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Heron Gachuz-Muro, SPE, Pemex-Heriot Watt University; Jose L. Sanchez-Bujanos, SPE, Pemex; Israel CastroHerrera, SPE, UNAM; Jose A. Rodriguez-Pimentel, SPE, Schlumberger
Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition held in Vienna, Austria, 23–26 May 2011. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.
Abstract In the search for oil and gas during the past century, other gases have been encountered. These gases had little or no economic value and areas known to contain them were avoided during drilling. Deposits of CO2 rich gas (>50 %) are present worldwide but in limited areas – USA, mainly. Few studies of natural CO2 reservoirs are currently available to determine and analyze its accurate exploitation. CO2 concentrations ranging between 71 and 98 % have been discovered in the Northeast of Mexico. Preliminary evaluations (SPE-107445) of the available data for Quebrache field indicated potential gas reserves. Complementary analyses to date have shown that on balance, the Quebrache field offers a significant opportunity for developing Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects. This new study divides the field into tree important areas. This paper presents: a) recent reservoirs discovered b) estimated reserves for all tree areas with CO2 sources (Central Area, Northern Area and Southern Area), c) efforts made to evaluate its potential d) opportunities to invest in and operate a world-class CO2 reservoir, etc. The Central Area reveals 2 important reservoirs. These reservoirs are relatively continuous and could produce and drain reserves during long period. Original Gas-In-Place (OGIP) volumes are likely conservative because in its calculation it is assumed a gas-water contact (there is contact apparent in the well logs). The Quebrache field would provide strategic value to CO2 injection programs. The CO2 accumulations described in this paper could play a major role in recovering additional oil from fields in the North of Mexico. Thus, CO2 accumulations in the right place and at the right time may become production targets in the future. Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) is found both free and combined with other gases, such as petroleum gas and flue gases resulting from combustion. CO2 is marketed either as a solid (dry ice) or as a liquid. Even if the ultimate use of the carbon dioxide requires it to be a gas, it is purchased from the manufacturer as a solid or liquid and sublimed or reduced to a gas at the place of use. Prior to 1970, the main uses of CO2 produced were numerous: refrigeration, heat and cold treatement, laboratory uses, carbonating beverages, fire extinguishing, etc. The volume for these purposes was small. During the 1970’s, however, a new use for CO2 emerged. Injection of this gas into mature oil fields could mobilize oil that has been left behind by primary or secondary recovery techniques. This new application substantially increased demand for carbon dioxide. Mainly, two main factors have made carbon dioxide an attractive resource target in some specific areas, a) it has shown that in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes can increase oil production and b) the rise of the price of oil has made attractive its exploitation. Part of the economic feasibility of these EOR methods is a source of carbon dioxide which can be transported and injected at a reasonable cost. Sources of CO2 are quite diverse but there are three primary options: a) Supplies from natural reservoirs, b) Anthropogenic sources or c) Recicled CO2.
. figure 1. decarbonation of marine carbonates. This is partially due to the multiple origins of CO2 in natural gases. Turkey. In Quebrache. etc. The gases of Quebrache were generated from the primary cracking of kerogen. The objective of the present paper is to assess the CO2 reserves of Quebrache field in 660 km2 under traditional methods published. It is therefore important to point out that Quebrache field. The results of these studies corroborate its potential EOR application.2 [SPE-142851] Natural sources of CO2 occur. it seems reasonable to think that the origin of the CO2 is closely related to an inorganic origin. hydrocarbon oxidation. Despite the amount of information available from these sites. prolific oil areas were discovered in Northeastern Mexico. More than 100 CO2 projects were reported in 2010.-USA EOR Projects under Gases. kerogen decarboxyilation. Australia. Hungary. CO2 dissolved in formation water or coexisting with oil fields as dissolved gas and gas cap. in the right place and at the right time. etc. principally limestones. These uncommon instances were traditionally classified as failure. corresponding to an open system without any evidence of secondary cracking. oil field biodegradation. These include methanogenesis. CO2 mixed with natural gas. In many cases (concerning to the oil industry). Romania. reservoir depths and CO2 bearing phases. Figure 1. may become production target in the future. the gases had little or no economic value and areas known to contain them were commonly avoided during further drilling. it is an unwelcomed dilutent and corrosive agent in hydrocarbon natural gases. degassing of magmatic bodies. Natural accumulations take place in a number of different types of sedimentary rocks. EOR projects using CO2 have risen dramatically in recent years. Numerous other developments were announced and planned. In order for this technology to be safely implemented the long term consequence of injecting CO2 into the reservoirs must be quantifed. when CO2 is found as a natural source. in many natural CO2 reservoirs the source of the CO2 and basin scale processes that act on them are poorly understood. (source OGJ-2010). the supply is of great concern to the oil companies. i. Nevertheless. as gaseous accumulations of CO2.e.These accumulations have been studied in the United States. Historical Development Beginning in 1901. dolomites and sandstones and with a variety of seals and a range of trap types. Drilling in the southwestern portion of Tampico .
Gas Oil Total Area (660 Km2 ) TAMPICO U. figure 3. production has been limited by pipeline dimensions.84 Bscf. was run where a closed system was simulated. A second case then. figure 4. The discovery well encountered high-purity CO2 (90 %) with minor amounts of nitrogen and the rest being hydrocarbon gases. A preliminary evaluation of the data for this area indicated recovery potentials (SPE-107445). This allowed obtaining a proven volume. 329. The lower member is the biggest of these reservoirs and contains estimated reserves up to 1 Tscf. The adjusted model was “Infinitely Acting Reservoir”. upper member. These formations are occurring at depths of 900-1100 m and consisting of a 9-45 m thick. and 1340 m thick. Two years ago. The Central Area is more than 85 % pure whereas the Northern Area and Southern Area contain between 60-92 % mol. We focused on this unit which provided complementary information. A well was exploited and operated for industrial use. Each area was reviewed in detail with the available data. Currently. Although tests have proven the new wells are capable of producing at rates of more than 4 MMscfd. Neither structure has been fully developed. Two of these structures have been tested.2 MMscfd since then. The producing formations are rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. Production began in 1997 and has continued at a rate of approximately of 2.[SPE-142851] 3 found mainly high-purity CO2 or variable gas mixtures with high concentrations of CO2. several well tests and analyses of recovered gas led the existence of natural CO2 into 231 km2. lower member. For this reason. MEXICO OCEANO PACIFICO GOLFO DE MEXICO TOPILA GUATEMALA QUEBRACHE Figure 2. we decided to exclude it from our evaluations. a project study group was formed to cover all aspects of a possible development. It is still largely undeveloped and it extends over an area of 2.A. The secondary formation (upper member) does not have enough information. Part of this revision divided the field into tree important areas: a) Central Area b) Northern Area and c) Southern Area (figure 2). We used the method stablished by Cinco-Ley to evaluate its latent volume. Quebrache field was discovered in 1915. One well with sufficient information was selected representing a natural behavior in this area. CO2 had little or no economic value (absence of a CO2 market) and areas known to contain it were avoided during drilling. The concentrations exceed 85 % purity. This volume is transported via pipeline to a nearby heavy oil field for gas lift operations. The well remained closed few years. .500 km2. the main information is unknown.-CO2 accumulations in Quebrache Field (660 km was evaluated).S. Interest in this field increased because it was the closest and best source of CO2 to develop an EOR program in a mature oil field. indicated that operations of gas lift could lead to the successful recovery of additional oil. however. The volume confirmed the presence of relatively continuous formations where the CO2 could be produced and drained during long period. • The Central Area The review of various electric logs. respectively). The wells also produce minimal amounts of formation water and condensate (1 bl/MMscf and 5-10 bls/MMscf. 2 Recent Studies This section of the paper is divided by areas of importance for its reading. Numerous structures in the zone have been defined as CO2 targets. Only sporadic exploration efforts continued in the area in the search for oil and gas. We have divided this section informally into upper and lower members because of rock quality. Interest in CO2 development remained low until exploitation studies. 17-20 wells provide about 12 MMscfd of carbon dioxide. in the late 1990’s.
Recovery efficiency is assumed to be 70 % because the formations are relatively continuous units. The limited production tests have revealed an infinitely acting reservoir.4 [SPE-142851] Figure 3. . The reservoir drive is presumed to be a depletion drive. The effects of long horizontal wells on production rate also were scrutinized.-Pressure and production data representing a large radius of investigation. Figure 5 illustrates the variation of gas production rate with well length for different chokes. The search provided the selection of a reasonable horizontal well length (200-300 m).-Adjusted data under a closed system. although an active acuifer is possible (there is a contact apparent in the well logs). After a certain point. it is seen that the curves stayed invariable which showed that a rise in the horizontal well length does not yield a corresponding growth in the production. One of the advantages of the horizontal well is to achieve large reservoirs contact area. The chokes used are diverse because of the low reservoir permeability. Figure 4.
stratiraphic column. drilling depths. Nevertheless. we assume that this zone is potential. Possible addition to these volumes described above would be in the Southern Area. Net thickness ranges from 9-45 m with an estimated pressure of 847 psi. kh= 8. Neither volumen has been considered but its evaluation is being contemplated.54 Tscf of estimated reserves. Analyses yielded an estimated 0. • The Southern Area Further analyses delineated a new area with volume of CO2. To date.2 md) It is clear that the permeability has a high effect in production rate indicating an important parameter in optimum well construction. • The Northern Area Seismic data (2D seismic) was essential for the identification of new zones. There is no sufficient pressure to produce except for a very short time. The completion techniques commonly used for these wells were openhole completion methods. The oldest wells are erratics and not representatives of the reservoir as a whole. In spite of uncertainties involved. The area was formed with isopac maps and up to date. the findings of various revisions identify acceptable evidence that a substantial quantity of gas could be exploited. The largest active production occurs at this mature area. Well tests showed effective permeabilities in the range of 1 md.. . Production testing exhibited that there are no significant volumes of formation water.Effects of chokes on production rate (kv= 3. It is probable that production may be developed from an area as great as the Northern Area. Reservoir porosity is ranging from 5 to 16 % but the permeability is very low.[SPE-142851] 5 Figure 5. The quality of available data was sufficient to map structure but insufficient to evaluate correctly seismic stratigraphy. Conservately. 33 km2 as probable area is being borne in mind. This method represented to be troublesome due to the difficulties for monitoring data besides did not to prove acceptable for workover operations. Vertical permeability is one of the key parameters which could determine the productivity of this area. etc. The Northern Area varies significantly throughout the zone from 60 to 92 % CO2. To the northwest of this zone are the active heavy oil fields. a total of 10 wells are being exploited.5 md. this group of wells provided log data. This discovery includes oil fields where CO2 is found as a gas mixed (50 % carbon dioxide) and H2S is present in amounts that require treatment.
Laville.00405 0. 1998. M. UNAM. Mature oil fields could become more competitive with this locally produced gas.5+oAPI) 0. C. K. April 15-17. de C. SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery.S.22 0. Conversion Factors API ft3 o F km2 kg/cm2 bbl acre in o x x x x x x x 141. Harrison C. Dai. SPE 30368.8 247. Oklahoma. The close proximity of oil fields could insure economic success of the EOR-CO2 projects. Dong. Song. Geochemistry and Accumulation of Carbon Dioxide Gases in China. Although this paper deals primarily with carbon dioxide gas production in the Northeastern Mexico. Comesa/PEP. Y.6 [SPE-142851] Remarks The primary purpose of this paper was to locate all latent CO2 natural sources within Quebrache Field that could be used to EOR processes. 4. G.. 41-45. 1997. 2006. M. 1998. The authors also thank Regional Exploration Bussiness Asset from Northern Region for the support. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Pemex E&P for permission to publish this article. SPE 80543. 1996. Gas Lifting a Major Oil Field in Argentina with High CO2 Content Associated Gas. the occurrence of the gas at numerous localities and conceivably in large volumes in Mexico must not be overlooked.X. Optimization of horizontal well length and well spacing can be critical to the economics of the exploitation of gas resources for this Region. 2004. Wang.R. Reingeniería de los Proyectos de Inyeccion de Agua y Diseño de Nuevos Proyectos de Recuperacion Secundaria y Mejorada en la Region Norte.158 9873 0. presented at SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Jakarta. D. Coleridge.. Asghari.. R. Cinco Ley. A. Caracterización Dinámica de Yacimientos.A. 5. November. 2003.V. Tulsa. J.. Quebrache field could provide a strategic source of supply that is proximate in location to significant current and possible CO2 floods in the North of Mexico. Pemex E&P. H. Paper SPE 99789. Grassik.5/(131. J. DEPFI.0254 = g/cm3 = m3 = oC = acres = lb/pg2 = m3 = km2 =m References 1. February. . 80 (10). J. AAPG.. Nagrampa. Asesoría y Servicios Petroleros S.. T..02831 (oF-32)/1. Internal Report. New areas would offer an opportunity in mature fields through EOR methods. Dai. Bulletin. 3. CO2 demand in Mexico is expected to stay strong and grow with project expansions and new floods. J. J. J. April. Additionally. Unique Challenges & Novel Solutions for El Trapial Field (Argentina). 2.. oil fields with low recovery factors could be included in secondary recovery processes. Blann. 6. SPE Production & Facilities.1 14. Chakravarty. Shire. Development of a Correlation between Performance of CO2 Flooding and the Past Performance of Waterflooding in Weyburn Oil Field... 1615-1625.
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