Reva Institute of Technology,Bangalore

Department of E & C Engg.

I/II semester

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Conduction in Semiconductors
Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductor generally metals) and nonconductors or insulators (such as most ceramics). Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. In a process called doping, small amounts of impurities are added to pure semiconductors causing large changes in the conductivity of the material. Due to their role in the fabrication of electronic devices, semiconductors are an important part of our lives. Imagine life without electronic devices. There would be no radios, no TV's, no computers, no video, and poor medical diagnostic equipment. Although many electronic devices could be made using vacuum tube technology, the developments in semiconductor technology during the past 50 years have made electronic devices smaller, faster, and more reliable. Think for a minute of all the encounters you have with electronic devices. How many of the following have you seen or used in the last twenty-four hours? Each has important components that have been manufactured with electronic materials.

Band theory of solids

Band theory of solids
Quantum physics describes the states of electrons in an atom according to the four-fold scheme of quantum numbers. The quantum number system describes the allowable states electrons may assume in an atom. To use the analogy of an amphitheater, quantum numbers describe how many rows and seats there are. Individual electrons may be described by the combination of quantum numbers they possess, like a spectator in an amphitheater assigned to a particular row and seat. Like spectators in an amphitheater moving between seats and/or rows, electrons may change their statuses, given the presence of available spaces for them to fit, and available energy. Since shell level is closely related to the amount of energy that an electron possesses, "leaps" between shell (and even subshell) levels requires transfers of energy. If an electron is to move into a higher-order shell, it requires that additional energy be given to the electron from an external source. Using the amphitheater analogy, it takes an increase in energy for a person to move into a higher row of seats, because that person must climb to a greater height against the force of gravity. Conversely, an electron "leaping" into a lower shell gives up some of its energy, like a person jumping down into a lower row of seats, the expended energy manifesting as heat and sound released upon impact. Not all "leaps" are equal. Leaps between different shells require a substantial exchange of energy, while leaps between subshells or between orbitals require lesser exchanges. When atoms combine to form substances, the outermost shells, subshells, and orbitals

merge, providing a greater number of available energy levels for electrons to assume. When large numbers of atoms exist in close proximity to each other, these available energy levels form a nearly continuous band wherein electrons may transition.

It is the width of these bands and their proximity to existing electrons that determines how mobile those electrons will be when exposed to an electric field. In metallic substances, empty bands overlap with bands containing electrons, meaning that electrons may move to what would normally be (in the case of a single atom) a higher-level state with little or no additional energy imparted. Thus, the outer electrons are said to be "free," and ready to move at the beckoning of an electric field. Band overlap will not occur in all substances, no matter how many atoms are in close proximity to each other. In some substances, a substantial gap remains between the highest band containing electrons (the so-called valence band) and the next band, which is empty (the so-called conduction band). As a result, valence electrons are "bound" to their constituent atoms and cannot become mobile within the substance without a significant amount of imparted energy. These substances are electrical insulators:

the amount of energy required to motivate a valence electron into the conduction band where it becomes mobile is quite modest: At low temperatures. and the material will conduct electricity. and gold) all have outer s subshells with a single electron. While it is true that the best metallic conductors of electricity (silver. Thus. copper.Materials that fall within the category of semiconductors have a narrow gap between the valence and conduction bands. though. and the semi conducting material acts as an insulator. the relationship between conductivity and valence electron count is not necessarily consistent: . It is difficult to predict the conductive properties of a substance by examining the electron configurations of its constituent atoms. the ambient thermal energy becomes sufficient to force electrons across the gap. there is little thermal energy available to push valence electrons across this gap. At higher temperatures.

=========================================================== . the electron band configurations produced by compounds of different elements defies easy association with the electron configurations of its constituent elements.Likewise.

2).) Since the overall charge has to be conserved.3 CHARACTERISTICS A p-n junction can be viewed as isolated p. 1. 1. This flow of charges sets up an electric field that starts to hinder further diffusion until equilibrium is struck. different parts of the same crystal had different impurities and a natural p-n junction was formed unintentionally.Semiconductor -Diode Characteristics History The p-n junction was discovered by Ohl in 1940 when he observed the photovoltaic effect when light was flashed onto a silicon rod. electrons diffuse to the p-type material. Being abundant in «-type material. and conversely. The p-n junction has been the most common rectifier used in the electronics industry.3 and it was instrumental for the invention of the bipolar junction transistor. 1. 6-9. According to Fig. (Notice that when NA ^ ND. 1. Passing a pulse of then formed a junction 1.2(b). It also serves as a very important fundamental building block for many other devices. Shockley developed the theory for the p-n junction diode in 1949.1'2 Since crystals were not as pure at the time. where Et crosses EFdoQS not coincide with the metallurgical junction.2(b). it is the sum of y/Bn and y/Bp. The same process happens for holes from the p-type material.4 and Moll. An important parameter is the built-in potential y/bi. He coined the material p-type when "positive" bias was put on the crystal relative to the whisker to produce a large current. opposite behaviors were observed.and «-type materials brought into intimate contact (Fig. The energy-band diagram under equilibrium is shown in Fig.1 STRUCTURE Pressing a metal wire onto the surface of a semiconductor made the early version of the structure. WdpNA = WdnND (1.2(c). it follows that for an abrupt (step) junction. The theory was subsequently refined by Sahet l. given by 1 V n . n-type when "negative" bias was needed to conduct similar current. Ohl also notice that when a metal whisker was pressed against different parts of the crystal.1) as shown in Fig. This research group at Bell Laboratories later made the connection between n-type to acceptor impurities and «-type to donor impurities. Theory of PN junction 1.5 More recent review articles on the device may be found in Refs.

Under bias. Low voltage drop when conducting.Vbi= VBn+VBP = -7H^f\ (1-2) which is the total band bending at equilibrium by definition. the following can be obtained using the Poisson equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Voltage Clamps Schottky Diodes Power Zener Diodes ~100V Operates in break down ~300 V ~300A ~75 W 0. Unfortunately. switching and inverter and converter circuits are: Table 1: Diode ratings Type Maximum Breakdown Voltage 30kV Maximum Current Rating ~500mA Forward Voltage Drop ~10V Switching Speed ~100nS Applications High Voltage Rectifier Diodes General Purpose diodes Fast Recovery HV circuits ~5kV ~3kV ~10kA ~2kA 0. Negligible reverse recovery (ie. The most common diodes used in rectifier circuits.7 .7 .2.1. these are: o o o o High breakdown voltage and high current carrying capability. Small switching time delays and small current rise and fall times. it is not possible to achieve this entire criterion with one single style of diode and thus a number of different types of power diode are available for various applications.9 V - ~30nS - . Diodes Basics Diodes used in power electronics applications are generally required to have special characteristics.5 V 0.0. Resonant ckts. LV HF Rectification References.5 V ~25µ S <5uS 50 Hz Rectifiers SMPS. charge removal at turn OFF is negligible). It is up to the circuit designer to judge which component is best suited for a particular application This will often result in a conflict between what is required and what is available and it is here the circuit design can be very important. Inverters.2 .

Recovery is only dependant on the capacitance of metal-silicon junction. 2) can be used although their current and voltage ratings are restricted. Put simply. require more time to remove internal charges at turn OFF and are thus slower switching. a positive voltage is applied to the cathode with respect to the anode.From Table 1 general trends can be seen. if the electric field becomes too strong 'avalanche breakdown' occurs and the diode will become a short circuit and often be damaged. Schottky diodes (Fig. If high voltage and high current ratings are needed then general-purpose diodes can be used. To achieve very fast switching. 2. Figure 1: Diffusion junction diode Construction process: N type silicon substrate heated to ~1000oC in presence of vapor containing positive charged impurity atoms. The faster switching diodes have restricted voltage and current ratings and if they are used in high stress application they must be placed in parallel and series to avoid damage. The diode is 'reverse biased' and cannot conduct except for small leakage currents. the latter mechanism appearing as a reverse current (reverse recovery) flowing in the diode as it turns OFF. Interface between metal . Why are the diodes different? The physical construction of a diode with a diffusion junction is shown in figure 1. The resultant effect is to cause more charge carriers to be present within the diode when it is conducting. Polished pre-doped N+ epitaxial substrate with thin N layer barrier metal deposit. the charge carriers must either recombine (minority) or be removed. this is as long as switching speeds are not too important. P region diffused into N region. To counteract this physical distance between the anode and cathode is increased by increasing the size of the bulk region and changing impurity atom doping levels. diodes with higher voltage ratings have larger bulk regions. an electric field is formed between the cathode and anode specifically across the depletion region. For the diode to switch OFF. However. When a diode is reverse biased ie. Rectifying action dependant solely on majority carriers therefore no minority carrier recombination.

depends on the recombination time. holes and electrons are injected from the P and N regions into the I-region.and N layer creates a barrier potential. RS is inversely proportional to Q and may be expressed as (Equation 2):RS = [Ohms] where: W = I-region width µ N = electron mobility µ p = hole mobility Combining equations 1 and 2. and the forward bias current. Typically. a finite quantity of charge always remains stored and results in a lowering of the resistively of the I-region. τ (the carrier lifetime). Instead. In the real world the RS is slightly dependent upon area because the effective lifetime varies with area and thickness due to edge recombination effects. PIN diodes display resistance characteristic consistent Full Wave Rectifiers . IF. the expression for RS as an inverse function of current is shown as (Equation 3):RS = [Ohms]This equation is independent of area. The quantity of stored charge. Q. Figure 2: Schottky diode construction Forward Biased PIN Diodes When a PIN diode is forward biased. These charges do not recombine immediately. as follows (Equation 1):Q = IFτ [Coulombs] The resistance of the I-region under forward bias.

let's cover in detail a practical full-wave rectifier and its waveforms. the anode of D1 is positive with respect to ground and the anode of D2 is negative. The area within the negative portion of each curve. The recovery time t2 . (Note: ). In the transformer. . current flows from ground (center tap). When the center tap is grounded. Figure 4-6. is the total reverse recovery charge Qrr and represents the charge removal from the junction and the bulk regions of the diode and is effectively independent of the forward current in the diode. the voltage at point B is negative with respect to ground. through 3. up through the load resistor (RL).—Practical full-wave rectifier. through diode D1 to point A. If the di/dt of the snap recovery is too high and stray inductance exists in the circuit then extremely high and possibly damaging voltage spikes can be induced.t1 is dependant on the size of the bulk region thus high di/dt currents can be obtained when using fast diodes. It uses two diodes (D1 and D2) and a center-tapped transformer (T1). NEGATIVE ALTERNATION Now that you have a basic understanding of how a full-wave rectifier works. During the first half cycle (indicated by the solid arrows). Thus. A Practical Full-Wave Rectifier A practical full-wave rectifier circuit is shown in view A of figure 4-6. Let's examine the operation of the circuit during one complete cycle.4-8 Figure 4-5B. Reverse Recovery Figure 3a and b show typical styles of reverse recovery. Qrr can be found from manufacturers specifications thus the maximum reverse recovery current Irr is given by: If ta is very small compared to ta then ta trr and knowing the rate of decrease of current di/dt = Irr/ta Irr/trr leads to: .—Full-wave rectifier. when the voltage at point A is positive with respect to ground. the voltages at the opposite ends of the secondary windings are 180 degrees out of phase with each other. As shown. current flows from point A.

Reverse recovery time trr = t2 . Figure 5: Forward and reverse biased diode showing changing size of depletion region . The effect is dependant on the doping levels in the region of the depletion layer. (b) fast diode. Figure 3: (a) Reverse recovery of a general purpose diode.t0. The effect of reverse recovery on the output voltage of a rectifier feeding a resistive load is shown in figure 4. A new hole-electron pair are created which accelerate in opposite directions causing further collisions and ionisation and avalanche breakdown. Figure 4: Bridge rectifier output voltage showing diode reverse recovery effects 4. Avalanche Breakdown Avalanche breakdown occurs when a high reverse voltage is applied to a diode and large electric field is created across the depletion region.. The field accelerates minority carriers in the depletion region associated with small leakage currents to high enough energies so that they ionise silicon atoms when they collide with them.

Zener Breakdown Zener breakdown occurs with heavily doped junction regions (ie. However. Figure 7: Operating range of a zener diode ============================================================= . This type of breakdown is not destructive if the reverse current is limited. If a reverse voltage is applied and the depletion region is too narrow for avalanche breakdown (minority carriers cannot reach high enough energies over the distance travelled) the electric field will grow.Figure 6: Typical diode characteristics 5. electrons are pulled directly from the valence band on the P side to the conduction band on the N side. highly doped regions are better conductors).

the NPN and PNP varieties. when the 'filling' of the sandwich is fairly thin some interesting effects become possible that allow us to use the Transistor as an amplifier or a switch.Transistor Characteristics Introduction Junction Transistor A Bipolar Transistor essentially consists of a pair of PN Junction Diodes that are joined back-to-back. There are therefore two kinds of Bipolar sandwich. We can see that the arrangement looks like a back-to-back pair of PN Diode junctions with a thin P-type filling between two N-type slices of 'bread'. This forms a sort of a sandwich where one kind of semiconductor is placed in between two others. The reasons for these names will become clear later once we see how the transistor works. Figure 1 shows the energy levels in an NPN transistor when we aren't externally applying any voltages. In . Some of the basic properties exhibited by a Bipolar Transistor are immediately recognizable as being diode-like. However. To see how the Bipolar Transistor works we can concentrate on the NPN variety. and Emitter. The three layers of the sandwich are conventionally called the Collector. Base.

and load. we must connect it appropriately to the supply voltages.Transistor as a Switch • In many digital circuit applications. • This means we can ignore fancy biasing circuitry and just turn the device off (cut-off region) or on (saturation region) • Some early digital circuitry used resistors and transistors as indicated (RTL) Transistor as an Amplifier • How do we use the transistor as an amplifier? • First. the transistor is merely used as a switch. input signal. so it can be used • A useful mode of operation is the common-emitter configuration .

we have to add bias and load resistors to ensure the transistor is at the desired operating point (operating in the right current .Common Emitter Configuration • To make a practical circuit.

who share a thin common region with width. the two outer regions called the emitter and collector and the middle region called the base. The sign convention of the currents and voltage is indicated on Fig 1(a). electrons and holes.: (a) Structure and sign convention of a NPN bipolar junction transistor. The structure of an NPN bipolar transistor is shown in Figure 1 (a). Figure 1. The emitter current is positive for a current coming out of the emitter contact. This also .Structure and principle of operation A bipolar junction transistor consists of two back-to-back p-n junctions. (b) Electron and hole flow under forward active bias. Contacts are made to all three regions. wB. there are depletion regions between the quasi-neutral regions w. Since the device consists of two back-to-back diodes. The device is called "bipolar" since its operation involves both types of mobile carriers. VBE > 0 and VBC = 0. The base and collector current are positive if a positive current goes into the base or collector contact.

IE. IE. The corresponding energy band diagram is shown in Fig 2. what is different is that the electrons can diffuse as minority carriers through the quasi-neutral region in the base.p and the base-emitter depletion layer recombination current. In addition. equals the sum of the base current. obtained by forward biasing the base-emitter junction and reverse biasing the base-collector junction. : Energy band diagram of a bipolar transistor biased in the forward active mode. Once the electrons arrive at the base-collector depletion region. Figure 2. Ir. indicated on Fig 2 by the vertical arrow. These electrons contribute to the collector current. IE. we also set VCE = 0. IC: (0) The base-emitter voltage and the base-collector voltage are positive if a positive voltage is applied to the base contact relative to the emitter and collector respectively. the hole diffusion current. the base recombination current. The operation of the device is illustrated with Fig 1 (b). IE. Electrons diffuse from the emitter into the base and holes diffuse from the base into the emitter.B. We consider here only the forward active bias mode of operation. minus the base recombination current. This carrier diffusion is identical to that in a p-n junction.d.n. (1) The total collector current is the electron diffusion current.n. there are two more currents. The total emitter current is the sum of the electron diffusion current. (2) . However. and the collector current. they are swept through the depletion layer due to the electric field. To simplify the discussion further.implies the emitter current. and the base-emitter depletion layer recombination current (not shown). Ir. IB.

α T. IE. (6) The emitter efficiency. to the current due to electrons injected in the base. we now rewrite the transport factor. α . To facilitate further analysis. (8) Recombination in the depletion-region of the base-emitter junction further reduces the current gain. approaches one. The minority-carrier distribution in the quasi-neutral regions of the bipolar transistor. β . we find that the base current equals the difference between the emitter and collector current. α . In addition we eliminate the base-collector junction current by setting VBC = 0. (3) The transport factor. Ir.p. can therefore become much larger than one. The current gain. the base transport factor.n. is defined as the ratio of the collector and emitter current: (4) Using Kirchoff's current law and the sign convention shown in Figure 1(a).n + IE.The base current is the sum of the hole diffusion current.d. γ E. the base recombination current. as the product of the emitter efficiency. δ r. (7) The base transport factor. equals the ratio of the current due to electron and hole diffusion across the base-emitter junction to the total emitter current: The forward active mode is obtained by forward-biasing the base-emitter junction. β . IE. is defined as the ratio of the electron current in the emitter. as it increases the emitter current without increasing the collector current. the transport factor. The current gain. α .B and the base-emitter depletion layer recombination current. is defined as the ratio of the collector and base current and equals: (5) This explains how a bipolar junction transistor can provide current amplification.p. α T. The depletion layer recombination factor. IE. to the sum of the electron and hole current diffusing across the base-emitter junction. as . Ir. equals the ratio of the current due to electrons injected in the collector. γ E. If the collector current is almost equal to the emitter current. and the depletion layer recombination factor. δ r.

there is an important difference. (b) Saturation mode. as a function of the total excess minority charge in the base. The emitter current due to electrons and holes are obtained using the "short" diode expressions yielding: (11) and (12) It is convenient to rewrite the emitter current due to electrons. The minority carrier densities on both sides of the basecollector depletion region equal the thermal equilibrium values since VBC was set to zero. Figure 3.xp.shown in Figure 3.C do not recombine. is used to analyze this situation in more detail. This charge is proportional to the triangular area in the quasi-neutral base as shown in Fig 3 a) and is calculated from: . While this boundary condition is mathematically equivalent to that of an ideal contact. IE. they drift through the base-collector depletion region and end up as majority carriers in the collector region. Instead. ∆ Qn. The values of the minority carrier densities at the edges of the depletion regions are indicated on the Fig 3. The carrier densities vary linearly between the boundary values as expected when using the assumption that no significant recombination takes place in the quasi-neutral regions.B. The minority carriers arriving at x = wB .n. : Minority-carrier distribution in the quasi-neutral regions of a bipolar transistor (a) Forward active bias mode.

(14) and (15) yields the transit time as a function of the quasi-neutral layer width. The emitter current therefore equals the excess minority carrier charge present in the base region. IE.B. wB'.(13) which for a "short" diode becomes: (14) And the emitter current due to electrons. ∆ Qn.e.n. (19) The long minority-carrier lifetime and the long diffusion lengths in those materials justify the exclusion of recombination in the base or the depletion layer.B. Dn. is: . the transit time. and the electron diffusion constant in the base. (16) We now turn our attention to the recombination current in the quasi-neutral base and obtain it from the continuity equation: (17) In steady state and applied to the quasi-neutral region in the base. the continuity equation yields the base recombination current. Ir. simplifies to: (15) where tr is the average time the minority carriers spend in the base layer. i. using equation (13). The resulting current gain. divided by the time this charge spends in the base. under such conditions.B: (18) which in turn can be written as a function of the excess minority carrier charge. A combination of equations (11).

we conclude that the current gain can be larger than one if the emitter doping is much larger than the base doping. equals: (22) This expression is only valid if the base transport factor is very close to one. as defined in equation (18). is obtained by drawing a line tangential to the transistor I-V characteristic at the point of interest. The base transport factor. The gradient of the minority-carrier density in the base therefore changes. The Early voltage equals the horizontal distance between the point chosen on the I-V characteristics and the intersection between the .(21) From this equation. since it was derived using the "short-diode" carrier distribution. : Variation of the minority-carrier distribution in the base quasi-neutral region due to a variation of the base-collector voltage. yielding an increased collector current as the collector-base current is increased. Figure 4.150. The Early voltage. This causes the collector current to vary with the collector-emitter voltage as illustrated in Figure 4. A variation of the base-collector voltage results in a variation of the quasi-neutral width in the base. This base transport factor can also be expressed in function of the diffusion length in the base: (23) As the voltages applied to the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are changed. the depletion layer widths and the quasi-neutral regions vary as well. This effect is referred to as the Early effect. VA. The Early effect is observed as an increase in the collector current with increasing collector-emitter voltage as illustrated with Figure 5. A typical current gain for a silicon bipolar transistor is 50 .

Now. : Collector current increase with an increase of the collector-emitter voltage due to the Early effect. is also indicated on the figure. The Early voltage.e. It is indicated on the figure by the horizontal arrow. signal voltage--would cause the collector current to ever operate beyond either end of the linear portion of the operating curve.. . Figure 5. VA.tangential line and the horizontal axis. i. to the heart of the matter! We have an operating curve consisting of a fairly linear segment bounded by two nonlinear ends: cutoff and saturation. Operating in the Middle The transistor will operate very nicely if one could insure that no input voltage.

There are several ways to introduce feedback to this simple amplifier. the output signal would now start to "clip" and cause distortion (sine wave gets flat on top and bottom). If the bias point were set either too low or too high. if the resistor value approached that of the collector load resistor. then the sine wave would start to clip on the top before the bottom. e. the gain would approach unity (Gv ~ 1).To further beat a point into the ground: if one increased the input signal beyond this level. or visa versa (asymmetric clipping).. Effects of different bias settings Effects of different bias settings When (negative) feedback is introduced.g. resulting in improved performance and reliability. the easiest and most reliable of which is accomplished by introducing a small value resistor in the emitter circuit. . most of these problems diminish or disappear. The amount of feedback is dependent on the relative signal level dropped across this resistor.

hfe. but is defined in terms of small changes in the current levels. In practice this value isn't a 'universal constant' but depends on various factors: e. etc. the size and shape of its Base region. the way it's various parts were doped to make them into semiconductors. This is similar to the beta value. the transistor's temperature. . it shows a related figure called the transistor's Small Signal current gain. the Current Gain varies with the Collector Current level. IC. we can expect the main characteristic of a Bipolar Transistor to be its Current Gain value. from this graph we can see that the proportion of electrons 'caught' by a hole whilst trying to cross the Base region does vary a bit depending on the current level.From the explanation of how a Bipolar Transistor works. Note that the graph doesn't show the transistor's beta value. for a 'typical' transistor. The above illustration shows how. This parameter is more useful than the beta value when considering the transistor's use in signal amplifiers where we're interested in how the device responds to changes in the applied voltages and currents.g.

etc. the graph shown here should only be regarded as a 'typical' example as the precise result will vary a bit from device to device and with the temperature.The second way we can characterize the behavior of a Bipolar Transistor is by relating the Base-Emitter voltage. . As with the previous curve. As can expect from the diode-like nature of the Base-Emitter junction this voltage/current characteristic curve has an exponential-like shape similar to that of a normal PN Junction diode. IB. VBE. However. it produces. we apply to the Base current. this is only true when the Base-Collector voltage we are applying is 'big enough' to quickly draw over to the Collector any free electrons which enter the Base region from the Emitter. In most practical situations we can expect the Collector current to be set almost entirely by the chosen Base-Emitter voltage.

Each curve shows how the colletor current. we find that it is no longer able to efficiently remove electrons from the Base. Hence we get a current. In general we can expect most Bipolar Transistors to work efficiently provided that we . VCE. varies with the Collector-Emitter voltage. This produces a sort of partial 'roadblock' effect where free electrons tend to hang about in the Base region. When the applied VCE level is 'large enough' (typically above two or three volts. for a specific fixed value of the Base current. IC. The precise voltage at which the Collector ceases to be an effective 'collector of electrons' depends on the temperature and the manufacturing details of the transistor.The above plot of characteristic curves gives a more complete picture of what we can expect from a working Bipolar Transistor. However. etc. when we reduce the Collector potential so that VCE is less than a couple of volts. shown as the region in blue) the Collector is able to to remove free electrons from the Base almost as quickly as they Emitter injects them. (Cream-colored region) These make the Base region seem 'more negative' to any electrons in the Emitter and tends to reduce the overall flow of current through the device. IB. As we lower the Collector potential to become almost the same as that of the Base and Emitter it eventually stops drawing any electrons out of the device and the Collector current falls towards zero. using Bipolar Transistors as it contains quite a lot of detailed information. which is set by the Base-Emitter voltage and see a current gain value that doesn’t alter very much if we change either the base current or the applied Collector potential. This kind of characteristic curve 'family' is one of the most useful ones when it comes to building amplifiers.

for a particular input base current. working in common emitter mode. imagine the bias is set so that the collector voltage is 2 volts. common emitter. the other cycle will approach the limits of the power supply and will "clip". the input is the base. Let's assume that we have a single stage amplifier. where do you set the bias conditions? The answer is anywhere on the flat part of the graph. However. What happens if the output signal is 4 volts peak to peak ? Depending on whether the transistor used is a PNP or NPN. and the supply voltage is 10 volts. for example the middle curve. then one half cycle will be amplified cleanly. common base and emitter follower the output curves are slightly different.Output Characteristic Curves For each transistor configuration. the curves approximate a straight line. The collector emitter voltage is displayed up to 20 volts. So what has all this got to do with biasing? Take. The output terminal is the collector. The slope or gradient of each line represents the output impedance. A typical output characteristic for a BJT in common emitter mode are shown below :- After the initial bend. This is shown below : .

1 . · Consider the common emitter amplifier shown.Biasing Common Emitter Transistors · A common emitter configuration is shown in the figure below.1. The resistors provide DC biasing to select an operating point. The capacitor Ce is used to allow the AC to bypass Re.2.5. . · To perform the design we must first bias the transistor using the curves below.


C1 and C2 are coupling capacitors which allow ac signals to pass but block dc. setting the bias point. then resistor values are the same in both circuits.THE SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIER The two transistor types have opposite polarity power supplies. If the transistors have the same characteristics. ============================================================= . R4 is the emitter stabilising resistor. R3 is the collector load resistor. R1 and R2 are the base bias resistors. The polarity of the capacitors is reversed. C3 is the emitter decoupling capacitor.

where N is an integer.Theory Of sinusoidal Oscillators OSCILLATORS Oscillators require a resonator. Field Effect Transistors. 2. Some of the active devices used are discrete transistors. In addition. The phase shift around the loop is N*360E. Typically additional resistors and capacitors are also required in the circuit. The closed loop gain must be greater than or equal to one. and an active device. Op-Amps. and digital gates. A common transistor circuit is shown in figure 9 (colpitts . Theory of operation Two requirements must be fulfilled in order to obtain oscillation in the closed loop circuit: 1. it is important to note that at power up the noise of the component around the oscillator circuit is what actually starts the oscillation. per the previous section.


They are particularly interesting topics to be covered later. Hence the reason for crystal oscillators.THE DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS Crystal Oscillators are usually. fixed frequency oscillators where stability and accuracy are the primary considerations. For example it is almost impossible to design a stable and accurate LC oscillator for the upper HF and higher frequencies without resorting to some sort of crystal control. . I won't be discussing frequency synthesizers and direct digital synthesis (DDS) here.

. A typical example would be a 2N2222A. The transistor could be a general purpose type with an Ft of at least 150 hz for HF use. I have included a formula for determining L and C in the tuned circuits of crystal oscillators in case you have forgotten earlier tutorials. This allows a theoretical 2K5 ohm on the collector. ========================================================= . The turns ratio on the tuned circuit depicts an anticipated nominal load of 50 ohms. Some points of interest on crystal oscillators. In this case I'd make C a smaller trimmer in parallel with a standard fixed value. Personally I would make L a reactance of around 250 ohms. If it is followed by a buffer amplifier (recommended) I would simply maintain the typical 7:1 turns ratio.A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE OF A CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR Fig 1. This is a typical example of the type of crystal oscillators that may be used for say converters.

However. because they can be used to perform arithmetic operations (addition. op amps can also be used to integrate (calculate the areas under) and differentiate (calculate the slopes of) signals. packaged as integrated circuits (ICs). The range . Circuits of this kind with nice properties (high gain and high input impedance. are called operational amplifiers or op amps. the output voltage is limited to the range does the designer of the op amp specify the supply is often called the linear region of the amplifier. In fact. They are called ``operational'' amplifiers. Figure 22: A circuit model of an operational amplifier (op amp) with gain and output resistances and . for example).Operational Amplifier(OPAMP) Operational Amplifier Circuits We have built voltage and current amplifiers using transistors. and when the output swings to or . the op amp is said to be saturated. The output ranges of the amplifiers we built as part of Lab 3 were similarly limited by the supply voltage. where voltage. multiplication) with signals. . subtraction. and input A circuit model of an operational amplifier is shown in Figure The output voltage of the op amp is linearly proportional to the voltage difference between the input terminals by a factor of the gain .

A real op amp has a gain on the range (depending on the type). (b) Connection diagram for the LM741 and LF411 8 pin dual inline packages (DIPs). It costs more than the LM741 (a whopping $0. Detailed data sheets for these devices are available for download at the National Semiconductor web site the two. $0.An ideal op amp has infinite gain ( ). the LM741. Figure 23: (a) Schematic symbol for an op amp.23 as of spring 2001). the LF411 comes closest to satisfying our two assumptions associated with ideal op amp behavior. called dual inline packages (DIPs). For most applications. and hence actually maintains a very small difference in input terminal voltages when operating in its linear region. a general purpose bipolar junction transistor (BJT) based amplifier with a typical input resistance of 2 M .61 vs. we can get away with assuming . we will be using are shown in Figure . You should use these two assumptions to analyze the op amp circuits covered in the assignments below. if the output voltage is within the finite linear region. Pins labeled NC are not connected to the integrated circuit. A consequence of the assumption of infinite gain is that. infinite input resistance ( ). we must have . Inverting Amplifier . We will use two operational amplifiers in our laboratory exercises. with field effect transistors (FETs) at the inputs giving a much larger input resistance ( ). The schematic symbol for an op amp and the connection diagram for the chips. and the LF411. and zero output resistance ( ). We will not make use of the null (LM741) / balance (LF411) pins.

Measure the bandwidth (the difference between the upper and lower 3 dB points) of the amplifier for each gain. 3. 4. The product of the gain and bandwidth should be constant. and check your prediction experimentally for gains of 10 and 100. Measure the input impedance of the amplifier by placing various resistors in series with the source. Build the circuit. Noninverting Amplifier . Explain your result. 1. 6. An inverting amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 24. Is it? 5. Show that the gain of the amplifier is (18) 2.Figure 24: Inverting amplifier circuit. Check the linearity of the amplifier for each gain over its useful frequency range.

Build the circuit.Figure 25: Noninverting amplifier circuit. A noninverting amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 25. 1. 4. 3. and check your prediction experimentally for gains of 10 and 100. What is the input impedance of the amplifier? Voltage Follower . Show that the gain of the amplifier is (19) 2.

1. and use it to improve the input impedance of an inverting amp. Show that the output signal of the amplifier is . Build the circuit. Differential Amplifier Figure 27: Differential amplifier circuit. What is the input impedance of the amplifier? 3. A differential amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 27. 1. A voltage follower circuit is shown in Figure 26.Figure 26: Voltage follower circuit. What's the point? 2.

Explain your result. 4. Build the circuit. Measure the input impedance of the amplifier by placing various resistors in series with the source. Build the circuit. 1. and check your prediction experimentally for a gain of 10. Measure the input impedance of the amplifier by placing various resistors in series with the source. 4. Explain your result. To measure the impedance of one terminal. 3. drive it with a small signal through a resistor and ground the other. Show that the output signal of the amplifier is (21) 2. Integrator . Summing Amplifier Figure 28: Summing amplifier circuit. and check your prediction experimentally for a gain of 10.(20) 2. drive it with a small signal through a resistor and ground the other. A summing amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 28. To measure the impedance of one terminal. 3.

Show that the output signal of the amplifier is (22) 2. Also place a M resistor in parallel with the capacitor. This resistor drains charge to avoid saturation due to very low frequency or DC signals. Build the circuit with k . An integrator circuit is shown in Figure 29. 3. Differentiator . 1. F and use square and sinusoidal wave forms to test the predicted behavior.Figure 29: Integrator circuit.

Build the circuit with k . 1. F and use triangle and sinusoidal Schmitt Trigger . 3. A differentiator circuit is shown in Figure 30. wave forms to test the predicted behavior. Show that the output signal of the amplifier is (23) 2.Figure 30: Differentiator circuit.

Build the circuit. Rather than finding a general expression. between and are relative to ground. Measure the input thresholds of the trigger and compare with your predictions. assume a maximal output voltage swing of V. k . and k . This actually varies with each op amp. For the analysis. it drags the thresholds apart. however. or some reference and .Figure 31: Schmitt trigger circuit. but should not be far from the truth. tedious. using the resistance values given above. it's fine to consider this particular case. voltage divider sets the rough neighborhood of the controls the hysteresis of the switch (the difference between the ``turn on'' and ``turn off'' thresholds). A Schmitt trigger circuit is shown in Figure 31. 2. It is. Predict the ``turn on'' and ``turn off'' thresholds for k . . ============================================================= Communication Systems . Otherwise. k . 1. The analysis is not difficult. The feedback resistor should be a factor 10100 larger than the voltage divider resistors. The trigger thresholds.

This graphical representation is known as a block diagram. Block diagram of communication system Fundamental model of communication Figure 1: The Fundamental Model of Communication. information sources produce signals. the source produces a signal that will be absorbed by the sink. However. exemplified by s(t is analog and is a function of time. we must understand electrical science and technology. In communication systems. because AM radio is completely different from angle modulation. we represent a system as a box. In electrical engineering. speech. messages—signals produced by sources—must be recast for transmission. As typified by the communications model. To be able to design systems. We denote input signals by lines having arrows pointing into the box. The fundamental model of communications is portrayed in figure 1. each message-bearing signal. Both of them are altering the angle of the carrier sinusoid according to some function. The block diagram has the message s(t) passing through a block labeled transmitter that produces the signal x(t). one. receiving input signals (usually coming from the left) and producing from them new output signals. In physical systems.Concept We can see from our initial overviews that FM and PM modulation schemes have alot in common. we first need to understand the big picture to appreciate the context in which the electrical engineer works. how it is corrupted and manipulated. A system operates on zero. it accepts an input audio signal and produces a signal that physically is an electromagnetic wave radiated by an antenna and propagating as Maxwell's equations . In the case of a radio transmitter. Examples of time-domain signals produced by a source are music. Note that we will never abbreviate "angle modulation" with the letters "AM". Thus. In this fundamental model. how information flows. each signal corresponds to an electrical voltage or current. and interconnecting block diagrams summarizes how it is ultimately received: The outputs of one or more systems serve as the inputs to others. and characters typed on a keyboard. It turns out that we can go so far as to generalize the two together into a single modulation scheme known as angle modulation. output signals by arrows pointing away. or several signals to produce more signals or to simply absorb them (figure 2). In the communications model. Signals can also be functions of two variables—an image is a signal that depends on two spatial variables—or more—television pictures (video signals) are functions of two spatial variables and time.

the same block diagram applies although the systems can be very different. and launched into the Internet. Finally. and attenuated among many possibilities. the receiver must do its best to produce a received message s(t) that resembles s(t) as much as possible. and transmitter design and receiver design focus on how best to jointly fend off the channel's effects on signals.) Transmitted signals next pass through the next stage. Nothing good happens to a signal in a channel: It can become corrupted by noise. attached with a destination address. what is their information content. Such crytographic systems underlie secret communications. In the case of a computer network. and how information can be processed by systems operating on information-bearing signals. In the communications model. distorted. take this word to mean error-free—digital communication was possible over arbitrarily noisy channels. how information is transformed between analog and digital forms. The channel cannot be escaped (the real world is cruel). and produces r(t). else the communication system cannot be considered reliable. It is this result that modern communications systems exploit. However. the source is a system having no input but producing an output. and yield the message with no distortion. The channel is another system in our block diagram. However. clever systems exist that transmits signals so that only the “in crowd” can recover them. (It is ridiculous to transmit a signal in such a way that no one can recover the original. and there we learn of Shannon's result and how to use it.” The module on Information Communication details Shannon's theory of information. the nature of the information they represent. typed characters are encapsulated in packets. and why many communications systems are going “digital. the evil channel. Shannon showed in his 1948 paper that reliable— for the moment.predict. no matter what their source. One is electrical science: How are signals represented and manipulated electrically? The second is signal science: What is the structure of signals. and what capabilities does this structure force upon communication systems? Instantaneous Phase . In the mathematical sense. the receiver would serve as the inverse system to the transmitter. If the channel were benign (good luck finding such a channel in the real world). From the communication systems “big picture” perspective. the signal received by the receiver. the received message is passed to the information sink that somehow makes use of the message. In any case. a sink has an input and no output. the inverse system must exist. Understanding signal generation and how systems work amounts to understanding signals. the transmitter should not operate in such a way that the message s(t) cannot be recovered from x(t). This understanding demands two different fields of knowledge. because of the channel.

In PM.Let us now look at some things that FM and PM have in common: sFM = Acos(2π[fc + ks(t)]t + φ) sPM = Acos(2πfct + αs(t)) What we want to analyze is the argument of the sinusoid. . In FM. is it possible to determine if the transmission is using FM or PM? it turns out that it is possible to determine which is which. Determining FM or PM If we are given the equation for the instantaneous phase of a particular angle modulated transmission. and we will call it Psi. we can find the Instantaneous frequency of the wave with the following formula: We can also express the instantaneous phase in terms of the instantaneous frequency: Where the greek letter "lambda" is simply a dummy variable used for integration. Instantaneous Frequency Using the Instantaneous phase value. by following 2 simple rules: 1. and the PM case: Ψcarrier(t) = 2πfct + φ ΨFM(t) = 2π[fc + ks(t)]t + φ ΨPM(t) = 2πfct + αs(t) s(t) = Acos(Ψ(t)) This Psi value is called the Instantaneous phase of the sinusoid. instantaneous frequency minus carrier frequency is a linear function. Using these relationships. the FM case. we can begin to study FM and PM signals further. instantaneous phase is a linear function. Let us show the Psi for the bare carrier. 2.

there is a chapter on the subject in the Signals and Systems book worth re-reading. from reasons having to do with demodulation. Amplitude Modulation In Amplitude Modulation or AM. The frequency of the modulating signal is chosen to be much smaller than that of the carrier signal. i. Try to think of what would happen if the modulating index were bigger than 1. the carrier signal has its amplitude Modulated in proportion to the message bearing (lower frequency) signal to give The magnitude of is chosen to be less than or equal to 1.e. The modulation index is then defined to be Figures 1 and 2 are some matlab plots of what the modulated signal looks like for .For a refresher course on Linearity. . recovery of the signal from the received signal.

Figure 1: AM modulation with modulation index .2 Note that the AM signal is of the form

This has frequency components at frequencies


Frequency modulation requires the oscillator frequency to deviate both above and below the carrier frequency. During the process of frequency modulation, the peaks of each successive cycle in the modulated waveform occur at times other than they would if the carrier were unpopulated. This is actually an incidental phase shift that takes place along with the frequency shift in fm. Just the opposite action takes place in phase modulation. The af signal is applied to a PHASE MODULATOR in pm. The resultant wave from the phase modulator shifts in phase, as illustrated in figure 2-17. Notice that the time period of each successive cycle varies in the modulated wave according to the audio-wave variation. Since frequency is a function of time period per cycle, we can see that such a phase shift in the carrier will cause its frequency to change. The frequency change in fm is vital, but in pm it is merely incidental. The amount of frequency change has nothing to do with the resultant modulated wave shape in pm. At this point the comparison of fm to pm may seem a little hazy, but it will clear up as we progress.

Figure 2-17.—Phase modulation. Let’s review some voltage phase relationships. Look at figure 2-18 and compare the three voltages (A, B, and C). Since voltage A begins its cycle and reaches its peak before voltage B, it is said to lead voltage B. Voltage C, on the other hand, lags voltage B by 30 degrees. In phase modulation the phase of the carrier is caused to shift at the rate of the af modulating signal. In figure 2-19, note that the unpopulated carrier has constant phase, amplitude, and frequency. The dotted wave shape represents the modulated carrier. Notice that the phase on the second peak leads the phase of the unpopulated carrier. On the third peak the shift is even greater; however, on-the fourth peak, the peaks begin to realign phase with each other. These relationships represent the effect of 1/2 cycle of an af modulating signal. On the negative alternation of the af intelligence, the phase of the carrier would lag and the peaks would occur at times later than they would in the unpopulated carrier. Figure 2-18.—Phase relationships.

Frequency Modulation
FM is a so-called angle modulation scheme; it was inspired by phase modulation but has proved to be more useful partly for its ease of generation and decoding. The main advantages of FM over AM are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Improved signal to noise ratio (about 25dB) w.r.t. to man made interference. Smaller geographical interference between neighboring stations. Less radiated power. Well-defined service areas for given transmitter power.

Disadvantages of FM: 1. Much more Bandwidth (as much as 20 times as much). 2. More complicated receiver and transmitter. In this scheme the frequency of the modulating signal is changed in proportion to the message signal . Thus the signal that is transmitted is of the form

Here the signal

is assumed to be normalized so that the maximum of the integral is 1 and

is called the frequency deviation of the modulation scheme. The index of modulation of an FM signal of the form

is defined to be

Figures 3, 4, and 5 are examples of what FM signals look like in the time domain for a message signal of the form

carrier frequency 10 and modulation index 2 In general the determination of the frequency content of an FM waveform is complicated.Figure 3: FM modulation with modulating frequency 1. but when ============================================================= .

we would have to multiply 10*10^n. For example. we learned that the ones column meant 10^0. which would give 10^(n+1).Digital electronics Basic Concepts Behind the Binary System To understand binary numbers. we need to use an extra column to the left. . "3" in binary cannot be put into one column. we were taught that. "T" is the tens column. In other words. which also uses an additional column to the left (12). Therefore. and "O" is the ones column. in the decimal system. thus using two columns. so we put a 1 in the 10^1 column. 10). or 10^0(10+2). if we used anything larger it would be like multiplying 2*2^n and getting 2^n+1. and be carried a column to the left. Years later. such that 10^2|10^1|10^0 1 | 9 | 3 the number 193 is really {(1*10^2)+(9*10^1)+(3*10^0)}. begin by recalling elementary school math. instead of columns being 10^2|10^1|10^0 they are 2^2|2^1|2^0 Instead of using the digits 0-9. For example. which would not fit in the 2^n column. or 1. the decimal system uses the digits 0-9 to represent numbers. which is 2^0. we only use 0-1 (again. The binary system works under the exact same principles as the decimal system. the hundreds column 10^2 and so on.. or 10^1+2*10^0. As you know.g. If we wanted to put a larger number in column 10^n (e. Twelve would be 12*10^0. things are organized into columns: H | T | O 1 | 9 | 3 such that "H" is the hundreds column. When we first learned about numbers. Since 3>1. So the number "193" is 1-hundreds plus 9-tens plus 3-ones. and a 0 in the 10^0 column. it would shift you one column to the left. only it operates in base 2 rather than base 10. the tens column meant 10^1. The first column we fill is the right-most column. putting ten in the 10^0 column is impossible. and indicate it as "11" in binary (1*2^1) + (1*2^0).

Thus.Examples: What would the binary number 1011 be in decimal notation? Try converting these numbers from binary to decimal: • • • • 10 111 10101 11110 2^4| 2^3| 2^2| 2^1| 2^0 | | | 1 | 0 | | 1 | 1 | 1 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 Remember: Binary Addition Consider the addition of decimal numbers: 23 +48 ___ We begin by adding 3+8=11. the answer is 71. which is put in the 10's column of the sum. . 1+1=2. In decimal form. Since 11 is greater than 10. any digit higher than 1 puts us a column to the left (as would 10 in decimal notation). add {(2+4) +1} (the one is from the carry)=7. Record the 0 in the ones column. The decimal number "2" is written in binary notation as "10" (1*2^1)+(0*2^0). and a 1 is recorded in the one's column of the sum. a one is put into the 10's column (carried). Binary addition works on the same principle. In binary. Next." In our vertical notation. Begin with one-bit binary addition: 0 +0 ___ 0 0 +1 ___ 1 1 +0 ___ 1 1+1 carries us into the next column. but the numerals are different. and carry the 1 to the twos column to get an answer of "10.

Carry: 1 Step three: Column 2^2: 1+0=1 Add 1 from carry: 1+1=10. Record the 0. carry the 1. Carry: 1 Step four: Column 2^3: 1+1=10. Temporary Result: 01. Record the 11. Record the 1. Temporary Result: 001. Temporary Result: 1. Final result: 11001 Alternately: 11 (carry) 1010 +1111 ______ 11001 Always remember • • • 0+0=0 1+0=1 1+1=10 Try a few examples of binary addition: 111 +110 ______ 101 +111 _____ 111 +111 _____ . Carry: 0 Step two: Column 2^1: 1+1=10.1 +1 ___ 10 The process is the same for multiple-bit binary numbers: 1010 +1111 ______ • • • • Step one: Column 2^0: 0+1=1. carry the 1. Add 1 from carry: 10+1=11. Record the 0.

Binary Multiplication Multiplication in the binary system works the same way as in the decimal system: • • • 101 * 11 ____ 101 1010 _____ 1111 1*1=1 1*0=0 0*1=0 Note that multiplying by two is extremely easy. For the sake of simplicity. but can easily be done once you know how through the use of algorithms. Binary Division Follow the same rules as in decimal division. We can easily see that the number 3= 2+1. For Example: 111011/11 10011 r 10 _______ 11)111011 -11 ______ 101 -11 ______ 101 11 ______ 10 Decimal to Binary Converting from decimal to binary notation is slightly more difficult conceptually. Begin by thinking of a few examples. To multiply by two. throw away the remainder. and that this is equivalent to (1*2^1)+(1*2^0). This translates into putting a "1" in the 2^1 column and . just add a 0 on the end.

This can also be written as [(1*2^2)+(1*2^0)]. 0 in 2^2. subtracting that from the number (5-4=1). or 2^2+1. Looking at this in columns. or 2^3. to get "11". Put zeros in all columns. o b. Particularly step 3. Let D= the number we wish to convert from decimal to binary 2. "filling in the zeros. which don't have ones. which is 64. Making this algorithm a bit more formal gives us: 1. Repeat until P<0 o If 2^P<=D then  put 1 into column P  subtract 2^P from D . Let's take a look at how it works. Let D=number we wish to convert from decimal to binary 2. and subtract 2 from 3. Thus. We know that: 2^0=1 2^1=2 2^2=4 2^3=8 2^4=16 2^5=32 2^6=64 2^7=128 and so on. Let this equal P. giving us 11. we should rewrite it such that we ascertain the value of each column individually. 2^2 | 2^1 | 2^0 1 0 1 or 101. Find the largest power of two in D. Then we just put this into columns. Put 1 in the 2^1 column. Almost as intuitive is the number 5: it is obviously 4+1. Repeat until D=0 o a. such that 2^P is the largest power of two smaller than D. and subtract 64 from 75. This algorithm is a bit awkward. We're left with 1. putting in 0's and 1's as we go: 1. This process continues until we have a remainder of 0. Put 1 in the 2^3 column. Subtract P from D. we would find the largest power of 2 less than 75. which is the same as saying [(2*2) +1]. 3. The largest power of 2 in 11 is 8. Put a 1 in binary column P." Therefore. What we're doing here is finding the largest power of two within the number (2^2=4 is the largest power of 2 in 5). To convert the decimal number 75 to binary. and finding the largest power of 2 in the remainder (2^0=1 is the largest power of 2 in 1). we would put a 1 in the 2^6 column. Thus. 3. and 0 in 2^4 and 2^5. and we subtract one to get zero. our number is 1001011. which goes in 2^0. Find P. o c.a "1" in the 2^0 column. Subtract 8 from 11 to get 3.

2^5<=55. so we put a 1 in the 2^4 column: 11----. so we put a 1 in the 2^2 column: 1101-Subtract 4 from 7 to get 3. this is not the only approach possible.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Our first step is to find P. We know that 2^4=16. All binary numbers are in the form a[n]*2^n + a[n-1]*2^(n-1)+.o o o Else  put 0 into column P End if Subtract 1 from P Now that we have an algorithm. so we stop. rather than the left. 2^3>7. This gives us the rightmost digit as a starting point. Similarly. we can use it to convert numbers from decimal to binary relatively painlessly..+a[1]*2^1 + a[0]*2^0 where each a[i] is either a 1 or a 0 (the only possible digits for the binary system). 2^5=32. Subtracting 1 from P gives us 4.. subtract 16 from 23. which gives us 2. Therefore. Subtract 1 from P to get 1. 2^2<=7. Next.. 2^0<=1. so we put a 1 in the 2^0 column: 110111 Subtract 1 from 1 to get 0. subtract 1 from P. It is also easy to see that multiplying and dividing by 2 shifts everything by one column: two in binary is 10. so we put a 1 in the 2^1 column: 11011Subtract 2 from 3 to get 1. 2^4<=23. or just a 1 in binary.. 8. Therefore {a[n]*2^n + a[n-1]*2^(n-1) + . Following step 3 again. P=5. 4. Now we need to do the remaining digits. Subtracting 55-32 leaves us with 23. or (1*2^1). Let's try the number D=55. + a[1]*2^1 + a[0]*2^0}/2 is equal to . Dividing (1*2^1) by 2 gives us (1*2^0). so we put a 1 in the 2^5 column: 1-----. 2^1<=3. Subtract 1 from P gives us 3. One idea is to "shift" them. multiplying by 2 shifts in the other direction: (1*2^1)*2=(1*2^2) or 10 in binary.). Another algorithm for converting decimal to binary However. The only way a number can be odd is if it has a 1 in the 2^0 column. because all powers of two greater than 0 are even numbers (2.. 16. and 2^6=64. so we put a 0 in the 2^3 column: 110--Next. P is now less than zero. Subtract 1 from P to get -1. to get 7. We can start at the right. Subtract 1 from P to get 0.

Subtract 1 from D to get 162. Practically. we "took out" one power of two. Four's column: Now we can subtract 1 from 81 to see what remainder we still must place (80). 2. put "0" in the leftmost open column. Let's formalize this algorithm: Let D= the number we wish to convert from decimal to binary. put "1" in the leftmost open column. Let D=163 2. This is even. Therefore.a[n]*2^(n-1) + a[n-1]*2^(n-2) + . b) If D is even. 1. If we put the 1 in the 2^0 column. Our "new" 2^0 column now contains a1. b) D is odd. we can simply keep a "running total". Also note that a1 is essentially "remultiplied" by two just by putting it in front of a[0]. get 80. b) D is odd. this works as follows: 1. a[1]=1. a[2]=0. Our running total now stands at a[3]=0. Repeat until D=0: a) If D is odd. and the number is not odd). Since 81 is odd. Since we divided the number by two. we have 162 left. the statement a[n-1]*2^(n-1) + a[n-2]*2^(n-2) + . Temporary Result: 01 New D=81 D does not equal 0. 1 in the 2^1 column. c) Divide D by 2. which now stands at 11 (a[1]=1 and a[0]=1). Eight's column: We can divide by two again to get 20.. there must be a 0 in the 4's column.. so we put a 0 in the 8's column. Dividing 80 by 2 gives 40. and a[0]=1. and subtract 1 from D. put a Subtract 1 from D to c) Divide D=80 by Temporary Result: 11 D does not equal 0. Two's column: Dividing 162 by 2 gives 81. We can continue in this manner until there is no remainder to place. c) Divide D=162 by 2. a[1]=1. End Repeat For the number 163. Take the number 163. put a 1 in the 2^0 column. We also know that it equals 162+1. so 2. Similarly. so it is automatically fit into the correct column. + a[1]2^0 Let's look at how this can help us convert from decimal to binary. (because what we are actually placing is a 2^0 column. New D=40 we repeat step 2.. c) Divide D by 2. b) D is even. and have to decide how to translate the remaining digits. + a[1]*2^0 has a power of two removed. The number 81 in binary would also have a 1 in the 2^0 column. 2. there must be a 1 in the 2^0 column (a[0]=1).. We know that since it is odd. We learned earlier that there is a 1 in the 2^0 column if the number is odd. 2. put a 0 in the 2^2 column. so we repeat step 2. Temporary Result:011 New D=20 .

but how do we indicate negative numbers in the binary system? Before we investigate negative numbers. c) Divide D by 2. we will work with 8 bits. a) D is odd. "0" indicates that the number is positive. put a 1 in the 2^5 column. we would simply put a "1" rather than a "0" as the first bit: 10001100. we can easily verify our result. Since we already knew how to convert from binary to decimal. . In 8 bits. 00001100 would be 12 (break this down into (1*2^3) + (1*2^2) ). put a 0 in the 2^6 column. Subtract 1 from D to get 4. c) Divide D by 2. and the decimal number 163 is equivalent to the binary number 10100011. An 8-bit number is 8 digits long. Subtract 1 from D to get D=0. For this section. the left-most bit is not actually part of the number. put a 0 in the 2^3 column. c) Divide D by 2. Negation in the Binary System • • • • Signed Magnitude One's Complement Two's Complement Excess 2^(m-1) These techniques work well for non-negative integers. Temporary Result: 10100011 New D=0 D=0. so we are done. but is just the equivalent of a +/. Temporary Result: 00011 New D=5 2. In signed magnitude. "1" indicates negative. 10100011=(1*2^0)+(1*2^1)+(1*2^5)+(1*2^7)=1+2+32+128= 163. b) D is even. b) D is even. Temporary Result: 0011 New D=10 2. Temporary Result: 0100011 New D=1 2.2. b) D is even. Temporary Result: 100011 New D=2 2. To indicate -12. a) D is odd. c) Divide D by 2.sign. put a 1 in the 27 column. Signed Magnitude: The simplest way to indicate negation is signed magnitude. c) Divide D by 2. we note that the computer uses a fixed number of "bits" or binary digits. put a 0 in the 2^4 column.

it would be excess 2^7. Add 1 if the number is negative. the leftmost bit indicates the sign (1 is negative. Two's Complement: Begin with the number in one's complement. we get 00001100. and ones with zeros . Logic gates • Logic gates represent Boolean functions5. As in signed magnitude. and. Using the regular algorithm for binary adition. – and return a 0 or 1 as the result (output) • Any Boolean function may be implemented using a combination of three simple logic gates AND. negative numbers are represented differently. in binary. NOT: Inputs Output A B A AND B . "m" indicates the total number of bits.One's Complement: In one's complement. positive numbers are represented as usual in regular binary. (-12+-5). 0 is positive). To negate a number. you cannot figure out the value of a number. Then add 2^7 (=128) to that number. in binary. 7 would be 128 + 7=135. (-5+12).flip the bits. For us (working with 8 bits). We would represent -7 as 128-7=121. and. However. Thus. and (12+12) in each system. and -12 as 11110100. Then convert back to decimal numbers. to get 11110011. OR. To represent a number (positive or negative) in excess 2^7. replace all zeros with ones. In this notation. flip the bits and translate as before. let's try working with them. To compute the value of a negative number. and -12 would be 11110011. A number in excess 2^(m-1) is the same as that number in two's complement with the leftmost bit flipped. To see the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Twelve would be represented as 00001100. add (5+12). Note: • • Unless you know which representation has been used. or 12 in decimal. 01111001. To verify this. let's subtract 1 from 11110110. begin by taking the number in regular binary representation. For example. 12 would be 00001100.10000111. If we flip the bits. or 2^7+2^2+2^1+2^0. Boolean functions – receive a number of 0s and 1s as parameters (input).

we want to let D pass. 101. Mathematician and Logician 48 Basic logic gates • A number of different notations may be used to denote the three basic logic gates: Gate A AND B A ^ B A · B A OR B A _ B A + B NOT A ¬ A A – In the last column. 010): 50 Controlling data flow with AND: a data valve • Example: 1 Assume a data signal is arriving on wire D 2 Only if the control wire X indicates a logic 1. otherwise keep the output at logic 0 • Note: the truth table for the AND gate can equivalently be written as Inputs Output D X D AND X d00 . the result will be 1 (in all other cases. the result is 0) • Example (detect input bit patterns 111. note how the truth table for AND and the arithmetic operation · (multiply) coincide (a similar remark applies to OR and +) 49 Detecting bit patterns with AND • We can generalize the operation of the AND gate from 2 to n. 1815–1846.000 010 100 111 Inputs Output A B A OR B 000 011 101 111 Input Output A NOT A 01 10 5George Boolean. n > 2 input parameters: only if all n input parameters are 1.

i.W = 0.d1d 51 A multiplexer (data selector) • To become more familiar with logic gates and boolean functions. a generalization of the “data valve” just seen • An n-way multiplexer accepts 2 × n inputs: – n data lines.. data line C is selected): OUT = (A · Z)+(B · Y)+(C · X)+(D · W) = (A · 0) + (B · 0) + (C · 1) + (D · 0) =0+0+C+0 =C 54 A two-bit decoder • Observe how the multiplexer will fail if more than control line indicates a logic 1 . Y = 0.e. let us review the design of a multiplexer. the i -th data line is seen as the output Example (truth table for 4-way multiplexer): Control Data W X Y Z A B C D OUT 0001abcda 0010abcdb 0100abcdc 1000abcdd 52 A multiplexer (data selector) Control Data W X Y Z A B C D OUT 0001abcda 0010abcdb 0100abcdc 1000abcdd • Remember that A · 0 = 0 and A · 1 = A and A+0=A • A boolean function that implements the 4-way multiplexer thus is OUT = (A · Z) + (B · Y) + (C · X) + (D · W) 53 A multiplexer (data selector) • Example (assume Z = 0. X = 1. and – n control lines: whenever the i -th control line (1 6 i 6 n) is a logic 1.

3) – Select a control line using a two-bit input () 22 possible control lines) – If the two-bit input indicates n. develop the complete Boolean equation for OUT 56 Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) • Note that the boolean equation for the multiplexer as well as the decoder were of the general form (inputs ik. ): OUT = (i1 · i2 · i3 · · · ) + (i1 · i2 · i3 · · · ) + (i1 · i2 · i3 · · · ) + · · · • Many Boolean equations may be brought into this sum-of-products form .• A better approach. emit bit string 00· · · 1 · · · " n-th bit 00 – Feed this bit string as control input into the multiplexer Selector Line YXdcba 000001 010010 100100 111000 55 A two-bit decoder • To detect the selected control line. . a decoder: – Number the four control lines (here: 0 . . we need to check both input Y and X: a=Y·X b=Y·X c=Y·X d=Y·X • Given this circuit. 2. . . k = 1. .