This rough draft of the Dharma Teacher Manual was prepared and compiled by many people working together writing, editing, typing, and proofreading

the pages that follow in time for the 1978 Dharma Teacher Yong Maeng Jong Jin. Especially during the week before the Yong Maeng Jong Jin, the

Providence exchanges

Zen Center office was a center of activity with many conferences, of notes, and telephone calls.

Please help to make this manual complete by reading it with a critical eye, noting which parts are not clear, need more 'explanation, or were left out entirely. Some of the material sounds unfamiliar because this is the

first time Soen Sa Nim has presented without pictures.

it to us, and some of it is not clear

With your help a complete manual,with in the summer of 1979. of the follOwing ways. paper, referring


will be printed 1 in one

Please send your suggestions

by February

You may send your comments on a separate piece of chapters and page numbers, or you may send us directly on the

to specific

your complete manual with suggestions pages to which you refer. a month. complete

and remarks written

We will send your rough draft back to you within

By the end of the summer, you will receive another manual in the form. Thank you. Suzanne Bowman Director, Dharma Teacher Association


30, 1978


INTRODUCTION This Dharma Teacher Manual concerns itself primarily with the correct formal style of practicing in our school. There is emphasis put on how we

bow, chant, sit, and arrange our eating bowls because doing things correctly together in the same way is one of the most effective ways to cut off all thinking and express our true nature. chanting is our true way. When Soen Sa Nim came to this country, students gathered to practice with him. aspiration They came from many different to understand themselves. backgrounds but shared the common Without thinking, just bowing, just

Everyone had a different opinion From to

about Zen and about the correct way to bow or to light incense. holding these different opinions and work together.

came conflict, pain, and the inability

cooperate everyone


as our formal style was explained,

found that these forms allowed us to live together in harmony.

As we did things in the right way at the right time, we saw that everything

falls into place along with us.

We found that our correct form helped us Discovering this meant

discover what we are before thinking, before form. again returning Initially

to our correct form to express ourselves. these forms help us to let go of our opinions and become Our small mind bows to our Big Mind, and, with practice, itself is the truth.

our True Selves.

our formal practice

Master Dharma Teacher George Bowman November 29, 1978




The Dharma Room


Dharma. Room is the focal point of every Zen Center, and it is takes place. activities, Formal practice here is diseven though the teaching of

the room in which formal practice tinguished from our other everyday

Zen emphasizes

that every moment of our lives is part of our practice. in the Zen Centers under the direction of Zen Master called Soen Sa Nim, meaning Honored chanting, Zen Master,

Formal practice

Seuug Sahn, in this -booklet

our common form of address to him, includes bowing, Dharma Talks. Soen Sa Nim has developed

sitting, and

a daily schedule

and style for

his school in the West that is followed by all of the Centers under his direction. The Head Dharma Teacher of each Temple is in charge of all matters concerning sponsible formal practice and the Dharma Room. S/he is directly re-

for leading formal practice

and setting an example of discipline students

and right-mindedness.

The Head Dharma Teacher handles questions

may have about formal practice. The Head Dharma Teacher assigns one member of the Zen Center to be the Moktak Master about every two months. percussion instrument used to accompany The moktak is the traditional and pace the chanting. Korean

As assistant

to the Head Dharma Teacher,

the Moktak Master takes care of the altar and

hits the moktak five minutes before formal practice begins to call everyone to the Dharma Room. scheduled His/her main duty is hitting the moktak during regularly-

chanting periods. the altar is the

As the Dharma Room is the center of the Zen Center,

focus of the Dharma Room. sitting cushions

It is placed against a wall, at the center, with The

to each side of it and around the room in a rectangle.

altar is in three levels.

The highest

tier is called sang dan, which means figures. The second The

high stand, and it is only for Buddhas or Bodhisattva

tier is called jung dan, meaning middle stand, and it is for the gods. lowest tier, ha~, when a ceremony meaning

low stand, is for pictures or names of people for them. These represent the top

is being performed

three levels of the six levels of existence.

The jung dan and ha dan can candle or

hold flowers, incense holder, bells, candles, incense, matches, snuffer, centered. and fruit for ceremonies, The walking usually arranged symmetrically

stick is placed on the front of the altar, handle to The Moktak Master waters

the right, parallel

to the front of the altar.

the flowers and replaces them and the candles, incense, and matches when necessary. Sitting cushions are placed around the room in a rectangle beginning at one side of the altar and ending at the other. always sits to the immediate The Moktak Master

right of the altar (as you face it), and the The

moktak is kept on the lowest tier on the right side of the altar. Head Dharma Teacher sits to the immediate Head Dharma Teacher's to indicate left of the altar.

One of the

jobs is to hit the chugpi, the wooden clapper used and end of meditation periods. The chugpi is

the beginning

kept on the lowest tier on the left-hand

side of the altar.

The central cushion, exactly across from the Buddha, is the Zen Master's seat, whether or not he is present. His cushions are larger and If there are monks If there are none, Master

of a different color than those of his students. present, they sit on either side of Soen Sa Nim.

Dharma Teachers or Dharma Teachers who are directors of the temple sit next to him, and other Dharma Teachers next to them, facing the altar. All house members keep the same seat every day as do non-resident who come often. Children do not sit in the row facing the altar. 7 guests

Guests who come infrequently

are shown to a free cushion.

If it is

one of their first visits, they are shown how to put on and tie a robe, are given a chanting booklet, and are shown how to bow as they come into If possible, the Guestmaster to

the Dharma Room and before they sit down. sits near the entrance initiate something

to the Dharma Room in order to be available

guests to these procedures.

Putting on and tying a short robe is After a bowing robe is put

that guests often need help with.

on, it is tied with a small half-bow

inside the robe under the left arm.

Then it is tied on the right side with one half knot and then a half bow, with the loop pointing up and toward the heart. Dharma Teacher robes are tied in the same way, but the second tie, with one loop, is tied at the right side. Then the kasa is put on and the

long tie for the waist is folded in half and then tied around the waist in a double knot in front, over the middle of the kasa.

All articles used in the Dharma Room are treated with respect. Cushions are moved and brushed off only with the hands, and two hands are used whenever possible. Beads are handled gently and carefully; they are Beads

not kept in the Dharma Room, but are always carried on your person. are called yom j u, which means literally, "think beads," meaning


keep Buddha mind," so always keep them with you. on an altar in your room. Robes and kasas are also handled carefully

They can also be kept

and with respect.

Bowing First,

(short) robes can be folded and hung on a robe peg in two ways. after holding

the sleeves together behind the robe, the robe is hung on allowing the robe to hang in folds. Second,

the peg under the armpits, again after holding

the sleeves out together behind the robe, fold the toward the body of the robe. The doubled-over

sleeves in the middle,

sleeves are then folded against the main portion of the robe, and the

whole robe is folded one more time lengthwise

and placed over the peg.

Five Precepts people hang their kasa over the bowing robe, facing out. Dharma Teachers fold their robes neatly, with the sleeves together,

first folding the sleeves in half, then folding the sleeves against the body of the robe, and folding the whole robe in half lengthwise again.

After these three folds, the whole robe is placed over the peg, and the sash is symetrically out. Dharma Teacher robes are hung in order of seniority. Zen Master's First is the placed over the robe, with the kasa over it, facing

robe, then robes of monks, and then Master Dharma Teachers.
~e.-;s ~

Next comes the robe of the Do Gam if QQ is

re8isQa~, and then the Head if they are Dharma

Dharma Teache~, and the Director and the Housemaster Teachers. If not, Dharma Teachers

come before them; if so, they are' Seniority

followed by the other Dharma Teachers in order of seniority. is calculated living

by the length of time that a Dharma Teacher has been either there regularly. If a Dharma

at the Zen Center or practicing

Teacher visits only occasionally

s/he may be given a peg for his/her robe, After the Dharma

but at the end of the row, not in the order of seniority.

Teacher robes are the robes of those members who have taken the first Five Precepts, community. This hierarchical order after the Head Dharma Teacher is important then the next Dharma Teacher in the Head Dharma Teacher's and after those, of other housemembers and then members of the

when the Head Dharma Teacher is not present;

line is the acting Head Dharma Teacher, performing functions and making the decisions Dharma Teachers present,

in the Dharma Room.


If there are no

then the senior member who has taken the Five When referring


Precepts performs

the functions of the Head Dharma Teacher. s~+- oM. 'The

SJ hq_,





L"'€o.c." Q...\'s


l1l.o.i ('~o.s



to the Head Dharma Teacher,

it is assumed that the next person in line will

take his/her place in his/her absence. The Dharma Room is a place for quiet meditation scheduled sitting periods; throughout it is available the day. not only during the for sitting or or sleep in the

to Zen students

special practice

No one may exercise

Dharma Room during the daytime. At night, after formal practice has ended, the Dharma Room is available for sleeping. Most guests sleep there, and housemembers may choose to do so One person may

as well; everyone

sleeps with their heads toward the Buddha.

light incense before turning out the lights, doing a standing bow three steps in front of the altar both before and after lighting the incense.


CHAPTER THREE Hapchang: together

Bows in front of body, fingers Arms are relaxed with the

Place palms of hands together upward at chest height.

and pointing down.

elbows pOinting Use:

During every kind of bow described below.

Hapchang without

a bow signals a request to be hit with the stick during sitting meditation, and during the formal meals, hapchang means "no, thank. you." It is also

used when standing during sitting periods at; the end of a formal meal. Standing Bow:

and by the person collecting water

Stand with hands in hapchang,

then bend body from the to knees, and

waist 90~ forward while dropping

the hands (still together)

then return to standing position with hands in hapchang. your head down. Use:

When bowing, keep

When greeting monks, when entering and leaving the

Dharma Room, before Sitting down in the Dharma Room, when passing the stick during long sittings.


Standing Bow:

Stand with hands in hapchang, relative

bend body 45',' but

keep hands up, in same position standing position. Use:

to the chest, and then return to

When greeting laymen, friend to friend.

This bow is

also the reception bow used by a Zen Master. Sitting Bow: Sit with hands in hapchang and bend forward from the to

waist, keeping back curved and'head down.

Drop hands (in hapchang)

crossed legs, and then sit up with hands still in hapchang. Use: during meditation, At the beginning and end of chants, before standing up and before and after being hit

at the end of meditation,

with the stick during meditation. 11

Full Prostration: chang.

Start from standing position, with hands in hap-

Keeping back straight and knees together, bend knees until sitting with toes turned under, then go forward on hands and knees. to the floor, lower the body to the the left big toe over

on heels, Keeping

the trunk of the body parallel

floor to a crouching the right. keeping

position, with toes out straight,

Touch the head and hands to the floor with the palms turned up, apart and near the ears with the forearms forward again to the hands and

them shoulder-width

touching the floor.

Come up by swinging

knees, then back onto the heels with the toes tucked under, and swing to a standing position using the strength of the legs. up by the strength If someone cannot swing

of the legs alone, s/he uses one hand on the floor to push position.

off and keeps the other in the hapchang When doing one prostration,

always start and end with a standing bow; and end

when doing more than one, always do a standing bow at the beginning of the series. Half Prostration: rise to a kneeling

When head is on the floor during a prostration,

position with the toes still crossed rather than tucking

the toes under the feet, and then go back down, with the head back to the floor as in a prostration. prostration. At the end of a series of prostrations, done. Use: One prostration (a standing bow, a full prostration, and a half prostration is always Then rise to a standing position as in a full

a standing bow) -- When greeting greeting

the Zen Master after a short absence, when the formal practice of 108

the Zen Master each morning before when greeting


the Abbot of the temple, monks, and Master

Dharma Teachers after a long absence. Three prostrations one half prostrations, (a standing bow, three full prostrations, the Zen Master

and a standing bow) -- When greeting


after a long absence, bowing to the Buddha when leaving the temple for an overnight stay or returning to the temple after an overnight absence, and

bowing to the Buddha at other temples when visiting. 108 prostrations half prostration; (a standing bow, 108 full prostrations, one

and a standing bow)

Done every morning at every Zen Always done facing

Center and more often by people dOing special practice. the center of the Dharma Room.



Sitting Zen

Sitting Zen is done on a sitting mat with a rectangular cushion. Daily sittings are done facing the wall.

support to this


are long sittings

(generally one night a week), all of Yong Maeng Jong Jin,

and short sittings before and after a Dharma Talk, when we face the center of the Dharma Room. If there is a question about which way to the correct direction.'

face, the Head Dharma Teacher indicates

Sitting periods begin when the Head Dharma Teacher hits the chugpi three times. If you come to the Dharma Room after, the chugpi has been

hit, you sit outside the Dharma Room on the cushions provided for latecomers. No one enters or leaves the Dharma Room during sitting periods.

You may enter the room when the chugpi is hit again, either once to signal walking meditation or three times to signal the end of a sitting period. The legs may be in half lotus, full lotus, Most important is that the The chin is tucked in and The hands are resting

Sitting Positions: Burmese style

Indian style, or kneeling.

back be kept straight and shoulders relaxed. eyes are half-open, looking down at a 45


in the lap, palms facing up, with the left

hand on top of the right,

and the thumbs touching lightly, forming an ellipse. Breathing: Breathing is centered in the lower belly. It is helpful

to begin Sitting by taking several long deep breaths. should be relaxed and natural; Beginning students

Then the breathing

the breath should breathe you. exercise. The inhalation

are given a breathing

is three counts, repeating on each count, "Clear mind, clear mind, clear mind." The exhalation is "Don't know" for seven counts. 14 The breathing

is deep and relaxed, not forced. the individual; the important

The length of the count will: vary with

points are that the breath comes from is a little over twice as long as

the lower belly and that the exhalation the inhalation. Mind: exercise, am I?1l mind. All students or just sit -- whether

they practice with a mantra, breathing to keep the Great Question, a questioning "What

are instructed

The spirit of this practice Thoughts

is keeping

or don't-know

come and go and should be neither of this questioning

followed nor repressed. Let go of all thinking, mind.

They all are the landscape opinions,


and desires and continually

return to the questioning

Some students keep a mantra during sitting. a short set of beads held in the lap. used for mantra in the Dharma Room. quietly. Specific kong-ans Dharma Teacher. interview

Mantra may be counted on

Long strings of beads are not to be Be mindful with beads and use them

may be given to students by the Zen Master or Master individually with each student in an

They are discussed

during Yong Maeng Jong Jin. During sitting periods there is no moving unless you are quietly is permitted. To do the hands


very sleepy or in great pain; then standing

this, do one sitting bow and stand behind your cushion, keeping in the hap chang position. position during sitting. This is the only acceptable

way to change body

Before sitting down, do a half standing bow and quietly. is scheduled to last more than f&iey

return to a Sitting position Walking Meditation: minutes, periods

When sitting


meditation period scheduled so that the sitting 4-5" last for twenty-five to ~ minutes each. Walking meditation At this

there is a walking

begins when the Head Dharma Teacher hits the chugpi one time.


signal, everyone stands and begins to walk slowly counterclockwise the Dharma Room, keeping hands folded in front at stomach level.

around The Head

Dharma Teacher carries the chugpi and sets the pace for the walking meditation. Everyone follows, keeping the same pace so that the distance between

people is the same as it is when they first stood behind their cushions. Walking meditation lasts for ten minutes. During this time, people Everyone stays in place

may leave the Dharma Room to go to the bathroom.

in line until walking past the Dharma Room door; then, if someone wishes to go out, s/he steps out of line and does a standing bow before leaving the Dharma Room. When using the bathroom and robe before entering When returning during walking meditation, always remove kasa

the bathroom.

to the Dharma Room, enter quietly, do a standing bow, line is

and wait near the door until you can enter the walking meditation between the two people next to whom you sit.

If the walking meditation

almost over, wait until everyone stops walking and then quickly walk to your place behind your cushion. The Head Dharma Teacher again hits the chugpi once to signal the end of walking meditation after everyone has stopped walking and taken their When the chugpi is hit, everyone again No bow is done at this time.

places behind their cushions. resumes their sitting position.

If you return to the Dharma Room after the chugpi has been hit, sit outside the Dharma Room until it is hit again, either to signal the next walking period or to end the sitting period. At the end of the sitting period, the chugpi is hit three times and At the end of the formal their own cushion<

everyone does a sitting bow before standing.

practice period, everyone brushes off and straightens and mat. 16



"Chanting meditation your true self. of your voice: disappears,

means keeping a not-moving mind, perceiving

So when you are chanting, you must perceive the sound you and the universe have already become one, suffering appears. This is called Nirvana. If you keep

true happiness

Nirvana, your mind is clear like space. a mirror. I am happy. food. Red comes; red.

Clear like space means clear like Someone is happy;

White comes; white.

Someone is sad; I am sad.

Someone is hungry; give them Great Compassion, the Great

The name for this is Great Love, Way.


This is chanting meditation,

chanting Zen." Zen Master Seung Sahn

MOrning Chanting:

Morning Bell Chant Homage to the Buddhas Ten Great Vows (if Soen Sa Nim is present) Korean Heart Sutra English Heart Sutra Great Dharani

Evening Chanting:

Evening Bell Chant Homage to the Buddhas Korean Heart Sutra English Heart Sutra Great Dharani

Special Chanting:

10,000 Eyes and Hands Sutra Kwan Seum Bosal / Shakyamuni Buddha Chanting



Bell Chants:



Bell Wood Moktak


Regular Chants: Special Chants:

o0_0 -

Moktak *done faster than regular rhythm, can be written when words are not being used. See Bell

chants as opposed to end of Korean Heart


Sutra "maha". start a standing bow return to standing position start a sitting bow return to sitting position from sitting bow return to kneeling position from prostration prostration - stay down until moktak signals from standing bow



change of position stand up from kneeling position the moktak.

If any of the above are not within a circle, they are done without


All moktak sounds are clear and crisp, without any "extras" on the end.


; * "* *" ..ttCOOOO80


Vowing this bell sound spreads through the whole universe Making all the Hell of Dark Metal bright, Relieving the three realms of suffering, shattering the Hell of Swords; All beings become Enlightened. Become one: The highest Master of this beautiful world, Great Love, Holy One: Now we open the Treasure Form and Golden Book The Jewel-axeled Treasure Box Interpenetrates one by one; One by one, all is perfectly complete. .. 100,095,048 words are the original complete teaching of





The Great Wide Buddha: The Avatamsaka Sutra The first poem: If you wish to thoroughly understand All the BUddhas of past, present, and future, Then you should view the nature of the Universe As being created by the mind alone. The Mantra of Shattering Hell:




I Vow for my whole life, without separate .mind, to only follow Amita Bul (Infinite time, infinite space Buddha). The Mind of Minds always connects to the Jewel of Wisdom's Light. Moment to moment, without leaving this golden fonn, I hold beads, perceiving this world Through the space of no hindrance. Everything everywhere is equal. Perceive the Western Amita of Becoming One The Great Western Mantra of Becoming One Infinite Time, Infinite Space, Original Buddha: Become One, Infinite Time, Infinite Space Buddha The Blue Mountain of Many Ridges is Buddha1s home. The vast blue ocean is the Palace of Still Extinction. Being with all things without hindrance, Few can see the red crane's head on the pine tree. Become One, Infinite Time, Infinite Space Buddha Sitting in silence in a mountain temple in the quiet night Extreme quiet and stillness are original naturalness. Why does the Western wind shake the forest? A single cry of the cold-weather geese fills the sky.









Become One, Infinite Time, Infinite Space Buddha Vowing together with all world beings Together into Buddha's Ocean of Great Vows To save beings of numberless worlds You and I simultaneously attain the Way of Buddha. Become One, Infinite Time, Infinite Space Buddha Become one: Western Pure Land Nir~ana of the World of Enlightenment The 36,000,119,500 various names of Buddha are all the same name. Great Love, Great Sadness, Infinite Time, Infinite Space Buddha. SE Become one: Western Pure land Nirvana of the World of Enlightenment; this Buddha's body is long and wide. This beautiful face is without boundary; the golden color shines brightly and bathes the whole world in 1ight. 48 Hopes - All beings' revolution' No one can say, nor say its opposite. No one can say, because Buddha is like the numberless sands by the river And the countless blades of grass and the trees. Numberless number!













The 360,000,119,500 various names of Buddha are all the same name. Great Love, Great Sadness


Our Great Teacher Golden Original Become-One Infinite Time Infinite Space Buddha. The Mantra of Ori gi1na Mind IS 1 Subl imity


gO "-A-A

000000000 ...,,00000000
gO 000000000 ...... 00000000 0

80 0 00 gO:

* ~*


(Moktak Master - all do sitting bow)





t*** s C:
MUN JONG SEONG BEON NAE DAN JI HE JANG BO LI SAENG LI JI OK c:) CHUL SAM GE WON SAENG BUL DO JONG SAENG PA JI OK JIN EON OM GA RA JI YA SA BA HA OM GA RA JI VA SA BA HA OM GA RA JI VA SA BA HA Hearing the sound of the bell, all thinking ts cut off. Cognition grows; wisdom appears; Hell is left behind. The Three Worlds are transcended. Vowing to become Buddha and save all people. The Mantra of Shattering Hell:


0 go


gO 00000000 •...






(Moktak Master - all do sitting bow)



to the Buddhas

May the sweet scent of our keeping the precepts, of our meditations, of our wisdom, of our liberation, and of the knowledge of our liberation -- may all this form a brightshining, cloudlike pavillion, and may it pervade the whole Universe, and so do homage to the countless Buddhas, their Sanghas, in all of the ten directions. Mantra of the Incense Offering


hyang, jeong hyang, he hyang,

he tal hyang, he tal ji gyeong hyang, !twang myung un dae, jyu beun poep ge,



0 CD I

gong yang shi bang, mu ryang-1)Ul- poep sung.



Heon hyang jin-eon:
Om ba a ra to bi ya hum Om ba a ra to bi ya hum

ba a· ra to bi ya hum

®OOOoc>o •••

0 0
We most devoutly pay homage to the Teacher of the three worlds, the loving father of all creatures, to Him who is our mula-guru, Shakyamuni Buddha. We most devoutly pay homage eternally existent assembly the Buddhas, in all the ten of the past, of the present, the future, as countless as and the seas in Lord Indra's to the of all directions and of the lands net.

Ji shim gi myeong ne sam ge do sa


sa seng ja bu shi a bon sa

Seo ga mun1 bul.


Ji shim gi myeong ne shi bang sam

@OOoeoo_ ..

se je mang chal hae sang ju il che


bul ta ya jung.


Ji shim gi myeong ne shi bang sam se je mang chal hae sang ju il che tal ma ya j ung •




We most devoutly pay homage to all the·Dharmas, eternally existent, in all the ten directions, of the past, of the present, and of the future, as countless as the lands and the seas in Lord Indra's net. We most devoutly pay homage to all the Bodhisattvas mabasattvas, and most especially do we commemorate the Bodhisattvas Manjusri, Sariputra, Samaatabhadra, the most compassionate and lOving Avalokitesvara, and he, the Lord of many vows, Ksitigarbha

Ji shim gi myeong ne dae j i mun su sa ri bo sal dae haeng bo hyeon bosal dae bi kwan sae um bo sal dae won bon jyon ji jang bo sal ma ha sal.


®OOooo •.



Remove black sitting cushion, use only mat for prostrations. 24

Ji shim gi myeong

ne yeong san dang

shi su bul bu chok shi dae je ja shim lyuk seong

ji cheon i bek je dae a ra han mu ryang seong jung.



bek seong dok su seong ne




We most devoutly pay homage to the countless compassionate and lovefilled holy Sanghas, and most especially do we commemorate those who have received personally the Lord Buddha's ".injunctions· on Maunt Gridhakuta -- the ten major disciples, the sixteen holy ones, the five hundred holy ones, and all of the one thousand five hundred great arhats We most devoutly pay homage to those great patriarchs and teachers who have come from the West to the East, and those who have come to the Korean shores, and who have transmitted the Lamp of the Dharma throughout the generations; so too do we pay homage to our tradition's masters, recognized th~oughout the ages, and to the various numberless spiritual teachers and friends. We most devoutly pay homage to all the congregations of the Sangha, eternally existent, in all the ten directions, of the past, of the present, and of the future, as countless as the lands and the seas in Lord Indra's net. We but earnestly desire that these innumerable Three Precious Ones will most lOvingly and compassionately receive our devotions, and that they shall empower us spiritually; we further most earnestly desire that together with all creatures in the universe, we may attain to Buddhahood at one and the same time.

Ji shim gi myeong

ne so geon dong

jin gup a hae dong yeok dae jeon deung je dae jo sa cheon ha jong


che mi jin su je dae soen ji shik.

®OOOOoo ••.

sa il


Ji shim gi myeong

ne ahi bang sam

se je mang chal hae~ang


sung ga ya jung.



ju il che

Yu weon mu jin sam bo dae ja dae bi su a jeong ne myeong



weon gong poe;!,.. je jung saeng ge (00000., (j) ja ta 11 shi soeng bul do. ~


jun ga pi ryeok




I will always stay far from the three evil ways. I will quickly cut off desire, anger, and ignorance. I will always listen to Buddha, I will diligently cognition. I will constantly cultivate Buddha's teaching. cultivate Dharma, and Sangha. meditation, and


I will never abandon the Enlightenment-mind. I will always be reborn under favorable I will quickly see Buddha-nature. I will project myself throughout the universe. conditions.

I will freely save all beings.

World after world, Bodhisattva

life after life, I will follow the path and finally gain liberation.

banya bara mil.

(f) 000000..

Namu Sogamuni Bul. Namu Sogamuni Namu shi a pon sa Sogamuni Bul.





Soen Sa Nim sings this solo in Korean if he is present. If he is not present skip to the Korean Heart Sutra. Everyone joins in after "Maha banya bara mil."


The Heart Sutra

(10) 0000000000

(Sets rhvthm for chant and is continued until "maha" on the last line)


ban ya pa ra milta shim gyeong Kwanja je bo sal haeng shim·ban ya pa ra milta shi, jo gyeon


gong, do il

che go eke

Sa ri ja,

sek bul i gong, gong bul i sek, sek juk shi

gong, gong j uk shi sek., su sang haeng shik yeok bu yeo shi. Sa ri ja, shi je poep gong sang: bul seng bul myeol, bul gu bu jong,

bu jeung bul gam; shi go gong jung mu sek, mu su sang haeng shik, mu an i bi seol shin
ui mu, sek seong hyang mi chok poep, mu an ge••••

ne ji ••• mu ui

shik ge, mu mu myeongyok mu mu myeongj in. •• ne j i. •• mu no sa, yeok mu no sa jin, mu ko jip myeol do, mu ji yok mu deuk, i mu so deuk go, bo ri sal ta ui

ban ya pa ra milta go shim mu ga ae, mu ga ae go, mu yu gong po, weon ri j eon do mong sang, gu gyeong yol ban. Samse j e bul ui ban ya pa ra milta, sam-bo-ri: mu sang ju,
ko ji

go deuk a-nck-ca-za


ban ya pa ra milta shi dae shin ju, shi dae myeongju, shi

shi mu deung deung ju, neung je U che go, jin shil bul heo, go

seal ban ya pa ra milta ju.
Juk seal ju wal:




Haha ban ya pa ra milta shim gyeong.





moji sabaha!

(three times)



The Heart Sutra The Maha Prajna Paramita

(done sitting down)

(solo by Moktak Master to give starting note) Hrdaya Sutra Bodhisattva


(cuts off last note, begin chanting with a regular rhythm) deeply the Prajna Paramita and

Avalokitesvara perceives distress. Shariputra, from fo~. fo~

when practicing

that all five skandhas

are empty and is saved from all suffering

does not differ from emptiness,


does not differ form. The

That which is form. is emptiness, perceptions,

that which is emptiness consciousness •

same is true of feelings, .Shariputra, disappear, emptiness all dha~s


are marked w:1.themptiness.

They do not appear not therefore in No eyes,

are not tainted nor pure, do not increase nor decrease, no from, no feelings, perceptions, impulses,


no ears, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind, no color, no sound, no smell, no taste, no touch, no object of mind, no realm of ayes, and so forth until no realm of mind consciousness. No ignorance and also no extl.il:e'1::f;on" of· 'it,-and so forth of them. No suffering, no

until no old age and death and also no extinction origination, to attain. The Bodhisattva without depends on Prajna Paramita fears exist. no stopping, no path, no cognition,

also no attainment

with nothing

and his mind is no hindrance, view he

any hindrance"no

Far apart from every perverted

dwells in Nirvana. In the three worlds all Buddhas depend on Prajna Paramita Anuttara Samyak Sambodbi. know that Prajna Paramita is the great transcendent mantra, is the and attain


great bright mantra,

is the utmost mantra,

is the supreme mantra which is able So proclaim the Prajna Paramita

to relieve all suffering mantra, proclaim

and is true, not false.

the mantra which says: parasamgate parasamgate parasamgate 28 bodhi svaha bodhi svaha bodhi svaha.
@c>OOe> ••

gate gate paragate gate gate paragate gate gate paragate


The Great Dharani

(sets rhythm for chant and is continued until "sabaha" on last line)

Shin myo j ang gu dae da ra ni na mo ra da na da ra ya ya na mak al ya ba ro gi je saebaraya moji sadabaya

sadabaya maha garonigaya

om sal babaye sudarana garaya dasa myongna mak ka ri daba i mamal ya ba ro gi je saebara tabanira ganta n.amak harinaya ma balta

i sa mi sal bal tasadanam su ban a ye yom sal ba bo danamba ba mal a mi sudakam da nya ta om arogye aroga 1JU!Lji roga jiga ran je hye hye ha rye maha moji sadaba samara samara harinaya guro guro galma sadaya sadaya

doro doro mi yon je maha mi yon je dara dara da rin na rye sae ba ra jara jara mara mimara amara mol je ye hye p'ye rogye sae ba ra ra a mi sa mi na sa ya na be sam! sam! nasaya mo ha j ara mi sa mi na sa ya horo horo mara horo ha rye ba na ma na ba sara sara shiri shiri soro soro mot :1a mot ja modaya modayamae dariya

nira ganta gamasa nalsanam bara hara naya manak sabaha shit daya sabaha maha shit daya sabaha shit da yu ye saebaraya

sabaha nira gantaya sabaha baraha mok ka shing ha mok kaya sabaha banama hadaya sabaha jagara yok daya sabaha sang ka sop na nae modanaya sabaha mahara gutadaraya sabaha bamasa ganta i sa shi che da ga tin na in na ya sabaha myagara jal man! ba sanaya sabaha namora dana dara ya ya namak al ya barogije

saebaraya sabaha

®OOoo ••





A gum il il

shim jung

juk kyon mu jin om ba a ra mil


byon je kwan um dae song jon om ba a ra mil

11 mu su rye


om ba a ra mil



(after beginning - free style: 1 beat per syllable Jong gu op jin on or 1 beat per 2 syllables su ri su ri ma ha au ri su su ri sa ba ha but it's not constant all su ri su ri ma ha su ri su su ri sa ba ha the way through) su ri su ri ma ha su ri su su ri sa ba ha o bang nae wayan wi je shin jin on na mu sa man da mot da nam om do ro do ro ji mi sa ba ha na mu sa man da mot da nam om do ro do ro ji mi sa ba ha na mu sa man da mot da nam om do ro do ro ji mi sa ba ha gae gyong gye mu sang shim shim mi myo bop baek chon man gop nan j 0 u a gum mun gyon duk su ji won hae yo rae jin shil ui gae bop jang jin on om a ra nam a ra da om a ra nam a ra da om a ra nam a ra da chon su chon an kwan ja jae bo sal kwang dae won man mu ae dae bi shim dae da ra ni gye chon gye su kwan um dae bi j u wo lyok hong shim sang ho shin chon bi j ang op bo ho j i chon an !twang myong byon kwan jo jin shU 0 jung son mil 0 mu wi shim nae gi bi shim sok ryong man j ok j e hui gu yong sa myol je je jae op chon ryong jung song dong ja ho baek chon sam mae don hun su su j i shin shi !twang myong dang su j i shim shi shin tong j ang se chok j in ro won j ae hae cho j ung bo ri bang pyon mun a gum ching song so gui ae so won jong shim sMl won man won· a sok ji U che bop na mu dae bi kwan se um won a jo duk ji he an na mu dae bi kwan se um won a sok do U che jung na mu dae bi kwan se um won a jo duk son bang pyon na mu dae bi kwan se um won a sok sung ban ya son na mu dae bi kwan se um won a jo duk wol go hae na mu dae bi kwan se um won a sok duk gye jok do na mu dae bi kwan se um won a jo dung won jok san na mu dae bi kwan se um won a sok hae mu wi sa na mu dae bi kwan se um won a jo dong bop song shin na mu dae bi kwan se um





do san ja chay j 01 a yak hyang do san a yak hyang hwa tang hwa tang j a so myol a yak hyang j i ok ji ok ja go gal a gwi ja po man a yak hyang a gwi a yak hyang su ra ak shim ja jo bok a yak hyang chuk saeng ja duk dae ji hye na mu kwan se um bo sal IDa ha sal na mu dae se ji bo sal IDa ha sal na .muchon su bo sal IDa ha sal na mu yo ui ryun be sal IDa ha sal na mu dae ryun bo sal IDa ha sal na mu kwan ja jae bo sal IDa ha sal na mu jong chwi bo sal IDa ha sal na mu man wol bo sal IDa ha sal na mu su wol bo sal IDa ha sal na mu gun da ri bo sal ~ ha sal na IIl1.t' ship il myon'bo sal ma ha sal na mu je dae bo sal IDa ha sal na mu bon sa a mi ta bul na mu bon sa a mi ta bul na mu bon sa a mi ta bul shin myo jang gu ciae da ra ni na mo ra da na da ra ya ya na mak al ya ba ro gi je aae ba ra ya mo ji sa da ba ya IDa ha sa da ba ya IDa ha ga ro ni ga ya om sal ba ba ye su da ra na ga ra ya da sa myong na ma.k ka ri da ba i mamal ya ba ro gi j e aae ba ra ta ba ni ra gan ta na malt ha ri na ya IDa bal ca i sa mi sal bal ta sa da nam su ban a ye yom sal ba bo da nam ba ba mal a mi su da k.am da nya ta om a ro gye a ro ga IDa ji ro ga ji ga ran je hye hye ha rye IDa ha mo ji sa cia ba sa IDa ra sa ma ra ha ri na ya gu ro gu ro gal ma sa da ya sa da ya do ro do ro mi yon je ma ha mi yon je cia ra da ra da rin na rye sae ba ra ja ra ja ra IDa ra mi ma ra a IDa ra mol je ye hye hye ro gye sae ba ra ra a mi sa mi na sa ya na be sa mi sa mi na sa ya mo ha ja ra mi sa mi na sa ya ho ro ho ro ma ra .ho ro ha rye ba na ma na ba sa ra sa ra shi ri shi ri so ro so ro mot ja mot ja mo da ya mo da ya mae da ri ya ni ra gan ta ga ma sa nal sa nam ba ra ha ra na ya ma nak sa ba ha shit cia ya sa ba ha ma ba shit da ya sa ba ha sUt da yu ye sae ba ra ya sa ba ha ni ra gan ta ya sa ba ha ba ra ha mok ka shing ha mok ka ya sa ba ha ba na ma ha da ya sa ba ha ja ga ra yok da ya sa ba ha sang ka sop na nae mo da na ya sa ba ha IDa ha ra gu ta da ra ya sa ba ha ba ma sa gan ta i sa shi che da ga rin na in na ya sa ba ha mya ga ra jal IDa ni ba sa na ya sa ba ha na mo ra da na da ra ya ya na malt ba ro gi je sae ba ra ya sa ba ha il sae dong bang 8101 do ryang i sae nam bang duk chong ryang sam sae so bang gu jong to sa sae buk bang yon an gang do ryang chong jong mu ha ye sam bo chon yong gang cha ji a gum ji song myo jin on won sa ja bi mil ga ho a sok so jo je ak op gye yummushi tam j in chi jong shin gu i ji so saeng il che a gum gae cham ha na mu cham jay op j ang bo sung j ang bul bo kwang wang hwa ryom jo bul il che hyang hwa ja jae ryok wang bul


baek ok hang ha sa gyol j ong bul jin wi dok bul gum gang gyong gang so bok kae 'san bul bo kwang wol jon myo um jon wang bul hwan hui j ang ma ni bo jok bul mu jin hyang sungwangbul sa j awol bul hwan j ang om j u wang bul je bo dang ma ni sung lcwang bul sal saeng jung jae gum il cham hae to do jung jae gum il cham hae sa haeng jung jae gum il cham hae mang 0 jung jae gum il cham hae gi 0 jung j ae gum il cham hae yang sol jung jae gum il cham hae ak ku jung j ae gum il cham hae tam hae j ung j ae gum il cham hae j in ae j ung j ae gum il cham hae chi am jung j ae gum i1 cham hae baek kop jok jip jae il nyom don tang jin yo hwa bun go cho myo1 jin mu yu yo jae mu'ja song jong shim gi shim yak myo1 shi j ae yok mang jae mang shim myol yang gu gong shi j uk myong wi j in cham hae cham hae j in on om sal ba mot ja mo ji sa da ya sa ba ha om sal ba mot ja mo ji sa da ya sa ba ha om sal ba mot ja mo j1. sa da ya sa ba ha jun je gong dok chwi jok jong shim sang song i1 che j e dae ran 1DU nung chim shi in chon sang gum in gan su bok yo bul dung u cha yo ui ju j ong huik mu dung dung na 1DU ch1.l gu ji bul mo dae jun je bo sal na mu ch1.l gu ji bul me dae jun° je bo sal na mu chil gu ji bul me dae jun je bo sal jong bop gye jinon om nam om nam om nam hi shin jin on om chi rim om chi rim om chi rim lcwan se um bo sal bon shim mi myo yuk j a dae myong wang j in on om ma ni ban me hum om ma ni ban me hum om ma ni ban me hum



jun je jin on na mu sa cia nam sam myak.sam. mot da gu chi nam da nya ta om ja rye ju rye jun je sa ba ha bu rim om ja rye ju rye jun je sa ba ha bu rim am ja rye ju rye jun je sa ba ha bu rim a gum ji song dae jun je j uk. bal bo ri lewang dae won won a jong hye sokwon myong won a gong dok kae song chwi won a sung bok byon j ang am won gong jung saeng song bul do yo rae ship dae bal won mun won a yang ri sam. ak. do son a sok dan tam jin chi won a sang mun bul bop sung won a gun su kye j ong hye won a hang su j e bur hak. won a bul tae bo ri shim won a gyol j ong saeng an yang won a sok kyon a mi ta won a bun shin byon j in chal won a lewang do j e j ung saeng bal sa hong so won jung saeng mu byon so won do .bon nae mu j in so won dan bam mun mu ryang so won halt bul do mu sang so won song ja song jung saeng so won do ja song bon nae so won dan j a song bam mun so won hak. j a song bul do so won song won i bar won i gwi myong nye sam bo na mu sang ju sM bang bul na mu sang ju sM bang bop na mu sang ju sM bang sung na mu sang ju shi bang bul na mu sang ju shi bang bop na mu sang ju sM bang sung na mu sang ju sM bang bul na mu sang ju shi bang bop na mu sang ju shi bang sung

@Ooo •. @




KHAN SAE UM BO SAL CHANTING ---------.;;...;;.;;;=~

Na mu bul ta bu jung kwang lim bop he. CD @OOOOOo~ ••• Na mu tal 111& bu jung kwang lim bop he. CD (£)0000000 ••• Na mu sung ga bu jung !twang lim bop he. CD

<fOooooo_ .....

Na-mu bo-mun shi-hyon wol-lyok hong-shim dae-ja-dae-bi . {f}.._CD_.!_:"l 0 0 0 0.00 Kwan Sae Um Bo Sal, Kwan Sae Um Bo Sal •••••••• (to finish, repeat 3

Kwan Sae Um Bo Sal myol op-chang jin-on ***Om ma-ro ru-ke sa-ba-ha*** Won song-chi jin-on ***Om a-mo-ka sal-ba-da-ra sa- da-ya shi-be hum*** Bul-sol so-je kll-sang da-ra-ni

Kwan Sae Um Bo Sal) (rhythm is free style as in Ten Thousand Eyes and Hands Sutra until "Chal chin" on next-to-last line)




***Na-mu sa-man-da mo-ta-nam a-ba-ra-ji ha-da-sa sa-na-nam da-nya-ta om ka-ka ka-he ka-he hum hum a-ba-ra a-ba-ra ba-ra a-ba-ra ba-ra a-ba-ra ji-ta ji-ta ji-ri ji-ri ba-du ba-du san-ji-ka shi-ri-e sa-ba-ha*** Po-kwol jin-on ***Om ho-ro ho-ro sa-ya mo-ke sa-ba-ha*** Po ho-hyung jin-on ***Om sa-ma-ra sa-ma-ra mi-ma-ra ja-ra-ma ja-gu-ra ba-ra hum***

Chal-chin shim-nyom ka-su ji te-he jung-su ka-hum-jin o 0_0 ®Oooo. CD He-kong ka ryang pung-ga ge mu-nung jin-sol bul-gong dok - __ )






{OOoooo... (DOOOC..
Na mu bul Na mu tal

·0 0 a:>

ta bu jung kwang lim boep hay. ma bu jung kwang lim boep hay.

@oooooocoo •..

(0000000 •••...

Na mu sung ga bu j ung kwang 11m boep hay. I..!.; 0000000 Na mu sam gye dae sa sa saeng ja bu sM a bon sa ®_O_,(f) 0 0 00 0 (to finish, Seo Ga Mun1 Bul, Seo Ga Muni Bul •••• times:




Chon sang shon ha mu yeo bul SM bang se gye yeong mu bi Se gan SQ yu a jin gyeon (rhythm is free style as in Ten Thousand Hands and Eyes Sutra until "Chal chin" on next-to-last line)


Seo Ga Muni Bul)


I1 che mu yu yeo bul j a Ko, a 11 shim bwi myeong j eong nae Myol op chang j in on Om ma ro ru ke sa ba ha (three Won song chi j in on Om a mo ka sal Bul sol times)

ba da ra sa da ya sM be hum (three sang da ra ni


so je kil

(Na' mu sa 'man 'cia ina ta nam a ba ra j i ha cia sa sa na nam cia nya ta om ka ka ka ye ka ye hum hum a-ba-ea a-ba-ea ba-ra a:"'u-ra ba-rra a-ba-ra j i ta j i ta j i ri j i ri ba du 1 ba du san ji ka shi ri e sa ba ha) (three times) Po kwol jin

Om ho ro ho ro sa ya mo ke sa ba ha (three Po ho-hyung Om sa ma ra Chal chin jin-on sa ma ra mi ma ra ja



shim nyon ka su j i pung ga ge

te he jung


ru ma


gu ra ba ra hum (3x)
su ka hum jin bul

Ho gong ka ryang


mu nung j in sol


(f)OOoo. <D

gong dok __





Daily Formal Practice

Every morning

the Housemaster,or

someone the Housemaster


nates, hits the Dharma Room bell to wake up the Zen Center housemembers 5:00 AM. The bell is hit with this rhythm: ~ XX)(

This person then leaves the Dharma Room, doing a standing bow, and proceeds around the house using a hand bell to wake up students. Five minutes before bowing begins, the Housemaster takes the moktak

out of the Dharma Room to a central location in the house and hits it in the followi~g rhythm, indicating

is generally



that bowing begins in five minutes:


Then s/he returns to the During bowing, the Dharma Room

Dharma Room and turns up the altar light. dimly lit with only one light. the Dharma Room, everyone

Upon entering

does one standing bow (every

time someone enters or leaves the Dharma Room s/he does a standing bow), puts on a bowing robe, stands behind his/her bow and sits down. The Guestmaster cushion, does one standing

sees to it that each guest is given a cushion.

bowing robe and is shown to an available

If Soen Sa Nim is ¥±sitin!, after he takes his seat and adjusts his robe, everyone does one Sitting bow and walks to the middle of the Dharma to him. If there is a

Room facing Soen Sa Nim to do one full prostration large number of students,

they may form several rows, one behind the other. Dharma Teacher Everyone does

When everyone who is ready is in line, the highest-ranking in the front row begins the bow, which is done in unison. one standing bow, then one prostration, to his/her seat. "Bows".) sits down. their seats. (Bows and prostrations

then one standing bow, and returns are described in the chapter on

Each person stands at his/her Latecomers

cushion, does one standing bow and and take

bow to Soen Sa Nim, in groups if possible,


108 Prostrations:

At 5:15 on regular practice mornings,

the Head At

Dharma Teacher does one sitting bow, gets up and approaches three paces directly

the altar.

in front of the altar s/he does one standing bow and Reaching for and

then goes to the altar to light one stick of incense. lighting

the matches and incense are done standing erect, not leaning The incense is lit by placing facing front to back. it horizontally over the

over the altar. incense burner, extinguished

The flame on the incense is then

by fanning the stick with the hand or waving the stick -and candles are not blown out. Spirits are said to live

incense, matches,

around the flame and blowing out the flame might singe them. The incense is placed in the incense holder and the Head Dharma Teacher, hands in hapchang pOSition, takes three steps back, right foot, then left, Everyone does one sitting bow as the Head While the Head Dharma Teacher returns

then right, then together.

Dharma Teacher does one standing bow.

to his/her cushion, everyone else stands up and takes his/her cushion(s) with two hands and places the cushion(s)Aon
,'" bCLdc.






ageiftsi: taa Hal.l befiillQ tAem.

~,'SI L..u-





the floor eeaiftd
a't\&. ~



onli!- -tv

'tl-.u-l7Ji.d' .

The Zen Master begins the series of 108 prostrations pace throughout meditation the series. It is important

and sets the

that every part of bowing the Head

be done in unison.

If Soen Sa Nim is not.present,

Dharma Teacher or the highest-ranking sets the pace. not visible Sometimes

Dharma Teacher begins the bowing and

the Head Dharma Teacher is seated where s/he is

to the whole room; in this case the Head Dharma Teacher desig-

nates who will lead the bowing. 108 prostrations prostrations, begin with one standing bow, followed by 108 full and then one standing bow. Then the

a half prostration,

large mat is straightened mat, the edge farthest 108 prostrations

and the black cushions are placed back on the

from the altar aligned with the far edge of the mat. take fifteen minutes.



Sitting Meditation: fifteen minutes,

In the time before the sitting period, usually

people may sit facing the wall on regular practice days Those who are not sitting

and facing the center of the room during retreats. walk behind those seated in meditation Dharma Room.

to hang up their robes and leave the

At 5+25




There should be no talking in the Dharma Room during this time. ~C'e.. 'tW s.'.~ prvr(vet \o.aJi"'~, FegelaF practice merftiQg~, the Moktak Master takes the moktak

out of the Dharma Room and hits it, indicating





that formal practice begins again in five minutes.

At this

time, those people who will be sitting put on their short or long robes and kasas, do a standing bow behind their cushions and sit. are turned on. The Head Dharma Teacher hits the chugpi three times to signal the beginning of the sitting period. Half-way through each sitting period, the More lights

the Head Dharma Teacher does one sitting bow, stands and approaches altar. At three paces directly

in front of the altar, s/he does a standing stick in the manner de-

bow, goes to the alter and picks up the hitting scribed in "The Long Evening Sit ting. " does one standing bow, and then proceeds inside of the row of cushions, tion.

S /he then takes three steps back, slowly counterclockwise around the

behind those seated or standing in medita-

The person walking with the stick has the same two-fold job as is in the "Long Sitting" section: to correct postures and to wake

described sleepers.

If the Head Dharma Teacher sees someone nodding off, s/he taps the person on their right shoulder, holds his/her hands in hapchang or if a sitter wishes to be hit, the person as the Head Dharma Teacher approaches. In

either case, the Head Dharma Teacher then steps back toward the center of

the room directly behind the person to be hit and does one standing bowAas the seated person does one sitting bow. The seated person then sits up-

w~-H... &..,~

right, tilting his/her head either to the left or to the right, and the 38

Head Dharma Teacher gives two short blows on the exposed shoulder on the back muscle,_close to the neck.

As the Head Dharma Teacher does

one standing bow, the seated person does one sitting bow, and then the Head Dharma Teacher continues slowly around the room.

When s/he has gone around the room once and is again in front of the altar, s/he does a standing bow with the stick, places the stick on the altar, backs up three paces with his/her hands in hapchang, bow and returns to behind his/her down. At the end of the sitting period, the Head Dharma Teacher hits the of walking meditation, or does a standing

cushion, does one standing bow and sits

chugpi either one time to signal the beginning

three times to indicate the end of the sitting period. has been hit three times, everyone the center of the room.

When the chugpi

does one sitting bow and turns to face

Chanting: Morning sitting is followed by the Morning Bell \.I:)\to '14. .'neJl~'~ .. ?U'~ 10; G~r-I Chant and Daily Chanting. the Moktak Master does one seated bow, gets up, approaches TsacbQ.. the altar and bows ~aafter






&;. ~

fer the Reae Dharma lights one, and with candle. Then,


Standing erect, s/he then takes the matches,

the match in the right hand lights the front right-hand switching left-hand

the match to the left hand, the Moktak Master lights the front candle and waves or fans the match to extinguish it. Next, s/he

takes a stick of incense and lights it from the flame of the right-hand candle, fans or waves it out, and places it in the incense holder. After

taking three steps back (right foot first, then left, then right, then together), s/he does a standing bow while everyone else does a sitting bow. returns to his/her cushion,

S/he goes back to the altar, picks up the moktak, does a standing bow and sits down. directly in front of him/her.

S/he places the moktak on the floor

After everyone bows together designated

at the end of sitting,

the person

to hit the bell for the Morning Bell Chant stands and walks to Before sitting down, s/he does one standing bow facing the

the bell stand.

bell; then s/he waits until the Moktak Master is seated before beginning the Morning Bell Chant. The annotations for the Morning Bell Chant and

the daily chanting are in the chapter on "Chanting." At the end of the Morning Bell Chant, the Moktak Master hits the moktak once while it is on the floor, and everyone everyone does one sitting bow. Then

stands, picks up their support cushions with two hands, places the

cushions behind them as befor~~the When the Morning

108 prostrations,

and stands in hapchang.

Bell Chant person has returned to his/her cushion and the Moktak Master begins. A person learning

assumed the proper position,

the chants from a chanting book holds the book with the thumbs, with hands in hapchang. During the first chant, the Homage to the Buddhas, there are standing bows and full prostrations, which are annotated in the "Chanting" chapter. he

Then if Soen Sa Nim (or sometimes

another Korean monk) is visiting,

chants the Ten Great Vows, and everyone

joins him at the end of the chant.

This chant and the Korean Heart Sutra which follows, are done standing, except for several standing bows indicated During and in between

by the roll of the moktak. At the end

these chants, hands are held in hapchang. Korean,

of the Heart Sutrain time and everyone position described

the Moktak Master hits the moktak the additional

does another standing bow and then sits down in the in "Sitting Zen." the beginning bow, hands

When the moktak are held in hapchang,

is hit in a roll, signalling

but after the bow they are put back in the sitting Between chants, hands are held in

mudra during the English Heart Sutra. hap chang , and after the beginning

bow of the Great Dharani they are returned 40

to the sitting mudra.

If someone is using a chanting book, it is again supported by the thumbs -- it does not

held with the hands in hapchang, rest on the floor. Following

the end of the Great Dharani,

the Moktak Master stands and Then s/he stands in S/he then

places the moktak back on the altar from the front.

front of the center of the altar and does a half standing bow. extinguishes

the candles with a snuffer, standing erect, first doing the the

right candle with the snuffer in the right hand, and then transferring snuffer to the left hand and putting out the left candle.

S/he replaces

the snuffer on the altar, takes three steps back (right, left, right, together) and does one standing bow while everyone else does one sitting bow. Everyone then comes to the center of the Dharma Room and forms a The Head

circle, or stays at their cushion if the Dharma Room is full. ~harma Teacher then reads the kong-an from a kong-an book. finished, everyone does a seated bow. someone chooses to sit or bow following

When s/he is If

Formal morning practice is over. the kong-an reading, straightens there should

be no talking in the Dharma Room as everyone

their cushions,

hangs up their robes, and does one standing bow at the Dharma Room door before leaving the Dharma Room. During the day, when no ceremonies the Dharma Room, it is available Individual practice or special events are planned

for anyone to use for formal practice.

is done using the same forms used during formal medi-

tation periods. Soecial Chanting: Some Zen Centers include "Special Chanting," the as

"Ten Thousand Eyes and Hands Sutra" and "Kwan Seum Bosal Chanting," part of their daily practice regular evening practice. and schedule

this usually before or after

Forms used for entering and leaving the Dharma


Room have already been described; in the "Chanting" chapter.

the form for special chanting is included

Evening Practice:

Evening practice begins at 7:00 PM at most Zen followed by

Centers with the Evening Bell Chant and regular chanting, sitting, a kong-an reading, and a short talk.

At 6:55, the Moktak Master

takes the moktak to a central location and hits it in the following manner to indicate that chanting will begin in five minutes: gOOOOOOOd<' After hitting the moktak, puts on his/her the Moktak Master reenters



the Dharma Room, bows,

robe and lights the candles and incense as described in the chanting. At this time those people who are seated do At the same time,

section on morning

a sitting bow as the Moktak Master does a standing bow. the person hitting

the bell for the Evening Bell Chant takes his/her place The person doing the or not everyone

at the bell, doing one standing bow before sitting.

Evening Bell Chant begins the chant exactly on time, whether is seated (after the candles and incense are lit). At the end of chanting,

after the candles have been extinguished


everyone has bowed, the Moktak Master returns to his/her seat, does a standing bow facing the wall behind the cushion, while everyone else turns around on their cushions to face the wall for sitting. proceeds in the manner described for morning sitting. The sitting period


the sitting, everyone

comes to the center of the Dharma Room, remains at their seat,

unless the Dharma Room is full, in which case everyone for a kong-an reading and a short talk. kong-an boo~~and the talk.

The Head Dharma Teacher takes the





H.D·!:I {wJs-

gives it to the person who will read the kong-an~~and giveG and are

The talks may be a minute or two, on up to ten minutes, on a personal experience

usually reflections ticing.

within the context of pracdoes a sitting bow, and
i:.c?Y\~ -a...t.

When the speaker is finished,


*- -rke...

evening practice is over. tt--.IJ.T. ci.eCl iJI2~ wf.u.,~ +u,..",

·lVl.~,,1Nl1 -t-.ll:..
\~tJ-l~ ~

~+;'}o +0




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42 .wz."I.I-bQ.>o"$



u.. k '

fj;v-e. a..v-





The Long Evening Sitting

Once a week each Zen Center usually schedules a long evening sitting Soen Sa Nim says that this is necessary, but each Zen Center has a differ-

ent situation so the temple directors decide whether or not to have it and which evening is best. After chanting from 7:00 to 7:30 PM, there is a The

two-hour sitting, followed by the last two chants again at 9:30 PM.

form used during this long sitting is also used during Yong Maeng Jong Jin, our silent meditation retreats. faces the center of the Dharma Room

During the long sitting, everyone

rather than facing the wall, and the hitting stick is used if there are more than six people sitting. mark the beginning The Head Dharma Teacher hits the chugpi to

and end of the sitting periods, and the Master Dharma

Teacher or the next senior Dharma Teacher after the Head Dharma Teacher times the rounds. If there are six or fewer people sitting, everyone still The Head Dharma Teacher hits and the hitting stick is not

sits facing the center of the Dharma Room. the chugpi and times the sitting periods, used.

Everyone who is sitting takes turns walking with the stick except for the Dharma Teacher doing the timing. S/he has a moktak on thefloor in

front of him/her, and s/he hits it to indicate that it is time for one student to give the stick to another or to put it on the altar at the end of a sitting period. Usually each student walks with the stick once

around the Dharma Room and, when s/he is passing the person sitting to his/ her right, the moktak is hit, signaling to the next person. that it is time to pass the stick

With a small group of people in the Dharma Room, each

person may walk around the room twice before the signal to pass on the stick. At the end of the sitting period, the person may walk around the

room one and a half times and then, as slhe is passing the altar, the 43

moktak is hit, the signal to put the stick on the altar.

People walking

with the stick do not have to think about the timing -- the Dharma Teacher doing the timing takes care of all the directions. Carrying three times. the Hitting Immediately Stick: Sitting begins when the chugpi is hit

the Moktak Master does a sitting bow, stands up At three paces from the altar, the Moktak Master

and walks to the altar.

does one standing bow, then moves forward three steps and picks up the hitting stick quietly with both hands. Keeping the stick parallel to the

floor, the Moktak Master takes three· steps back from the altar and then does one .standing bow, holding top of his/her head. the stick out in front and as high as the

When bowing with the stick, the flat end is always

in the left hand and the handle in the right. The stick is then taken in an upright position. handle of the stick at waist height, one fist-width the right hand above the left. The person carrying The hands hold the from the bottom with the stick faces the

flat part of the stick rather than the edge, and if the stick is curved, the flat side faces away from the person carrying it. Correct Posture: The person carrying the stick walks slowly in front around the room. S/he

of those seated in meditation


has two jobs: one is to correct the posture of those seated -- s/he uses one hand to straighten a person's back or to correct a tilted posture the stick upright.

while the other hand keeps holding Hitting With The Stick:

The other job is to hit people who are sleepThe hits are

ing or who ask to be hit by putting their hands in hapchang. done in a spirit of compassion meditation.

to help people stay awake and alert during closed, the

If someone is nodding or the eyes are completely

person walking with the stick taps the sleepy person on the left shoulder" This tap is always acknowledged by the sleepy person by putting his/her

""'I 'k.-


0(:. shdc..



hands in hapchang, to be hit.

the same position

taken by people more actively asking

On seeing the sitter hapchang,

the person carrying the stick steps in (parallel to

front of the sitter, moves the stick into the bowing position

the floor, flat part in the left hand), and they bow to each other, with the sitter remaining seated. The sitter then leans forward with curved back, head down, and hands still in hapchang, to the floor. so that the upper half of his/her body is at a 45~angle end of the stick, the person with the stick

With the flat

then gives the sitter two sharp blows on the back muscle halfway between the neck and shoulder, below the shoulder-blade, important above the kidneys. It is

to avoid hitting the backbone and kidneys.

If a sitter is leaning

down onto the floor or is too high to hit, the person with the stick adjusts the angle of the sitter's body before hitting so s/he can hit in the correct area. The purpose of hitting is to wake a person, not to hurt them. After hitting the sitter, the person takes one step back, puts the stick into the bowing position with the flat part in the left hand, and the sitter comes to an upright position with hands still in hapchang. Then

they bow to each other again, and the sitter resumes the sitting position. The person with the stick continues in meditation, counterclockwise to walk slowly in front of those seated

around the room, until the timer hits the

moktak once, the signal that it is time to pass the stick to the next person or to put it on the sltar.

Passing the Stick:

If s/he is in front of another sitter when the

moktak is hit, s/he takes one step back and holds the stick in the bowing position while the other person immediately done before standing. stands up -- no sitting bow is

The person who just rose puts his/her hands in hapThen the person with the stick turns from the left hand to

chang, and they bow to each other.

it over so that the top of the stick goes clockwise 45

the right hand and the stick is again parallel

to the floor.

S/he hands

it to the new person, and now the flat part of the stick is in the new person's left hand, the handle in the right. The new person keeps the

stick parallel each other. in meditation,

to the floor, raises it for a bow, and they again bow to to walk in front of those seated

Then the new person continues counterclockwise

around the room, while the person who no

longer holds the stick slowly returns to his/her seat, bowing before being seated. The End of ~ Sitting Period: period by hitting The timer signals the end of meditation

the moktak once when the person with the stick is walking When the moktak is hit, the person with the to the floor with the flat part in the left

past the middle of the altar. stick turns the stick parallel

hand, takes three steps back from the altar while facing it, and bows with the stick. Still holding the stick parallel to the floor, s/he walks to

the altar and puts the stick gently on the front of the altar, still keeping the flat part of the stick to the left. S/he then takes three steps back,

still facing the altar, does a standing bow, and returns to his/her seat. Everyone else remains in' the sitting position and does not bow with the the stick. Before sitting, s/he stands at his/her cushion

person returning and bows.

After the person who had the stick is seated, the Head Dharma of walking meditation

Teacher hits the chugpi once to signal the beginning (described in the chapter on "Sitting Zen").

Ending the Long Sitting: evening ends differently

The end of the last sitting period of the At 9:25 P.M., the

than the above description.

timer hits the moktak when the person with the stick is passing the highestranking person in the room. the highest-ranking highest-ranking It is the Zen Master if he is present; if not, In their absence, the next

Master Dharma Teacher.

person is the Head Dharma Teacher of the branch Zen Center, 46

then the Director, Housemaster, seniority.

and then the Dharma Teachers in order of

When the moktak is hit, this senior Dharma Teacher immediately


up, the person with the stick passes the stick to him/her by the same process as described above, first bowing to each other, then turning the stick 180~ ,

and bowing again. Instead of putting walk counterclockwise the stick in an upright position and continuing to

around the room, the senior Dharma Teacher holds the it down and back at about a 45~ angle At the altar s/he

stick to his/her left side, pointing to his/her

legs, and walks slowly toward the altar. counterclockwise

turns and begins walking meditation.

in front of people seated in

s/he approaches,

each person holds the hands in hapchang in the bent position to be hit.

and bows as s/he reaches them, remaining The Dharma Teacher then hits the person,

they bow to each other, and the

Dharma Teacher goes on to hit the next person without bowing to the person first. If people are in the standing position, they sit down in order to

be ready for their turn to be hit. When the Dharma Teacher has gone all around the Dharma Room and hit everyone, as s/he passes the altar s/he takes three steps back, bows with

the stick and returns the stick to the altar in the same manner as is described above. Then the

The Dharma Teacher returns to his seat, bows, and sits down.

Head Dharma Teacher hits the chugpi three times to end the long sitting, and everyone does a sitting bow. getting up to light the candles or incense, the Moktak Master


takes the moktak from the altar and begins the Heart Sutra in English with a double roll (00000., ... ·· as everyone bows down, and again OOOOo ... everyone
? .. •


comes up) instead of a single roll, which is the way to begin all of which chant is first. Everyone chants together

chanting periods regardless


the Heart Sutra in English ends at about 9:40. meditation period.

and the Great Dharani,

and the meditation


There is no kong-an or talk at the end of this



The Dharma Talk

Once a week at each of Soen Sa Nim's Zen Centers there is a formal Dharma Talk. The talk is given by a student who has taken the Five Precepts, steadily for some time, and is familiar with our parA talk should last about twenty When Soen Sa Nim is

has been practicing

ticular style and Soen Sa Nim's teaching. minutes,

after which there is a period for questions.

at the Zen Center, he will answer them. Dharma Teacher answers them. Questions

When he is not, the highest-ranking are put to the Dharma Teacher but

may also be asked of the student who gave the talk, so there are always two people involved in the presentation. There is no prescribed form for a Dharma Talk as there is for a Dharma 1 Speech ,but there are some guidelines. A Dharma Talk is often the first introduction a newcomer has to our practice, so when giving a talk it is These

most important

that you present Soen Sa Nim's teaching correctly.

talks are not to be about Zen in the abstract. experiences and thoughts

We should use our own to explain and

in the context of our practice is in a down-to-earth way.

portray what practicing

The purpose of having the highest-ranking questions

Dharma Teacher answer One is that it The

when Soen Sa Nim is not present is two-fold.

makes the talk not simply one person's other is that the highest-ranking longer than other students someone asks a question,

opinion about Zen practice.

Dharma Teacher has been practicing to draw from. When

and has more experience

they really want something,

so it is important

that they be given the correct teaching. Giving Dharma Talks is an important practice students. grow. 1 Being in the position for all of Soen Sa Nim's to

of giving a talk forces our cognition and our action becomes clear and in the chapter on "Ceremonies."

The gap between our cognition

Dharma. Speech form is described 49

enables us to see the necessity

for continuous practice.

When a Dharma Talk is given, all students attending wear robes and sit correctly: Everyone should listen with respect and attention. the daily schedule of the Zen Center is to join the Center

If guests are present, announced,

and guests are told that they are welcome

at those times.

Soen Sa Nim's visits and Yong Maeng Jong Jin schedules Instruction in sitting meditation is given after the After this,

are also announced.

question period, followed by a ten-minute

sitting period.

guests are invited to stay for more informal

talking and refreshments.



Living at a Zen Center

Soen Sa Nim has encouraged

his students to live togetner in Zen and support from each others' of living, working, and

Centers where they can derive strength continuing practicing practice.

In the daily situations

together, we are forced to let go of our opinions about ouris possible.
As we learn to

selves, others, and Zen so that cooperation cooperate,

see clearly, and accept people and situations Then it becomes possible

as they are, our to act for other

minds become strong and wide.

people with no trace of ourselves. So we are stirred together like so many dirty potatoes water. As the potatoes bump into one another, in a pot of

they clean each other more

quickly than if there were only one. The regularity of the schedule of working, eating, and practicing and disappearing.

together acts as a backdrop

for seeing our karma appearing

We see clearly how our opinions the situations it is possible

create problems by coming between us and When we let go of these opinions,

in which we find ourselves. to live our everyday is expected

lives with clarity and harmony. to attend the formal practice every

Each housemember morning and evening. the Temple directors, are also expected in the traditional

If someone has to be absent s/he is to tell one of as is mentioned in the Temple Rules. Housemembers times, eaten Housemembers

to attend the formal meals at the scheduled four-bowl style followed in Korean Temples.

share the jobs necessary

for meals by signing up for cooking, cleaning up, Helping

and doing the dishes for the three meals a day, seven days a week. each other is a large part of our everyday There are three directors the Director, living.

of each Zen Center:

the Head Dharma Teacher,

and the House Master.

They make all decisions about Zen Center


business based on what is good for the Center and for our practice. The Head Dharma Teacher is in charge of all formal teachings. S/he

assigns people to give the weekly Dharma Talks, the informal instruction, and talks for other organizations; students abour our practice; talks with new housemembers and new

and encourages

the use of correct style in

the Dharma Room.

The Head Dharma Teacher also takes care of the Dharma Room, assigning the jobs, and setting it up for the altar

keeping it clean and orderly, ceremonies and talks.

The Moktak Master assists by keeping

dusted and supplied with candles, flowers, and incense. The Director is in charge of the communication is responsible between the Zen

Center and the world at large.and concerning inter-Zen visits,

for correspondence

the Zen Center and Soen Sa Nim. Center communications Providence

Sihe is also the gate for

about Yong Maeng Jong Jins, Soen Sa Nim's Zen Center Newsletter news, Zen Center history,


and information Zen Centers, the Director Directors'

the directors

of the Zen Center want to pass on to other Zen Center directors. The Secretary assists

or the Providence

in these areas and also takes the minutes at the weekly and the Housemeeting. is responsible for the general physical functioning


The Housemaster of the Temple. purchasing;

This means being in charge of the kitchen area and food housecleaning and keeping and housejobs; collecting Sihe

Temple maintainence,

rents, paying bills, budgeting,

the financial records.

plans for Soen Sa Nim's accommodations guests; paration

when he visits;

receives Temple food pre-

and acts as host or hostess at ceremonies, and serving;


and directs the weekly Housemeeting.

The Housemaster with absence;

is assisted by the Second Housemaster, whatever

who helps the Housemaster in the Housemaster's

is needed and acts as Housemaster


the Kitchenmaster,

who takes care of ordering who is responsible

food and kitchen organization; the

and the Guestmaster, details of practicing

for helping guests to understand

and living at a Zen Center. for overseeing his/her area of responsibi-

Each director is responsible

lity and may delegate jobs to appropriate

people when the work is too much

The directors meet together once a week to make decisions about Zen Center business, to put Soen Sa Nim's suggestions into effect, and to make

Zen Center policies and plans.

A summary of the meeting is then presented Disagreements

by one of the directors at the Zen Center's weekly Housemeeting. brought out at the Housemeeting meeting,

are again discussed at the next director's feelings and what

and a decision is made based on housemembers'

the directors feel is the best for the practice. Zen Centers and monasteries throughout the world are traditionally

kept very clean, and Soen Sa Nim says that the condition of our physical space reflects the way we keep our minds. for keeping their rooms clean. All housemembers are responsible

At some Zen Centers,

the Head Dharma Teacher

inspects them each week for cleanliness so good at the weekly Housemeeting.

and reports those that were not is also responsible

Each housemember

for doing one or more daily house jobs, a necessary the Zen Center. emphasized

part of maintaining

Again, the importance of keeping a Zen Center clean is Sometimes the Housemaster reports

at the weekly Housemeeting.

on those areas that have not been clean enough throughout Each week housemembers and non-resident

the week.

Dharma Teachers are expected to discussing house jobs, the meeting is and

to attend the Zen Center Housemeeting. cleanliness

In addition

of rooms, and the Director's Meeting decisions, for members

an opportunity

to clarify schedules, make announcements



and ask questions.

The Housemeeting

also serves to engender a

strong sense of community. Some Zen Centers have a work period in the mornings, on weekends, in which all Zen Center residents at each Zen Center is different, take par~. sometimes just The situation

so the directors at each Zen Center decide Breakfast is followed by a and then

whether or not a work period is appropriate. short work meeting when the Housemaster everyone works on Zen Center projects. throughout the house, signalling

makes the job assignments,

After two hours a small bell is rung Most residents

the end of work period.

hold full-time jobs outside as we Ll, as keeping and doing their share of maintaining

the daily practice schedule Moment to moment

the Zen Center.

keeping our correct situation with all of this activity is already cutting off all thinking. Keeping clear mind means continually with the understanding taking care of

each of our responsibilities

that this is Zen practice.




Eating together is an important part of the practice.

Everyone eats

together in the dining room, or in the Dharma Room if there is no other room large enough to be used. The food is vegetarian. Breakfast and dinner are

eaten silently in a traditional

temple style with four bowls, if there are the meal is served informally and when there are ten or

at least four people eating; otherwise, people may talk.

Lunch is served informa1lyexcept

more people eating or during silent meditation


Each person has his/her own set of bowls kept labeled on a shelf in the dining room. Each set of bowls consists of four bowls tied in a cloth that

doubles as a placemat and covered with a small towel. under the knot, is a utensil holder containing

top of the bowls,

a spoon and a set of chopsticks.

All temple residents are expected to be at each meal unless they sign out on the appropriate meal is served. list posted in the kitchen one and a half hours before the Guests also sign up to eat with at least l~ hours notice.

After the food is brought to the dining room, a gong or moktak is struck in the following rhythm to signal that it is mealtime. When it is

a formal meal, everyone gets their own bowls and sits in two rows facing each other. served. The Zen Master's place is at the head of the mat where the food is Whether or not everyone else sits on a cushion, the Zen Master This place is reserved for him whether or not he is present. left and right, facing each The senior Dharma Teachers sit

should have one.

People begin the two rows at the Zen Master's other and at right angles to the Zen Master. closest

to the Zen Master, followed by other Dharma Teachers, lay precepts and guests. Guests not familiar with the

people, and then other housemembers

four bowls style are seated next to the person who invited them or next to the Guestmaster. 55

The food is set out on a mat in front of the Zen Master's halfway between is nearest the two rows of people eating.


The food to be served first Next comes

the Zen Master, starting with a pitcher of water. then the vegetable,

the grain (or bread),

then soup, and last salad (not After the food sits

all of these, of course, need to be served at a meal).

a teapot full of hot tea, then a large empty bowl used for collecting water at the end of the meal. of everything. If twelve or more people are eating, there are two trays -- always two

At the corners of the mat are condiment

and at least one for every six people eating. When everyone is seated, everyone unwraps their set of bowls and All

smoothes out the cloth, placing it a hand's length in front of them. cloths in the row are aligned. left-hand corner of the cloth.

The set of bowls is placed in the lower The utensils are placed in the bowls and the

small towel and utensil holder are folded and placed next to the lower left corner of the cloth. The meal is led by the Head Dharma Teacher or, in his/her absence, next highest ranking Dharma Teacher. When everyone's the

bowls are out and the

cloths are lined up, the Head Dharma Teacher hits the chugpi three times which Signals the beginning of the meal. Everyone does a sitting bow and The" bowls are placed

then places the four bowls out separately
in the center of the cloth so that adjacent

on the cloth.

bowls touch each other.

Monks and Dharma Teachers have monks' bowls, which are a set of four different-sized bowls. The largest (#1) is left in the lower left-hand corner;

corner; the second-largest the second-smallest smallest

(#2) is placed in the lower right-hand

(#3) is placed in the upper right-hand corner.

corner, and the

(#4) is placed in the upper left-hand

If red and black

bowls are used by those who have not taken the Ten Precepts,· the cWo red ones are placed in the lower two corners and the two black bowls are in the upper corners, again with adjacent bowls touching each other.


·Any student may get up to help serve the food.

If the Zen Master is

present, he is always served first, and then the Dharma Teacher to the left (when facing the Zen Master) and on down the line. container of each item, the server continues If there is only one around If

going counterclockwise

the room until the person to the right of the Zen Master is served last. there are two containers of each item, the second containet

is served first line

to the person to the right of the Zen Master and on down the right-hand to the end~ and the first server stops at the end of the left-hand line. All the serving procedures by the person being served. The water from the pitcher is the first item served.

are carried out with two hands by the server and

The server may

use two hands on the pitcher or one, with the second hand over the wrist of the first hand. Each person seated holds up the lower left-hand bowl (#1)

with two hands to receive the water, and when it is poured, the person indicates to the server to stop by rotating the bowl back and forth. Each

person then rinses bowls #1, #2, and #4, and then pours it into bowl #3 in the upper right-hand corner, where it is left throughout the meal.

Next, the food is served in the order in which it is placed on the mat, and each dish is passed twice. the food is distributed even if the container equally. When the food is served the first time, passed again, to

The same dish is immediately

is empty, to afford each person the opportunity

take more if there is any or to put some back, since after the second serving all food in the bowls must be eaten. When the food is passed for the second

time, if a person does not want more or less, s/he signals this to the server with the gesture of hapchang. While the food is being served, the condiment trays are passed down

the rows, once again starting with the Zen Master who passes it to his right (the left-hand equal intervals row). If there are more than two, they are distributed at

down the rows by the servers.

If someone plans to put food


back when the containers condiments

are passed the second time, s/he does not put

on that food until after s/he has put back what s/he doesn't want.

When all the food has been served and the servers are seated, the Head Dharma Teacher again hits the chugpi three times and everyone does a sitting bow before beginning When four-fifths to eat. of the people have finished eating, the Head Dharma

Teacher hits the chugpi two times and someone who has finished eating gets up to serve the tea. If no ~ea strainer is used, the teapot is held with

two hands, or, if only one hand is used, the other hand is placed over the wrist of the first. absence, The tea is served first to the Zen Master, or in his around

to the Dharma Teacher to the left, again counterclockwise

the room unless there are two teapots. Each person uses fingers or the spoon to wash the scraps of food from bowls #1, #2, and #4, washes the utensils, After drinking and then drinks the tea and scraps.

the tea, each person pours the water from bowl #3 into bowl in bowl #1.

#1 and also rests the spoon and chopsticks

After the Head Dharma Teacher checks to make sure everyone has completed this last step, s/he hits the chugpi once, signaling bowls. The utensils the last rinsing of the

and bowls #1, #2, and #4 are rinsed and the water is the clear water in the water the

left in #4 until someone gets up to collect bowl set out on the serving mat. utensils utensils holder. While everyone is drying the utensils

After rinsing each bowl and washing

for the last time, each person uses the small towel to dry the and bowls #1, #2, and #3, and the utensils are put into their

and bowls, the first person to in the large The person

finish drying the three bowls gets up to collect the clearwater bowl set out collecting for that purpose, starting with the Zen Master.

water always uses two hands on the water bowl until s/he sets it cloth and then between the

down on the floor, first by the Zen Master's


cloths of the next two people, and so on, so that both can use it before it is moved again. After the person carrying the bowl puts it down, s/he

stands with the hands in hapchang

position while each person pours clear It is the collector's job If

water from his/her bowl #4 into the common bowl.

to make sure that no one pours any scraps of food into the common bowl.

anyone has scraps of food in his/her water, s/he drinks it after pouring the clear water off the top. When the water from each person has been collected, Zen Master, or i~ his absence to the highest or to the person doing the chugpi. it is taken to the

ranking Master Dharma Teacher

The Zen Master checks the water to see

if it is clear and, if so, raises his right index finger to signal that the water can be taken to the kitchen and poured down the drain. The water is

emptied from the bowl into the sink in three portions of increasing volume. The tradition of collecting only actualizes the practice only the clear water in a common bowl not food but is also said to save These beings have throats so clear water saves

of not wasting

the hungry ghosts in the drain from suffering. like the eye of a needle and insatiable


them from the torture of having food caught in their throats, which symbolizes saving them from the perpetuation of their endless craving.

If the water is not clear, the Zen Master signals that it is to be redistributed to everyone at the meal to drink so that the scraps do not

get caught in the throats of the hungry ghosts. While the water is being collected, everyone finishes drying their

bowls and wraps them in the cloth, first folding two corners opposite each other over the bowls. Then the utensils in the holder are placed on top of that the corners are pointing. Over

these two corners in the same direction this the two remaining towel is placed on top. in front of him/her,

corners are tied in a double knot, and the small Each person puts his/her set of bowls one handspan the others in that row. 59

aligned with

If the person collecting water has not wrapped his/her bowls, and someone else finishes wrapping collected, his/her bowls before all the water has been place.

s/he gets up and takes the water collector's

When the clear water has been poured down the sink, the water bowl is returned to its place, the collector waits until everyone's Sits down, and the Head Dharma Teacher and aligned before hitting the they are made at does a sitting

bowls are wrapped

chugpi for the last time. this time.

If there are any announcements,

Then the chugpi is hit three times and everyone

bow and the silence is ended. Everyone helps first to take the food and utensils to the kitchen and to clear the mat. After this has been done~ each person returns his/her

own bowls to their proper place. Together action is emphasized by eating together and eating the same of individuals' likes and dislikes.

food that everyone else eats, regardless

Silence is kept not only by not talking, but also by making an effort to use the utensils gently and eat quietly.


CHAPTER ELEVEN Yong Maeng Jong ~

Retrea ts

Yong Maeng Jong Jin, "to leap like a tiger while sitting," or seven-day intensive meditation

is a three-

period held at the Zen Centers under

Soen Sa Nim's direction. Eleven hours of formal practice each day include sitting, chanting, bowing, a work period, and interviews Teacher who is leading the retreat. with the Zen Master or Master Dharma Interviews are usually given once during

a three-day Yong Maeng Jong Jin and twice during the seven-day Yong Maeng Jong Jin. Seven-day retreats are held only at the Head Temple. for both the three-day and seven-day Yong Maeng Jong Jin

The schedule follows: 4:30 4:45 4:45 5:15 7:00 7:40 8:10 9:30 12:10 1:30 5:30 7:00 7:30 9:30 AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM PM PM PM PM PM PM

to 5:00 AM to 7:00 AM to 7:30 AM to 9:00 AM to 12:00 noon to 4:00 PM to 7:30 PM to 9:30 PM to 9:40 PM

Wake-up bell Bow to Zen Master if he is present 108 prostrations Sitting Zen (and interviews) Chan ting (and interviews) Breakfast Work period Sitting Zen (and interivews) Lunch Sitting Zen Dinner Chanting Sitting Zen Chanting Sleep

Guests are encouraged Jong Jin begins

to arrive on the evening before the Yong Maeng on eating with is usually in

in time for dinner (to receive instruction and orientation. The Guestmaster

four bowls), registration, charge of registration, meditation

which includes assigning each morning,

jobs for the working showing guests where to keep Dharma Teachers

period after breakfast and collecting

their belongings,

the Yong Maeng Jong Jin fee.

from any of Soen Sa Nim's Zen Centers have the privilege Jong Jins and Kidos, and members

of free Yong Maeng

of any of his Zen Centers receive a discount. 61

All guests are asked to sign up to help with meals on the cooking schedule posted in the kitchen. Reg~lar evening chanting begins at 7:00 PM, followed by a short sitting period and an orientation to Yong Maeng Jong Jin. At this time the Temple

Rules are read aloud and the Zen Master, Master Dharma Teacher, or Head Dharma Teacher gives a short talk. Everyone is expected to participate fully in the SChedule, and at some

Zen Centers there is a minimum number of days of sitting required in order to have an interview. The sitting style is the same as that described long sitting: everyone hitting in the section on the

faces toward the center of the Dharma Room, and the Guests as well faces

stick is used when more than six people are sitting. keep the same seat throughout

as housemembers in whether

the retreat, and everyone period.

or not they are Sitting during a regularly-scheduled

All three meals are served in the four-bowl style. required

People are not

to be at meals, but the same rules apply to guests as to housemembers:

if someone wants to miss a meal, s/he must sign out one and a half hours ahead of time. As with housemembers, those who miss bows do not eat breakfast.

Silence is kept from the first morning of Yong Maeng Jong Jin through the afternoon of the last day. Telephone calls are discouraged. If someone

is having a problem with his/her practice, Dharma Teachers interviews. The interview

s/he may talk with one of the

in charge but most talking is limited to the individual

is a time when the Zen Master or Master Dharma Teacher and tests their minds with kong-ans, teaches Inter-

sees Zen students individually them, and answers questions

students may have about their practice.

views are usually given on the last day of a three-day Yong Maeng Jong Jin and usually on the fourth and the last day of a seven-day Yong Maeng Jong Jin. They begin at the beginning of the early morning sitting and continue 62

until the end of chanting. interviews are continued

If everyone has not had an interview by then,

during the 9:30 to 12:00 noon sitting. is the M9ktak Master, followed around

The first person to have an interview by the Chugpi Master, Head Dharma Teacher, the Dharma Room.

and so on counterclockwise

Often the person who cooks breakfast

sits near the begin-

ning of the line in order to have an interview meditation to cook.

before leaving during walking

The Zen Master or Master Dharma Teacher signals a student to come for an interview by ringing a bell two times (three times for the first interview). The student leaving the Dharma Room does a sitting bow first, gets up, and to the Dharma Room door, Room.

walks quietly behind others seated in meditation does a standing bow toward the Buddha, There is a specific procedure Room.

and goes to the Interview

followed when one reaches the Interview

First, the student opens the door, goes in, does a standing bow, and turning his/her back on the Zen Master or Master Then the student walks to the vacant

then closes the door without

Dharma Teacher giving the interviews.

cushion, stands behind it facing the Zen Master or Master Dharma Teachar, does one full prostration (which includes a standing bow at the beginning

and the end), and then sits down to talk with the Zen Master or Master Dharma Teacher. When the interview is over, the student does a sitting bow, stands ending with a standing bow, and walks to

and again does a full prostration the door without Teacher.

turning his/her back on the Zen Master or Master Dharma

S/he then opens the door, does a standing bow, goes out and closes

the door, and the Zen Master or Master Dharma Teacher rings the bell twice to Signal that it is the turn of the next person in line for an interview. When returning to the Dharma Room, the student goes in, does a standing behind people Sitting in meditation. during walking meditation, s/he

bow and returns to his/her cushion, walking If someone's

turn comes for an interview


steps out of line and walks directly waiting

to the Dharma Room door rather than However, if someone

to step out of line when s/he passes the door. during walking meditation,

returns from an interview procedure

s/he follows the same

as anyone else who re-enters

the Dharma Room at that time: s/he

bows at the door and waits to step into line at his/her place. Yong Maeng Jong Jin ends after a Dharma Talk, usually given by the Zen Master or one of the Master Dharma Teachers, sitting' period on the last day. dinner and party .at 5:30 PM. ~ Yong Maeng Jong ~ at the end of the afternoon

The Dharma Talk is followed by an informal

When there is a great deal of work to be done at a Zen Center, or when the Zen Master or Master Dharma Teachers the directors Jin, usually are not available to give interviews,

of a Zen Center may choose to hold a working Yong Maeng Jong for a weekend. This means that everyone at the Zen Center

follows the Yong Maeng Jong Jin schedule, and evening meditation periods and working

sitting during the early morning together on Zen Center projects and afternoon periods. The

rather than sitting during the late-morning details vary according Kido The Kido is a chanting two to three days. number of people percussion to the situation

at each Zen Center.

retreat, led by Soen Sa Nim and usually held for The combination of a large

It is a form of action Zen.

(30 to 40 is good), loud chanting,

and the use of drums and


makes a lot of noise, so thinking cannot come up. to attain clear mind more easily than during a Because of the noise, it is necessary so as not to disturb neighbors. the same as for a Yang Maeng Jong Jin, with to find


it is possible

sitting Yong Maeng Jong Jin. a secluded location Preparations these additions: for a Kido

for a Kidoare

two or three large drums should be obtained as well as 64

enough other percussion triangles,


-- moktaks,


small drums,

sticks or blocks of wood which can be hit together -- so that Also, fruit is placed on the altar

each person can have an instrument. each morning, finished.

to be eaten later that evening after the day's chanting is

The schedule for a Kido is the same as that of a Yang Maeng Jong Jin. Silence, however, is not kept during the breaks between chanting periods.

In the evening before the Kido begins there is evening chanting,


meeting where the Temple Rules are read, and a short talk about Kido style. This may be followed by some Kido chanting •. The morning begins with 108 prostrations,and regular morning the early morning period (5:15 to 7:30) then follows with chanting, starting with the Morning Bell Chant. After

regular chanting,

the Ten Thousand Hands and Eyes Sutra is chanted, then During the Kwan Se Um Bosal chanting, all the

Kwan Se Um Bosal chanting. instruments

are used ul'ltil-,he signal from Soen Sa Nim to put them down. t for the two hours and fifteen minutes. Everyone

The chanting is continuous

either stands or sits down as Soen Sa Nim signals. bow and leave to go to the bathroom. Towards

At any time, one can

the end of the period, there are no

is a period of quiet Kwan Se Um Bosal chanting when the instruments longer used.

Next, Soen Sa Nim does some special chanting alone, and then

all chant the Heart Sutra in Korean together to end the period. During a Kido there are no interviews. throughout, setting the rhythm. Soen Sa Nim leads the chanting for everyone to follow

It is important

his rhythm precisely.


the students using the large drums, who -- otherwise

should watch Soen Sa Nim so they can follow him correctly confusion is likely.

During the chanting period, a Dharma Teacher keeps on the altar.

incense burning continuously The late-morning

period follows the same schedule as the early-morning chanting), 65 beginning with the Ten Thousand

period (excluding regular morning

Hands and Eyes Sutra~

In the afternoon

there is often a Dharma Talk, Afterwards, chanting takes

followed by Soen Sa Nim answering

questions. period.

place for the rest of the afternoon

The evening period begins at 7:00 PM with regular evening chanting. In the evening we often try "special energy." For this, Dharma Teachers

should first remove their robes when it is their turn, and all others remove their kasas and may remove their bowing robes if they want to. One by one, each student who wishes to walks into the center of the Dharma Room, bows to the Buddha, and faces the altar with eyes closed and hands together in hap chang position. counts inhalation chanting The student takes three breaths of five Meanwhile, the rhythm of the

and ten counts exhalation.

is speeded up at Soen Sa Nim's signal.

The student may then feel

his/her hands begin to move up and down, s/he may begin jumping, whirling around, etc. in hapchang Often it is helpful up and down. to begin the process by moving the hands energy, complete no-mind. After

This is special

a few minutes,

Soen Sa Nim slows the chanting,

the student bows to Buddha,

returns to his/her

seat, and the next student walks to the center of the After everyBne has tried special energy, the chanting

room for his/her turn.

goes on in the same order as in the earlier periods. The Kido ends in the afternoon morning period or the afternoon Special Practice at ~ of the last day after either the late

period. One of the functions of a Zen Center for people to do special practice. and


is to provide a space and environment

A Zen Center is one of the few places where Silence, bowing, chanting, sitting are not only possible When formal practice but encouraged. the Dharma Room is always

is not in progress,



for individual

sitting, chanting,

and bowing.

It is possible to

plan a retreat at a Zen Center using the Dharma Room and some solo practice in a quiet room. Many students have used rooms at the Zen Center for solo retreats, ranging from one day to 100 days. retreats. Also rooms may be used for bowing is doing sets of 108 prostra-

In this case the form of practice throughout the day.

tions periodically Most important retreat designed

is that the Zen Center can be used for any kind of

to suit a student's needs.

Solo Retreats Many of the teachers of our lineage have used solo retreats in remote cabins as an important part of their training. Soen Sa Nim attained enlightena monk. Following

ment on a 100-day retreat he did shortly after becoming this tradition,

many of Soen Sa Nim's students find solo retreats a valuable These retreats traditionally

time to focus all their energy on formal practice. last 3 days, 7 days, 21 days, 49 days, or 100 days.

The ideal times The

for retreats are the cold months of late fall, winter, or early spring. diet on a solo retreat is kept simple.

It usually includes a grain and perhaps Both complete fasting

some dried fruit and tea twice or three times a day. and eating too much are discouraged food or sleepy from too much. keep the mind alert. A retreat is done without reading material

because one can become weak from lack of full helps to

A stomach that is one-fourth

or any kind of communication

with other people except for emergencies, It is a time for complete self-reliance. the basic Yong Maeng Jong Jin schedule,

such as food shortage or illness. Retreat schedules usually follow

sometimes with an extra half-hour time and sometimes an extra period

added on to each of the periods of practice of practice from 12:00-2:00 A.M.

The schedule and style vary with individuals or a Master Dharma Teacher.

and can be worked out with the Zen Master 67



The Head Temple is established, a Head Temple between the Chogye

In any country where Chogye Buddhism has two main functions. Headquarters

One is to channel communication

in Korea and the temples in the new country, and the other is of all the temples in the new country. in 1972, he established the Providence When Zen

to serve as the coordinator Soen Sa Nim came to America

Center as Head Temple and called it Hong Poep Won, meaning Propagation of the Dharma.

Center for the

At present, most of the communication Headquarters September is done by Soen Sa Nim.

between our temples and Chogye

Since the recent trip to Korea in have broadened.

and October of 1978, the communications

In its function as coordinator Canada, Poland, and England, responsibilities is representative supports people possible. Each Providence

of Soen Sa Nim's work in this country, Zen Center has the unique

the Providence

of seeing that the work done by all of our branch Centers of Soen Sa Nim's teachings. The Providence Zen Center also

the efforts of our branch Centers, to see that these teachings


and other interested to as many people as

are made available

Zen Center director

is the head director of the people Periodically, each Providence

who hold their same job at the branch Centers.

Zen Center director meets with the branch Zen Center director with the same job to coordinate experiences, their work, clarify their jobs, and share their common and problems. These meetings make it easier for Soen Sa Nim's teaching as


us to keep our common direction clearly as possible. The directors

and transmit

of the Providence

Zen Center have some unique responsibilities The Head Dharma Teacher of our school the teaching in our school. for coordinating The

for carrying out Head Temple functions. in America is responsible Providence for over-seeing

Head Dharma Teacher is responsible 68

the major


and celebrations

held at the Head Temple

and makes certain to do so. planning for

that people taking Five and Ten Precepts The Do Gam is responsible our school.

are qualified

for supervising

the long-range

He also is in charge of assisting

the branch Zen Centers when-

ever there is a way that the Head Temple can help. The Head Temple Director is responsible for coordinating communications for coordinaand for Zen

among all the branch Centers in America ting the schedules

and in other countries,

of Soen Sa Nim and the Master Dharma Teachers, of our school, the Providence

putting out the monthly publication Center Newsletter. In addition to helping

the Providence

Zen Center Director,

the secretary

types Soen Sa Nim's letters as kong-ans as teaching material, The Providence the planning celebrations.

and sends these to each Zen Center

to be read as part of the daily practice. Zen Center Housemaster is responsible for coordinating and

for food and lodging during our school ceremonies

Another function of the Head Temple is to open as many avenues as possible Providence for formal practice. Zen Center maintains In addition to the everyday practice schedule, daily schedule than most

a more structured

of our other Zen Centers, which includes morning for housemembers not working

a two-hour work period every

outside the house, and special schedule. In addition

chanting every evening before the regular practice

to holding seven-day Yong Maeng Jong Jins and the yearly Dharma Teacher Yong Maeng Jong Jin, in the future the Providence three-month individual group retreats retreats. Zen Center will schedule for

(Kyol Che) and will provide facilities



Ceremonies come

Ceremonies from different

are special occasions when Soen Sa Nim's students areas of the country to practice together.

At these times, attention,

there is one thing going on that is the focus of everybody's

so our minds become one. Soen Sa Nim calls this strong meditation. Ceremonies always include a Dharma Speech, when a senior student talks

about keeping a clear mind and helping other people. Soen Sa Nim calls this strong cognition. strong meditation practice. The Dharma Speech: can be separated A Dharma Speech is constructed in a form which Ceremonies, then, bring people together to practice which combine to make strong Zen

and strong cognition,

into three parts.

These three parts are the head, the

body~ and the tail of the speech. The first part, or the head of the speech, may consist of an action, words, or a combination of both designed to cut off thinking.


of the first (action only) could be: holding up the Zen stick and hitting the table three times. presentation action(s) An example of the second would be the verbal And finally, the combination would contain an

of a kong-an.

followed by a verbal question or kong-an such as: holding up the the table and asking, If you say the same •••"

Zen stick and asking, "Do you see this?"; hitting "Do you hear this? Sometimes, Are they the same or different?

at the conclusion

of this part of the speech, the kong-an is

answered with a "just like this" answer, or the kong-an is left hanging. The second part, or the body of the speech, has the purpose of restoring thinking or giving rise to correct cognition. It is through the

vehicle of this section of the speech that the main teaching is conveyed. The content and style of this teaching practice. is the most dynamic quality in Zen

It is teaching where the Diamond Sword cuts in all directions, 70

leaving no shelter for conceptions complacency to remain.

or misconceptions

and allowing

for no

Its purpose is to inspire

the growth of Great Doubt, ingredients for

Great Faith, and Great Courage, correct understanding

the three most essential

and complete attainment.

The final part, or the tail of the Dharma Speech is very similar to the first part except that the kong-an is always answered with a just-likethis answer. This answer closes the speech completely. as a teaching procedure because of all of the words of new material;

The form is of special significance

the first part, or head, is like erasing a blackboard already printed upon it.

This allows for the presentation

in this case the mind is open and receptive

to the body of the speech, The

having had all thoughts wiped away and replaced with don't-know mind.

following body of the speech then fills this don't-know mind with the new and fresh speech that is of the utmost importance the form a symmetrical sense of completeness and value. The tail gives

as well as cements the content by the answering

of the body with the demonstration

of true understanding answer. Day, Buddha's

of the final kong-an with a just-like-this Ceremonies for Buddha's Enlightenment ~

Birthday, a

Soen Sa Nim's Birthday,

Year's Day:

There are four occasions

year that we always celebrate with a ceremony at the Head Temple: Buddha's Enlightenment Day. Day, Buddha's Birthday, Soen Sa Nim's Birthday, and New Year's

We hold these ceremonies usually on Saturday.

on the weekend

closest to the date of the


Buddha's Enlightenment Shakyamuni Buddha's

Day, December

8th, celebrates himself.

the fruition of tradition, the

search to understand day of the year.

In Buddhist

it is the most important celebration, December

During the week preceeding

1st through 7th, Zen monasteries

around the world

hold their most arduous meditation

retreat of the year, and Korean monas71

teries hold Yong Maeng Jong Jin, a week of sitting Zen with no lying down to sleep. Buddha's Birthday world. In Buddhist celebrates Shakyamuni Buddha's coming into this


it is a national

holiday and is celebrated

with great festivities, parades.

including hanging

lanterns in the streets and which include talks serve as a reminder

We celebrate both holidays with ceremonies Buddha and how these anniversaries to us to practice. August

about Shakyamuni

and as inspiration

Soen Sa Nim's birthday, our teacher.

1st, is a time for us to formally honor the Head Dharma Teacher of our school

During the ceremony,

does three prostrations does three prostrations

to Soen Sa Nim, after which everyone present also to him. After the ceremony there is a traditional

birthday with cake and ice cream, and the Zen Centers as well as individuals give presents to Soen Sa Nim. a time of revitalization and renewal.

New Year's Day is traditionally In Buddhist

temples it is a time to celebrate and have fun, and our school

celebrates with skits about Zen Center life put on by each Zen Center after the ceremony. The ceremony format for each of these occasions For each of the four ceremonies the Bell House to accompany we begin outside, is basically the same.

using the large bell in Following this, every-

the Evening Bell Chant.

one goes into the Dharma Room for regular evening chanting and the ceremony. At each of these four ceremonies, represented Following a Dharma Teacher from each Zen Center talk about the event being celebrated. long, given

gives a short (five minute)

these is a formal Dharma Speech, about twenty minutes Then, although not on the program, talk oit' poem.

by a senior student. often gives a surprise

the Zen Master

At the end of this chapter is a 72


from the 1978 ceremony





the format for these four ceremonies.


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Although ceremonies these ceremonies


are are' formal in style, the tone of these four

is light and festive, and they are always followed by a party. Opening ceremonies celebrate the dedication of a new

Opening Ceremony:

Zen Center, either when it is first established relocated. ceremonies

or when a Zen Center has been

The Dharma Room is arranged in the same way as for the four discussed above, and the ceremony itself closely resembles Day and Buddha's Birthday. those

for Buddha's Enlightenment included

A sample program is

at the end of the chapter. Precepts Ceremony: Five Precepts Ceremonies are held two or

The ~

three times a year at the Head Temple and several

times a year at other Zen



The officials

for the Precepts


are the Zen Master and

either a senior monk or the highest-ranking

Dharma Teacher at the Temple.

Those people who have sat a full seven-day Yong Maeng Jong Jin or the equivalent are welcome to take the Five Precepts, Taking the Precepts also called the Five a commitment to practice

Lay Vows of Buddhism. the teachings practicing


of Zen Buddhism and to become part of the lay community Each person taking the Precepts

under Soen Sa Nim's direction. donation

makes a specified

to the Head Temple and receives a Buddhist name, The kasa and

a robe, and a kasa, a small replica of the robe the Buddha wore. has five sections, symbolizing

the five skandas or the five continents

means that, in wearing The Te~ Precepts:

a kasa, you vow to save all beings. The Ten Precepts Ceremony is the ceremony in which

Soen Sa Nim's students become Dharma Teachers or take their first monks' vows. The qualifications for monks are the same first five as those listed for The Ten Precepts Ceremony is held once

Dharma Teachers in Chapter Fourteen.

a year at the Head Temple, on the same day in December that Buddha's Enlightenment Day is celebrated. The Ten Precepts Ceremony is the same as six through ten.

the Five Precepts The program,

Ceremony, with the addition of Precepts

at the end of this chapter, includes a list of the Ten Precepts.

Prece pts





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Master Dharma Teacher Certification Certification Assembly


The Master Dharma Teacher for students who have

is a ceremony of verification

received Soen Sa Nim's official sanction, practice. Kong-an means, literally, "seal."

called "Inga," to teach kong-an

In the Orient, each person of note a

has their own seal, and they use it as a foolproof method of identifying decree they send out; they stamp so that half ~~e stamp appears on the original document and half appears on the copy. of a document, When there is a question

about the authenticity

the seal on the document is tested to If the two halves match up

see how it matches up with that on the original. exactly to produce an individual's personal

seal, then everyone understands "Inga" is simply

without a doubt that the copy is true to the original. recogniti9n of the veracity of the student's practice.

Students who have Soen Sa Nim's official sanction of "Ji Do Poep Sa."

receive the title

"Ji" means to point to and "Do" means the sure or

correct path, so "Ji Do Poep Sa" means sooeone who is teaching the Dharma not only by his/her words and formal teaching but also by his/her actions. In English they are called Master Dharma Teachers. Assembly begins with chanting After

The Master Dharma Teacher Certification

at 7:00 PM, after which the Master Dharma Teacher gives a short talk.

this talk, any of Soen Sa Nim's students may come forward and ask one question of the Master Dharma Teacher, as in an interview. interview The student follows the and a standing

form of doing a standing bow, a full prostration,

bow before sitting on a cushion facing the Master Dharma Teacher and asking the question. teaching," returning After the exchange, the student says, "Thank you for your and standing bow before

bows, stands, and does another prostration to his/her seat.

In the ceremony described,

Soen Sa Nim's students have Dharma combat This is called "Ji Do Poep Sa Jung

with the new Master Dharma Teacher.


Myoeng So Cham."

"Jung Myoeng" means "certification"

or "verification;"

"So Cham" refers to an assembly at a temple.

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People who become Master Dharma Teachers may then go to other Zen Masters and have Dharma Combat with them. If these other Zen Masters give them Inga,

too, then they can return to Soen Sa Nim, and, if he gives them Transmission, they will become Zen Masters.


''Man Cham" means coming toge ther to check the Dharma.

In his

opening speech 'for the first Man Cham at the Providence Su Nim said,

Zen Center, Mu Bul

When a Zen Master speaks the Dharma, it's just like a mirror, so that your own mind is reflected. So if you hear this speech and you understand yourself, you understand your mind - you are Buddha, and you can save all people. If you are not Buddha, if you have bad karma and you hear this speech, then you will understand your bad karma, and you must do more hard training. The style of Man Cham originated

in China.

Two attendants


the Zen Master as he enters the Dharma Room.

One preceeds him, walking

slowly, carrying and hitting a hand-held bell, then the Zen Master enters, followed by another attendant who carries his kong-an book, which is wrapped in a cloth. a high stand. They stop at the alter and bow. Then the Zen Master ascends The

The attendant bows, gives him his book, and bows again.

Zen Master unwraps the book. The Moktak Master, seated, hits the moktak once and the assembly rises; the Zen Master remains seated. Dharma is very profound The Moktak Master chants in Korean, "This the whole assembly wants to hear it. Reveal Buddha in this place." While

in meaning; descend.

Please, great Zen Master,

chanting this three times, the Moktak Master leads the assembly in three full prostrations. is reluctant The tradition behind this chant is that the Zen Master in formal style, but Then

to speak about the Dharma, especially

since the assembly has asked three times, the Zen Master will speak.
.the Zen Master

chants in Korean and is joined by the assembly in chanting,

"Na Mu AMi

Ta Bul."





0 ... - - - - -.-~




the speech, again a Korean chant is done in the same manner.

Then the attendant bows, takes the book, which the Zen Master has wrapped up, and bows again. The Zen Master descends, all three bow to the altar, the

and the Zen Master follows the attendant attendant carrying the kon-an book.

ringing the bell and preceeds

The Moktak Master leads the assembly

in Kwan Seum Bosal Chanting, which is begun as the Zen Master turns away from the altar on his way out of the Dharma Room. Marriage Ceremony: Being married in the Zen tradition means that a A program is

couple pledges to help each other with their practice. included at the end of this chapter,

and the vows are as follows:

Now we are being married in front of the Buddha. We both pledge ourselves to Buddhism and to help each other with this practice. We will help each other to make our small I disappear and to attain our True Selves, to make a good home and a good family, to help other people, and finally to get Enlightenment and to follow the Great Bodhisattva Way. When Dharma Teachers get married, the ceremony is performed elsewhere. at a Zen

Center; for others, the ceremony may be performed Teachers are eligible to obtain a license

All Dharma

\lieJJ i1\jet reWlo 'vi.y

to perform marriages.




Other Ceremonies:


are also performed

for special occasions On each of For

such as births, deaths, sickness, these occasions

and the death of an animal.

the Ten Thousand Eyes and Hands Sutra is chanted.

living people, Kwan Seum Bosal Chanting

is done; for dead people, Ji Jang

Bosal is chanted at the funeral, and Kwan Seum Bosal is chanted at the anniversary of the death (seven days, forty-none days, one hundred days,

and every year after); for animals, Na Mu AMi ~ Altar for Ceremonies: Traditionally,

Ta Bul is chanted. the people requesting the

ceremony bring the flowers and food for the ceremony, and the food is eaten after the ceremony. fruit For all ceremonies, there should be several kinds of

an odd number -- on the altar.

An odd number of each variety is

piled in a mound on a plate; the larger fruits, such as apples, oranges, and plums, may be stuck together with toothpicks. are arranged so that the altar looks balanced. a picture of the person who died and a portion The fruit and flowers

For funeral ceremonies,

of the funeral meal are placed on the altar as well as flowers and fruit. Peaches and pears should not be used; it is said that the spirits of the

dead do not like them and will stay away from the ceremony and thus not hear the chanting.


THE PROVIDENCE ZEN CENTER K.B.C. Hong Poep Won Ceremony Commemorating the Birth of Shakyamuni Buddha April 8, 1977. I. II. Evening Chanting The Three-Fold Refuge All Together All Together

Homage to all the Buddhas who are present in their glory at this assembly. Homage to the Dharma which is present in its glory at this assembly. Homage to all the Sangha who are present in their glory at this assembly. III. The Three-Fold Refuge (in Korean) and Kwan Sae Um Bo Sal Chanting (page 3) Five Minutes of Meditation Dharma Speeches International Zen Center of New York Cambridge Zen Center Dharma Teacher Jerry Shrair Dharma Teacher Becky Bernen Dharma Teacher David Mott Dharma Teacher Lynn Woodcock Dharma Teacher Mark Houghton All Together



New Haven Zen Center Providence VI. VII. Dharma Speech Zen Center

The Four Great Vows All Together Sentient beings are numberless; I vow to save then all. The defilements and passions are inexhaustible; I vow to destroy them all. The teachings are manifold; I vow to learn them all. The Buddha Way is supreme; I vow to attain it. The Four Great Vows (in Korean) Closing Remarks 80 Zen Master Seung Sahn Dharma Teacher Barbara Trexler



The Providence Zen Center K.B.C. Hong Pop ~{on Opening Ceremony pro;rar.l June 16,1974


Opening -- Rin~ing of the Bell Opening Speech The Three-Fold Refuge Homage to all the Buddhas, the awakened ones, who are present in their glory at this assembly. Homage to the Dhar~a, the Great 1_,Jay, 'tAThich is present in its glory at this assembly. . Homage to all the Sangha, all be ings ,i'rhoare present in their glory at this assembly. The Heart Sutra in Korean (Page Tw·o.)





5. 6. 7.

Dharma Message Three Dedication Add.resses Offering of Incense The Heart sutra in ~nglish (Page Three.) Announcements




The Four Great



sentient beings are numberless, I VON to save them all. The d.efilements and passions are inexhaustible, I vow to destroy them all. The teachings are manifold, I vow to master them all. The Enlightened Way is supreme, I vow to attain it. 11. Closing


The Precepts Ceremony

Homage to the Three Precious Ones (All Together) Homage to all the Buddhas, who are present in their glory at this assembly. Homage to the Dharma, which is present in its glory at this assembly. Homage to all the Sangha, who are present in their glory at this assembly. The Mantra Summoning the Three Precious Ones Namu bo bo jeo Ii kali dali tata a daya (three times)

(Paying homage to the Three Treasures, say all together:) We most earnestly send forth our homage to the Precious One, the most true Buddha; transcendent in his three forms, possessing to perfection the four wisdoms, who in love and mercy takes all creatures to himself, who in gladness saves all creatures, eternal in time and filling all space, He who is the universe in its purity. We most earnestly send forth our homage to the Precious One, the most profound Dharma; the one, the true, the eternally quiescent, which for all creatures appeared in twelve divisions, which is the universe in its purity, transcending speech, flowing equally into the five teachings and the three vehicles. We most earnestly send forth our homage to the Precious Ones, the most pure Sangha; those creatures enlightened rapidly or slowly, whose love increases with their wisdom, of same or different forms, whose devotion benefits both themselves and others, who have attained to the three illuminations, who are of the ten stages of holiness and the three levels of wisdom. We earnestly wish that these Precious Ones may all respond to us according to our need, that they may be for us a witness, and that they may altogether receive our offerings. May their glory fill all space, as the moon reflected in a

thousand rivers is yet one, and may all the holy ones, the Bodh i sa t tvas possessing to perfection the four wisdoms, be present at this assembly, to the welfare of all creatures. So do we bow down most reverently before them. On the seat of Bodhi most distinguished and adorned, all Buddhas have sat and attained supreme awakening. In reverence do we now offer these seats, that we and others may all together attain the way of the Buddhas. The Mantra of Offering Seats to the Sangha (All Together) Om ba a ra mi na ya sa ba ha (three times)

The Mantra of the Universe in its Purity Om nam (three times) The Offering of Incense (All Together) We make offerings to all Buddhas of the ten directions, of the past, the present, and the future; to all the Dharmas, even those still hidden from our view; and to the Sangha of Shravakas, Pratyeka-Buddhas, and Bodhisattvas. Mayall these Precious Ones look down upon us with love and mercy, and receive our offering. (Please be seated.) (Each novice offers incense before the image of the Buddha, and returns to his place; together all bow three times and sit down. The officiate says:) We go for guidance to the Holy One, the Buddha, who saves all creatures from the three painful states; We desire that all creatures may all together enter into the bliss of the Uncreated; We who still suffer rebirth in the three realms, and who are not yet freed from our obligations and involvements, may we cast off these obligations and enter into the Uncreated, and by so doing fulfill our greatest obligation. (Each novice comes forward, one by on~, re~eives his Buddhist name, and returns to his seat; the officiate says:) Great are you who understand the impermance of this world. You have cast aside the conventional and are entering into ~~irvana,an event hard to conceive of, and rare in this world.

(Each novice comes forward, one by one, receives his kasa, and reup rns to his seat; the officiate says :) How good it is, the robe of liberation, a robe of highest merit. We do now receive it, and may we receive it perpetually, in life after life hereafter. (All together) Om rnaha ka ba ba da shichea sa ba ha (three times) and all the deities

(Requesting the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas, to serve as our teachers, all together:)

May the Buddha Shakyamuni be present and serve as our upadhyaya, our acharya; May the Bodhisattva Manjushri be present, and serve as our karma-acharya; May the future Buddha Maitreya be present, and serve as our acharya, our instructor; Mayall the Tathagatas of the ten directions be present and serve as our companions in our study;and May Shakra, Indra, and all the deities be present and serve to protect and adorn our practice.

(The officiate now lists the Precepts,saying:) The First Precept - I vow to abstain from taking life. Killing roots out our seeds of love and mercy. To kill another is to feast on one's friends and relatives. Some day we shall be in one of the three painful realms, in payment for our killing, for it is by bestowing life that we receive human life in return. The Second Precept - I vow to abstain from taking things not given. The taking of things not given cuts off the roots of virtue and wisdom; attaing ease we shall lose this ease. By but desiring anything of another, we are brought in the future face to face with animal rebirth.

The Third Precept - I vow to abstain from misconduct done in lust. Unchastity cuts off the seed of purity. Impurity is ultimately of the pure Dharmakaya. Look rather at the cauldron, for therein are all those who in future years break this precept. The Fourth Precept - I vow to abstain from lying. Lying cuts off the seed of the Truth; Heaven does not allow the cheating of the saints, nor lying against the holy ones. Should a liar avoid the hell where his tongue is ripped out, then he will be reborn as a bird, in recompense for his evil. The Fifth Precept - I vow to abstain from intoxicants, taken to induce heedlessness. Liquor cuts off the roots of wisdom; generation after generation we remain in a stupor, as one drunk. The Buddha teaches that one who does not keep these five precepts shall in a future life lose his human stature. (For a Ten Precepts Ceremony, the officiate continues, with those who are taking the Ten precepts:) We have already taken the Five Precepts, and we now ~ow to uphold the following precepts: The Sixth Precept - I vow to abstain from going up on a high podium,and all prideful show. The Seventh Precept - I vow to abstain from using adornments, perfume, and ointments. The Eighth Precept - I vow to abstain from all amusements such as shows and dancing. The Ninth Precept - I vow to abstain from handling gold, silver, money, and gems. The Tenth Precept - I vow to abstain from eating at unseasonable times, and from keeping pets. (The officiate says:) Can these Precepts, each one of them, be kept by you, or can they not? (The novices respond:) They can be so kept. (Repeat three ti~es.)

(All together, these intentions are repeated:) From this present life until we attain to Buddhahood, we shall resolutely uphold these Precepts, and not break them. We desire that the Buddhas serve as a witness, for we shall never depart from these Precepts, preferring rather first to give up our lives. The Repentance Ritual (All Together)

I do most earnestly repent/ of my transgressions/ committed since beginningless time,/ through my greed, my anger, and my ignorance,/ in thought, word, and deed. I do now repent / the grave offence I do now repent

/ of taking any life.

/ the grave offence / of taking things not given.

I do now repent / the grave offence / of wrong actions done in lust.

I do now repent / the grave offence / of boasting of my non-existent spiritual attainments. I do now repent / the grave offence / of vain speech. I do now repent / the grave offence / of abusive speech. I do now repent / the grave offence / of hypocritical
I do now repent. / the grave offence I do now repent / the grave offence


/ of endless craving. / of my ignorance.

Mayall my offences / accumulated during hundreds of kalpas / now be totally consumed / in an instant, / as fire burns dry grass / extinguishing all things / until nothing remains. Our offences have no self-nature, minds. If our minds are extinguished, be destroyed. but arise only from our

then our offences too will and

When both our minds and our offences are extinguished, both are seen as empty, this is termed the true repentance.


The StmbOI of Repentance (All Together) The Mantra of Repentance is chanted until the last of the fire has been put out.) Om salba motcha moji sadaya sabaha (All together say:) We now prostrate ourselves in repentance for all karma hindrances accumulated for many kalpas. We desire that our transgressions be all removed and that life after life we may always walk the path to Enlightenment. (The novices bow three times before the officiates, and take their seats; the officiate says:) Most noble is He, the Buddha; joy in Him! what person does not take

Calling to mind this assembly, we now obtain the benefits of this Dharma. (Each novice offers incense to the Buddha; then all bow together three times and sit down. The officiate says:) May the merits received by undertaking the Precepts be given to others; May our merits be perfect, and may they benefit all sentient creatures. For should we fill three thousand worlds with stupas of purest gold, to encourage one person to seek the homeless life outweighs all of this in merit! (Please stand.) The Four Vows (All Togther) I vow to save them all. I vow

Sentient beings are numberless;

The defilements and passions are inexhaustible; to destroy them all. The teachings are manifold;

I vow to learn them all. I vow to attain it.

The Buddha-way is supreme;


THE PROVIDENCE ZEN CENTER K.B.C. ~~n~ Poep Won Marriage Ceremony

I. II.

The Ringing of the Bell Opening Speech The Three-Fold Refuge

Homage" to all the Buddhas Who are present in their glory At this assembly. Homage to the Dharma Which is present in its glory At this assembly. Homage to all the Sangha Who are present in their glory At this assembly. IV. Kwan Sae Um Bosal Chanting Bride and groom bow to each other. Bride and groom offer flowers and incense to the Buddha. Bride and groom bow to the Buddha three times. Marriage Vows Exchange of Rings




Dharma Speech Congratulatory Speech

Chanting of the Heart Sutra



The Four Great Vows . Sentient beings are numberless; I vow to save them all. The defilements and passions are inexhaustible; I vow to destroy them all. The teachings are manifold; I vow to learn them all. The Buddha Way is supreme; I vow to attain it.


The Four Great Vows (in Korean) Closing Remarks


CHAPTER FOURTEEN Becoming ~ Dharma Teacher Becoming becoming

Dharma Teachers

a Dharma Teacher means that the primary focus of our lives is It also means accepting Soen Sa Nim as

clear and helping others.

our teacher, with the intention of helping spread his teaching through our Zen Centers. There are two important aspects of being a Dharma Teacher. is demonstrating our intention The first

to live in a clear, generous, and compassionThe second is the

ate way through the example of our everyday lives. responsibility for giving talks and instruction

and helping our Zen Centers.

This helps our speech and action grow together and become one. Dharma Teacher Qualifications 1. Believing in Buddhism 100%. This means taking the Five Precepts

and having Great Faith. 2. Understanding the formal practice style of bOWing, sitting,

chanting, and Yong Maeng Jong Jin. 3. 4. 5. 6. Practicing strongly every day.

Giving good Dharma Talks. Having good interviews. Receiving the recommendation of the Head Dharma Teacher at your

Zen Center to become a Dharma Teacher. 7. Writing a paper, "What is Zen?" to be at least three typewritten pages and sent to the Head Dharma Teacher of our school to be checked one month before the Dharma Teacher Precepts Ceremony. You may apply to become a Dharma Teacher one year after taking the Five Precepts Precepts if you live at a Zen Center or two years after the Five

if you are a non-resident. 90

At the time you become a Dharma Teacher, there is an initiation to be paid to the Dharma Teacher Association. becoming


This is a donation upon

a Dharma Teacher, and you begin paying Dharma Teacher dues the

month after taking the Ten Precepts. On the day of the Ten Prec~pts Ceremony, you receive a Dharma Teacher

robe and a set of monk's bowls as a gift, to be returned if you stop being a Dharma Teacher. Dharma Teacher Yong Maeng Jong Jin Each year, the Dharma Teacher Association sponsors a Dharma Teacher to come

Yong Maeng Jong Jin, a weekend when we all have the opportunity together to share our experiences of practicing

and teaching Buddhism in The weekend follows the

the West and to clari~y our formal practice


Yong Maeng Jong Jin schedule and format, but the formal practice periods during the day are used for talks and questions

about teaching Buddhism

in our school, and we sit Zen only during the early morning and part of the evening periods. The Dharma Teacher Association Everyone who becomes a Dharma Teacher is a member of the Dharma Teacher Association. of Buddhism Soen Sa Nim founded the Association in the West and to facilitate to strengthen our teaching


and support among

our growing number of Dharma Teachers. The Dharma Teacher Association is an organization separate from the

Zen Centers, with the same relationship Center has. Governing

to the Head Temple as a branch ot the Association, and the

Soen Sa Nim is the President

Board consists

of the Head Dharma Teachers of all our Zen Centers,

the directors Association.

of the Head Temple, and the Director of the Dharma Teacher

The Dharma Teacher Association

fosters communication

and support among


our Dharma Teachers in several ways.

One is by sponsoring

Dharma Teachers

to teach at Zen Centers other than their home temple. Newsletter, tion. published

The Dharma Teacher

every other month, is another vehicle for communica-

A third is our yearly Dharma Teacher Yong Maeng Jong Jin. At the first Dharma Teacher Yong Maeng Jong Jin in July, 1977, when

the majority

of the Dharma Teachers

in our school were present, we decided

to pay Dharma Teacher dues of $10.00 per month, or $100.00 per year, to support the Dharma Teacher Association. that this giving-money Dharma Teacher. At that time, Soen Sa Nim explained this is part of being a

mind is very important;

The dues are paid to the Head Dharma Teacher of your

temple, who keeps a record of the dues and forwards them to the Dharma Teacher Association office. Paying dues not only helps the Association but

also entitles you to free Yong Maeng Jong Jins and Kidos at any of our Zen Centers. Dharma Teacher Association

funds are used mainly to support our teachfor printing,

ing efforts.


so far have been office-related,

stamps, and a monthly facilities.

fee to the Providence

Zen Center for the use of office

Dharma Teacher Association

funds also pay for the yearly Dharma

Teacher Yong Maeng Jong Jin and for Dharma Teacher travel, when a Dharma Teacher or Master Dharma Teacher is invited to teach at another Zen Center. Funds are also available occasions, for gifts for Dharma Teachers on very special Dharma

such as weddings

and births, and for helping an individual emergency. Decisions

Teacher who has a financial Association Association expenditures financial

about major Dharma Teacher A Dharma Teacher

are made by the Governing Board.


is sent to each Dharma Teacher every year.

If your situation

changes while you are a Dharma Teacher and you cannot Dharma Teacher, with our school. there are two ways in If your new situation

continue to be an active, dues-paying which to make clear your relationship


is temporary, active Dha~a are expected

such as school or travel, and you plan to Teacher, you may take a leave of absence. to write a letter of explanation to the length of your leave.

resume being an In this case, you

eacher of During this to lome yOu are not responsible for paying dues but will still receive th Dh e arma Teacher Association newsletter and other communicatiols. When not paying dues our school, estimating you pay the standard fees for Yong~eng Jong JO lons and Kidos. If you are no longer interested in being Dharma Te h ac er, returning your robe and bowls to the Dharma Teacher ASS~tion k ma es Your situation clear. As our school grows, we can use the Dharm,acher As bring Dharma Teachers into closer communicatioUl encouraged Association. to make suggestions sOCloation to

the Head Dharma T


T a eachers are about the direcof the Dh anna Teacher




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