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American Viticultural Area Petition

For

Upper Mississippi River Valley
Pursuant to the provisions of 27 CFR Sections 9.3 and 4.25a (e) (2) the members of the Upper Mississippi River Valley Appellation Committee respectfully petition the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) to establish a viticultural area (AVA) by the name of “Upper Mississippi River Valley.”

Introduction:
The Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA petition involves a 29,914 square mile area, or 19,145,006 acres, along the upper Mississippi River Valley that includes portions of northwest Illinois, northeast Iowa, southeast Minnesota, and southwest Wisconsin. The area is viewable on four enclosed USGS State Topographic maps and two USGS 30 x 60-minute quadrangle maps. Vineyards and wineries here operate among a unique geologic and topographic environment as defined by Major Land Resource Area 105 (MLRA 105) and the Driftless Area Initiative (DAI). While the MLRA expresses a rugged, bedrock controlled environment with soils lacking the glacial drift of areas outside the boundary, the DAI slightly extends the MLRA boundary in some areas to more fully capture included watersheds and transitional areas of increasing glacial drift. MLRA’s are managed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) under the United States Department of Agriculture and are characterized by like-patterned soils, climate, water, and land uses usually over several thousand acres. The DAI was created and is managed by a joint venture of Resource Conservation and Development (RC&D) councils under the NRCS in the four-state Midwest Driftless Area. The DAI mandate is to conserve land, water and habitat resources that are heavily influenced by the dramatic landscape. The Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA petition (UMRV) is distinguished as well as controlled by several components. Broad, well-defined watershed features are somewhat equidistant on both sides of the river. Exposed and near-the-surface bedrock supports high bluffs topography. Another component is the unique Paleozoic Plateau preserved when more recent glacial incursions strangely surrounded and bypassed the area. This atypical lack of glacial till is denoted by the Midwest Driftless Area. The UMRV boundary, then, maintains surface topographies and subsurface structures that were not crushed or scraped smooth or their soils embedded with miscellaneous deposits as typical with areas outside the boundary. As such, the boundary involves steep-sided cliffs, bluffs, deeply entrenched stream valleys and Karst features. Overall, the area’s steep hills, ridges, and thinner glacial till facilitate better drainage for grapes than topographies outside the boundary. Topographies outside the boundary are

The Upper Mississippi River Wildlife & Fish Refuge Act of 1924 offers historical perspective in support of this petition’s name as well as its north-south position along the Mississippi River (see Appendix A. the Mississippi River. and bluffs. references 1-5. backwater sloughs and lakes. The refuge is America’s longest in the lower forty-eight states and is an important recreation area and habitat of marshes. 2 . The UMRV’s north-south boundaries also denote important temperature gradients influential in the region’s varietal selections and vineyard practices. Both administrative organizations including the Upper Mississippi River Valley Appellation Committee and Philippe Coquard. sand beaches. flowing channels. After delineating the river’s headwaters. Research conducted throughout the 20th century in the proposed AVA resulted in a unique optimization of winter hardy French-American hybrids with enhanced disease resistance (see Appendix A. For example. Growers south of the petitioned area are able to use less hardy varietals that are more difficult to sustain further north. and are covered by thicker glacial drift and alluvium. floodplain forests. references 1 & 2). manager of the Lake Wisconsin AVA. naming usage). or dissections of them. Other discussions refer to upper. the UMRV boundary is 4% larger. While the Wisconsin River also forming Lake Wisconsin is a major tributary to the Mississippi River. middle. and some public agencies. Various references to the Mississippi River many times fluctuate when denoting particular Mississippi River segments. look forward to public and private recognition of the broader grape growing region in concert with distinctions of the included Lake Wisconsin AVA (see Appendix C. The Mississippi’s headwaters flow from Lake Itasca in northwest Minnesota to St. sometimes in conjunction with its valley. (Later: Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife & Fish Refuge. most commercial entities. The petition’s east to west and north to south boundaries are established by optimizing features of the DAI with the nearest large highways.dominated by smoother landforms of unconsolidated materials. Minnesota — proximal to the point of this petition’s northern boundary. Lake Wisconsin AVA The UMRV petition seeks inclusion of the established Lake Wisconsin AVA in its boundary.) Congress created this legislation in part to reflect the unique habitat of the region’s Paleozoic Plateau. the UMRV and DAI boundaries are not identical. reference 6). is discussed variably as having upper and lower segments. Though similarly positioned. In the case of the latter. As well. and lower segments. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis. The Lake Wisconsin AVA is positioned just inside the UMRV’s eastern border and is a natural portion of the Driftless Area Initiative. borders of the upper segment vary greatly. naming conventions as to the river’s additional segments are not standardized with the public. The southern boundary is extended by a few miles to consider the Upper Mississippi River Wild Life & Fish Refuge Act of 1924. it also serves as northern and northwestern borders for the Lake Wisconsin AVA.

Whereas the UMRV boundary evidences almost no glacial till. the massive Wisconsin Glacier with Minnesota and Iowa lobes began to melt and retreat into Canada. Croix River already draining glacial Lake Duluth (Lake Superior). At that time. and Hernando DeSoto’s expedition in 1541 explored the river’s midsection. They entered the river’s upper portion June 17. Watershed features feeding the valley held many Native tribes including the Fox. Many others including the Potawatomi. The first Europeans to discover the upper Mississippi River were Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet. Watershed topographies on both sides of the river as well as more distinctive features of the Paleozoic Plateau provided ample cover for wildlife and therefore hunting. Menominee. and it soon began transporting cut logs for an emerging timber industry. The river always had been used as a travel and trade route. The relatively sediment-free waters of Lake Duluth helped carve the upper Mississippi River Valley to 250 meters in depth before alluvial deposits later began refilling the channel. Lake Wisconsin’s higher elevations involve almost no glacial deposits. the Lake Wisconsin AVA also is supported by similar soil orders and Driftless Area topographies identified in this petition. After subsequent incursions by Europeans.000 years ago. Native peoples had been successful inhabiting campsites and small villages along upper Mississippi River Valley tributaries. 3 . Warming temperatures not only brought glacial retreat to the area. The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and resolution of the Black Hawk War in 1832 enabled legal settlements on both sides of the river by those from the eastern United States. hills. and valleys. area geologists view the Lake Wisconsin AVA as a transitional area moving toward glacially incurred topographies to its east. and Ottowa would travel to the area for trade and special gatherings.Sitting in a substantial watershed of the upper Mississippi River. 1673 serving as the first to more fully document and claim discovery of the area relating to this petition. Today’s pronunciation of the Mississippi River emerged as eastern explorers attempted to enunciate Native American references to the Big River. Dakota. These water flows combined with those of the glacial St. Chippewa. Not only did Glacial River Warren result from this melting to help create today’s upper Mississippi River Valley. Historical Review: The major period of carving that would solidify today’s position of the upper Mississippi River Valley began 15. Soil orders including the Alfisols and Mollisols are substantial in both areas. fur and lead mining industries more fully developed throughout the upper Mississippi River Valley. Sac.000 years ago. and Winnebago. so too did overflow from the vast Glacial Lake Agassiz. but also humans around 9. Christopher Columbus likely noted on a map the mouth of the Mississippi River at the Gulf of Mexico in 1507. Since that time. Lake Agassiz straddled areas of Canada and North America.

the upper Mississippi River in its current position is only 11 thousand years old. this improving environment for marketable grapes has provided renewed confidence for grape growers and winemakers throughout the region. reference 7). and broad watershed. Having avoided direct glacial incursion during the most recent Wisconsin Age. It formed from glacial water flows over thousands of years carving its channel. for example. Active programs and associations exist to help more wineries and vineyards to come on line. These varietals were produced to combine winter hardiness with high disease resistance and excellent taste qualities. These fine loess elevations were then cut into deep. dissected. Today. bedrock-controlled landscapes to those of gently rolling.4-D severely crippled the regional grape industry (see Appendix A. some untimely freezes and droughts. This process began reducing the river’s depth and continues today. The region’s control by bedrock in combination with deeply entrenched valleys and Karst structure enable an integrated drainage network. this Driftless Area phenomenon left most of the UMRV boundary with unique topographies and subsurface structures well-suited for grapes. Since the early 1990s. Iowa ranked sixth in the nation in grape production (see Appendix A. tributaries then brought sediment-filled waters to the Mississippi.The region’s native grape varieties added to a thriving grape and winemaking industry throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortunately. lower relief landscapes of glaciated erosion surfaces. the region has seen a vigorous return to grape and wine production using optimized French-American hybrid and other varietals. On the other hand. In the last 15 years. The UMRV boundary is denoted by highways and also is recognizable by change from rugged. The UMRV boundary contains formidable amounts of loess sediments loosened from retreating glaciers to the west and whipped into the air by warming temperatures for deposition along the upper Mississippi River Valley. Topography and Geology: The lower Mississippi River spilling into the Gulf of Mexico may be 208 million years old. improvements in commodity crop sprays paralleled regional cultivation of French-American hybrid grape varietals beginning the middle of the 20th century. the UMRV AVA boundary represents 32 wineries and 445 vineyard acres. In 1919. After scouring from clean glacial waters. wind drift from introduction of the new corn herbicide 2. Bedrock control is unique to the petitioned area in contrast to areas outside the boundary consisting of unconsolidated 4 . valley. However. Finally. and a regional redirection of crops into corn and soybeans weakened these totals. It likely began as a perpendicular fault line associated with the continental separation that formed North and South America. reference 13) and Illinois realized even higher production levels in some years. the advent of Prohibition. expansive hill and valley configurations by torrid overflows of glacial lakes outside the region to the north.

older floodplain deposit remnants. and Cambrian systems. sinkholes. Many surface materials within the petition’s boundary. 2006 Edition (see Appendix A. Comparative characteristics south of the petitioned area are detailed within MLRA 108C (see Appendix A. All of these features indicate complexity of the alluvial history and river development associated with impacts from glacial melting and drainage diversions. As mentioned earlier. limestone. This is in contrast to materials outside the boundary that were scraped and dissembled by glacial erosion and supplanted by glacial till dating to just 10. reference 8). Deep dissection by streams through inclined landforms reveals Paleozoic rock units with varying resistance to erosion. Devonian dolomite and limestone are exposed more so in the petition’s western region and Ordovician dolomites are exposed more so in the east. and entrenched stream valleys — the Paleozoic Plateau. and subsurface caverns. and dolomite can be found along valley walls of the Mississippi River. The regional landform also is controlled by river development. Comparative characteristics east of the petitioned area are detailed within MLRA 95B (see Appendix A. reference 9). bluffs. This exists in conjunction with extensive Karst development of caves. Ordovician. reference 12). and sandstone. shale. climate. reference 10). While the area is abundant with rivers and underground water flows. areas outside the boundary also are covered by substantial glacial deposits. These elements combine to provide an area of many diverse microclimates supporting varied flora and fauna communities not represented outside the petition’s boundary. especially among the Paleozoic Plateau. Descriptions below of geological and environmental characteristics within the UMRV boundary are referenced by MLRA 105 found in the Major Land Resource Area section of the United States Department of Agriculture Handbook 296. Areas outside the UMRV boundary relative to elevation. These rocks range in age from 350 to 600 million years and include formations from the Devonian. it has few natural lakes due to the absence of kettles usually formed in areas having experienced direct glacial incursion. A unique physiographic setting is enabled by the steep slopes. Silurian. water. reference 11). Cambrian sandstone. date to 100.000 years. and entrenched and hanging meanders. Comparative characteristics west of the petitioned area are detailed within MLRA 104 (see Appendix A. sinkholes. waterfalls and rapids. The Mississippi River and its tributary valleys contain well preserved terraces.and heavily dissected materials along smooth. rolling hills. and soils used for comparison to MLRA 105 and the UMRV boundary are taken from the following references also found in the USDA Handbook: Comparative characteristics north of the petitioned area are detailed within MLRA 90B (see Appendix A. abundant rock outcrops. 5 . Exposures are primarily Ordovician dolomite.000 years. springs.

Some broad ridge tops are nearly level to undulating and areas bordering the major stream valleys are steep. Natural lakes. Soils: Given the UMRV boundary’s hilliness. so winegrowing is seen as a substantial alternative. The soils in the area have a dominant mesic soil temperature regime. Drumlins are prominent features in the north-central part of the area. and some ridge tops are broad with undulating slopes. Mollisols. a 6 . commodity crops are not always produced efficiently. Wisconsin. the concentration of hills and the steepness of valley cuts within the boundary provide a sharp contrast in landforms. Local relief is mainly 10 to 20 feet. Local relief is commonly 10 to 20 feet. drumlin fields. Topography to the east is characterized by gently sloping ground moraines. Wisconsin. Local relief is mainly 25 feet. to a lesser extent. The natural drainage network is well established and commonly described as dendritic. bogs. grapes are viewed as holding the soil better while not requiring the quantities of nutrient additives as more common commodity crops.110 feet on the highest ridges. Bottom land along all streams is narrow. Elevation ranges from 660 to 980 feet. Local relief is mainly 10 to 20 feet.Physiography (Elevation) Elevations in the UMRV boundary range from 660 feet on valley floors to 1310 feet on the highest ridges. Though areas nearer the UMRV boundary can reflect substantial differences in elevation from valley floors to ridge tops. end moraines. Elevation ranges from 985 to 1. some upland flats and valley floors have local relief of only 3 to 6 feet. and bedrock escarpments rise 80 to 330 feet above the adjacent lowlands Area south of the UMRV boundary is a dissected till plain with slopes mostly rolling to hilly. To the west. swamps. Elevation ranges from 505 feet in the lowest valleys to 1. Relief is as much as 250 feet on the Mississippi River bluffs above the river. Also. landscapes are nearly level to gently rolling glaciated plain with long slopes. lake plains. resulting in few lakes and ponds. and marshes. The area is dissected by numerous streams and rivers. drumlins. broad valley floors. The steepest areas are adjacent to river valleys. swamps. flood plains. and depressions are fairly extensive. A few large rivers have nearly level. flood plains. but valley floors can be 80 to 200 feet below adjacent uplands. Subsurface tile drainage lines are commonly used to lower water tables and increase crop production. but as much as 50 to 100 feet on valley walls along the major streams. Dominant soil orders within UMRV boundary are Alfisols and Entisols and. Total elevation outside the UMRV boundary averages 250 feet higher to the Northwest and 165 feet lower to the Southeast. outwash plains. Areas to the north are gently undulating to rolling. but the moraines. elevation ranges from about 675 feet at the St. Local relief is 10 to 20 feet. Most of the area has belts of morainic hills and ridges and nearly level outwash terraces. Still.550 feet just north of Medford. Sloping to hilly uplands are dissected by both large and small tributaries to the upper Mississippi River. Croix River near Prescott. Especially relative to the broad watershed.310 feet. to about 1.

Fayette. Mineralogy is dominantly mixed. Magnor. Alfisols. Udipsamments (Plainfield series) formed in glaciofluvial deposits on outwash plains. 7 . La Farge. Hapludalfs formed in loess (Downs. The major soils on sandstone hills are Glossudalfs (Dobie series) that formed in a thin loess mantle over loamy residuum. Thin to thick layers of loess exist throughout the area. and mixed mineralogy. well drained or moderately well drained. Spencer. The soils on flood plains throughout the area are Dystrudepts (Moppet series) and Fluvaquents (Fordum series) that formed in loamy and sandy alluvium. Alstad. Mt. Brander. or in organic material. The soils on flood plains that drain loess-mantled areas are Endoaquolls (Vancecreek series) that formed dominantly in silty alluvium. Brill. and Longsiding series) and Hapludalfs (Dalbo series). in a sandy or loamy mantle over glaciofluvial deposits. Carroll. Blackriver. or lacustrine sediments. well drained to very poorly drained. in sandy till or mudflow sediments. alluvium. and St. The soils in the area dominantly have a mesic soil temperature regime. Histosols. Kidder. and drumlins. and Seaton series) or loess over residuum (Dubuque. Typic Haplosaprists (Seelyeville series) and Terric Haplosaprists (Markey series) formed mostly in organic material underlain by outwash. Haplosaprists formed in organic material in depressions on lake plains. Most soils in glacial lakebeds and which formed mostly in silty and clayey sediments are Glossudalfs (Comstock.udic soil moisture regime. Udifluvents (Chaseburg series) formed in alluvium on flood plains and alluvial fans. and Chetek series) that formed in silty or loamy alluvium over outwash or Udipsamments (Menahga and Mahtomedi series) that formed entirely in outwash. Branstad. Freeon. and mixed mineralogy. Langlade. Charles series) on till plains. Crystal Lake. Miami. Hapludalfs (Hayriver series) that formed in loamy slope alluvium and loamy residuum. and Psamments (Twinmound series) that formed in sandy slope alluvium and sandy residuum. Rosholt. Alluvium is sandy to silty. Histosols. They generally are moderately deep to very deep. an aquic or udic soil moisture regime. terraces. Soil orders east of the UMRV boundary are Alfisols. till. Loyal. Soils on outwash plains and valley trains commonly are Glossudalfs or Hapludalfs (Anigon. in mixed alluvium. moraines. and Inceptisols with a temperature regime predominantly frigid. Argiudolls (Tama series) formed in loess on uplands and terraces. Soils in the area have a udic or aquic soil moisture regime. and valley trains. Hapludalfs formed in alluvium over outwash (Casco series) and loess over outwash (Fox series) on outwash plains. McHenry. valley trains. and Mollisols. but siliceous in a few areas. Antigo. outwash plains. and Nordness series) on uplands and benches. and loamy. Spodosols. They are very deep. and loamy. and sandy to loamy. They formed dominantly in a mantle of silty or loamy sediments over loamy till. Ribriver. generally well drained to poorly drained. Most of the soils on ground moraines are Glossudalfs (Almena. Grasston. and kames and in loess over till (Dodge. These are in bogs and swamps. Paleudalfs (Valton series) formed in loess over residuum on uplands. and till plains. and Withee series). in silty or clayey glaciolacustrine sediments. Norden. The soils generally are moderately deep to very deep. Soil orders directly north are dominantly Entisols.

Areas outside the boundary require much tile drainage to rid water resulting from precipitation. nearly level Endoaquolls (Garwin series). gently sloping to strongly sloping Argiudolls (Otley series). Twothirds or more of the precipitation falls during the freeze-free period. an aquic or udic soil moisture regime. Dominant soil orders south of the boundary are Mollisols and. The soils in the area primarily have a mesic soil temperature regime. and Readlyn series) and Hapludalfs (Bassett. and stream terraces. nearly level Argiudolls (Mahaska series). gently sloping to strongly sloping Argiudolls (Tama and Dinsdale series). outwash plains. Soil orders to the west dominantly are Mollisols and Alfisols. to a lesser extent. Argiudolls formed in loess over outwash (Elburn series). and stream terraces. Most of the rainfall occurs as convective thunderstorms during the growing season. loamy. and Clinton series). Hapludolls (Floyd. and Inceptisols. Most of the rainfall occurs as high-intensity. convective thunderstorms during the summer. moderately well drained. loess over till (Hochheim. and overall flatter landscapes. The soils on uplands include somewhat poorly drained. and loamy. Marquis. poorly drained. They generally are very deep. or clayey. North of the boundary. Snowfall is common in winter. Ostrander. well drained to poorly drained. and Argiaquolls (Taintor series). Kasson. soils within the UMRV boundary have much less clay. Entisols. soils provide almost complete drainage. and well drained. and mixed mineralogy. Poorly drained Endoaquolls (Colo and Zook series) formed in clayey alluvium on flood plains. and mixed mineralogy. strongly sloping to steep Hapludalfs (Fayette. Most of the soils are Udolls or Udalfs. The freezefree period averages about 175 days ranging from 145 to 205 days. moderately sloping to strongly sloping Eutrudepts (Killduff series). and Saybrook series). Annual snowfall 8 . The average annual temperature is 42 to 50 degrees F. well drained or moderately well drained. Climate: The UMRV boundary includes average annual precipitation from 30 to 38 inches.Endoaquolls formed in loess over outwash (Drummer series) and in silty and loamy sediments (Pella series) on till plains. Kenyon. Argiudolls (Dinsdale series) formed in loess over till on uplands. and till (Griswold series) on till plains. and Racine series) formed in loamy sediments over till on uplands. Somewhat poorly drained Hapludolls (Lawson series) and moderately well drained Udifluvents (Nodaway series) formed in silty alluvium on flood plains. Hapludolls (Muscatine series). Armstrong. outwash plains. well drained or moderately well drained. an aquic or udic soil moisture regime. The soils in the area dominantly have a mesic soil temperature regime. broad valley floors. annual precipitation averages 27 to 33 inches. Ladoga. When combined with a greater concentration of hills and steep cuts. Downs. Plano. well drained to very poorly drained. Alfisols. Endoaquolls (Maxfield and Tripoli series) formed in loamy and silty sediments over till on uplands. and silty. They generally are very deep. glacial pools. Some Aquolls are on the flatter interfluves and on nearly level. Compared to surrounding areas.

About 10 inches of the precipitation occurs as snow during winter. convective thunderstorms during the summer. Hence. The average annual temperature is 40 to 46 degrees F. The freeze-free period averages about 170 days ranging from 150 to 190 days. on the other hand. and pesticides from agricultural land or wastewater 9 . Grapes. growing potential during Midwestern days can linger into the night. Precipitation in winter occurs mainly as snow. decreasing in quantity moving from south to north and from the shore of Lake Michigan inland. These conditions primarily include average temperature and average freezefree days that dictate differentiated growing protocols and precautions as well as opportunities in the use of optimized regional cultivars. calculation of growing degree days for Midwestern grapes is not succinct. and farm ponds are additional sources of surface water in the area. The average annual temperature is 44 to 50 degrees. nutrients. Water: In most years the moderate precipitation in the UMRV boundary is adequate for crops and forage. Precipitation south of the boundary is 33 to 38 inches. but in years of little or no precipitation yields are reduced on soils that are shallow over bedrock. A discussion of growing degree days was not used in this petition. The surface water is abundant and generally of good quality. Climatic conditions of the UMRV boundary show more contrast with areas to the north and south. generally are not constrained by an upper limit. However. More than twothirds of the precipitation falls during the growing season. Most of the rainfall occurs as convective thunderstorms during the growing season. Average annual precipitation east of the boundary is 30 to 38 inches. Another factor influencing growing protocols is adherence to air circulation given the region’s landscapes characterized by steeper turns and cuts. For example. The average annual temperature is 46 to 51 degrees F. streams. Poor water quality in stream reaches primarily is the result of non-point sources of sediment. Most of the rainfall occurs as high-intensity. The freeze-free period averages about 185 days ranging from 170 to 205 days. these crops are constrained in growth by both upper and lower temperature thresholds. Snowfall is common in winter. Most of the rainfall occurs as high-intensity. The many springs. Midwestern temperatures do not witness such stark temperature reductions at day’s end as found in the western United States. Many viticulturists realize that temperature behavior relative to grapes is better calculable in regions of the country other than the Midwest. It generally occurs from October through April. Therefore. Average annual precipitation west of the boundary is 29 to 37 inches. Average annual temperature is 43 to 48 degrees F. The freeze-free period averages about 160 days ranging from 135 to 180 days. The freeze-free period averages about 180 days ranging from 160 to 195 days. Growing degree days are used in the Midwest relative to other crops such as corn. convective thunderstorms during the summer.ranges from about 35 to 50 inches.

Sandstone and limestone bedrock formations below the glacial drift are good sources of water. Ground water is abundant in deep glacial drift deposits but scarce in areas where the drift is thin. which are important water sources. although the level of total dissolved solids approaches 1. Water from these aquifers is suitable for all uses. for the most part. precipitation generally is adequate for crops. Water here is moderately hard or hard but generally of very good quality. The supply of ground water varies in the uplands where the sandstone and dolomite layers in the Jordan and Prairie du Chien aquifers usually provide adequate yields to wells.000 parts per million in some areas. Wisconsin and Pecatonica Rivers in Wisconsin. But in years of little or no precipitation. in dry years crops on sandy soils become damaged by lack of moisture. but yields are reduced in years of little or no precipitation. domestic. The level of total dissolved solids is typically less than 250 parts per million. Grapes grown inside the UMRV boundary have excellent access to water while also benefiting from superior natural drainage. Maquoketa and Wapsipinicon Rivers in Iowa. Ground water is abundant in the underlying drift wherein sandy and gravelly drift yield the largest amounts. some crops on coarse textured soils become damaged by lack of moisture. Ground water is abundant in the glacial drift that underlies much of the area. Many of the area’s fine-textured soils need water management practices to facilitate tillage and harvesting operations. and the Apple. The Mississippi River and a few large tributaries serve as transportation arteries and recreation. and Rock Rivers in Illinois. The many inland lakes and streams are additional sources of water for domestic uses. Precipitation north of the UMRV boundary generally is adequate for crops and pasture. Most of the area’s wet lowland soils need to be drained for good crop and forage production. and municipal needs. West of the petition boundary. Ground water is abundant in glacial outwash deposits in most of the region’s river valleys. The Mississippi River flows through the area dividing Minnesota and Wisconsin and then Iowa and Illinois. Bedrock aquifers are used extensively for groundwater resources. 10 . Plum. the Zumbro. Volga. However. Whitewater and Root Rivers in Minnesota.discharges downstream from larger cities. more complex soil systems exist in combination with the need of growers to install tile drainage to remove standing water. the Upper Iowa. Area south of the UMRV boundary finds that water is favorably distributed from moderate precipitation as well as the many perennial streams. These poorly drained soils must incorporate artificial drainage for good production of cultivated crops. Seasonally high water tables in this region generally require artificial drainage systems for good crop production. Turkey. Yellow. This is in sharp contrast to areas outside the region where. The many lakes and streams also are sources of water. Ground water is adequate for livestock. The petition’s Mississippi River tributaries are represented by the Kickapoo. Precipitation for crops and pasture outside the UMRV eastern boundary generally is adequate.

follow Illinois highway 26 south to its intersection with Illinois state highway 5. 3. Follow Illinois highway 2 southwest from the Rockford beltway to Dixon. 11 . Follow U. 5. (Since Interstate 380 moving north from Cedar Rapids. highway 63. Iowa is more recent than to be viewed on the USGS State of Iowa map. highway 20 southeast of the Iowa cities of Waterloo and Cedar Falls in Black Hawk County. highway 12. Areas just inside the petition’s extended western boundary initiate headwaters of the watersheds moving toward the Mississippi River. Fairchild. (Illinois state highway 5 on the USGS State of Illinois map is now Interstate 88 on contemporary traffic maps.) 8. Wisconsin. Iowa. Paul. Follow the beltway east and then north to its intersection with Interstate 94.) 6. 7. Iowa and Marshalltown. please refer to the enclosed USGS maps titled Anamosa. Wisconsin follow Interstate 94 and its merge with Interstate 90 moving southeast into Madison. Augusta. Minnesota in Dakota County where Minnesota state highway 56 intersects the Interstate 494/694 beltway. Illinois beltway. The border begins just south of St. From Black River Falls. At Madison. Wisconsin. Follow Illinois state highway 5 southwest to its intersection with Interstate 80 in Rock Island County. but also to include transitional areas of low to gradually increasing glacial till. Wisconsin continue following Interstate 90 south into Illinois to the Rockford. take Wisconsin state highway 85 northeast into Eau Claire to connect with U. 1. Wisconsin.S. From the intersection of Illinois highway 2 and Illinois highway 26 in Dixon. Follow Interstate 80 west into Scott County in Iowa.S. Follow Interstate 380 north past Cedar Rapids and then northwest to its merge with U. particularly along the western boundary. well developed highways have been selected to delineate its boundary. 4. Humbird and Merrillan to its intersection with Interstate 94 at Black River Falls.S. Croix County continuing to Eau Claire. From Interstate 94 at Eau Claire. Follow Interstate 94 east into Wisconsin at St. Continue following Interstate 380 west into Waterloo/Cedar Falls to its intersection with U. These highways were selected not only to follow the DAI boundary.S. Follow Interstate 80 west to its intersection with Interstate 380 in Johnson County. 2. Illinois in Lee County.Boundaries: Given the large area covered by this petition. highway 12 southeast from Eau Claire and through the Wisconsin cities of Fall Creek.

deep valleys not found beyond its boundary. The un-scraped region provides many special microclimates enhancing the potential for more diverse grape varieties. 12 . Croix.S. Area grape growers appreciate the early 20th century work of Elmer Swenson. and Goodhue Counties and into Dakota County as it merges with U. Hwy 52. Paul. Dodge. Soil scientists classify most of this area as MLRA 105. The boundary includes significant elements such as a Driftless Area phenomenon that in turn helped preserve extensive Karst features and a Paleozoic Plateau. These varietals carrying more diverse taste qualities can be depended upon for yearly marketability based on their winter hardiness and disease resistance. Soils here are less encumbered by clay and standing water evidenced outside the boundary. St. this hill country with exposed bedrock has prompted many local commodity growers to transition to alternative crops resulting in the steady creation of vineyards and wineries. Follow U. Follow state highway 56 west and then north through Mower. Conclusion: The Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA petition is characterized by a higher concentration of hills infused with particularly long. Temperature gradients along the petition’s northern and southern borders have led grape growers to use optimized French-American hybrid varietals within the climate regime. These hills and cuts are accentuated by glacially derived dust settled by westerly winds and by several substantial tributaries of the Mississippi River’s broad watershed. 10. They carry a regional identification with names such as La Crosse. Over the years. Continue following state highway 56 north through Minnesota to its intersection with the Interstate 494/694 Beltway at St. Minnesota completing the boundary. Swenson lived near the cross-roads of the four states involved in this petition and was responsible for introducing and further cultivating the French-American hybrids.9. Hwy 63 north into Minnesota’s Fillmore County where it immediately meets Minnesota state highway 56 moving west into Mower County. The four-state Driftless Area Initiative collaborative body and the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife & Fish Refuge exist to support this complex system. Pepin and St. This unique availability of topographical choices including supplies of southern facings slopes provides growers more sunlight and natural drainage than areas outside the boundary.S. The above elements are atypical to those just outside the boundary and contribute to one another as an integrated system.

Upper Mississippi River Wild Life & Fish Refuge Act (Later: Upper Mississippi River [National] Wildlife & Fish Refuge) 3.References Appendix A Five name references to Upper Mississippi River Valley 1. National Park Service. and Jennifer S.usgs.000 acres along 261 miles of Mississippi River floodplain in Minnesota. and Illinois. by James G. Sara J. United States Environmental Protection Agency Name usage by Federal Government [http://www. Wisconsin.nps. Wiener. Kenow. Sauer … The Upper Mississippi River valley then began filling with glacial outwash. Kirsch. Fremling. The Refuge was established by Congress in 1924 to provide a refuge and breeding ground for migratory birds. Anthony Falls … 2.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2005/December/Day-05/i6814. Iowa.htm] The Upper Mississippi River valley was not only the home of prehistoric Indians for thousands of years. but also has been the scene for over 300 years of recorded human history as well. United States Department of the Interior Name usage by Federal Government [http://www. Korschgen. and plants. Eileen M.htm] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge encompasses 240. Kevin P. … The Mississippi River valley widens considerably where it joins the Minnesota River. The Refuge is perhaps the most important corridor of habitat in the central United States due to its species diversity and abundance. Rogers. Calvin R.epa.7 million annual visitors. Carl E.gov/s+t/SNT/index. United State Geological Service Name usage by Federal Government [http://biology. 13 kilometers downstream from St. other wildlife. and is the most visited refuge in the United States with 3. fish.gov/efmo/parks/hist. Yao Yin. 13 . Early explorers found the area along the big river occupied by groups of Native Americans. a process that is still under way.htm] Part 2 — Regional Trends of Biological Resources: Section — Mississippi River. mainly sand and gravel.

324-325. pg. Published by Minnesota Grape Growers Association. … And he shook his head and he said. pg. 13. a river rages out of control. Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship Horticulture & Farmers' Market Bureau.gov/NSSC/Ag_Handbook_296/Handbook_296_low. compiled by Penelope Krosch. West-Central Part. (Characteristics comparisons bordering on the south of MLRA 105) 108C—Illinois and Iowa Deep Loess and Drift. Home Page [www. pg. With a Tweezers in One Hand and a Book in the Other: The Grape Breeding Work of Elmer Swenson. 300-301.us/horticulture/grapeHistory. 1997 "Flood!" Name usage by national media referencing local citizens ANNOUNCER: Tonight on NOVA. the Caribbean. 9. 338-340. Southern Part.htm] 6.agriculture.state. Access: [ftp://ftp-fc.sc. PBS Airdate: May 6. 7.ia.htm] References 8 – 12 are taken from: United States Department of Agriculture Handbook 296 (Issue 2006) Natural Resources Conservation Service: Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States. people brace for catastrophe.egov.net/~atkinson/k/UpperMissRiver. (Characteristics comparisons bordering on the east of MLRA 105) 95B—Southern Wisconsin and Northern Illinois Drift Plain. Along its banks. up and down the Upper Mississippi River Valley.us/horticulture/grapeHistory. 279-280. 12. (Characteristics comparisons bordering on the west of MLRA 105) 104—Eastern Iowa and Minnesota Till Prairies. 11.state. 326-327.usda.ia.4.htm] 14 . pg. Iowa ranked sixth in the nation in grape production in 1919 [www. (Central focus of this petition) 105—Northern Mississippi Valley Loess Hills. "Levees are going to break like guitar strings. 10. pg.pdf] 8.inav. and the Pacific Basin. The Upper Mississippi River Valley: A Personal Web Site and Guide Example of the petition’s name usage by a local citizen [http://soli.agriculture." 5. (Characteristics comparisons bordering on the north of MLRA 105) 90B—Wisconsin & Minnesota Thin Loess and Till.

Wisconsin Counties entirely or partially comprising the four-state bounded area include: Illinois Jo Davies Stephenson Winnebago Carroll Ogle Whiteside Lee Rock Island Iowa Scott Cedar Johnson Linn Black Hawk Bremer Chickasaw Howard Winneshiek Allamakee Fayette Clayton Buchanan Delaware Dubuque Jones Jackson Clinton Minnesota Houston Fillmore Mower Winona Olmstead Dodge Wabasha Goodhue Dakota Washington Wisconsin St.Appendix B Included States & Counties The Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA petition includes four states: Illinois. Croix Dunn Eau Claire Clark Pierce Pepin Buffalo Trempealeau Jackson La Crosse Monroe Vernon Juneau Crawford Richland Sauk Columbia Grant Iowa Dane La Fayette Green Rock 15 . Minnesota. Iowa.

Treasury decision. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). ATF-352. RIN 1512-AA07 Lake Wisconsin Viticultural Area (92F-017P) Agency: Bureau of Alcohol. Effective date: February 4. RE: Notice No.D. to be known as Lake Wisconsin. Final Rule.Appendix C Reference 1 (see attached Lake Wisconsin AVA support letter by Wollersheim Winery) Establishment of Lake Wisconsin AVA Reference 2 Lake Wisconsin Viticultural Area. Charles W. The petition was submitted by Mr. 1994 DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Bureau of Alcohol. Tobacco and Firearms. Viticultural Area Consultant. 27 CFR Part 9 [T. Dean. Federal Register: January 5. Action: Final rule. 1994. Treasury. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes a viticultural area in Columbia and Dane Counties. Wisconsin. on behalf of Wollersheim Winery located near Prairie-du-Sac. 16 . 781].