus code requirements. This includes hoses for all service conditions (regardless of pressure.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. . material of construction.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Inspection and Certification: a. that hoses meet minimum standards for the service conditions. or this test may be performed by the owner / operator on hoses with an ID of greater than 3/8”. manufacturer. ii) External visual examination and internal visual examination with a fiber scope. an inspection by the PSO of the entire length of the hose for evidence of damaged fittings. The dates of inspection shall be documented and maintained by the Pressure Systems Office. (1) Requires the following (by owner / operators): i) Documentation including an identification tag number or reference number. (2) Recertification by the PSO shall include the following: i) Documentation review. b. Proper forms must be completed and the test witnessed. broken wire braid. nominal size. and material compatibility with working fluid. or commodity). iii) On a schedule determined by the PSO. or other signs of degradation. iii) A pressure test at the MAWP by the PSO. For all non steel braided hoses (general utility type. temperature. Hose assemblies shall be removed from service upon evidence of damage or misuse. manufacturer.

“Rubber hoses and hose assemblies – Wire-braid-reinforced hydraulic typesSpecification. Cold-shock testing must be performed on all systems in cryogenic service. “Recommended Practices for Hydraulic Hose Assemblies”. CGA E-9. “Hose Assemblies. A leak check at operating pressure shall be done when first put into service and whenever a system is re-pressurized after downtime. “Hydraulic Hose”. PTFE-Lined Pigtails for Compressed Gas Service APPENDIX B – Pressure Systems Testing Manual Applicability This pressure system testing manual defines testing requirements for existing and new groundbased pressure vessels and piping systems at NASA Glenn Research Center.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. Installed. The purpose of the test is to verify structural integrity and pressure tightness. iv) Replacement hoses shall meet all required commodity and pressure specifications along with appropriate tagging and documentation v) Hydraulic system hose assemblies shall be conventional commercially manufactured hydraulic hose and fittings. All pressurized systems at Glenn must be pressure tested.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety iii) Inspection records per manufacturer recommendations and/or national consensus code requirements. Before any pressure is applied to the system. “Standard for Flexible. .Part 1: Oil based fluid applications” e. it must be chilled to cryogenic temperatures and observed for leakage. vi) Pressure testing of new hydraulic hose assemblies is not required. References: a. “Parker Safety Guide for Selecting and Using Hose.Part 2: Water based fluid applications” f. SAE ARP1658. “Rubber hoses and hose assemblies – Wire-braid-reinforced hydraulic typesSpecification. NASA requires compliance with national consensus codes and standards to maintain the highest degree of safety for personnel and property. SAE J517. After successful completion of the cold-shock test. and documentation. design and construction. the pressure test gives assurance that potential hazards to personnel and property are at a minimum. With appropriate nondestructive examination (NDE). SAE J1273. c. ISO 1436-2. b. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. d. vii) Hydraulic hoses shall have the manufacturer’s burst pressure identified on the external hose diameter. Visual Inspection Guide For” ISO 1436-1. Tubing. Fittings and Related Accessories” g. a pressure test is performed.

and B31. In the following situations a pressure test is required: a. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. the pressure test requirements of the appropriate code shall be used directly. "Fuel Gas Piping". such as an increase in the maximum allowable working pressure or design temperature. These vessels fall within the cognizance of DOT requirements in 49 CFR. In accordance with the applicable NCCS. These codes have requirements that relate to those commodities. including pressure test requirements. The periodic pressure tests specified in 49 CFR shall be performed by an organization qualified in accordance with 49 CFR to perform such testing."Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components".1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Systems requiring testing: A pressure test is required to verify the integrity of all newly installed or altered pressure vessels and piping systems at the Glenn Research Center. The Code of Federal Regulations requires periodic pressure tests and specifies allowable repairs. B31. Some specific codes applicable to Glenn are ASME B31. "Building Services Piping Code. repaired systems may be required to undergo a pressure test. DOT Specification Cylinders: Specification cylinders fall within the cognizance of DOT requirements of 49 CFR. Installation of a new pressure system that uses either new or reused components. b.2. Physical relocation of a stationary pressure vessel. May be required for periodic recertification of a PV\S.8. c. if damage to the pressure vessel is suspected. A reduction in minimum temperature such that additional mechanical tests of system materials are required is also considered an alteration). Alteration of an existing PV\S (The National Board Inspection Code defines an alteration as any change that affects the pressure-containing capability of the system. "Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems". e. B31. . Unique piping systems: Piping systems for certain commodities are designed to specific ASME piping codes.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. d. provided there is no deviation from the original design).9. The Code of Federal Regulations requires periodic pressure tests and specifies allowable repairs. Systems excluded: This pressure testing manual does not apply to the following: Mobile pressure vessels: Compressed gas cargo tanks (mobile tube trailers) and cryogenic liquid cargo tanks (mobile dewars) are classified as mobile pressure vessels. are considered alterations. Repair of an existing pressure system if the system engineer or the NCCS requies it (The National Board Inspection Code defines a repair as any work necessary to restore a system to a safe operating condition.5." For such piping systems. Some nonphysical changes.

appropriate nondestructive examination of the system shall be performed in accordance with the applicable national consensus code. Before any pressure test is started. "Process Piping" ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. and III Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet C-1. This will minimize potential hazard or delay during the pressure test. Section VIII." National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection ASME B31.3. An optional low-pressure gas-leak test followed by a pneumatic or combination hydrostatic/pneumatic pressure test conducted in accordance with the applicable national consensus code. . considerations of time or funding are not sufficient reasons to request use of the alternate test methods or to waive any test requirements. all systems for use in cryogenic service shall be coldshock tested before being pressure tested. In addition.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. therefore." Division I. The unique nature of the research conducted at Glenn may require alternate test methods (other than hydrostatic) which are summarized below along with the primary hydrostatic method: TEST Cold-shock test TEST METHOD For cryogenic systems only.1. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. The ultimate benefit is to ensure personnel safety. Pressure testing is done to verify the structural integrity of a vessel or piping system. "Methods for Hydrostatic Testing of Compressed Gas Cylinders" Test Methods This pressure system testing manual prescribes a hydrostatic pressure test as the baseline requirement for pressure testing of a pressure vessel or pressurized system. "Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels. "National Board Inspection Code. expose system to liquid nitrogen temperatures (-320° F) to verify compatibility of design and materials for cryogenic service An optional low-pressure gas-leak test followed by a hydrostatic pressure test conducted in accordance with the applicable national consensus code. The hydrostatic pressure test shall be conducted in accordance with the applicable national consensus code. Primary pressure test (Hydrostatic) Alternate pressure test (Pneumatic) This manual provides instructions to determine when to request the use of an Alternate test.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Reference Codes and Standards National consensus codes and standards: The following national consensus codes provide guidance on pressure system testing: - 49 CFR NB-23. "Power Piping" ASME B31. II.

incompatibility of materials. Purpose of cold-shock testing: The purpose of cold-shock testing is to verify compatibility of materials.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. in this Appendix. ASME Code. It shall not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure.When using LN2 in the pressure testing procedures for LH2 systems. ASME piping codes also use "design pressure". See “Pneumatic Pressure Testing (Alternate Test)”. This document uses MAWP to describe the maximum pressure at which a component or system is designed to operate. Pressure Terminology Different terms exist for the maximum allowable pressure in a pressure system. for special cases only. etc… leading to brittle fracture or physical distortion. whereas Division II uses "design pressure". . Cold-shock testing of recommended cryogenic materials at LN2 temperatures (-320° F) will produce at least 93% of the total thermal contraction that would be obtained with liquid hydrogen (-423° F) and liquid helium (-452 °F). 1. and it is usually kept at a suitable level below the setting of the pressure relieving devices to prevent their frequent opening. This is evident in the definition of “operating pressure” as defined in ASME Section VIII Div. This contraction in the system being tested may reveal defects such as inadequate design. Sequence of cold-shock test: A cold-shock test is the initial test in the sequence for testing of cryogenic systems. are nitrogen or helium gas cooled to at least -150° F by an LN2 heat exchanger. Fluids for cold-shock test: The recommended fluid for cold-shock testing is liquid nitrogen (LN2). It is to be performed before any pressure test is considered. Division I uses "maximum allowable working pressure" (MAWP). be aware of the weight and temperature differences between the two fluids. equipment. Alternate fluids. CAUTION .1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety No pneumatic test shall be conducted until a written procedure incorporating appropriate safety procedures has been approved by the Glenn Safety Branch and the Pressure Systems Manager. The term “operating pressure” is not synonymous and should not be interchanged with the terms “design pressure” or “MAWP”. The following precautions will help prevent injury to personnel and failure of the system: Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. unless referring to a specific code. and is as follows: “Operating Pressure – The pressure at the top of a vessel at which it normally operates.” Cold-Shock Testing Systems requiring cold-shock testing: All vessels or lines designated for cryogenic service shall be subjected to a standard cold-shock test as described in this section. Section VIII. to allow a sufficient margin between the operating pressure and the relief device set pressure. as a system or vessel typically operates below the design pressure or MAWP. and fasteners for cryogenic service.

Post cold-shock testing procedures: Completion of the cold-shock test shall be documented after the following procedures have been accomplished: Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. rather than through a precooled line. but if such is not possible. Cold flow: If the configuration of a system prohibits complete immersion in LN2. The pressure of liquids trapped in cavities and frozen by cryogenic temperatures may cause failure of the system. The system shall be immersed slowly to prevent LN2 splashing. Gloves that are relatively impenetrable and loose fitting shall be worn for handling LN2 equipment or LN2-cooled parts. A completely chilled system is defined as one immersed in LN2 until excessive bubble formation ceases or until monitoring equipment indicates no further temperature decrease with extended duration of cold flow (15 minutes). Handlers of LN2 shall also wear a face shield that will stop splashes from all directions. Personal protection: The principal hazards of cold-shock testing are the extremely low temperatures involved and the potential for asphyxiation. f.g. All personnel shall be dressed in personal protective equipment before chilling the system. LH2). Ventilation: To prevent asphyxiation of personnel.. component. Trousers shall be cuffless and worn outside leather high-top shoes. b. The piping that runs from the LN2 container to the system being cold shock tested shall be as short and direct as possible. the design engineer shall determine the amount of LN2 to be used so as not to overload the structure with heavier fluid. Inspection: The vessel. the system shall be completely immersed in an open LN2 container fabricated from material approved for use with cryogenic fluids. e. the cold flow method may be used. CAUTION . Adequate venting capacity of the system shall be ensured during the cold flow test.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety a. The initial flow of LN2 should be established directly into the system under test. Immersion: Whenever possible.If the system being cold-shock tested has been designed for a cryogen other than LN2 (e. The system shall remain in the LN2 environment until it is completely chilled. An apron of nonabsorbent material shall be worn when splashing is a possibility. flow lowpressure LN2 (as close to atmospheric pressure as possible) through the system or fill it with an LN2-cooled gas. The initial surge of LN2 into the system will cause the initial venting rate to exceed the normal venting rate. or piping system shall be inspected for correct assembly. c.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. Procedure: The preferred cold-shock testing method is immersion. and trapped liquids. . d. cold-shock testing shall be done out-ofdoors or in adequately ventilated areas. correct torque on threaded fasteners. so as to provide maximum temperature induced shock. weld quality.

Low-Pressure Gas-Leak Testing A low-pressure (5 to 10 psig) gas-leak test is optional for systems that are hydrostatically tested. Standard Glenn-prepared bubble-testing solutions or commercial "Leak Tec" fluid is recommended. b. The suggested procedure for a low-pressure gas-leak test is as follows: a. Particular attention should be given to welds and joints of dissimilar metals. c. On some systems. all threaded fasteners and components should be retorqued. It is the initial test to be performed on all noncryogenic systems. Inspection Methods: Inspect the entire system for any evidence of failure. it should be maintained until the system is above the freezing point of water. or gas purge to reduce the warming time. Helium gas is not recommended because the extra sensitivity is marginal and the cost of the gas is high. A suggested piping diagram for lowpressure gas leak testing is shown in Figure 1. this test will indicate cracks and gross porosity in welds. b. CAUTION . Document performance of the test on the appropriate hydrotest or pneumatic test form. Soap bubble test: The soap bubble test is recommended as a part of the low-pressure gas leak test. Guidelines: For cryogenic systems. because it is easy to do. Although the system pressure is low. The bubble test is performed by pressurizing the system to 5 psig or less with air and applying a film of bubble-testing liquid or a soap and water solution. Repaired systems: All defective portions of any system shall be subjected. a water spray. Ensure that the system temperature is above the freezing point and below the boiling point of the bubble-testing liquid. since the ice coating will act as an insulator and lengthen warmup time. and is sensitive. If a water spray is used.Remove all traces of water Retorquing: After the system has reached ambient temperature. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. all other systems shall be subjected to such a test.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 a. to another cold-shock test before any other test is considered. Air or nitrogen gas shall be used for pressurizing the system. Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety System warmup: Remove the system from the cold environment and allow it to warm to ambient temperature. the low-pressure leak test shall be performed after the coldshock test and before the pressure strength test. Repair all defects. does not need exotic equipment. O-rings. however. leakage through threaded components. and improper sealing of gaskets. Simple equipment is required for a bubble test. .NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. and other joints. The purpose of the low-pressure gas-leak test is to indicate possible failure sites in a system before any form of high-pressure testing is undertaken. after repair. is quick. it may be advantageous to use auxiliary heating devices. Leaks are indicated by the bubbles formed by the leaking gas. d.

The flow capacity of the relief device shall be at least equal to the output of the hydrostatic pressure source. Small leaks can be pinpointed without the hazards of high-pressure testing. Watch for the formation of bubbles. Hydrostatic Pressure Testing This section provides basic information and guidelines for hydrostatic testing of pressure systems and vessels. The test pressure for a system or vessel (as well as fluid and ambient temperature requirements) should be found in the applicable code. all new or altered cryogenic pressure vessels and piping systems shall be cold-shock tested. showing its precise location. a low-pressure gas-leak test is recommended for detecting gross leaks. In the rare cases where water would Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. General Guidelines: Before any pressure tests are considered. Test water shall be clean and of a quality that minimizes corrosion of the materials in the system under test. and take precautions against the potential danger from fluid leakage. gas. Hydrostatic test results shall be documented on appropriate forms (sample pressure vessel and piping system report forms are included in this chapter). Pressurize the system to 10% of the normal working pressure of the system. whichever is lower. During application of hydrostatic pressure. Test equipment: A typical schematic for a hydrostatic pressure test is shown in Figure 2. walls. High pressures are not necessary for the leak test. These hydrostatic test guidelines apply to pressure systems and vessels designed for liquid. Apply bubble-testing liquid to all joints and seams of the system. Furthermore. A safety relief device having a set pressure of the test pressure plus 50 psi or 110% of the test pressure. steam. Water shall be used as a test medium. d. Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Clean the exterior of the system with an approved commercial solvent. before any hydrostatic pressure test is done. All high points in the system shall be provided with valves to bleed possible air pockets while the system is being filled with test fluid. The guidelines are based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes and the ASME Piping Codes. e. Appropriate safety and environmental precautions shall be followed when solvents are being used. safety measures equivalent to those taken with a pneumatic test must be implemented. The gas bubbles will form at the leak. or proper supports. because oil films or small amounts of soldering flux will destroy the liquid's bubble-producing capability. or cryogens.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. but do not exceed 5 psig. If the system cannot be vented. nonessential personnel shall be restricted from the test area and the area shall be barricaded or patrolled to enforce such restriction. . shall be provided. The surface must be clean before the bubble-testing liquid is applied.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 c. Repair all leaks before continuing the test sequence. Test personnel must take shelter behind structures. f.

but not less than 1.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.5 times the test pressure nor greater than 4 times the test pressure. The range of the pressure gauge used to indicate test pressure should be about double the test pressure. a recording gauge is recommended and may be substituted for one or more of the indicating gauges. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. a preliminary low-pressure gas-leak test not exceeding 5 psig may be performed before the hydrostatic pressure test. All stress loadings that may exist during this test shall be determined before the final hydrostatic test pressure is specified. Hydrostatic tests with water shall not be conducted when ambient temperature is below 40° F. Testing with a fluid other than water requires specific approval of the appropriate Pressure Systems Office and the Safety Branch. All welded. close visual examination at the test conclusion shall be conducted only after the water temperature falls below 120° F. Preliminary considerations: Equipment that is not to be subjected to the pressure test shall be either disconnected from the system or isolated by a blank or similar device.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety contaminate or otherwise harm the system. All leaks shall be repaired before proceeding with the hydrostatic pressure test. Systems designed for gas or vapor may require temporary support or bracing to withstand the weight of the test fluid used in the hydrostatic pressure test. A calibrated pressure gauge shall be used to indicate test pressure. and threaded joints and connections not previously pressure tested shall be left uninsulated and exposed for examination during testing. For large vessels or systems where more than one pressure gauge is required. Digital pressure gauges may be used if their accuracy is comparable to a calibrated dial pressure gauge. If a hydrostatic test is conducted with a water temperature higher than 120° F. Adequate drainage or other provisions shall be available to remove the test fluid at the conclusion of the hydrostatic test. The temperature of water shall not be higher than 120° F. It shall be visible to the operator of the pressure source and shall be calibrated against a standard deadweight tester or a calibrated master gauge. Isolated equipment and piping not being tested shall be vented. unless a higher test temperature is specified and approved. Gauges shall be recalibrated periodically or at any time there is reason to believe they are in error. The system shall never be subjected to stresses greater than the predetermined limit. consideration may be given to testing with another nontoxic fluid. To locate major leaks in the system. flanged. . Valves may be used for this purpose provided the valve closure is suitable for the proposed test pressure. the final.

The piping system. exclusive of possible localized instances at pump or valve packing. All low-pressure filling lines and other components of the test equipment that should not be subjected to test pressure shall be disconnected or blanked off. Procedure: The hydrostatic pressure shall be increased gradually until the system is subjected to 50% of the test pressure. All joints and connections shall be examined for leakage. 21-13. . Observation shall be carried out from a safe distance. 70%. Observation shall be carried out from a safe distance. Continue increasing pressure until the full test pressure is applied. Following the application of full hydrostatic test pressure. Piping system expansion joints under test shall be provided with temporary restraints if the additional pressure load makes it necessary. shall show no visual evidence of weeping or leaking. The system shall be closely examined for leaks and other deficiencies. the pressure shall be reduced to a value not less than the MAWP of the vessel or system. WARNING . A close visual examination for leakage shall be made at all welds and all flanged and threaded joints.If signs of yielding or failure of the system are observed. All suitable safety precautions shall be taken to eliminate potential hazards to personnel and property. the system pressure shall be increased in 10% increments (60%. Documentation: A checklist and a report are to be filled out for every hydrostatic pressure test and sent to the PSM / PSO Administrative Assistant at M. the system shall be observed for indications of leakage. pressure shall be slowly decreased to zero. and 100%) to final test pressure. 80%. During this time. At each pressure level. At this point. Leaking will be indicated by a continuous decrease in the system pressure. After maximum test pressure is reached.S. Temperature changes in the system shall be monitored to correct pressure changes. After 50% of the test pressure is reached. 90%. The system shall be observed for an indication of leakage at each step.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Before hydrostatic pressure is applied. Hydrostatic testing of a pressure vessel is a potentially hazardous procedure. or they shall be isolated with blanks or valving during the system test. the manual isolation valve shall be closed and the pressure held until the test gauge stabilizes. the manual isolation valve shall be closed and the pressure held until the test gauge stabilizes. the isolation valve of the hydrostatic pump shall be closed and the full test pressure continuously maintained for a minimum of 15 minutes. Use the following NASA “C” forms as applicable: Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. the test equipment shall be examined to see that it is tight.

21-13. The pressure system is designed or supported in a manner that unquestionably cannot be safely filled with liquid. or other consequences of a rupture or leakage during a Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. Piping System Hydrostatic Test Checklist. and submit it along with attached documentation to the PSM / PSO Administrative Assistant at M.S. The guidelines are based on the "ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. This includes system MAWP data. gas. Hazards of Pneumatic Testing: Use of compressed gas as test medium is hazardous. C-4016. and traces of the test medium cannot be tolerated. steam. barricade plan. If insufficient information is provided. An associated barricade plan containing a plan view of the area is also required. a “Pneumatic Test Permit” (C-804) is signed by the PSM and issued to the requestor. internal insulation or other equipment. C-4018. Note: Variance from these procedures requires Pressure Systems Office and Glenn Safety Branch concurrence. Test Authorization: Prior to any pneumatic test.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 • • • • Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety C-4022. Once reviewed and found satisfactory. The configuration of the pressure system is such that it cannot be dried.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. or procedures or calculations are incorrect. restricted distance calculations. a test procedure along with supporting documentation must be reviewed by the Safety Branch and the Pressure Systems Manager (PSM). the requestor will be notified to make the corrections prior to issuance of the permit. shock waves." the "ASME Piping Codes." and the "Glenn Safety Manual. or cryogenics." The test pressure for a system or vessel should be found in the applicable code as well as fluid and ambient temperature requirements. C-4012. A hydrostatic test would damage linings. Pressure Vessel Hydrostatic Test Checklist. The permit requestor must complete a “Pneumatic Test Request” form (C-802). Note that a restricted distance based on the method given in Appendix A must be given along with the calculation. P&ID. relief device information. however the decision to apply a pneumatic test instead of a hydrostatic test is restricted to the following situations: a. These pneumatic testing guidelines apply to pressure systems and vessels designed for liquid. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that adequate protection is provided to prevent injury to personnel and damage to property from missile fragments. test diagram showing pressure source and connection to the system. c. . Piping System Hydrostatic Test Report. Pneumatic Pressure Testing Guidelines This section provides basic information and guidelines for pneumatic testing of pressure systems and vessels. etc…. These general guidelines govern pneumatic pressure testing. A list of the required supporting documentation for most test cases is provided on the “Pneumatic Test Request” form. b. Pressure Vessel Hydrostatic Test Report.

personnel in the nearby area could expose themselves to injury. propelled by the resulting discharge force. this level of overpressure may shatter glass windows. Appendix C of this chapter shows the recommended method for determining the restricted distance for pneumatic tests. all new or altered cryogenic pressure vessels and piping systems shall be cold-shock tested. therefore. the likelihood of injury to unprotected personnel or equipment is very high. Protection of buildings and major structures shall also be considered if they are inside the exclusion area. Combination hydrostatic/pneumatic pressure tests are as hazardous as pneumatic tests. c. small-orifice air leak. Permanent signs and barriers should be considered. Other precautions may be required. In addition. . or placing the vessel in a remote location. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety pneumatic test. removing all personnel from a defined area when the system is pressurized. These restrictions shall be developed for use both during the pressure test and during subsequent normal operation of the system. identical precautions shall be employed. Fragmentation into shrapnel will result if the part under test breaks up. The restricted area shall be barricaded or patrolled to control movement of all personnel in the area. unless the system is securely fastened. Therefore. By reflex action from the sudden noise. Pneumatic testing shall always be conducted using the two-man buddy system (see chapter 22 of the Glenn Safety Manual). Furthermore. a low-pressure gas-leak test shall be performed before a pneumatic pressure test is considered. The restricted distance is based on the distance where blast overpressure will equal 0. a severe structural failure of a light-weight container or vessel could cause the part to act as a projectile. Before any pressure tests are considered. the parts shall be securely fastened to prevent hazardous movement. d. before any pneumatic test is conducted. Restrictions for operation may be required to ensure safe operation of the system. The following paragraphs illustrate some hazards associated with pneumatic testing. whereas noise of extended duration will result from a small-orifice failure. Personnel attempting a pneumatic test of any system should be aware of these potential hazards: a. The restrictions may include physically isolating the system with blast walls. Another hazard to consider is the cutting action of a high velocity. An explosive noise will result from a large rupture. A pressure wave or pulse could develop from a gross rupture. Equipment motion resulting from a gross rupture can cause whip action from failure of a flexible pipe or hose. presenting a hazard to personnel and possible damage to surrounding equipment and structures. Since the shrapnel will travel at high velocity for long distances.5 pound per square inch. b.

Before applying pneumatic pressure. Digital pressure gauges may be used if their accuracy is comparable to a calibrated dial pressure gauge. Air or nitrogen gas are the preferred pressurizing fluids.brittle transition temperature (as indicated by Charpy impact tests) that is above the test temperature. a recording gauge is recommended and may be substituted for one or more of the indicating gauges. The flow capacity of the relief device shall be at least equal to the output of the pneumatic pressure source. shall be provided. A brittle material is one that has either (1) less than 10% elongation in standard tensile tests or (2) a ductile-to. A safety relief device having a set pressure of the test pressure plus 50 psi. it shall not be vented in a confined area. All stress loadings that may exist during this test shall be determined before the final pneumatic test pressure is specified. cast iron. Gauges shall be recalibrated at any time that there is reason to believe that they are in error. the test equipment shall be examined to ensure that it is tight. In addition. Some commonly used brittle materials are glass. Valves may be used for this purpose. . For large vessels or systems where more than one pressure gauge is required. or 110% of the test pressure. It shall be visible to the operator of the pressure source and shall be calibrated against a standard deadweight tester or a calibrated master gauge. The pressure range of the test gauge shall not be less than 1. and most high strength alloys. Test equipment: A suggested piping diagram for the pneumatic pressure test is illustrated in Figure 3. Equipment that is not to be subjected to the pressure test shall be either disconnected from the system or isolated by a blank or similar device.5 times the test pressure nor greater than 2 times the test pressure. The system shall never be subjected to stresses greater than the predetermined limit. whichever is lower. provided Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. This eliminates the possibility of breathing undesirable or hazardous materials that may reside within the hardware. See the applicable NCCS for examination requirements of components that are not pressure tested. The gas used as the test medium shall be nonflammable and nontoxic.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Brittle materials shall not be subjected to pneumatic pressure tests. Preliminary considerations: The temperature of the test medium used to apply a pneumatic test is determined differently for pressure vessels and pressure systems. All low-pressure filling lines and other components of the test equipment that should not be subjected to test pressure shall be disconnected or blanked off. A calibrated pressure gauge shall be used to indicate test pressure.

All welded. and threaded joints and connections not previously pressure tested shall be left uninsulated and exposed for examination during testing. a preliminary low-pressure gas-leak test not exceeding 5 psig shall be performed before other methods of leak testing. 90%.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety the valve closure is suitable for the proposed test pressure. 70%. Local or close inspection of the system shall not be made while the test pressure is above the design pressure. the system test pressure gauge shall be observed from a safe distance for indications of leakage. the system test pressure gauge shall be observed from a safe distance for indication of leaks. The pressure should be reduced to different amounts for pressure vessels and pressure systems. WARNING . the isolation valve of the pneumatic pressure source shall be closed and the full test pressure shall be continuously maintained for a minimum of 15 minutes to ensure the quality of the system. After full test pressure is reached. . Following the application of the full pneumatic test pressure. the pressure shall be held until the test gauge is stable.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. All welds and all flanged and threaded joints shall be examined for evidence of leakage. After 50% of the test pressure is reached.If signs of yielding of failure of the system are observed. the system pressure shall be increased by 10% increments to the final test pressure (60%. The manual isolation valve of the pneumatic pressure source shall be closed. the pressure shall be reduced to allow for close visual examination. pressure shall be slowly decreased to zero. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. the system under test shall be isolated from the pneumatic pressure source with a hand valve. and 100%). 80%. At this point. The pneumatic pressure shall be increased gradually until the system is subjected to 50% of the test pressure. Isolated equipment and piping not being tested shall be vented. Leaking will be indicated by a continuous decrease in the system pressure. flanged. and pressure shall be held until the test gauge is stable. During this time. When the leak-test pressure of 5 psig has been reached. Temperature changes in the system shall be monitored to correct for pressure change due to temperature change. The test gauge shall be observed for at least 15 minutes to ensure the leak tightness of the system. At each step. Procedure: To locate major leaks in the system. and the system shall be closely examined for leaks and other deficiencies.

Pressurization: The system shall be slowly pressurized to the normal working pressure of the system. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. d.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety The applicable NCCS must be referenced for the proper test and inspection pressures and temperatures for the specific system or vessel application. Pressurizing piping schematic: The piping diagram for high-pressure bubble testing is illustrated in Figure 4. b. Pressurizing gas: Air or nitrogen gas shall be used for pressurizing the system. and procedures are necessary for the bubble test a. or the mass spectrometer test. Other Leak-Testing Methods In general. . c. Commercial "Leak Tec" fluid is equivalent to the NASA solution. C-4020. It is essential that the surface be clean prior to the application of the soap solution. f. e. Temperature of system: The system shall be at a temperature that is above the freezing point and below the boiling point of the bubble-testing liquid. Location of leaks: The bubble-testing liquid should be applied to all joints and seams of the system. conditions. Depressurize the system and repair all leaks before continuing the test sequence. A leak test of greater sensitivity than the initial low-pressure gas-leak test shall be used as a final test of system integrity. This final test could be the high-pressure bubble test. Only one of these tests is required for acceptance. the change-inpressure test. Cleanliness: The exterior of the system must be cleaned (when practical) with an approved commercial solvent. all systems specified by the design engineer shall be leak tested. C-4014. It shall be performed only after the system has been hydrostatically or pneumatically tested. C-4010.S. Piping System Pneumatic Test Checklist. The gas bubbles issuing from a leak will show its precise location. g. Pressure Vessel Pneumatic Test Report. Bubble-testing fluid: Standard NASA-prepared bubble-testing solutions are recommended. The leak test is the final test in any test sequence described in this section. 21-13. Documentation: A checklist and a report are to be filled out for every pneumatic pressure test and sent to the PSM / PSO Administrative Assistant at M. The extra sensitivity of helium gas may be warranted only for high-pressure helium and hydrogen systems.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. Pressure Vessel Pneumatic Test Checklist. Watch for the formation of bubbles. Use the following NASA “C” forms as applicable: • • • • C-4026. because oil films or small amounts of soldering flux will destroy the bubbleproducing quality of the soap solution. The following equipment. Piping System Pneumatic Test Report. the design engineer may specify the test the system is pressurized to the normal working pressure of the system.

A flexible connection installed between the pump and the system will reduce vibrations. the vacuum gauge does not have to be calibrated. For additional information on the operation of the gauge. Although it is difficult to pinpoint the exact source of a leak with this test. b. system pressure. exceedingly low leak rates can be measured. particularly water Inadequate evacuation system Isolate the vacuum pump from the system by closing the vacuum valve. . The valve should be located as close to the system as possible and have an opening at least equivalent to the inside diameter of the evacuation line.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. Vacuum pump: For most applications. When the results of this test are analyzed carefully. The pump shall be connected to the system with as short a length of tubing as possible. The sensitivity of this test is comparable to the high-pressure bubble test described previously. Procedure: Evacuate the system to a pressure of at least 100 microns. check the manufacturer's literature. c. The vacuum pump should have a "blank off pressure" of no more than 25 microns. the overall leak rate of the system can be easily established. Thermometer: A thermometer or thermocouple should be installed in the system to measure the temperature of the evacuated region. be certain that the system has sufficient strength to withstand evacuation. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. Vacuum gauge: A thermocouple or Pirani gauge having a range of approximately 1 to 1. The gauge sensing tube shall be connected with as short a tube as possible to the system being evacuated. Because this type of gauge is somewhat inaccurate and the test is based on a relative change. and temperature over a suitable time period to establish the leak rate. Before this test is attempted. Equipment: The equipment necessary for this test is as follows: a. To ensure a rapid pump-down time. a mechanical (rotary) vacuum pump is desired.000 microns is required for this test.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Change-in-pressure test: This test is performed by evacuating the interior of the system and monitoring the rate of pressure increase with the pump isolated from the system. the evacuation line shall be no smaller than the evacuation inlet of the pump. This will allow the pressure rise to be monitored for at least a tenfold increase with the vacuum gauge described in paragraph (a). Vacuum valve: A valve intended for vacuum usage is required to isolate the system under test. d. Monitor the time. Inability to evacuate the system to a pressure of 100 microns can usually be traced to one or more of the following conditions: • • • High magnitude of leaks System contaminants.

the rate of outgassing decreases. Liquid nitrogen traps. Large decreases in sensitivity can be encountered when the leak detector is connected to large. and various valves are incorporated on the mass spectrometer to maintain proper operating conditions in the analyzer tube. however. The output of the electrometer tube is amplified and presented on a multirange output meter. the rate of leakage is constant over the pressure range since the same differential pressure of about 760. which is often called "outgassing. Between points A and B. It is the most sensitive commercially available leak detector. The helium ions are deflected by a permanent magnetic field and collected on a target plate connected to the grid of an electrometer tube. separately pumped systems (only a portion of the trace gas entering the leak arrives at the spectrometer tube). Helium probe: The helium probe consists of a 10-4 cm3/sec leak detector in a probe tube at the end of several feet of flexible tubing. The curve between points A and B should be ignored. the system pressure rises at a continually decreasing rate. the initial curve from point A to point B represents both outgassing and leakage. Mass spectrometers: A mass spectrometer leak detector is an electrically tuned instrument for detecting the presence of a tracer gas. At point B." The outgassing component of pressure rise may be easily separated from the leakage component by plotting the system pressure as a function of time.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Leak-rate formula: The leak rate calculation is illustrated in Figure 5. The ions are accelerated electrostatically through an analyzer magnet field. Two distinct degrees of curvature are evident in a typical system pressure plot. since sensitivity can vary widely as the spectrometer tube becomes contaminated. the straight line indicates a uniform rate of pressure increase (See Figure 5). with outgassing being the principle cause of the rate of system pressure rise near point A. Outgassing: The initial evacuation of any system is likely to result in gas evolution. The significance of each curve may be explained by considering the nature of both outgassing and leakage.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. hence. a curve of decreasing slope is evident. Between points B and C. therefore. It is used for testing devices that are filled with helium Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. roughing and oil range diffusion pumps. Principle of operation: Ions of the tracer gas are produced in a source chamber by electron bombardment from a hot tungsten filament. These detectors use a helium tracer gas to detect leaks as low as 10-9 cm3/sec. The rate of outgassing is exponentially dependent on pressure. Only the straight line section of the curve should be used for determining leak rates. As the system pressure increases. . the system pressure has increased to above the vapor pressure of the outgassing source. the straight line between points B and C represents system leakage. Standard leak: A standard leak is essential if quantitative measurements are to be made. Therefore.000 microns is maintained.

with an auxiliary pumping system.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. Carefully sniff the exterior of the system with the helium probe. The outline for leak testing with a mass spectrometer presented herein is for general information only. permanently. A helium jet is sprayed over the suspected areas of the system to locate the leaks. When the probe is passed over a leak. The most sensitive test occurs when the high vacuum leak detector pumping system can solely maintain the vacuum in the system at or below 10-4 mm Hg. it is unlikely that a leak smaller than 10-6 cm3/sec can be found by this method. b. and the exterior of the system is sniffed with the helium probe. Here. If the system is large. the more sensitive the test. the system pressure will be lowered and smaller leaks may be located. Any helium entering the probe will be recorded as a leak. Pressure testing and procedure: This method of testing is useful in testing large tanks or objects that cannot withstand internal vacuum. Anyone attempting to use a mass spectrometer should be thoroughly familiar with its theory and operation. either temporarily. The enclosure will prevent wind from rapidly dispersing the helium and allow helium to build up in the enclosure until the concentration is sufficient to be detected by the mass spectrometer. or preferably. The tracer gas will be drawn into the system through the leaks and recorded on the mass spectrometer. The exact location of leaks may be determined by using a very fine helium jet or by "bagging" the suspected area to ensure the accumulation of a helium pocket. but do not exceed 20 psig. The mass spectrometer is a highly complicated instrument. Vacuum testing and procedure: Vacuum testing is the most sensitive form of leak detection. This test may be made more sensitive by surrounding the helium probe with a small enclosure. the outflowing helium gas is detected. b. As each leak is repaired. To proceed with the test do the following: a.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety under pressure. Pressurize the system with helium gas to 10% of the normal working pressure. High pressure is not desired for this test since it only increases diffusion in air. Generally. the lower the system pressure. the system under test is evacuated either with the vacuum system in the leak detector. There is no substitute for properly applied experience in leak detection with a mass spectrometer. c. Evacuate the system with either the pumping system incorporated in the mass spectrometer or an auxiliary pumping system. The percentage of nitrogen gas to helium gas may be as large as 95% by volume. Spray the exterior of the system with the helium tracer gas. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. a tracer gas consisting of a combination of helium and nitrogen gas may be used for testing. or if the system is of appreciable size. The system is pressurized with helium tracer gas. . Proceed with the vacuum test as follows: a. Repair each leak immediately on detection. Because of the rapid diffusion of helium coming out of a leak.

Some alternate safety precautions include locating personnel behind adequate blast shields.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. This graph was derived from a curve showing pounds of open-field TNT-equivalent explosive per 1000 ft3 of gas as a function of rupture pressure. sandbags. the difference in adiabatic expansion between air and hydrogen is slight. Boulder.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety APPENDIX C – Restricted Distance for Pneumatic Pressure Testing Safety of personnel. During the application of pneumatic pressure. all nonessential personnel shall be located a safe distance from the test. Some consequences of blast overpressure are listed here: OVERPRESSURE (psi) EFFECT 0. Although the curve was plotted for hydrogen gas. A sudden rupture will generate a pressure wave that can cause damage.5 Shatters glass windows 1 Knocks personnel down 1 to 2 Causes failure of standard house construction 2 to 3 Shatters concrete or block walls 8 inches thick 5 to 15 Ruptures eardrum 30 to 40 Damages lungs 130 to 180 Kills 50% of people Assuming a 0. The curve can be applied to systems of other volumes. . Colorado. The restricted distance need not be strictly adhered to if alternate precautions are taken for personnel. The figure was originally published in "Liquid Hydrogen Storage and Transmission.5 psi overpressure. The restricted testing distance for a 1000 ft3 system is given in Figure 6. buildings. during a pneumatic test are as follows. or other unmovable objects. and equipment must be of primary concern during a pneumatic pressure test. Sample calculations for determining the restricted distance. adjusted for the effect of volume. Use of the curve is illustrated in Example 1." by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The TNT-equivalent per 1000 ft3 of gas has been converted into restricted distance by information originally supplied by the Bureau of Mines. we can determine the restricted distance for pneumatic tests. Buildings and major structures inside this restricted area shall be protected. The curve has been accepted by the safety committee. Liquid Hydrogen Safety Committee. EXAMPLE 1 METHOD FOR CALCULATING RESTRICTED DISTANCE FOR A PRESSURE VESSEL Given the following: Pressure Vessel Volume (VVessel ) MAWP = = 300 • ft 3 lb 2000 • 2 in Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.

25 • in − (2 • 0. .035 • in )]2 or Atube = Atube = 0. D1000 = 550 • ft in 2 The formula to obtain the restricted distance for the tank volume is: DVessel = D1000 • 3 VVessel 10 • ft Therefore.D.531 • 10−3 • ft 3 Given system tubing that is 0.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety lb lb Pneumatic Test Pressure ( Ptest ) = 2000 • 2 • 1. Ptest = 2500 • lb is.767 • 10 −4 • ft 2 Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. Determine the total system volume: Given the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for the system: MAWP = 240 lb 2 in Given a 100 cc sample cylinder: Vcylinder = 100cm3 or Vcylinder = 3. with an 0.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.035 inch wall.0254 • inches 2 4 Atube = 1. The cross-sectional area of the tube is: π • [0. the restricted distance for a 1000 ft 3 system with.25 in O.25 = 2500 • 2 in in From Figure 6. the restricted distance for the pressure test is: DVessel 550 • ft • 3 300 • ft 3 = 10 • ft DVessel = 370 ft EXAMPLE 2 METHOD FOR CALCULATING RESTRICTED DISTANCE FOR A RESEARCH RIG 1.

At Glenn. cryogenic systems are used to store and distribute such cryogenic liquids as the following: Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.065 • 10 −3 • ft 3 2. the total system volume is: Vtotal = Vcylinder + Vtube Vtotal = 7. Determine the restricted distance.3 ft Appendix D – Cryogenic Systems Description This section discusses stationary cryogenic systems.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Given a conservative estimate that there is 20 feet of tubing in the system. The test pressure to be applied to the system: Ptest = 1.065 ×10 −3 • ft 3 = 10 • ft Therefore. given the test pressure and total system volume. The volume of the tubing is: Vtube = 20 • ft • Atube Vtube = 3. the restricted distance for a 1000 ft 3 system with Ptest = 300 • lb in 2 is. the restricted distance for the pressure test is: Dsystem = 4. D1000 = 225 • ft The correction formula to obtain the restricted distance for the actual system volume is: Dsystem = D1000 • 3 Vtotal 10 • ft Dsystem 225 • ft • 3 7.25 • MAWP Ptest = 300 • lb in 2 From Figure 6.534 • 10 −3 • ft 3 Therefore. . The Compressed Gas Association (CGA) defines cryogenic fluids as those with a normal boiling point lower than -238° F but other authorities set higher boiling points as the criteria.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700.

27 Helium -452.54 120.34 162. and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers. Piping for cryogenic fluid distribution is either vacuum jacketed or rigid foam insulated to reduce boil off losses. Relief valves shall relieve into a vent system or into an area where no harm will come to personnel or equipment. Design and operation of systems for liquid oxygen storage shall also conform to requirements contained in NFPA 55. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Approximate Normal boiling point Fluid F° R° K° Krypton -243. Relief device: The inner vessel of a multi-shell cryogenic vessel shall have relief devices designed and maintained in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code. Vacuum insulation spaces shall be provided with over-pressurization protection in case of a leak in the pressure boundary of the inner transfer line. Use.76 27.32 90. Cryogenic systems generally operate at pressures below 100 psig. cryogenic vessels and systems must adhere to specific and unique requirements as follows: Design: Cryogenic vessels shall be designed in accordance with the ASME Code.18 Argon -302.35 Neon -410.28 Nitrogen -320.07 7. Relief valves shall be mounted vertically and with sufficient standoff distance to prevent the valve from icing or failing to operate.22 77. "Standard for the Storage. The space between the vessels is filled with a powdered insulation (or is super insulated) and is held at a vacuum with a vacuum pump. A control system and pressure building coil allow the dewar to maintain an internal pressure. control valves. pressure-relief devices.09 Hydrogen -423.19 36.45 139. Oxygen: Comprehensive information on oxygen service is described in Chapter 5 of this Manual. and distribution piping.48 20. thereby providing an insulation barrier for the fluid in the dewar. Requirements for Cryogenic Vessels and Systems In addition to conforming to the general requirements for pressure system safety.13 216. The outer vessel shall have relief protection to allow for a leak or failure of the inner shell.22 A typical cryogenic system consists of a pressure vessel (called a dewar"). Section VIII.29 Oxygen -297.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. . Cylinders and Tanks".91 48.60 4. The dewar is a double-walled pressure vessel with the system fluid contained in the inner vessel.57 157.10 87.

Use. "Standard for the Storage. The vapors of many cryogenic fluids are heavier than air. and fasteners for cryogenic service. altered. Low-oxygen alarms should be used if proper ventilation cannot be provided. c. given in Chapter 15 of the Glenn Safety Manual. altered. to prevent asphyxiation of personnel. Prior to cold-shock testing. and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers.1 NASA Approving Authority: Ken O’Connor Effective Date: 4/07 Chapter 7 – Pressure Systems Safety Hydrogen: Comprehensive information on hydrogen service is described in Chapter 6 of this Manual. Printed copies are uncontrolled and not to be used for operational purposes. equipment. Vent cans should be used wherever possible. the vessel. Such tests shall be conducted in accordance with the "Glenn Pressure System Testing Manual" (Appendix B). and repaired systems shall be cold-shock tested to verify the compatibility of material. Pressure testing: Pressure testing of new. d. Avoid contact with fluid or equipment cooled to cryogenic temperatures. . and piping to be tested shall be inspected for proper assembly. Vent relief devices to an area where no harm to personnel or equipment will result. the following precautions should be taken: a. Safety Considerations Because of the nature of cryogenic systems. Adhere to guidelines for personal protective equipment. since cryogenic systems contain fluids that are extremely cold. and repaired systems shall be performed in accordance with the "Glenn Pressure System Testing Manual" (Appendix B). Design and operation of systems for liquid hydrogen storage shall also conform to requirements contained in NFPA 55. b. Cold-shock testing shall be done in well-ventilated areas. Cold-shock testing: New.NASA Glenn Research Center Safety Manual BMS Document GLM-QSA-1700. Testing To ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. testing and recertification of cryogenic systems are required. Cylinders and Tanks". Provide proper ventilation for all portable dewar fill stations. components. preferably out of doors. and ANSI/AIAA G-095-2004. e. therefore avoid areas in unventilated spaces where low pockets of cryogenic vapor may accumulate. Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems.

but to not exceed 10 psig. – Typical piping schematic for low-pressure gas-leak test at 5 to 10 psig.Regulator Pressure relief valve Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Isolation valve Vent valves Pneumatic pressure source Note: Set pressure relief devices to actuate at 20% of normal working pressure of system. System under test Revision Date: 2/27/2007 . Figure 1.

– Typical piping schematic for hydrostatic pressure test.Bleed valve (located at all high points in system) Pressure gauge Temperature gauge Hydrostatic pump Isolation valve Pressure relief device (set 10% or 50 PSI above test pressure which ever is lower) Vent valve Remote components – located in protected area or safe distance away Local components System under test Pressure gauge Figure 2. Revision Date: 2/27/2007 Low point drain .

Pressure relief device (set 10% or 50 PSI above test pressure which ever is lower) Regulator Pressure relief device Pressure gauge Isolation valve Pressure gauge Temperature gauge Vent valves Pneumatic pressure source Remote components – located in protected area or safe distance away Local components System under test Figure 3. – Typical piping schematic for pneumatic pressure test Revision Date: 2/27/2007 .

Figure 4. Revision Date: 2/27/2007 . – Typical piping schematic for operating pressure test.Pressure relief valve Regulator Pressure gauge Isolation valve Pressure gauge Pressure relief valve Vent valves Pneumatic pressure source Remote components – located in protected area or safe distance away Local components System under test Note: Set pressure relief devices to actuate at 10% above normal working pressure of system.

Only the straight line section of the curve should be used for determining leak rates. therefore. the straight line between Points B and C represents system leakage. EXAMPLE: Leak rate determined from figure 5 Revision Date: 4/18/07 . the system pressure has increased to above the vapor pressure of the outgassing source.1 2 300 3 4 250 5 6 200 7 8 150 9 10 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 5 – Typical plot of system pressure. The curve between points A and B should be ignored. At point B.

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