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Motivation and education for quality

Student : Maria Madalina Iancu


Motivation and Education for Quality

1. What is Quality?
1.1 Why is Quality Important?

2. Introduction in TQM

3. Work motivations theories

3.1 Basic and Higher Motivation in the Workplace
3.2 Relationship management – motivation
3.3 Motivation and performance
3.4 Motivational Sources
3.5 Individual Needs

4. Management Education
4.1 Introduction in Management Education

5. Conclusions
6. Bibliography
1. What is Quality?

In a linguistic sense, quality originates from the Latin word “quails” which
means “such as the thing really is”.”Quality is now a familiar word. However, there
are many interpretation and definitions. Many people say that they know what is
meant by quality, they typically claim “:I know it when I see it (by sensing/by instinct).
Quality in business, engineering and manufacturing has a pragmatic
interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something. Quality is a
perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood
differently by different people. Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a
product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers
might measure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service
was produced correctly.
There are two common quality-related functions within a business. One
is quality assurance which is the prevention of defects, such as by the deployment of
a quality management system and preventative activities like failure mode and
effects analysis (FMEA). The other is quality control which is the detection of defects,
most commonly associated with testing which takes place within a quality
management system typically referred to as verification and validation.

1.1 Why is Quality Important?

For answering to this question just consider the unsatisfactory examples of

product and/or quality service that we had experienced, the bad feeling it gave, the
resulting actions taken and the people you told about the experience and the
Philip Crosby , author of the popular book “Quality is free”, he argues that
quality in the average firm costs about 20% of revenues, most of wich could be avoid
by adopting good quality practices. His absolutes about quality are:

Quality is defined as conformance to requirements not “goodness”.

The system for achieving quality is prevention, not appraisal.

The performance standars is zero defects, not “that’s close enough”

The measurement of quality is the price of non- conformance, not indexes.

He states that quality is free because the small costs of prevention will be lower than
costs on detection correction and failure.

2. Introduction in TQM

In the introducing skill we are presenting the various aspects of TQM, from “soft”
approaches such as teamwork, employee development and human relations.

The key elements of TQM are:

- Communication and leadership of the chief executive officer

- Planning and organization
- Using tools and techniques
- Education and training
- Involvement
- Teamwork
- Measurement and feedback

Communication and leadership of the chief executive officer

Without the real demonstrated commitment of the chief executive

officer and his or her immediate executives and another senior managers,
nothing much will happened and anything that does will not be permanent.
They have to take the charge personally, lead the process, provide direction
and exercise forceful leadership, dealing with the employees who block
improvement and impetus.

Planning and organization

Include a number of facets of the improvement:

 Developing a clear long term for TQM wich is integrated with other strategies
such as information tehnolofy, production/.oprations and human resources
and also with the resources and also with the business plans of the
 Deployment of the policies throught all stages of the organizational hierarchy
with objectives, targets, projects and resources
 Building product and service quality into designs and processes
 Developing prevention based activities
 Putting quality assurance to be taken to the effective use of quality systems
procedures and tools and techniques, in the context of the overall strategy.
 Developing the organization and infrastructure to support the improvement
 Pursuing standardization, systematization and simplification of work
instructions, procedures and systems

Using tools and techniques

- Should be used to facilitate improvement and be integrated into the routine

operation of the business.
- Will help to get the process of improvement started (employees use them feel
involved and that they are making a contribution, quality awareness is
enhanced, behavior and attitude change starts to happen, and projects are
bought to a satisfactory conclusion.

Education and training

Employees from the top to botom of an organization should be provided with

the right level standard of education and training to ensure that their general
awareness and understanding of quality management concepts , skills,
competencies and attitude are appropriate and suited to the continuous improvement
psiholosophy; it also provides a common language throughout the business. The
operational conditions of the business are in two ways:

- Training done in a cascade mode (everyone is given the same basic training
within a set time- frame)
- The infusion mode (training provided as a gradual progress into functions
and departments on a need - to- know basis)

Without training it is difficult to solve problem, and without education , behavior

and attitude change will not take the place. The training program must also focus on
helping managers think trough what improvements are achievable in their areas of
responsibility .The structure of training must promote continuing education and self
development. in this way , the latent potential of many employees will be relased and
the best use of every person’s ability achieved.


This also includes seeking and listening carefully to the views of employees
and acting upon suggestions. Part of the approach to TQM is to ensure that
everyone has a clear understanding of what is required of them, how their processes
relate the business as a hole and how their internal customers are dependent upon
them. People have to got to be more encouraged to control, manage and improve
the process which are within their sphere of responsibility.


Is one of the key features of involvement and without difficulty will be found in
gaining the commitment and participation of people throughout the organization. It
also means of maximizing the output and value of individuals. People must see the
results of their activities and if that the improvements they have made really do
count. If TQM is to be successful it is essential that communication must be effective
and widespread.

Measurement and feedback

There are some series key of indicators – internal and external- that are
providing encouragement. The external indicators are the most important as they
relate to customer perceptions of product and/ or service improvement. The
indicators should be developed from existing business measures, external,
competitive and functional generic and internal benchmarking.
From these measurements action plans must nr developed to meet objectives and
bridge gaps.

Ensuring that the culture is conducive to continuous improvement activity

Requires changing people’s behavior, attitudes, and working practices an a

number of ways. For example:

Everyone in the organization must recognize that whatever they do can
be improved
• The employees must be involved in “improving the process under their
control and take personal responsibility
• Employees must be encouraged to identify wastage, take out costs,
and get more value into a product and service
• Defects must not be passed, to the next process
• Each person must be committed to satisfying their costumers, both
internal and external
• Mistakes must be viewed as an improvement opportunity
• Honesty, sincerity and care must be an integral part of daily business
Changing people’s behavior and attitudes is one of the most difficult tasks facing
management, requiring considerable powers and skills of motivation and persuasion.
3. Work motivation theories

Quality of leadership inevitably impacts employee motivation. A manager with

high quality leadership will positively motivate employees. A high quality leader will
understand how to motivate employees in ways that will benefit the company and
employee. Leadership of high quality will understand how to use motivation in a way
that helps an employee learn, grow, feel inspired, and feel pride. Positive
productivity that has long lasting results toward motivation are the impact high
quality leadership has on motivation.
Poor leadership impacts employee motivation because a poor leader may
motivate an employee through fear of punishment, or a poor leader might not
motivate an employee at all. Both of these situations can cause an employee to
decide that a different position might suit them better. Fear is a motivation tactic that
may work well at a given time but it does not least or produce productive or
innovative employees in the long run.

Every organization exists and is manifested by people. To understand the real

motives of people is necessary for managers to know and explain how external
events are interconnected with employee attitudes and behavior, influenced and
guided in its actions.

The knowledge must find the starting point of any action – that is motivation.
According to experts, this motivation is determined by the values, expectations,
beliefs gained through tradition, education or experience.
These perceptions influence the essential factors, namely selection, ordering and
interpreting reality.

What is visible to the manager's behavior, but what remains often difficult to
grasp, even for those in question, are the values, expectations, aspirations.
A manager able to know the hierarchy values and expectations that their work
can influence behavior in the desired way. The motivation of their employees - as
motivation to teams of them -should represent a major concern of every manager.
Most managers find that they are dealing with three subordinate categories of

- highly motivated people;

- people less motivated;

- unmotivated people.

Their strategy is to identify ways of reasoning and methods of involvement of the

third category of driving force of the other two categories on the aspire to a third.
What is Motivation?

Motivation is a complex phenomenon. Several theories attempt to explain how

motivation works. In management circles, explanations of motivation are based on
the individual needs.

Basic features of motivation

The effort - the first part of the motivation is linked to the work force in the
person's behavior or, in other words, the amount of effort that a person make
the processes work. This involves various activities in different jobs

Perseverance - the second motivation is characteristic of perseverance that

make the effort when employees prove to work and perform tasks

Direction - the effort and perseverance in work mainly refers to the amount of
work done by one person. But equally important is the quality of that person. Thus,
the third feature is the direction of the motivation of individual behavior at work.
So, the motivation is to work smart, not only to work hard.

Objectives - any behavior is motivated to achieve certain goals or

objectives, which is targeted. Employee goals could include high productivity
3.1 Basic and Higher Motivation in the Workplace

In the workplace, motivation has two levels:

- the basic level is driven by our most basic needs: salary, working
conditions, relationships with co-workers, job security, policies, and
supervision. These are necessary for us to be satisfied with our work

- at a higher level, a level which the experts say is critical for sustained
performance, is driven by such factors as: achievement, recognition, the
work itself, responsibility, growth. It is said that “the basic needs make us

 28 Factors That Affect Team Motivation

work, but that the higher needs make us work well”.

Poor quality is frequently a function of motivation. Poorly motivated people

tend not to be focused on the work and, therefore, make more mistakes.
In the most extreme cases of low motivation, employees may actually feel hostility
for the organization and intentionally carry out acts of sabotage that directly affect

3.2 Relationship management – motivation

Many managers believe that the success of a firm is determined by the

efforts of its managers and employees, as well as addressing behavior in
terms of motivation is very difficult.
People may have different reasons to approach a certain type of behavior. If
several different reasons can explain a same behavior, it is difficult to establish all
reasons for the same component.
The personality, social conditions, experience, group influences or other
may impact on motivation. In addition, the same reason one can cause different
A manager concerned about the prosperity of his company continually assesses
the people with he works.
3.2 Motivation and performance

Individual performance - as a member of an organization contributes to

achieving organizational objectives. Factors that contribute to individual
performance in organizations are presented in the figure below. A reason will
not lead to high performance is when and where
employees lack essential skills and abilities,employees do not understand the
workload or meeting of unavoidable obstacle .

3.4 Motivational Sources

To motivate people in their work it means to recognize the contribution to
the company's progress, but more importantly is to develop themselves on the
usefulness of the work.

The factors of motivating - which could increase the subjective value of work are:

 public recognition of the employees success;

 setting ambitious goals to encourage competition;
 permanent informing about the financial situation and progress on
achievement of the objectives;
 encouraging the initiative and news in the company;
 establishing a creative climate in team work, by increasing autonomy and the
freedom in decision making;
 developing talent and intelligence of the employees and ensuring of those
perspective professional.

3.5 Individual needs

Is referred as content theory of motivation, the specific factors that motivate

an individual. Although these factors are found within an individual, things outside
the individual can affect him or her as well. In short, all people have needs that they
want satisfied. For example, when we first become hungry, we begin to think about
eating. As our hunger increases we take action and seek out food. The tension
related to hunger increased until we took action to satisfy it. The experts say we
were "motivated" by the need for food.

Primary needs,such as those for food, sleep, and water—needs that deal with
the physical aspects of behavior and are considered unlearned. These needs are
biological in nature and relatively stable. Their influences on behavior are usually
obvious and hence easy to identify.

Secondary needs, on the other hand, are psychological, which means that
they are learned primarily through experience. These needs vary significantly by
culture and by individual. Secondary needs are responsible for most of the behavior
that a supervisor is concerned with and for the rewards a person seeks in an

Several theorists, including Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, David

McClelland, and Clayton Alderfer, have provided theories to help explain needs as a
source of motivation

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory

Abraham Maslow defined need as a physiological or psychological deficiency

that a person feels the compulsion to satisfy. This need can create tensions that can
influence a person's work attitudes and behaviors. Maslow formed a theory based
on his definition of need that proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs
and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order. His premise is that only an
unsatisfied need can influence behavior; a satisfied need is not a motivator.

Maslow's theory is based on the following two principles:

• Deficit principle: A satisfied need no longer motivates behavior

because people act to satisfy deprived needs.
• Progression principle: The five needs he identified exist in a
hierarchy, which means that a need at any level only comes into play after a
lower-level need has been satisfied.
In his theory, Maslow identified five levels of human needs.

Table 1 - illustrates these five levels and provides suggestions for satisfying each

TABLE 1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs

Higher Level Needs To Satisfy, Offer:

Self-actualization needs Creative and challenging work

Participation in decision making

Job flexibility and autonomy

Esteem needs Responsibility of an important job

Promotion to higher status job

Praise and recognition from boss

Lower Level Needs To Satisfy, Offer:

Social needs Friendly coworkers

Higher Level Needs To Satisfy, Offer:

Interaction with customers

Pleasant supervisor

Safety needs Safe working conditions

Job security

Base compensation and benefits

Physiological needs Rest and refreshment breaks

Physical comfort on the job

Reasonable work hours

Although research has not verified the strict deficit and progression principles of
Maslow's theory, his ideas can help managers understand and satisfy the needs of

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg offers another framework for understanding the motivational

implications of work environments.

In his two-factor theory, Herzberg identifies two sets of factors that impact
motivation in the workplace:
• Hygiene factors include salary, job security, working conditions,
organizational policies, and technical quality of supervision. Although these
factors do not motivate employees, they can cause dissatisfaction if they are
missing. Something as simple as adding music to the office place or
implementing a no-smoking policy can make people less dissatisfied with
these aspects of their work. However, these improvements in hygiene factors
do not necessarily increase satisfaction.
• Satisfiers or motivators include such things as responsibility,
achievement, growth opportunities, and feelings of recognition, and are the
key to job satisfaction and motivation.
For example, managers can find out what people really do in their jobs and make
improvements, thus increasing job satisfaction and performance.

Following Herzberg's two-factor theory, managers need to ensure that hygiene

factors are adequate and then build satisfiers into jobs

Alderfer's ERG theory

Clayton Alderfer's ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) theory is built

upon Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. To begin his theory, Alderfer collapses
Maslow's five levels of needs into three categories.
• Existence needs are desires for physiological and material well-
being. (In terms of Maslow's model, existence needs include physiological
and safety needs)
• Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal
relationships. (In terms of Maslow's model, relatedness correspondence to
social needs)
• Growth needs are desires for continued psychological growth and
development. (In terms of Maslow's model, growth needs include esteem and
self-realization needs)
This approach proposes that unsatisfied needs motivate behavior, and that as lower
level needs are satisfied, they become less important. As a result, managers should
provide opportunities for workers to capitalize on the importance of higher level

McClelland's acquired needs theory

David McClelland's acquired needs theory recognizes that everyone prioritizes

needs differently. He also believes that individuals are not born with these needs,
but that they are actually learned through life experiences. McClelland identifies
three specific needs:

• Need for achievement is the drive to excel.

• Need for power is the desire to cause others to behave in a way that
they would not have behaved otherwise.
• Need for affiliation is the desire for friendly, close interpersonal
relationships and conflict avoidance.

McClelland associates each need with a distinct set of work preferences, and
managers can help tailor the environment to meet these needs.
High achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desires to do things
better. These individuals are strongly motivated by job situations with personal
responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree of risk. In addition, high
achievers often exhibit the following behaviors:

• Seek personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems

• Want rapid feedback on their performances so that they can tell easily
whether they are improving or not

• Set moderately challenging goals and perform best when they

perceive their probability of success as 50-50

An individual with a high need of power is likely to follow a path of continued

promotion over time. Individuals with a high need of power often demonstrate the
following behaviors:

• Enjoy being in charge

• Want to influence others

• Prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situations

• Tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over

others than with effective performance

People with the need for affiliation seek companionship, social approval, and
satisfying interpersonal relationships. People needing affiliation display the following

• Take a special interest in work that provides companionship and social


• Strive for friendship

• Prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones

• Desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding

• May not make the best managers because their desire for social
approval and friendship may complicate managerial decision making
Interestingly enough, a high need to achieve does not necessarily lead to
being a good manager, especially in large organizations. On the other hand,
the best managers are high in their needs for power and low in their needs for
Expectancy Theory of motivation – Victor Vroom

Victor Vroom, of Carnegie-Mellon in Pittsburgh, has challenged the assertion of

the human relationists that job satisfaction leads to increased productivity. (This
theory has been called thecontented cow approach to management.) The
assumption is that if management keeps employees happy, they will respond by
increasing productivity. Herzberg, in a delightful film of motivation, highlights the
fallacy of this assumption with an interview between a manager and a secretary.
The secretary is complaining about the job, and the manager lists all the things that
have been done for the secretary – increases salary, new typewriter, better hours,
status and so on – at the end of which she looks straight at him and asks, So what
have to done for me lately?
The point may be made that satisfied needs do not motivate people Hygienes
simply keep employees quiet for a time. For an individual to be motivated to perform
a certain task, he or she must expect that completion of the task will lead to
achievement of his or her goals.
The task is not necessarily the goal itself but is often the means of goal
attainment. Vroom defines motivation as:
“A process governing choices, made by persons or lower organisms, among
alternative forms of voluntary behaviour.”
In organisational terms, this concept of motivation pictures an individual, occupying
a role, faced with a set of alternative voluntary behaviours, all of which have some
associated outcomes attached to them. If the individual chooses behaviour 1,
outcome A results; if 2 then B results and so on.
Knowing that individuals choose behaviours in order to obtain certain outcomes
is nothing new. The question is why they choose one outcome over another. The
answer provided by the motivational theories in the other articles in this short series
(Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland) is that the choice reflects the strength of the
individual’s desire or need for a specific outcome at a certain time.
However, Vroom makes the point that task goals (productivity, quality standards
or similar goals attached to jobs) are often means to an end, rather than the end in
itself. There is a second level of outcomes which reflect the real goals of individuals
and these may be attained, in varying degrees, through task behaviour.
An individual is motivated to behave in a certain manner because (a) he or she
has a strong desire for a certain task outcome and a reasonable expectation of
achieving that outcome and (b) because he or she also expects that the
achievement of the task outcome will result in reward in terms of pay, promotion, job
security, or satisfaction of individual needs – physiological, safety, esteem and so
Let us take a look at how the model works. Imagine a manager has as a task goal,
receive good ratings for internal customer service. The choice of this task goal
reflects three things:
 The strength of the need for good ratings versus some other goal.
 The expectation that this goal can be achieved.
4. Management Education

4.1 Introduction in Management Education

Management Education is an activity of growing significance and influence

and presents a range of different perspectives on management education and
suggestions for change and renewal. There are at least two broad responses in
terms of the meaning and implications of these new conditions for practicing
managers. The first kind of response is to suggest that managers need new
techniques and skills to deal with the problems that they face, both in their work as
managers and in the management of their own careers.

 Implications for Management Education

What are the implications of this for management education? If it is assumed

that management education exist to provide managers with the knowledge and skills
they need to operate effectively, then the first position outlined leads to the
conclusion that managers need to be equipped with a very different type of
education to the one traditionally offered. The idea of management education as
functional to management is predicated on a model of professional training in which
there exists a body of knowledge which is understood to be central to effective
practice. At present , the position of management education in relation to education
more generally is complex. There are two ways that education is seen like:
- To be socially valuable to the extent which contributes to economic prosperity
and international competiveness.
- In an individualistic, consumerist culture it seems to be personally valuable
to the extent to which it enhances on the economic career position of
Alternatives views of management education would begin from the desire to
stress its “educative” rather than it’s managerial aspects.

 Management versus Education

The record so far suggest that the prospects for such changes are not good. In
Britain there is a tradition of resistance not only on the form , but to the fact of
management education. In others countries , like Germany and Japan , managers
have been more highly educated, but not necessarily in management and certainily
not first in management.

 Managing Education versus Educating Managers

The problem facing education may be composed of two distinct elements:

- The first is the reasonable supposition on the part of clients in any vocational
program of education that it should contribute to improved performance.
Management education is set to simulate this provision largely by equipping
managers with a mastery of techniques in decision making, statistical skills,
strategic analysis and so on.
- The second potential is related to the capacity to deal with change. Education
is likely to be more effective because , if it’s well founded and the educated
person is less likely to be shocked by the new, more likely to be simulated to
an understanding of change.

5. Conclusions

As is inevitable for any idea that enjoys wide popularity in managerial and
scholarly circles, total quality management has come to mean different things to
different people. There is now such a diversity of things done under the name "total
quality" that it has become unclear whether TQM still has an identifiable conceptual
core, if it ever did. We begin with a close examination of what the movement's
founders had to say about what TQM was supposed to be, and then we assess how
TQM as currently practiced stacks up against the founders) values and prescriptions.
One of the most important things to learn in for human relations are:
• The answer rests on an understanding of what motivation is all about, for it is
motivated workers who ultimately get things done, and without such people no
organization can hope to what motivates an individual to act in a given way
• Motives: needs, drives, wants, or impulses within the regardless of how we
define motives; however, motive arouse and maintain activity as well as
determine the general direction of an individual's behavior.

Implementing MOTIVATE, EDUCATE, and CELEBRATE within your

organization will:

 Promote teamwork  Return investments due to team

 Improve productivity synergy
 Increase profits  Instill a feeling of pride
 Improve retention  Improve recruiting
 Foster employee morale  Capture innovative Ideas
 Enable resource integration  Transform “Normal associates”
 Build a willingness to share in into “Engaged” associates

Professional development brings productivity, quality, flexibility and automation

to the best performing companies. Educating employees transforms them into
engaged employees that buy into a company’s vision and goals, and genuinely
desire the same results. Training specifically refers to learning with the objective of
utilizing the specific knowledge, skills or abilities immediately upon completion. They
will either “Use it or Lose it”, and it is vital that they “Use it”.
The success of any organization can ultimately be traced back to motivated
employees. The challenge is to discover what motivate employees. From productivity
and profitability to recruiting and retention, motivated, hardworking and happy
employees lead to triumph.

In conclusion, managers should be aware of the available approaches to

understanding interpersonal behavior. This is why it is important to have a cultural
match between the organization and the people.
6. Bibliography

- Principles of total Quality – third edition, Vincent K. Omachonu, Joel E. Ross